Miyake, Yasuhiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Fusao; Takaki, Akinobu; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide
In acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF), the hepatic coma grade worsens and mortality rates increase, as the number of systemic inflammatory response syndrome components fulfilled (SIRS score) increases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of SIRS score on clinical features of non-acetaminophen-related ALF. Ninety-nine patients with non-acetaminophen-related ALF with hepatic coma who did not undergo liver transplantation were investigated. Each patient was given a SIRS score of 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 at the time of diagnosis. At the diagnosis of ALF with hepatic coma, with the increase of SIRS score, hepatic coma grade and prothrombin activity were deteriorated. After the diagnosis of ALF with hepatic coma, 25 patients (25%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 31 patients (31%) developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and 21 patients (22%) developed acute renal failure (ARF). Thirty-eight patients (38%) developed MOF. With the increase of SIRS score, frequencies of the development of ARDS, DIC and MOF increased. ARF was more frequently developed in patients with a SIRS score of 2 or higher. Overall, 36 patients (36%) survived. Overall survival rate was 66% in 29 patients with a score of 0, 43% in 21 patients with a score of 1, 17% in 29 patients with a score of 2 and 15% in 20 patients with a score of 3 or 4. SIRS score will be useful for predicting not only the overall survival but also the development of complications such as ARDS, DIC and MOF in non-acetaminophen-related ALF with hepatic coma.
Fitriah, Z.; Suryanto, A.
It is well known that SIRS epidemic with disease-related death can be described by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NL ODEs). This model has two equilibrium points where their existence and stability properties are determined by the basic reproduction number . Besides the qualitative properties, it is also often needed to solve the system of NL ODEs. Euler method and 4th order Runge-Kutta (RK4) method are often used to solve the system of NL ODEs. However, both methods may produce inconsistent qualitative properties of the NL ODEs such as converging to wrong equilibrium point, etc. In this paper we apply non-standard finite difference (NSFD) scheme (see [2,3]) to approximate the solution of SIRS epidemic model with disease-related death. It is shown that the discrete system obtained by NSFD scheme is dynamically consistent with the continuous model. By our numerical simulations, we find that the solutions of NSFD scheme are always positive, bounded and convergent to the correct equilibrium point for any step size of integration (h), while those of Euler or RK4 method have the same properties only for relatively small h.
Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Dimitriou, Helen; Venihaki, Maria; Katrinaki, Marianna; Ilia, Stavroula; Briassoulis, George
Mammalian heat-shock-protein (HSP) 90α rapidly responses to environmental insults. We examined the hypothesis that not only serum HSP72 but also HSP90α is increased in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), severe-sepsis (SS), and/or sepsis (S) compared to healthy children (H); we assessed HSP90α relation to (a) multiple organ system failure (MOSF) and (b) inflammatory-metabolic response and severity of illness.A total of 65 children with S, SS, or SIRS and 25 H were included. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSP90α and HSP72, chemiluminescence interleukins (ILs), flow-cytometry neutrophil-CD64 (nCD64)-expression.HSP90α, along with HSP72, were dramatically increased among MOSF patients. Patients in septic groups and SIRS had elevated HSP90α compared to H (P SIRS, and MOSF, HSP90α is related to the inflammatory stress, fever, outcome endpoints, and predicted mortality and inversely related to the low-LDL/low-HDL stress metabolic pattern.
Gilbert, Katherine J.
Human Relations was a program offered to Grade 10 students at Churchill Secondary School during the 1971-72 school year in lieu of four courses. The emphasis of the program was on the development of students as people who were more aware of themselves, of other people, and of the environment. The class took part in a variety of activities during…
Samat, Nor Azah; Ma'arof, Syafiqah Husna Mohd Imam
Disease mapping is a study on the geographical distribution of a disease to represent the epidemiology data spatially. The production of maps is important to identify areas that deserve closer scrutiny or more attention. In this study, a mosquito-borne disease called Malaria is the focus of our application. Malaria disease is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium and is transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Precautionary steps need to be considered in order to avoid the malaria virus from spreading around the world, especially in the tropical and subtropical countries, which would subsequently increase the number of Malaria cases. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to discuss a stochastic model employed to estimate the relative risk of malaria disease in Malaysia. The outcomes of the analysis include a Malaria risk map for all 16 states in Malaysia, revealing the high and low risk areas of Malaria occurrences.
Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Kaplan, Jakub; Pabian, Sylwia; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej
Distillery yeasts are poorly characterized physiological group among the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. As industrial yeasts are under constant environmental stress during fermentation processes and the nucleolus is a stress sensor, in the present study, nucleolus-related parameters were evaluated in 22 commercially available distillery yeast strains. Distillery yeasts were found to be a heterogeneous group with a variable content and length of rDNA and degree of nucleolus fragmentation. The levels of rDNA were negatively correlated with Nop1 (r = -0.59, p = 0.0038). Moreover, the protein levels of Sir transcriptional silencing complex and longevity regulators, namely Sir1, Sir2, Sir3 and Fob1, were studied and negative correlations between Sir2 and Nop1 (r = -0.45, p = 0.0332), and between Sir2 and Fob1 (r = -0.49, p = 0.0211) were revealed. In general, S. paradoxus group of distillery yeasts with higher rDNA pools and Sir2 level than S. bayanus group was found to be more tolerant to fermentation-associated stress stimuli, namely mild cold/heat stresses and KCl treatment. We postulate that rDNA state may be considered as a novel factor that may modulate a biotechnological process.
Loas, Gwenolé; Dimassi, Hajer; Yon, Valérie; Monestes, Jean Louis
First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia may score higher on the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) than controls. The present study was designed to provide evidence of validity for the French version of the 24-item subscale of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ-24). In 27 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (high-risk group) and 30 controls, the high-risk group scored significantly higher on the FCQ, as expected.
Sato, N; Endo, S; Ikeda, K; Koeda, K; Kimura, Y; Iwaya, T; Ishida, K; Maesawa, C; Iijima, S; Uesugi, N; Saito, K
It has been suggested that SIRS are triggered by superfluous pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and that organ injury is caused by uncontrolled inflammatory responses. However, the results of clinical studies, on the usefulness of specific cytokine antagonists and anti-TNF antibodies for the treatment of septic shock, have been unsatisfactory. The reason for this might have been that when uncontrolled inflammatory reactions progressed locally, anti-inflammatory reactions were elevated in the circulated blood by way of CARS, thus the timing of administration and pharmacokinetics did not match clinical course. Recent research has shown that SIRS is always accompanied by CARS, and since it seems to do the amplitude of SIRS and CARS to each other so that there may be a deep valley, if there is a high mountain. We introduce the recent knowledge which indicates that SIRS is a preliminary alert for not only organ dysfunction but also immunosuppression after severe injury or major surgery.
This paper presents a new fuzzy multiple criteria (both qualitative and quantitative) decision-making (MCDM) method based on fuzzy relational degree analysis. The concepts of fuzzy set theory are used to construct a weighted suitability decision matrix to evaluate the weighted suitability of different alternatives versus various criteria. The positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are then obtained by using a method of ranking fuzzy numbers, and the fuzzy relational degrees of different alternatives versus positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are calculated by using the proposed arithmetic. Finally, the relative relational degrees of various alternatives versus positive ideal solution are ranked to determine the best alternative. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method at the end of this paper.
Balk, Robert A
The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a 1991 consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis. There was recognition that a diverse group of injuries produced a common inflammatory response in the host and provided attractive targets for new anti-inflammatory molecules designed to prevent further propagation and/or provide specific treatment. Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention. It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events. Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings. With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition. PMID:24280933
Teasdale, T W; Fuchs, J; Goldschmidt, E
Intelligence test scores and educational levels were compared for 5943 myopic and 9891 non-myopic 18-year-old men being drafted for military service in Denmark. The former were grouped by degree of myopia, in the range -0.25 diopters (D) to -7.75 D, according to the power of correcting lenses required. Myopes of all degrees had significantly higher test scores and educational levels than non-myopes. However, the relation of these two variables to degree of myopia was not linear; for both variables there were no significant differences among myopia groups in the range -2.0 to -7.75 D. Whereas factors associated with intelligence and education seem to be important in triggering the onset of myopia, they seem to be much less important in determining the degree to which myopia progresses.
Full Text Available Background: Otosclerosis (OS is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss in young population, and we determined incidence of OS among 1st and 2 nd degree relatives of surgically proved otosclerotic patients. Methods: In a cross sectional study among 43 surgically proved otosclerotic patients, positive family history of OS was determined. In suspicious cases, physical exam, tunning fork tests, and audiometry were performed. We also reviewed medical sheaths of admitted OS patients from 1995 to 2003 in Isfahan university hospitals for family history of OS. Results: Among 15 otosclerotic patients (34.88% with positive family history of OS, 14 individuals of their first and second degree relatives had clinical and audiometric otosclerosis. Among 85 medical record sheaths of otosclerotic patients, 12 patients (27.9 % had positive family history for OS. Conclusions: The incidence of clinical and audiometric otosclerosis among first and second degree relatives of OS patients is nearly similar to the rate of positive family history of our patients, which is relatively lower than other studies. Key words: Otosclerosis, family history, first and second degree relatives, hearing loss
Full Text Available CONTEXT - The first degree relatives of celiac patients represent a high risk group for the development of this disorder, so their screening may be crucial in the prevention of long-term complications. OBJECTIVE - In order to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of children with proven gluten intolerance, we conducted a prospective study that consisted in the screening of celiac disease, using a capillary immunoassay rapid test that allows a qualitative detection of IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG. METHODS - When the screening test was positive subjects were advised to proceed with further investigation. The screening test was performed in 268 first degree relatives (143 mothers, 89 fathers, 36 siblings corresponding to 163 children with celiac disease. RESULTS - Screening test was positive in 12 relatives (4.5%, of which 1 refused to continue the investigation. In the remaining 11 relatives celiac disease was diagnosed in 7 cases (2.6%, 5 mothers, 2 fathers who had a median age of 39 years (27-56 years, mild gastrointestinal symptoms, high titre of IgA-TTG and histology abnormalities confirming the diagnosis. All these patients are currently on a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSION - The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree relatives (2.6% was 5 times higher than that in the general population. Although the recommendations for screening asymptomatic high risk groups, such as first degree relatives, are not unanimous the early diagnosis is crucial in preventing complications, including nutritional deficiency and cancer.
Kerbaul, F; Giorgi, R; Oddoze, C; Collart, F; Guidon, C; Lejeune, P J; Villacorta, J; Gouin, F
Procalcitonin (PCT) blood concentrations are known to be an appropriate marker of severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by coronary artery surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) is a newly described cardiac hormone considered to be an effective marker of severity and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes and congestive heart failure. We evaluated the perioperative time courses of PCT and N-BNP and investigated their role as early markers of severe SIRS (SIRS with cardiovascular dysfunction) induced by off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). Sixty-three patients were prospectively included. The American College of Chest Physicians Classification was used to diagnose SIRS and organ system failure to define severe SIRS. Serum concentrations of PCT and N-BNP were determined before, during and after surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curves and cut-off values were used to assess the ability of these markers to predict postoperative severe SIRS. SIRS occurred in 25 (39%) patients. Nine of them (14%) showed severe SIRS. Significantly higher serum concentrations of N-BNP and PCT were found in patients with severe SIRS with peak concentrations respectively at 8887 pg ml(-1) (range 2940-29372 pg ml(-1)) for N-BNP and 9.50 ng ml(-1) (range 1-65 ng ml(-1)) for PCT. The area under the curve using N-BNP to detect postoperative severe SIRS was 0.799 before surgery (0.408 for PCT; Psurgery (0.762 for PCT; PSIRS after OPCAB.
This article is a personal view of the career of Sir Alec Clegg. It outlines some of Clegg's achievements in the West Riding, and why he was so influential on those that he worked with. Finally, it retells one of Alec Clegg's favourite stories "The fable of Fred".
Erramilli, Shruti; Mannam, Praveen; Manthous, Constantine A
Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.
Schoenwald, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Oezguener, Ue. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
The authors present a result for linearizing a nonlinear MIMO system by employing partial feedback - feedback at all but one input-output channel such that the SISO feedback linearization problem is solvable at the remaining input-output channel. The partial feedback effectively enhances the relative degree at the open input-output channel provided the feedback functions are chosen to satisfy relative degree requirements. The method is useful for nonlinear systems that are not feedback linearizable in a MIMO sense. Several examples are presented to show how these feedback functions can be computed. This strategy can be combined with decentralized observers for a completely decentralized feedback linearization result for at least one input-output channel.
Full Text Available The publication of the diplomatic correspondence of Sir Thomas Bodley online (Diplomatic Correspondence of Thomas Bodley, 1585 – 1597 offers a fine opportunity to study a text-type that is partly different from either business letters or personal correspondence. These texts lend themselves to be analysed from a sociopragmatic and discourse-analytic point of view, and this will be attempted in the paper by taking a closer look at the management of conflict, the degree of strength and directness of speech acts, and the ways in which social hierarchy is expressed. Several linguistic markers will be considered, in order to ascertain which elements can be seen as typically sensitive indicators in this particular text type, and how they relate to those found in other types of correspondence from the same period, which has been widely studied. In particular, the interplay between ‘diplomatic’ indirectness (also in the modern sense and direct reinforcement of personal bonds will be investigated; given the need to continuously express the element of personal trust, this type of correspondence seems particularly promising to analyse from this specific angle. Interesting insight can be gained by looking at the performing of specific acts or ‘moves’, for instance at the different levels of strength in directives, or at the linguistic means used to convey degrees of certainty in the reporting of information, both types of acts that figure prominently in these letters.
Villarreal, Dario J; Gregg, Robert D; Villarreal, Dario J; Gregg, Robert D; Gregg, Robert D; Villarreal, Dario J
A starting point to achieve stable locomotion is synchronizing the leg joint kinematics during the gait cycle. Some biped robots parameterize a nonlinear controller (e.g., input-output feedback linearization) whose main objective is to track specific kinematic trajectories as a function of a single mechanical variable (i.e., a phase variable) in order to allow the robot to walk. A phase variable capable of parameterizing the entire gait cycle, the hip phase angle, has been used to control wearable robots and was recently shown to provide a robust representation of the phase of human gait. However, this unified phase variable relies on hip velocity, which is difficult to measure in real-time and prevents the use of derivative corrections in phase-based controllers for wearable robots. One derivative of this phase variable yields accelerations (i.e., the equations of motion), so the system is said to be relative degree-one. This means that there are states of the system that cannot be controlled. The goal of this paper is to offer relative degree-two alternatives to the hip phase angle and examine their robustness for parameterizing human gait.
Full Text Available While systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.
Nielsen, Mia; Andersson, Charlotte; Gerds, Thomas A
case with MI at an age years was associated with an RR of 3.30 (2.92–3.72) while a case >50 years was associated with a risk of 1.83 (1.73–1.93). For maternal cases below and above 50 years of age the risks were 3.23 (2.56–4.10) and 2.31 (2.11–2.52), respectively. Conclusion First-degree relatives...... of a patient with myocardial infarction themselves have a substantial higher risk of myocardial infarction. The risk is particularly elevated when the MI case is the mother or a sibling, and when the MI case has the infarction before the age of 50 years....
Tarescavage, Anthony M; Glassmire, David M
The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) underwent a major revision in 2010 yielding the SIRS-2. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS-2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of 263 criminal defendants (215 males, 48 females) who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial. In a subgroup of 39 presumed feigning patients who elevated 1 or more collateral measures of feigning (primarily the M-FAST) at conservative cutoffs, we found marked discrepancies between the sensitivity of the SIRS (.87) and SIRS-2 (.54). The marked differences in sensitivity were partially explained by a global interpretation discordance rate of 47%, with discordance primarily resulting from SIRS-based feigning cases being classified as indeterminate on the SIRS-2. Follow-up analyses of intercorrelations and percentile distributions indicated that the new SIRS-2 scales may lack utility in the assessment of feigning because of problems relating to the construct validity of the scales and their interpretive cutoffs. Future directions in research and clinical practice are discussed, with added emphasis on the significant limitations of archival pretrial forensic samples for identifying presumed genuine groups necessary to calculate specificity estimates (which were meaningfully higher for the SIRS-2 in this sample). Overall, the primary clinical implication is that feigning should remain a strong consideration in SIRS-2 cases yielding an indeterminate classification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Comstedt, Pål; Storgaard, Merete; Lassen, Annmarie T
Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In 437 consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with 28-day mortality. A hundred and fifty-four patients (35%) had SIRS on admission, 211 patients (48%) had no SIRS, and 72 patients (16%) had insufficient data to evaluate their SIRS status. SIRS patients were 2.2 times more frequently infected, with 66/154 SIRS patients versus 41/211 non-SIRS patients: p SIRS patients with 15/154 SIRS patients versus 3/211 non-SIRS patients: p = 0.001, RR 6.9 (95% CI 2.0-23.3). Most of the deaths among patients with SIRS occurred among patients with malignant conditions. Septic shock developed in 4/154 (3%) of the patients with SIRS, whereas this occurred in only one of the 211 patients (0.5%) without SIRS on arrival: p = 0.08, RR 5.5 (95% CI 0.6-48.6). We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to 28-day mortality.
E. A. Venter
Full Text Available Die geweldige oplewing van die Christelike wetenskaps- gedagte in ons geeslose tyd, is ongetwyfeld ’n haas onverklaar- bare verskynsel. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening. In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e.a. steeds met eer vermeld word. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Die intieme verband tussen religie, wysbegeerte en wetenskaps beoefening is toe egter nog nie suiwer ingesien nie. Uit hier die tydperk dateer die arbeid van sir Isaac Newton.
Oct 10, 2004 ... Design: A comparative study of STT and salt intake in the first degree offspring of hypertensive and ... of both(3). Meyer et al (7) have demonstrated erythrocyte .... Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of participants.
Somasundar, K.; Rajendran, A.; DileepKumar, M.
Property-property relations, mostly of conservative chemical parameters, are used in this attempt in tracing various discontinuities in the Arabian Sea and to reveal in situ processes together with potential temperature-salinity plots. Plots...
Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012
Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's, and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This article presents a…
Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2011
Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This article presents a listing of the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In 437 consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with 28-day mortality. Results A hundred and fifty-four patients (35% had SIRS on admission, 211 patients (48% had no SIRS, and 72 patients (16% had insufficient data to evaluate their SIRS status. SIRS patients were 2.2 times more frequently infected, with 66/154 SIRS patients versus 41/211 non-SIRS patients: p Conclusion We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to 28-day mortality.
Fujita, Masaharu; Naito, Hideyuki; Oda, Tadashi
Among the test sites for the SIR-B calibration experiment, the Sarobetsu test site was successfully imaged twice on ascending and descending orbits. The SIR-B image data taken over the test site are analyzed to calibrate the image and to estimate the 3-dB resolution. Square trihedral corner reflectors with different radar cross sections (RCS) are used to relate the image data number to RCS. The RCS of the background surface is estimated and its effect is also included in these relations. The 3-dB resolutions are estimated by two independent techniques. The results of these two techniques agree with each other; however, the estimated resolutions are larger than those predicted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The estimates should be regarded as the image resolutions rather than representing the sensor characteristics. Corner reflectors 50-m apart can be recognized on the image, while those 25-m apart seem a single target. The SIR-B image of targets 25 m or more apart is confirmed to be the sum of the individual target responses. The backscattering signal from a target does not correlate with another target over 25 m away.
Boles, David B.; Barth, Joan M.
In a recent paper, Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, and Leonard (2009) reported positive correlations between word-related visual field asymmetries and reading performance. They argued that strong word processing lateralization represents a more optimal brain organization for reading acquisition. Their empirical results contrasted sharply with those…
This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.
SONGZhao-Qing; MAOJian-Qin; DAIShao-Wu
The classical D-type iterative learning control law depends crucially on the relative degree of the controlled system, high order differential iterative learning law must be taken for systems with high order relative degree. It is very difficult to ascertain the relative degree of the controlled system for uncertain nonlinear systems. A first-order D-type iterative learning control design method is presented for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown relative degree based on dummy model in this paper. A dummy model with relative degree 1 is constructed for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown relative degree. A first-order D-type iterative learning control law is designed based on the dummy model, so that the dummy model can track the desired trajectory perfectly, and the controlled system can track the desired trajectory within a certain error. The simulation example demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented method.
McNamara, D. R.
Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…
Heffernan, D S; Monaghan, S F; Ayala, Alfred
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories. T-Lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood collected from ICU patients exhibiting SIRS or sepsis. Samples were analyzed for CD18 (β2) and CD29 (β1) on CD3(+) T cells through flow cytometry. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. CD18 was almost ubiquitously expressed on CD3(+) T cells irrespective of clinical condition. However, CD29 (β1 integrin) was lowest in SIRS patients (20.4% of CD3(+) T cells) when compared with either septic patients (35.5%) or healthy volunteers (54.1%). Furthermore, there was evidence of compartmentalization in septic patients, where abdominal sources had a greater percentage of CD3(+)CD29(+) T cells (41.7%) when compared with those with non-abdominal sources (29.5%). Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.
Rodrigues, Helena Sofia
The simplest epidemiologic model composed by mutually exclusive compartments SIR (susceptible-infected-susceptible) is presented to describe a reality. From health concerns to situations related with marketing, informatics or even sociology, several are the fields that are using this epidemiological model as a first approach to better understand a situation. In this paper, the basic transmission model is analyzed, as well as simple tools that allows us to extract a great deal of information about possible solutions. A set of applications - traditional and new ones - is described to show the importance of this model.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.
Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac
Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac d
Chen, Ping; Zhou, Jinhui
To provide the theory basis for clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of sudden deafness patients, we detected the relative factors of degree of tinnitus of the patients with sudden deafness. Prospective analysis was used to compare degree of tinnitus with sex, ears, age, degree of hearing lose, hearing curve type and curative effect of tinnitus and sudden deafness. Tinnitus was detected in 87.2% in the 70 patients who with sudden deafness, and the most and least degree of tinnitus patients was the degree 3 (32.9%) and the degree 5 and 6 (0). The total effective rate of sudden deafness and tinnitus was 66.2% and 74.3%, respectively. The statistical analysis shown the degree of tinnitus was not related to sex, ears, age, degree of hearing lose, auditory curve type and curative effect of tinnitus and sudden deafness (P > 0.05). There was a high rate of tinnitus occurrence in sudden deafness patients, and the moderate degree predominated. The curative effect of tinnitus was better than sudden deafness. There was no relationship between the degree of tinnitus and sex, ears, age, degree of hearing lose, auditory curve type and curative effect of tinnitus and sudden deafness.
ZHANG Xin-ming; WANG Li-ming; LIU Jian-he; ZHOU Hua-wen
Based on the study of the relation between the dynamic imbalance degree and the product of inertia, a new static test method of the dynamic imbalance degree is presented. It is theoretically proved that the essence of the imbalance degree test for projectile body is the test of its product of inertia. A more precise calculation formula of dynamic imbalance degree is also given. The experiment results show that this method can not only reduce the cost of equipment, simplify the test procedures, save human resource, but also has more reliable test precision.
12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.
12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.
1st September 2010 - British Vice-Chancellor, Liverpool University Sir Newby and Lady Newby signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with P. Cruikshank; accompanied by Beams Department Head P. Collier and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and P. Allport.
1st September 2010 - British Vice-Chancellor, Liverpool University Sir Newby and Lady Newby signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with P. Cruikshank; accompanied by Beams Department Head P. Collier and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and P. Allport.
The epidemic is an outbreak of an infectious disease situation in the population at a place that exceeds the normal approximation in a short period. When the disease is always contained in any place as well as with the causes, it is called endemic. This study discusses decrease SIRS epidemic models with time delay through a mathematical model based on the model of SIRS epidemic (Susceptible, Infective, Recovered, Susceptible). SIRS models used in this study with the assumption ...
Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang
To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.
J. Yu; Leung, W K; Ebert, M P A; Ng, E K W; Go, M Y Y; Wang, H.B.; Chung, S C S; Malfertheiner, P; Sung, J. J. Y.
Survivin was recently described as an apoptosis inhibitor. Its pathogenic role in gastric cancer is largely unknown. Expression of survivin in gastric cancer and non-cancer first-degree relatives, and its association with apoptosis and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was investigated. Fifty gastric cancer, 30 non-cancer first-degree relatives, 20 normal controls and five gastric cancer cell lines were studied. Survivin and cyclo-oxygenase-2 were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chai...
Guterman, Elan L; Kamel, Hooman; Azran, Carmil; Shah, Maulik P; Claude Hemphill, J; Smith, Wade S; Navi, Babak B
The interval from presentation with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to the start of antibiotic administration affects mortality in patients with sepsis. However, patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often develop SIRS directly from their brain injury, making it a less useful indicator of infection. We therefore hypothesized that SIRS would not be a suitable trigger for antibiotics in this population. We examined the time from the development of SIRS until antibiotic initiation and its relationship to long-term neurological outcomes in patients with nontraumatic SAH. Patients' baseline characteristics, time of antibiotic administration, and hospital course were collected from retrospective chart review. The primary outcome, 6-month functional status, was prospectively determined using blinded, structured interviews incorporating the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Sixty-six of 70 patients with SAH during the study period had 6-month follow-up and were included in this analysis. SIRS developed in 57 patients (86%, 95% CI 78-95%). In ordinal logistic regression models controlling for age and illness severity, the time from SIRS onset until antibiotic initiation was not associated with 6-month mRS scores (OR per hour, 0.994; 95% CI 0.987-1.001). In this cohort of patients with SAH, time from SIRS onset until antibiotic administration was not related to functional outcomes. Our results indicate that SIRS is nonspecific in patients with SAH, and support the safety of withholding antibiotics in those who lack additional evidence of infection or hemodynamic deterioration.
Kang, Woo Kyu; Devare, Mayur; Kim, Jeong-Yoon
Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), which is the founding member of the sirtuin family of proteins, is a pro-longevity factor for replicative lifespan (RLS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sir2 is required for transcriptional silencing at mating type loci, telomeres, and rDNA loci. Sir2 also represses transcription of highly expressed growth-related genes, such as PMA1 and some ribosomal protein genes. Although the Sir2 paralogues Hst1, Hst2, Hst3, and Hst4 occur in S. cerevisiae, none of them could replace the transcriptional regulation of PMA1 by Sir2 in the wild type. In this study, we demonstrate that Hst1, the closest Sir2 paralogue, deacetylates the acetylated lysine 16 of histone H4 (H4K16Ac) and represses PMA1 transcription in the sir2Δ pde2Δ mutant. We further show that Hst1 plays a role in extending the RLS of the sir2Δ pde2Δ mutant. Collectively, our results suggest that Hst1 can substitute for Sir2 by deacetylating H4K16Ac only in the sir2Δ pde2Δ.
Gaist, D; Vaeth, M; Tsiropoulos, I
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN: Population based cohort study using data from the Danish National Discharge Registry and the Central Person Registry....... SUBJECTS: Incident cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage admitted to hospital from 1977 to 1995 (9367 patients) and their first degree relatives (14 781). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate of subarachnoid haemorrhage was determined for the relatives and compared with that of the entire population......, standardised for age, sex, and calendar period. This process was repeated for patients discharged from neurosurgery units, as diagnoses from these wards had high validity (93%). RESULTS: 18 patients had a total of 19 first degree relatives with subarachnoid haemorrhage during the study period, corresponding...
Meng, Xiaoying; Liu, Xinzhi; Deng, Feiqi
Stochastic stability problems of a stochastic switched SIRS model with or without distributed time delay are considered. By utilizing the Lyapunov methods, sufficient stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium are established. Stability conditions about the subsystem of the stochastic switched SIRS systems are also obtained.
Emilsson, Louise; James, Stefan; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
Coeliac disease (CD) has been linked to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the risk of IHD in first-degree relatives and spouses to coeliac patients to ascertain the genetic contribution to IHD excess risk. Coeliac disease was defined as having a biopsy-verified villous atrophy (Marsh grade 3) in 1969-2008 (n = 29,096). Coeliac patients were matched to 144,522 controls. Through Swedish registers, we identified all first-degree relatives and spouses to coeliac patients and their controls, in total 87,622 unique coeliac relatives and 432,655 unique control relatives. Our main outcome measure was IHD defined according to relevant international classification of disease codes in the Swedish Inpatient Registry or in the Cause of Death Registry. Hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through Cox regression adjusted for sex, age-group and calendar year at study entry of the relative. During a median follow-up of 10·8 years, 2880 coeliac relatives and 13,817 control relatives experienced IHD. First-degree relatives of coeliac patients were at increased risk of IHD (HR = 1·05; 95% CI = 1·00-1·09, P-value = 0·04), while spouses were at no increased risk (HR = 0·99; 95% CI = 0·87-1·12). The excess risk of IHD in coeliac first-degree relatives aged 40-59 years was 70/100,000 person-years. First-degree relatives to coeliac patients seem to be at an increased risk of IHD but the excess risk is so small that it has little clinical relevance. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
Caserta, Stefano; Kern, Florian; Cohen, Jonathan; Drage, Stephen; Newbury, Sarah F; Llewelyn, Martin J
Systemic inflammation in humans may be triggered by infection, termed sepsis, or non-infective processes, termed non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). MicroRNAs regulate cellular processes including inflammation and may be detected in blood. We aimed to establish definitive proof-of-principle that circulating microRNAs are differentially affected during sepsis and non-infective SIRS. Critically ill patients with severe (n = 21) or non-severe (n = 8) intra-abdominal sepsis; severe (n = 23) or non-severe (n = 21) non-infective SIRS; or no SIRS (n = 16) were studied. Next-generation sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to measure plasma microRNAs. Detectable blood miRNAs (n = 116) were generally up-regulated in SIRS compared to no-SIRS patients. Levels of these 'circulating inflammation-related microRNAs' (CIR-miRNAs) were 2.64 (IQR: 2.10-3.29) and 1.52 (IQR: 1.15-1.92) fold higher for non-infective SIRS and sepsis respectively (p SIRS. Six CIR-miRNAs (miR-30d-5p, miR-30a-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-191-5p) provided good-to-excellent discrimination of severe sepsis from severe SIRS (0.742-0.917 AUC of ROC curves). CIR-miRNA levels inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and others). Thus, among critically ill patients, sepsis and non-infective SIRS are associated with substantial, differential changes in CIR-miRNAs. CIR-miRNAs may be regulators of inflammation and warrant thorough evaluation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
Ball, Frank; Sirl, David
A random network model which allows for tunable, quite general forms of clustering, degree correlation and degree distribution is defined. The model is an extension of the configuration model, in which stubs (half-edges) are paired to form a network. Clustering is obtained by forming small completely connected subgroups, and positive (negative) degree correlation is obtained by connecting a fraction of the stubs with stubs of similar (dissimilar) degree. An SIR (Susceptible -> Infective -> Recovered) epidemic model is defined on this network. Asymptotic properties of both the network and the epidemic, as the population size tends to infinity, are derived: the degree distribution, degree correlation and clustering coefficient, as well as a reproduction number $R_*$, the probability of a major outbreak and the relative size of such an outbreak. The theory is illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations and numerical examples. The main findings are that clustering tends to decrease the spread of disease, the effect of...
Coulson, Kinsell L.
Sir David Brewster, Scottish physicist of the Nineteenth Century, was one of the pioneers in the investigation of the polarization of light. Every physics student is familiar with the Brewster angle of reflection, and the Brewster neutral point of skylight polarization is a well- known feature in atmospheric optics. He was at one time the most honored natural philosopher in Britain, having received numerous medals plus a knighthood for his work in the polarization of light. This paper, having arisen from my new biography of Brewster, traces his polarization work throughout his most productive period in the first half of the last century. It is of interest to science historians, as well as to those working in the field of polarization phenomena.
Stephenson, James A; Gravante, Gianpiero; Butler, Nicholas A; Sorge, Roberto; Sayers, Rob D; Bown, Matt J
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a syndrome that reflects the widespread activation of inflammatory pathways. The goal of this study was to find whether the presence or absence of SIRS on emergency surgical admissions is related to the subsequent clinical outcome in terms of in-hospital interventions, length of stay, and mortality. The presence of SIRS at admission, final diagnosis of the underlying disease, treatments, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded for 1 month. Comparisons of interventions and outcomes were performed between SIRS+ vs. SIRS- patients. In patients with SIRS, the contribution of each positive criterion was evaluated with regards to mortality. A total of 179 patients were recruited. The prevalence of SIRS at admission was 35.2%. SIRS+ patients required less diagnostic procedures compared with SIRS- (28.6% vs. 34.5%) but had more therapeutic interventions (39.7% vs. 16.4%), surgical interventions (33.3% vs. 3.4%), intensive treatments (11.1% vs. 0.9%; p SIRS+ patients with four positive criteria had more surgical interventions, intensive treatments, and fatal outcomes compared with the others. Of importance the most influent factor was the respiratory rate followed by the white cell count and the heart rate/temperature. Patients with SIRS at admission apparently receive more interventions, have longer length of stay, and increased mortality than those patients without SIRS. These findings require separate validation in a larger cohort study.
Raman Deep Pattanayak
Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the neuropsychological functions of unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder Type I (BD-I in comparison with healthy controls. The method was a cross-sectional assessment of 20 first-degree relatives of patients with BD-I and 20 healthy controls. Inclusion criteria for all participants included age between 18 and 55 years, ≥5 years of formal education, right-handedness as per Edinburgh handedness inventory, absence of color blindness as per Ishihara’s isochromatic charts, and a score of >24 on Hindi mental state examination. None of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of a mental disorder on Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Clinician Version. Neuropsychological assessment was conducted with Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop color and word test, N-Back Verbal Memory Test, and Post Graduate Institute (PGI Memory Scale. Both the groups were comparable in age, gender distribution, and education. The unaffected first-degree relatives performed poorly on Trail Making Test B and (B-A, indicating a poor cognitive flexibility and set-shifting. The relative group also performed poorly on Mental Balance subtest of PGI Memory Scale. The unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with BD display certain impairments in dorsal prefrontal executive functions which can serve as vulnerability markers for BD.
Adriana Bartolo; Neville Calleja; Fraser McDonald; Simon Camilleri
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development.
Bartolo, Adriana; Calleja, Neville; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development. PMID:25634123
Objective To find the common neurocognitive deficits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (UFDR) and to identify neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD. Methods Forty patients with OCD,forty UFDR of OCD probands and forty healthy
enhanced risk and thus accelerate the onset of illness. Low-risk individuals seem to experience fewer life events and may exhibit resilience to their adverse psychological effects. Overall, having a 1st-degree relative with affective disorder matters. This thesis demonstrates that high-risk studies...
Factors affecting the ease of identification are. mainly tonal contrast, shape, size, surface roughness, direction in relation to the illumination, and dielectric constant. Due to the future availability of SIR-B image of Kalimantan, further study is recommended.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of leukemia in parents of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCL/P. This case-control study evaluated first-degree family members of 358 patients with NSCL/P and 1,432 subjects without craniofacial alterations or syndromes. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher’s test. From the 358 subjects with NSCL/P, 3 first-degree parents had history of leukemia, while 2 out of 1,432 subjects from the unaffected group had a family history of leukemia. The frequency of positive family history of leukemia was not significantly increased in first-degree relatives of patients with NSCL/P.
Tribute to Sir Donald Ross by David Wheatley, as read by Robert Kleinloog, President, Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons of South Africa at the Annual Congress of the South African Heart Association 19 October 2014.
This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.
Epidemiological models with bilinear incidence rate λSI usually have an asymptotically stable trivial equilibrium corresponding to the disease-free state, or an asymptotically stable non-trivial equilibrium (i.e. interior equilibrium) corresponding to the endemic state. In this paper, we consider an epidemiological model, which is an SIRS model with or without distributed time delay influenced by random perturbations. We present the stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium of the associated stochastic SIRS system.
Alexander Gnana Durai
Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.
Oliveira, Joana Raquel Henriques; Cabral, António Jorge; Ferreira, Elena; Capelinha, Filipa; Spínola, Hélder; Gonçalves, Rute
It is well recognized that celiac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder highly prevalent among relatives of celiac patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of celiac children, and to access the frequency of human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 in celiac disease patients and their affected relatives. A survey was conducted of 39 children with celiac disease with follow-up in the Pediatric outpatient's clinic of Dr. Nélio Mendonça Hospital, in Madeira Island, Portugal. Were invited 110 first degree relatives to undergo serological screen for celiac disease with IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TGG) quantification. In all seropositive relatives, small intestinal biopsy and HLA typing was recommended. HLA- typing was performed in 38 celiac patients, 28/74% DQ2 positive, 1/2% DQ8 positive and 9/24% incomplete DQ2. Positive IgA-TGG was found in five out of the 95 relatives, and CD was diagnosed in three of them. Three relatives had the presence of HLA-DQ2, two were DQ2 incomplete (DQB1*02). The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree celiac patients´ relatives was 3.1%, 4.5 times higher than the general Portuguese population (0,7%) witch reinforces the need of extensive diagnostic screening in this specific group. HLA-DQ2 typing may be a tool in the diagnostic approach.
MENG Xian-lin; SHEN Jin; SUN Li-xin; LV Xiao-ying
It is difficult to establish the integrated method to assess the ambient air quality because the atmospheric environmental system is composed of several environmental elements, which contains many contamination factors. In view of the typical grey system character of the monitored data in the ambient air, this paper introduces the weighted value to obtain related degree during applying the method of grey related degree analysis to assess ambient air quality by each polluting factor producing different effects on the environment quality. This method could give more reasonable and reliable evaluating results. Taking the monitored data of Harbin, a provincial city of Heilongjiang, for example in this paper, the result of assessment by this method was coincident with the actual environmental quality of Harbin.
de Brito Ferreira Fernandes, Francy; Gigante, Alexandre Duarte; Berutti, Mariangeles; Amaral, José Antônio; de Almeida, Karla Mathias; de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; Lafer, Beny; Nery, Fabiano Gonçalves
Facial emotion recognition (FER) is an important task associated with social cognition because facial expression is a significant source of non-verbal information that guides interpersonal relationships. Increasing evidence suggests that bipolar disorder (BD) patients present deficits in FER and these deficits may be present in individuals at high genetic risk for BD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of FER deficits in euthymic BD patients, their first-degree relatives, and healthy controls (HC) and to consider if these deficits might be regarded as an endophenotype candidate for BD. We studied 23 patients with DSM-IV BD type I, 22 first-degree relatives of these patients, and 27 HC. We used the Penn Emotion Recognition Tests to evaluate tasks of FER, emotion discrimination, and emotional acuity. Patients were recruited from outpatient facilities at the Institute of Psychiatry of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, or from the community through media advertisements, had to be euthymic, with age above 18years old and a diagnosis of DSM-IV BD type I. Euthymic BD patients presented significantly fewer correct responses for fear, and significantly increased time to response to recognize happy faces when compared with HC, but not when compared with first-degree relatives. First-degree relatives did not significantly differ from HC on any of the emotion recognition tasks. Our results suggest that deficits in FER are present in euthymic patients, but not in subjects at high genetic risk for BD. Thus, we have not found evidence to consider FER as an endophenotype candidate for BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rush, A J; Feldman-Koffler, F; Weissenburger, J E; Giles, D E; Roffwarg, H P; Orsulak, P J
Family history was assessed in 211 outpatients with unipolar major depression and diagnoses were rendered according to Winokur et al. (Winokur et al. (1978) J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 166, 764-768) family history typology. The subclassification of Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism and Depression (DSDA + D) was applied to those patients reporting at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism and another first-degree relative suffering from depression (n = 103), while Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism (DSDA) was applied to those patients with at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism, but none suffering from depression (n = 108). These two groups were compared on demographic, clinical and biological characteristics. They were also compared with 162 patients who reported the presence of depression and absence of alcoholism in first-degree relatives, designated as Familial Pure Depressive Disease (FPDD) by the Winokur et al. (1978) classification. Results revealed that the DSDA + D group was younger, had an earlier age at onset of depression and experienced more episodes of depression than did the DSDA group. No differences were found between the two groups on biological measures. The FPDD group was more similar to the DSDA + D group than the DSDA group in terms of age at onset and number of depressives episodes. However, the FPDD group had a longer length of illness than either of the DSD groups. These data suggest that the DSD group should be more narrowly defined (excluding those with a positive family history of depression) in future clinical research studies.
Jin-Ting Zhang; Ming-Wei Wang; Zhen-Long Zhu; Xiao-Hui Huo; Jian-Kun Chu; Dong-Sheng Cui; Liang Qiao; Jun Yu
AIM: To study the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)in human gastric cancer tissues and their paired adjacent mucosa, as well as mucosa from gastric antrum and corpus of the first-degree relatives of the recruited cancer patients.METHODS: The expression of COX-2 mRNA in 38 patients with gastric cancer and their 29 first-degree relatives and 18 healthy controls was assessed by the real time RT-PCR.The expression of COX-2 protein was determined by Western blot.RESULTS: A marked increase in COX-2 mRNA expression was found in 20 of 37 (54%) cancerous tissues compared to their respective paired normal mucosa (P＜0.001).Interestingly, increased COX-2 mRNA expression was also found in mucosa of the corpus (6/29) and antrum (13/29)of their first-degree relatives. Increased COX-2 mRNA expression was more frequently observed in the antrum biopsies from cancer patients than in the antrum biopsies from healthy controls (P＜0.05). In addition, 3 of 23 (13%)patients with atrophic mucosa and 6 of 35 (17%) patients with intestinal metaplasia showed increased COX-2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, COX-2 expression increased in H pylori-positive tissues, especially in antrum mucosa.CONCLUSION: Increased COX-2 expression is involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and may be necessary for maintenance of the malignant phenotype and contribute to Helicobacterpylori-associated malignant transformation.
Liu, Yangyang; Zhao, Chengli; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Qiangjuan; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun
Link prediction plays a significant role in explaining the evolution of networks. However it is still a challenging problem that has been addressed only with topological information in recent years. Based on the belief that network nodes with a great number of common neighbors are more likely to be connected, many similarity indices have achieved considerable accuracy and efficiency. Motivated by the natural assumption that the effect of missing links on the estimation of a node's clustering ability could be related to node degree, in this paper, we propose a degree-related clustering coefficient index to quantify the clustering ability of nodes. Unlike the classical clustering coefficient, our new coefficient is highly robust when the observed bias of links is considered. Furthermore, we propose a degree-related clustering ability path (DCP) index, which applies the proposed coefficient to the link prediction problem. Experiments on 12 real-world networks show that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust compared with four common-neighbor-based similarity indices (Common Neighbors(CN), Adamic-Adar(AA), Resource Allocation(RA), and Preferential Attachment(PA)), and the recently introduced clustering ability (CA) index.
Full Text Available In this paper, the swelling properties of photopolymer flexographic printing plates related to the variations of UVC post-treatment have been analysed. The aim of the research was to interconnect the changes in the crosslinking degree of the photopolymer material occurring due to the modified UVC radiation of the printing plate and the changes of its surface free energy crucial in the graphic reproduction process. Changes in the crosslinking degree in the photopolymer materials have been analysed by the swelling experiments. Results have proven that the partial dissolution of the photopolymer material caused by the immersion of the printing plates in various solvents is in the direct relation with the changes of the dispersive surface free energy. UVC post-treatment, used for the crosslinking termination and the definition of the surface properties of printing plates, is therefore directly affecting the resistivity of the printing plate in the solvent environment. By calculating the correlation coefficients for the weight loss of the photopolymer material in solvents and the dispersive surface free energy, the relation between the crosslinking degree and the UVC post-treatment has been established.
de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Villarreal, Mirta; Jáuregui, Ignacio O; Chiodi, Araceli; Castro, Mariana N; Fahrer, Rodolfo D; Leiguarda, Ramón C; Chu, Elvina M; Guinjoan, Salvador M
Previous studies have suggested that social cognition is affected in individuals with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent social cognition deficits are shared by unaffected first-degree relatives, and the nature of the relationship between performance in different paradigms of social cognition. 20 Schizophrenia patients (7 females, 31+/-10 years), 20 healthy age- and gender-matched individuals, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives of the schizophrenia patients (11 females, 50+/-20 years), and 20 healthy individuals matched for age and gender were recruited. Patients showed deficits in the detection of social Faux Pas (0.80+/-0.17 vs. controls: 0.94+/-0.09, p=0.025) and the correct identification of Theory of Mind stories (0.71+/-0.13 vs. controls: 0.82+/-0.12, p=0.038). Relatives performed poorly in the Faces Test (0.83+/-0.14 vs. controls: 0.9+/-0.08, p=0.048), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (0.59+/-0.17 vs. controls: 0.71+/-0.14, p=0.046) and the detection of social Faux Pas (0.8+/-0.2 vs. controls: 0.93+/-0.09, p=0.024). Abnormalities were independent of age, years of education, and general cognitive performance in patients and their relatives. Performance in an Emotion Processing task (Faces Test) was correlated with performance in theory of mind tests in healthy individuals and relatives of patients with schizophrenia only. These results suggest that schizophrenia patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives display similar but nonidentical patterns of social cognition processing. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.
the rate of the disease, and whether this rate is affected by the type of family relationship (that is, parent or sibling) or by how the relative acquired the infection. DESIGN: Register-based nationwide cohort study (1992 to 2011). SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: First-degree relatives (children.......85; interaction P for siblings = 0.92). Stratifying by disease acquisition revealed the highest rates in individuals exposed to index case patients with non-hospital-acquired infection. Few were infected with genetically identical bacteremia isolates. LIMITATION: The rarity of the outcome limited the number...
Suryanto, Agus [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran Malang 65145 (Indonesia)
In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.
Ogura, Hiroshi; Gando, Satoshi; Iba, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Yutaka; Ohtomo, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kohji; Koseki, Kazuhide; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Murata, Atsuo; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Ueyama, Masashi; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Endo, Shigeatsu; Shimazaki, Shuji
Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia often occur in critically ill patients, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction and a poor outcome. However, the relation between coagulopathy and systemic inflammatory response has not been thoroughly clarified. Thus, we evaluated coagulative activity, organ dysfunction, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia and examined the balance between coagulopathy and systemic inflammation. Two hundred seventy-three patients, who were admitted to 13 critical care centers in Japan and fulfilled the criteria of platelet count of less than 150*10(9)/L, were included. Coagulative variables (platelet count, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, and DIC scores), organ dysfunction index (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] score), and SIRS score in each patient were evaluated for 4 consecutive days after fulfilling the above entry criteria. The effect of SIRS on coagulopathy and organ dysfunction was evaluated in these patients. Both the maximum SIRS score and entry SIRS score had significant relation to the maximum SOFA score during the observation period. Coagulation disorders indicated by the minimum platelet count, maximum DIC scores, and positivity for DIC worsened gradually with increases in SIRS scores. Both the minimum platelet count and maximum DIC scores were significantly correlated with the maximum SOFA score, indicating that a relation exists between coagulopathy and organ dysfunction. In critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy and organ dysfunction progress with significant mutual correlation, depending on the increase in SIRS scores. The SIRS-associated coagulopathy may play a critical role in inducing organ dysfunction after severe insult.
Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking (CFT is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia. At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N=43, in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N=54 and healthy controls (N=44. A series of tests that assessed the causal order effect in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgements of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Because of the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies.
Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene
Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P < .001). Eye movement abnormalities during reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.
Casasent, David P.; Lee, Andrew J.
Multiple-degree-of-freedom object recognition concerns objects with no stable rest position with all scale, rotation, and aspect distortions possible. It is assumed that the objects are in a fairly benign background, so that feature extractors are usable. In-plane distortion invariance is provided by use of a polar-log coordinate transform feature space, and out-of-plane distortion invariance is provided by linear discriminant function design. Relational graph decision nets are considered for multiple-degree-of-freedom pattern recognition. The design of Fisher (1936) linear discriminant functions and synthetic discriminant function for use at the nodes of binary and multidecision nets is discussed. Case studies are detailed for two-class and multiclass problems. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the processors to quantization of the filter coefficients and to noise.
Full Text Available In August of 2008 the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health concluded its work with the publication of a report entitled: “Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health.” The Commission’s chair, Sir Michael Marmot, was kind enough to answer our questions about the Commission’s recommendations. This interview was conducted by email in May of this year. Social Medicine: We congratulate the Com-mission on its excellent work in bringing attention to the social determinants of health and the Commission’s call for health equity. We appreciated the Commission’s recognition that: “Social Justice is a matter of life and death.” We were also happy that the Commission included representatives of civil society in their work. This was an important affirmation of democratic values. When thinking about health inequalities people often use the analogue of the ladder to show how the gradient of worsening health outcomes affects all people in society except (presumably those at the very top. Thinking about the ladder leads us to pose the following question: Is making the ladder shorter (i.e. reducing inequalities the only approach to inequalities or is it possible to imagine making the ladder disappear entirely? Sir Michael Marmot: All societies have hier-archies. It is not conceivable, therefore, to have a society with no ladder. The conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health leads us to think of at least two (linked ways to address the relation between position on the ladder and health: act at the societal level to reduce social inequalities, and break the link between position in the social hierarchy and health. The first argues for reducing the slope of the social gradient. To see this, suppose, just for a moment, that the ladder were defined on the basis of years of education. People who had three years or fewer had life expectancy of 50 years
In pursuit of the solution to the Pioneer Anomaly, I have returned to Einstein's paper "On the Thermodynamics of Moving Bodies" (Annalen der Physik,1905)and to the book RELATIVITY (1916). I do not question the underlying theory of Special Relativity, meaning that I accept time dilation and length contraction. I assume that there must be transformation equations and that the equations of Einstein are very close to correct, due to experimental confirmation. However, in this paper I put the basic algebra under a microscope, and do a thorough analysis of Einstein's mathematical equations in both places. I show that several errors were made that subtly change the form and content of the necessary transformation equations. I show all my math, and present the corrected equations. These equations yield a tiny fractional correction to Special Relativity, and explain the greater slowing in the Pioneer Anomaly. I show, furthermore, that Einstein's equation for velocity yields two degrees of relativity. I present a veloc...
Raethjen, Jan; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Kostka, Achim; Nahrwold, Martin; Hellriegel, Helge; Lorenz, Delia; Deuschl, Günther
Essential tremor (ET) follows an autosomal dominant type of inheritance in the majority of patients, yet its genetic basis has not been identified. Its exact origin is still elusive, but coherence measurements between electromyography tremor bursts and electroencephalography unequivocally demonstrate a correlation. We tested these measurements in 37 healthy first-degree relatives (children) of patients with essential tremor (ET) and a group of 37 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Pooled coherence spectra of the maximally coherent electroencephalogram electrodes were computed for ET relatives and controls. The maximal coherence and its frequency were significantly higher in ET relatives than in controls during the pinch grip task and during slow hand movements. Electromyography amplitude (root-mean-square) was slightly but significantly greater in ET relatives, whereas 2-Hz to 40-Hz power and spectral peak frequency were not different. The presymptomatic alteration in corticomuscular interaction may reflect a role of genetic factors. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
Zakharova, Vlada V; Pletjushkina, Olga Yu; Zinovkin, Roman A; Popova, Ekaterina N; Chernyak, Boris V
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) development is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive ROS production. Mitochondrial dysfunctions also occur in many SIRS-related diseases and may be critical for their pathogenesis; therefore, a use of mitochondria-targeted drugs is a promising trend in SIRS research and therapy. Here, we review recent studies concerning the application of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in animal models of SIRS and related diseases. We propose that a new class of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, lipophilic cations could be a base for a new generation of drugs for SIRS treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 904-912, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ruffatti, A; Milanesi, O; Chiandetti, L; Cerutti, A; Gervasi, M T; De Silvestro, G; Pengo, V; Punzi, L
While mainly based on the use of fluorinated steroids, there is no standard management of anti-Ro/La-related congenital heart block (CHB). This is a report concerning two consecutive cases of anti-Ro/La-related second-degree block treated with betamethasone (4 mg/day), weekly plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs; 1 g/kg) administered every 15 days, a therapy that was begun shortly after CHB was detected and continued until delivery. The newborns were also treated with IVIG (1 g/kg) soon after birth and continued fortnightly until the anti-Ro/La antibody levels became undetectable. In both cases second-degree AV block reverted to a stable sinus rhythm with a first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. Moreover, there was no recurrence of CHB when therapy was suspended, as confirmed by a 29 month and an eight month follow-up, respectively.
Phase relations were determined in the Cu-Te-S system at 350, 450, 550, 675, 800 and 900 degree C. At 350 degree C three ternary phases are present, goldfieldite and two phases A and B, which have not been found i nature. Phase A has disappeared by 450 degree C, goldfieldite has disappeared by 55...
Berrios, G E
The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions. The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry. If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach. Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i.e., from the fact that psychiatry unsteadily straddles the natural and human sciences. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can (or should) do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings. The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making.
Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine.
Laura Rocio Gonzalez-Ramirez
Full Text Available In this work, we prove the existence of periodic solutions for a seasonally-dependent SIRS model using Leray-Schauder degree theory. We obtain criteria for the uniqueness and asymptotic stability of the periodic solution of the system. We also present suitable examples of a seasonal epidemiological disease.
Froyd, Cara A; Kapoor, Shivali; Dietrich, Fred; Rusche, Laura N
Deacetylases of the Sir2 or sirtuin family are thought to regulate life cycle progression and life span in response to nutrient availability. This family has undergone successive rounds of duplication and diversification, enabling the enzymes to perform a wide variety of biological functions. Two evolutionarily conserved functions of yeast Sir2 proteins are the generation of repressive chromatin in subtelomeric domains and the suppression of unbalanced recombination within the tandem rDNA array. Here, we describe the function of the Sir2 ortholog ClHst1 in the yeast Clavispora lusitaniae, an occasional opportunistic pathogen. ClHst1 was localized to the non-transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA repeats and deacetylated histones at these loci, indicating that, like other Sir2 proteins, ClHst1 modulates chromatin structure at the rDNA repeats. However, we found no evidence that ClHst1 associates with subtelomeric regions or impacts gene expression directly. This surprising observation highlights the plasticity of sirtuin function. Related yeast species, including Candida albicans, possess an additional Sir2 family member. Thus, it is likely that the ancestral Candida SIR2/HST1 gene was duplicated and subfunctionalized, such that HST1 retained the capacity to regulate rDNA whereas SIR2 had other functions, perhaps including the generation of subtelomeric chromatin. After subsequent species diversification, the SIR2 paralog was apparently lost in the C. lusitaniae lineage. Thus, C. lusitaniae presents an opportunity to discover how subtelomeric chromatin can be reconfigured.
Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro
John Pendry John Inglesfield and Pedro Echenique write: John Pendry's 65th birthday is on 4 July 2008, and this issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to him, with articles by friends, colleagues, and former students. By any standards, John Pendry is a great scientist, who has made—and continues to make—an enormous contribution to physics; the wide range of his interests is reflected in the scope of these articles. Not many scientists can establish a completely new and unexpected area of research, but this has been John's achievement in the last few years in the field of metamaterials, materials whose electromagnetic properties depend on their structure rather than the materials of which the structure is built. In this way, structures with effectively negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability can be constructed, demonstrating negative refraction; through metamaterials scientists now have access to properties not found in nature, and never previously explored experimentally. Never a week goes by without a potential new application of metamaterials, whether it is perfect lensing, or the cloak of invisibility. This has certainly led to tremendous visibility for John himself, with guest lectures all over the world, and radio and television appearances. John Pendry's first paper was published exactly 40 years ago, 'Analytic properties of pseudopotentials' , and since then he has published 310 articles at the latest count. But this first paper already reflected something of the way John works. His PhD project, with Volker Heine at the Cavendish Laboratory, was to interpret the scattering of low energy electrons from surfaces, the technique of LEED which was to become the method of choice for determining surface structure. Although the energy of the electrons in LEED is relatively low—say 50 eV—it is much higher than the energy of the conduction electrons, for which pseudopotentials had been devised, and John
This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan (green crescent feature) at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans (semicircular features) can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: red =L-band horizontally polarized transmitted, horizontally polarized received (LHH); green =L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received (LHV) and blue = CHV.SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies
Wagshal, Dana; Knowlton, Barbara Jean; Cohen, Jessica Rachel; Poldrack, Russell Alan; Bookheimer, Susan Yost; Bilder, Robert Martin; Asarnow, Robert Franklin
We studied healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia to test the hypothesis that deficits in cognitive skill learning are associated with genetic liability to schizophrenia. Using the Weather Prediction Task (WPT), 23 healthy controls and 10 adult first-degree Relatives Of Schizophrenia (ROS) patients were examined to determine the extent to which cognitive skill learning was automated using a dual-task paradigm to detect subtle impairments in skill learning. Automatization of a skill is the ability to execute a task without the demand for executive control and effortful behavior and is a skill in which schizophrenia patients possess a deficit. ROS patients did not differ from healthy controls in accuracy or reaction time on the WPT either during early or late training on the single-task trials. In contrast, the healthy control and ROS groups were differentially affected during the dual-task trials. Our results demonstrate that the ROS group did not automate the task as well as controls and continued to rely on controlled processing even after extensive practice. This suggests that adult ROS patients may engage in compensatory strategies to achieve normal levels of performance and support the hypothesis that impaired cognitive skill learning is associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia.
Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai
For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.
Fletcher, D L
Saponification of xanthophyll esters in various feed sources has been shown to improve pigmentation efficiency in broiler skin and egg yolks. Three trials were conducted to evaluate a rapid liquid chromatography procedure for estimating the relative degree of xanthophyll saponification using samples of yellow corn, corn gluten meal, alfalfa, and 6 commercially available marigold meal concentrates. In each trial, samples were extracted using a modification of the 1984 Association of Official Analytical Chemists hot saponification procedure with and without the addition of KOH. A comparison of the chromatography results was used to estimate percent saponification of the original sample by dividing the nonsaponified extraction values by the saponified extraction values. A comparison of the percent saponified xanthophylls for each product (mg/kg) was: yellow corn, 101; corn gluten meal, 78; alfalfa, 97.9; and marigold concentrates A through F, 99.8, 4.6, 99.0, 95.6, 96.8, and 6.6, respectively. These results indicate that a modification of the 1984 Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedure and liquid column chromatography can be used to quickly verify saponification and can be used to estimate the relative degree of saponification of an unknown xanthophyll source.
John A. Heath
Full Text Available We determined the extent and distribution of cancers in relatives of 379 children newly diagnosed with cancer. Family history was collected from 1,337 first-degree and 3,399 second-degree relatives and incidence compared with national age- and gender-specific rates. Overall, 14 children (3.7% had a relative with a history of childhood cancer and 26 children (6.9% had a first-degree relative with a history of cancer, with only one of these having an identifiable familial cancer syndrome. There was a higher than expected incidence of childhood cancer among first-degree relatives (parents and siblings (standardized incidence ratio (SIR 1.43; 95% CI 0.54–5.08. There was also a higher than expected incidence of adult cancers among first-degree relatives (SIR 1.45; 95% CI 0.93–2.21, particularly in females (SIR 1.82; 95% CI 1.26–3.39. The increased family cancer history in first-degree females was largely attributable to an effect in mothers (SIR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27–3.33. The gender-specific association was reflected in higher than expected incidence rates of breast cancer in both mothers (SIR 1.92; 95% CI 0.72–6.83 and aunts (SIR 1.64; 95% CI 0.98–2.94. These findings support the hypothesis that previously undetected familial cancer syndromes contribute to childhood cancer.
Olsen, Jeanette M
High attrition in associate degree nursing (ADN) programs contributes to the nursing shortage and causes hardship for students, families, faculty, colleges, and taxpayers. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to identify admission criteria related to ADN program success to inform evidence-based admission policies and reduce attrition. Integrative review methodology, suggested by Whittemore and Knafl, was used. A systematic search of existing professional literature was conducted using five databases and key word searches. The final sample included 26 documents that were analyzed and synthesized with the matrix method. Five categories of admission criteria and factors related to success in ADN programs were revealed from the analysis of findings: academic aptitude, demographic factors, psychological hardiness, specialty skills and experience, and socioeconomic support. ADN programs with a goal of decreasing attrition may want to implement admission selection guidelines that consider applicant criteria and attributes across all five dimensions. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(2):85-93.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Rass, Olga; Forsyth, Jennifer K; Krishnan, Giri P; Hetrick, William P; Klaunig, Mallory J; Breier, Alan; O'Donnell, Brian F; Brenner, Colleen A
The power and phase synchronization of the auditory steady state response (ASSR) at 40 Hz stimulation is usually reduced in schizophrenia (SZ). The sensitivity of the 40 Hz ASSR to schizophrenia spectrum phenotypes, such as schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), or to familial risk has been less well characterized. We compared the ASSR of patients with SZ, persons with schizotypal personality disorder, first degree relatives of patients with SZ, and healthy control participants. ASSRs were obtained to 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz click trains, and assessed using measures of power (mean trial power or MTP) and phase consistency (phase locking factor or PLF). The MTP to 40 Hz stimulation was reduced in relatives, and there was a trend for MTP reduction in SZ. The 40 Hz ASSR was not reduced in SPD participants. PLF did not differ among groups. These data suggest the 40 Hz ASSR is sensitive to familial risk factors associated with schizophrenia.
Hughes, Gary B.; Macasaet, Van P.; Griswold, Janelle; Sison, Claudia A.; Lubin, Philip; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Brashears, Travis; Zhang, Qicheng; Madajian, Jonathan
Lasers are commonly used in high-precision measurement and profiling systems. Some laser measurement systems are based on interferometry principles, and others are based on active triangulation, depending on requirements of the application. This paper describes an active triangulation laser measurement system for a specific application wherein the relative position of two fixed, rigid mechanical components is to be measured dynamically with high precision in six degrees of freedom (DOF). Potential applications include optical systems with feedback to control for mechanical vibration, such as target acquisition devices with multiple focal planes. The method uses an array of several laser emitters mounted on one component. The lasers are directed at a reflective surface on the second component. The reflective surface consists of a piecewise-planar pattern such as a pyramid, or more generally a curved reflective surface such as a hyperbolic paraboloid. The reflected spots are sensed at 2-dimensional photodiode arrays on the emitter component. Changes in the relative position of the emitter component and reflective surface will shift the location of the reflected spots within photodiode arrays. Relative motion in any degree of freedom produces independent shifts in the reflected spot locations, allowing full six-DOF relative position determination between the two component positions. Response time of the sensor is limited by the read-out rate of the photodiode arrays. Algorithms are given for position determination with limits on uncertainty and sensitivity, based on laser and spot-sensor characteristics, and assuming regular surfaces. Additional uncertainty analysis is achievable for surface irregularities based on calibration data.
Montag, Christiane; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Lehmann, Anja; Krüger, Katja; Dziobek, Isabel; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen
Alterations of theory of mind (ToM) and empathy were implicated in the formation of psychotic experiences, and deficits in psychosocial functioning of schizophrenia patients. Inspired by concepts of neurocognitive endophenotypes, the existence of a distinct, potentially neurobiologically based social-cognitive vulnerability marker for schizophrenia is a matter of ongoing debate. The fact that previous research on social-cognitive deficits in individuals at risk yielded contradictory results may partly be due to an insufficient differentiation between qualitative aspects of ToM. Thirty-four unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (21 parents, 8 siblings, 5 children; f/m: 30/4; mean age: 48.1 ± 12.7 years) and 34 controls subjects (f/m: 25/9; mean age: 45.9 ± 10.9 years) completed the 'Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition'-a video-based ToM test-and an empathy questionnaire (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI). Outcome parameters comprised (1) 'cognitive' versus 'emotional' ToM, (2) error counts representing 'undermentalizing' versus 'overmentalizing', (3) empathic abilities and (4) non-social neurocognition. MANCOVA showed impairments in cognitive but not emotional ToM in the relatives' group, when age, gender and neurocognition were controlled for. Relatives showed elevated error counts for 'undermentalizing' but not for 'overmentalizing'. No alterations were detected in self-rated dimensions of empathy. Of all measures of ToM and empathy, only the IRI subscale 'fantasy' was associated with measures of psychotic risk, i.e. a history of subclinical delusional ideation. The present study confirmed subtle deficits in cognitive, but not emotional ToM in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, which were not explained by global cognitive deficits. Findings corroborate the assumption of distinct social-cognitive abilities as an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.
Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra
Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.
Let L be an abelian extension of the rationals Q whose Galois group Gal(L) is an abelian (q-group q is any prime number). The explicit law of prime decomposition in L for any prime number p, the inertia group, residue class degree, and discriminant of L are given here; such fields L are classified into 4 or 8 classes according as q is odd or even with clear description of their structures. Then relative extension L/K is studied. L/K is proved to have a relative integral basis under certain simple conditions; relative discriminant D(L/K) is given explicitly; and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for D(L/K) to be generated by a rational square (and by a rational). In particular, it is proved that L/K has a relative integral basis and that D(L/K) is generated by a rational square if [L: K]≥x~* or x~*+1 (according as q is odd or even), where x~* is the exponent of Gal(L). These results contain many related results on similar fields in literature.
Pu, Cunlai; Yang, Jian
We propose a novel SIR epidemic model which is driven by the transmission of infection packets in networks. Specifically, infected nodes generate and deliver infection packets causing the spread of the epidemic, while recovered nodes block the delivery of infection packets, and this inhibits the epidemic spreading. The efficient routing protocol governed by a control parameter $\\alpha$ is used in the packet transmission. We obtain the maximum instantaneous population of infected nodes, the maximum population of ever infected nodes, as well as the corresponding optimal $\\alpha$ through simulation. We find that generally more balanced load distribution leads to more intense and wide spread of an epidemic in networks. Increasing either average node degree or homogeneity of degree distribution will facilitate epidemic spreading. When packet generation rate $\\rho$ is small, increasing $\\rho$ favors epidemic spreading. However, when $\\rho$ is large enough, traffic congestion appears which inhibits epidemic spreadin...
Rozhnova, Ganna; Nunes, Ana
The standard pair approximation equations (PA) for the Susceptible-Infective-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model of infection spread on a network of homogeneous degree k predict a thin phase of sustained oscillations for parameter values that correspond to diseases that confer long lasting immunity. Here we present a study of the dependence of this oscillatory phase on the parameter k and of its relevance to understand the behaviour of simulations on networks. For k = 4, we compare the phase diagram of the PA model with the results of simulations on regular random graphs (RRG) of the same degree. We show that for parameter values in the oscillatory phase, and even for large system sizes, the simulations either die out or exhibit damped oscillations, depending on the initial conditions. This failure of the standard PA model to capture the qualitative behaviour of the simulations on large RRGs is currently being investigated.
Adolfo Francesco Attili; Adriano De Santis; Fabia Attili; Enrico Roda; Davide Festi; Nicola Carulli
AIM: To evaluate the influence of familiality on the prevalence of gallstone disease (GD) in Italy.METHODS: Families of 79 subjects with gallstones (cases) and of 79 subjects without gallstones (controls)were investigated for the presence of gallstones by ultrasonography. Index cases and index controls were matched for age, sex, and operative unit. Sixty-three and sixty-two husbands and wives of index cases and index controls, respectively, were also studied.RESULTS: Overall,the prevalence of GD was significantly higher (X2=14.52, P＜0.001) in the 202 first-degree relatives of subjects with gallstones than that in the 201 first-degree relatives of subjects without gallstones (28.6% vs 12.4%, relative risk (RR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.63). In particular,prevalence of GD was significantly higher in mothers,fathers, and sisters of index cases than that in the respective family members of index controls. The highest RR was observed in mothers (RR=2.35, 95%CI 1.38-4.3).Prevalence of GD was not obviously different in brothers and also in husbands and wives of index cases and index controls. Family members of index cases did not differ from family members of control cases with respect to the most important risk factors for gallstones (age, diabetes,BMI, and number of pregnancies) with an exception of a higher prevalence of diabetes in fathers of index controls than in fathers of index cases.CONCLUSION: This study confirms that familiality plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of gallstones.
Seyede Zohre Mousavi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.
van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M; van Noort, Arthur; Ritt, Marco J P F; van Royen, Barend J; van der Sluijs, Johannes A
Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture. Clinical assessment was performed in 34 children (mean 10.0 years) with unilateral OBPL and Narakas classes I-III. External and internal rotation strengths were measured with the shoulder in neutral position using a handheld dynamometer. Strength on the affected side was given as percentage of the normal side. Contracture was assessed by passive internal and external rotations in degrees (in 0° abduction). Mallet classification was used for active shoulder function. External and internal rotation strengths on the affected side were approximately 50% of the normal side and on average both equally affected: 56% (SD 18%) respectively 51% (SD 27%); r = 0.600, p = 0.000. Residual strengths were not related to passive internal or external rotation (p > 0.200). Internal rotation strength (r = - 0.425, p muscle strength influence contracture formation cannot be confirmed in this study. Our results are of interest for the understanding of contracture formation in OBPL.
Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge. His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology. He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour.
The Mott Lecture is awarded to scientists working in the tradition of Nobel laureate Sir Nevill F. Mott, with exceptional contributions to the fields important to the ICANS conference. The ICANS23 Mott Lecture was awarded to Prof. Dr. Sigurd Wagner of Princeton University. He is recognized for his g
Hagiwara, Katsuyuki; Fukumizu, Kenji
This paper investigates the relation between over-fitting and weight size in neural network regression. The over-fitting of a network to Gaussian noise is discussed. Using re-parametrization, a network function is represented as a bounded function g multiplied by a coefficient c. This is considered to bound the squared sum of the outputs of g at given inputs away from a positive constant delta(n), which restricts the weight size of a network and enables the probabilistic upper bound of the degree of over-fitting to be derived. This reveals that the order of the probabilistic upper bound can change depending on delta(n). By applying the bound to analyze the over-fitting behavior of one Gaussian unit, it is shown that the probability of obtaining an extremely small value for the width parameter in training is close to one when the sample size is large.
Gojkovic, Zoran; Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure
beta -Alanine synthase (EC 18.104.22.168), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamy-beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta -alanine synthase...... no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl- beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta -alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial...... N- carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta -alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N-carbamyl-beta...
Geluk, Christiane A; Halkes, Constantijn J M; De Jaegere, Peter P T; Plokker, Thijs W M; Cabezas, Manuel Castro
Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia tested under metabolic ward conditions with unphysiological high fat loads has been reported in CAD patients and their relatives even in the presence of normal fasting lipids. It is unclear whether this also occurs in the daytime situation. Twenty-seven normocholesterolemic, non-obese and nondiabetic patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and 56 first-degree relatives without CAD measured daytime capillary triglyceride profiles (TGc-AUC) as an estimate of postprandial lipemia. Fasting capillary triglycerides (TGc) were not significantly different between CAD index patients and their relatives (1.68 +/- 0.63 and 1.54 +/- 0.71 mmol/L, respectively). In contrast, daytime triglyceridemia was significantly higher in CAD patients (30.7 +/- 13.6 mmol. h/L) compared to their relatives (24.4 +/- 9.4 mmol. h/L) and this was also the case after correction for fasting TGc (7.24 +/- 7.41 and 2.79 +/- 6.89 mmol. h/L; P <.05). The best predictors of TGc-AUC by multiple regression analysis in CAD families were fasting TGc, systolic blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which are all components of the metabolic syndrome, explaining 65% of the variation. Since there were no major differences in nutritional intake between index patients and their relatives, this could not explain the differences Daytime triglyceridemia, measured under physiological conditions, is increased in patients with premature atherosclerosis and normal fasting TG levels, when compared to their non-CAD relatives. This study confirms previous observations using standardized oral fat loading tests and underlines the importance of postprandial hyperlipidemia in CAD.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present numerical method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving the stochastic SIR model. By use of Bernstein operational matrix and its stochastic operational matrix we convert stochastic SIR model to a nonlinear system that can be solved by Newton method. Finally, a test problem of SIR model is presented to illustrate our mathematical findings.
Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-
Arora-Singh, Rajpreet K.; Assassi, Shervin; del Junco, Deborah J.; Arnett, Frank C.; Perry, Marilyn; Irfan, Uzma; Sharif, Roozbeh; Mattar, Tony; Mayes, Maureen D.
Objective To determine aggregation of autoimmune diseases in the first degree relatives (FDR) of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to investigate frequencies of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and other autoantibodies in the FDRs and spouses of patients with SSc. Methods Information on FDRs including history of autoimmune disease was obtained from unrelated SSc probands in the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository. FDRs were contacted to verify any reported autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in probands’ families was compared with the corresponding prevalence in controls’ families as reported in the literature. Furthermore, sera from probands’ FDRs and spouses in addition to unrelated controls were investigated for the presence of autoantibodies (ANA). Results We investigated 4612 FDRs of 1071 SSc probands. SSc probands with anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) and limited disease type were more likely to report familial autoimmunity (p = 0.022 and p = 0.041, respectively). The four most prevalent autoimmune diseases among SSc probands’ FDRs were hypothyroidism (4%), Rheumatoid arthritis (1.5%), hyperthyroidism (1.3%) and systemic lupus erythematosus-SLE (0.4%). Compared to control families, SLE, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were more common in SSc probands’ families. The most striking increase for familial prevalence was observed in SLE (OR = 16.98, 95% CI = 1.02–227.82, p = 0.004). ANA was present in 14.2% of probands’ FDR’s and 8.6% of spouses and did not differ from the prevalence of ANA among controls (p = 0.124 and p = 0.477, respectively). Only two FDRs of probands had ACA while none had anti-topoisomerase antibodies. Conclusion Our study implies varying degrees of risk for familial autoimmunity among subtypes of SSc and provides further support for common genetic and potentially environmental factors leading to SSc and SLE. PMID:20223638
Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Ferrero, Miguel A; Vaquero Ayala, Luis; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José M G; Albillos, Silvia M; Casqueiro, Francisco Javier
Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten proteins are partially digested by human proteases generating immunogenic peptides that cause inflammation in patients carrying HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genes. Although intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with patients with CD, bacterial metabolism of gluten has not been studied in depth thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse the metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria associated with gluten intake in healthy individuals, CD patients and first-degree relatives of CD patients. Faecal samples belonging to twenty-two untreated CD patients, twenty treated CD patients, sixteen healthy volunteers on normal diet, eleven healthy volunteers on gluten-free diet (GFD), seventy-one relatives of CD patients on normal diet and sixty-nine relatives on GFD were tested for several proteolytic activities, cultivable bacteria involved in gluten metabolism, SCFA and the amount of gluten in faeces. We detected faecal peptidasic activity against the gluten-derived peptide 33-mer. CD patients showed differences in faecal glutenasic activity (FGA), faecal tryptic activity (FTA), SCFA and faecal gluten content with respect to healthy volunteers. Alterations in specific bacterial groups metabolising gluten such as Clostridium or Lactobacillus were reported in CD patients. Relatives showed similar parameters to CD patients (SCFA) and healthy volunteers (FTA and FGA). Our data support the fact that commensal microbial activity is an important factor in the metabolism of gluten proteins and that this activity is altered in CD patients.
Zebker, Howard A.; Elachi, Charles; vanZyl, Jakob
Progress, significant results, publications and future plans are discussed in relation to the following objectives: (1) To model, experimentally characterize, and verify penetration phenomena in hyperarid and vegetated regions using the SIR-C/X-SAR multiparameter radar system and groundbased receivers; (2) To invert measured radar backscatter as a function of frequency and polarization in terms of geophysical parameters of the surface, subsurface and vegetation canopy such as surface roughness, subsurface geomorphology, or tree height and density; and (3) To display subsurface and within-canopy features in an image format, thus easing the interpretability of the results.
Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I
We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Theodorakopoulou, Maria; Christodoulopoulou, Theodora; Damoraki, Georgia; Goukos, Dimitris; Briassouli, Efrossini; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Nanas, Serafim; Briassoulis, George; Tsiodras, Sotirios
This study was designed to identify changes in the monocytic membrane marker HLA-DR and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in relation to T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and other immunological marker changes in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis/septic shock. Healthy volunteers, intensive care unit (ICU) patients with SIRS due to head injury and ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock were enrolled in the current study. Determination of CD14+/HLA-DR+ cells, intracellular heat-shock proteins and other immunological parameters were performed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR techniques as appropriate. Univariate and multivariate analysis examined associations of CD14/HLA-DR, HSPs, T-regs and suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins with SIRS, sepsis and outcome. Fifty patients (37 with severe sepsis and 13 with SIRS) were enrolled, together with 20 healthy volunteers used as a control group. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SIRS and severe sepsis showed progressive decline of their CD14/HLA-DR expression (0% to 7.7% to 50% within each study subpopulation, pSIRS patients compared to controls and fell significantly in severe sepsis/septic shock patients (pSIRS and sepsis were found for CD14/HLA-DR expression and monocyte and polymorphonuclear cell levels of HSP70 and 90. The role of these biomarkers in assessing the prognosis of sepsis needs to be further explored and validated in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salehidoost, Rezvan; Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Zare, Maryam; Amini, Massoud
...) first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients during 2007-2011 were enrolled. The height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile and uric acid concentrations were measured...
Jennifer L. Hay
Full Text Available Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic and risk level (positive versus negative findings were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required.
Turunen, Kaisa; Helander, Kristiina; Mattila, Kari J; Sumanen, Markku
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been shown to have a genetic predisposition. We studied whether Finnish women who had suffered from the disorder reported their first-degree relatives to have had liver dysfunction during their pregnancies. Questionnaires were sent in autumn 2010 to a total of 544 former intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy patients and 1235 controls, all having delivered during 1969-1988. The response rate was 66.2%. The incidence of intrahepatic cholestasis is 0.5-1.5% of pregnancies in Finland. In our survey, altogether 12.8% of mothers (odds ratio 9.2), 15.9% of sisters (odds ratio 5.3) and 10.3% of daughters (odds ratio 4.8) of women who had suffered from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy had had liver dysfunction during pregnancy. Our findings strengthen the earlier knowledge of the genetic component in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. We suggest that all pregnant women are asked about their family history regarding liver dysfunction during pregnancy. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the elderly; using a hearing aid to alleviate auditory impairment can positively affect their quality of life. This research aimed to determine the level of satisfaction concerning hearing aids in elderly people with hearing impairment based on the type and degree of hearing loss.Methods: An analytic cross-sectional research design was used ; the sample included 40 elderly people who used hearing aids. According to the World Health Organization (WHO age classification, participants were divided into two age groups: 65-74 years (n=20 and 75-90 years (n=20. Satisfaction levels were assessed using a standard satisfaction with amplification in daily life (SADL questionnaire.Results: Satisfaction levels in the 65-74 age group were significantly higher than that in the 75-90 age group (p=0.02. Participants with mixed hearing loss revealed higher satisfaction levels than participants with sensorineural hearing loss (p=0.02. On the negative effects dimension, participants with severe hearing loss exhibited significantly higher satisfaction levels than participants with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss (p=0.01.Conclusion: Total satisfaction mean scores were relatively high in the elderly participants . Negative features could be reduced via careful consultation regarding the aids’ amplifying capabilities and limitations in groups with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy are rare diseases with no known coherence. Case Presentation A daughter and her biological mother were diagnosed with pregnancy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, respectively. Both developed end-stage renal disease. Exploration of a common aetiology included analyses of HLA genotypes, functional and genetic aspects of the complement system, ADAMTS13 activity and screening for autoantibodies. The daughter was heterozygous carrier of the complement factor I G261D mutation, previously described in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. The mother was non-carrier of this mutation. They shared the disease associated complement factor H silent polymorphism Q672Q (79602A>G. Conclusion An unequivocal functional or molecular association between these two family cases was not found suggesting that the patients probably share another, so far undiagnosed and unknown, predisposing factor. It seems highly unlikely that two infrequent immunologic diseases would occur by unrelated pathophysiological mechanisms within first degree relatives.
Julio C. Morini
Full Text Available To analyze whether electrocardiographic alterations (ECGA in patients with antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi showed a patttern of familial aggregation, a sample of 379 young adults (166 men and 213 women distributed in sibships, were assessed for the presence of anti-T.cruzi antibodies, and subjected to a complete clinical examination and a standard resting electrocardiogram (ECG. Positive T. cruzi serology was detected in 165 individuals, 48 of them showing an abnormal ECG (overall prevalence 29 por cento. One hundred and eleven seropositive individuals were distributed in 45 sibships, each of them constituted by more than one seropositive sib, with ECGA being present in 34 out of these patients. Seropositive subjects with ECGA were detected in 27 sibships. Since the index case within each sibship is counted exactly once, affected individuals selected at random as propositi were extracted to calculate the prevalence of ECGA among first degree relatives of probands. Abnormal ECGs were recorded in 7 out of 45 sibs yielding a prevalence that did not differ from estimations registered in the general population or seropositive sibs. Data from the present sample show no familial aggregation for the occurrence of ECGA in patients with T.cruzi infection.
Gonçalves, S.; Abramson, G.; Gomes, M. F. C.
The ubiquity of oscillations in epidemics presents a long standing challenge for the formulation of epidemic models. Whether they are external and seasonally driven, or arise from the intrinsic dynamics is an open problem. It is known that fixed time delays destabilize the steady state solution of the standard SIRS model, giving rise to stable oscillations for certain parameters values. In this contribution, starting from the classical SIRS model, we make a general treatment of the recovery and loss of immunity terms. We present oscillation diagrams (amplitude and period) in terms of the parameters of the model, showing how oscillations can be destabilized by the shape of the distributions of the two characteristic (infectious and immune) times. The formulation is made in terms of delay equations which are both numerically integrated and linearized. Results from simulations are included showing where they support the linear analysis and explaining why not where they do not. Considerations and comparison with real diseases are presented along.
Lloyd, Hilary; Hinton, Tina; Bullock, Shane; Babey, Anna-Marie; Davis, Elizabeth; Fernandes, Lynette; Hart, Joanne; Musgrave, Ian; Ziogas, James
Pharmacology is a biomedical discipline taught in basic science and professional degree programs. In order to provide information that would facilitate pharmacology curricula to be refined and developed, and approaches to teaching to be updated, a national survey was undertaken in Australia that investigated pharmacology course content, teaching and summative assessment methods. Twenty-two institutions participated in a purpose-built online questionnaire, which enabled an evaluation of 147 courses taught in 10 different degrees. To enable comparison, degrees were grouped into four major degree programs, namely science, pharmacy, medicine and nursing. The pharmacology content was then classified into 16 lecture themes, with 2-21 lecture topics identified per theme. The resultant data were analysed for similarities and differences in pharmacology curricula across the degree programs. While all lecture themes were taught across degree programs, curriculum content differed with respect to the breadth and hours of coverage. Overall, lecture themes were taught most broadly in medicine and with greatest coverage in pharmacy. Reflecting a more traditional approach, lectures were a dominant teaching method (at least 90% of courses). Sixty-three percent of science courses provided practical classes but such sessions occurred much less frequently in other degree programs, while tutorials were much more common in pharmacy degree programs (70%). Notably, problem-based learning was common across medical programs. Considerable diversity was found in the types of summative assessment tasks employed. In science courses the most common form of in-semester assessment was practical reports, whereas in other programs pen-and-paper quizzes predominated. End-of-semester assessment contributed 50-80% to overall assessment across degree programs. The similarity in lecture themes taught across the four different degree programs shows that common knowledge- and competency-based learning
In 2009, the development of a medical brief, effectively detailing the specifications for a purpose-built oncology hospital and including the medical equipment and human resources required, was commenced. Robust engagement by the relevant stakeholders, many of which hailed from the extant Sir Paul Boffa Hospital, ensured a very relevant proposal. The project (ERDF 196), led by the Foundation for Medical Sciences, was subsequently approved for partial funding through Europ...
ZUO Yingfeng; GU Jiyou; TAN Haiyan; ZHANG Yanhua
Ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, formamide, and urea were used as plasticizers for the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS) from corn starch. The properties of TPS were tested by analysis method. The results showed that TPSs were more highly plasticized with amines than alcohols. For the same type of plasticizer, the degree of plasticization decreased as the molecular weight of plasticizer increased. The relationship between plasticization degree and TPS properties was characterized and described by mechanical properties and water absorption. The experimental results showed that when the degree of plasticization increased, the tensile strength decreased and the elongation at breakage and water absorption increased.
KOTZE Lorete Maria da Silva
Full Text Available Background - Literature data have shown high specificity of antiendomysial antibodies (EmA IgA in celiac disease. The scarcity of Brazilian reports concerning this subject motivated the present study. Objectives - To determine the sensitivity and specificity of antiendomysial IgA antibodies in Brazilian celiac patients at diagnosis and after treatment, to confirm patient adherence to a gluten-free diet and to screen first-degree relatives. Methods - An extensive clinical and serological study was performed by investigating the presence of these antibodies in 392 individuals from Southern Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescence using human umbilical cord as substrate was employed and the total levels of IgA were determined by turbidimetry in all groups. The study was conducted on 57 celiac patients (18 at diagnosis, 24 who adhered to a gluten-free diet and 15 with marked or slight transgression of the diet, 115 relatives of celiac patients (39 families, 94 patients with other gastrointestinal diseases, and 126 healthy individuals from the general population. Results - The results demonstrated 100% positivity for the recently diagnosed patients and for those consuming gluten, in contrast to the patients who complied with the diet (0%. In the control group one individual was positive, but refused to undergo a biopsy. In the group of other gastrointestinal diseases, one positive patient presented ulcerative colitis, Down's syndrome and epilepsy, and the intestinal biopsy was diagnostic for celiac disease. These data showed 99.3% specificity for the test. Eighteen relatives were positive for antiendomysial antibodies IgA (15.65%, and comparison with the healthy population revealed a significant difference. An intestinal biopsy was obtained from seven subjects (one with total villous atrophy and six withouth alterations in the mucosal architecture, but all with a high number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Conclusions - The method revealed 100
Theodoros A Zografos; Nikolaos Gatselis; Kalliopi Zachou; Christos Liaskos; Stella Gabeta; George K Koukoulis; George N Dalekos
AIM:To determine the prevalence and significance of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Greek PBC patients.METHODS:The presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays,dot-blot assays,and molecularly based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 101 asymptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of 44 PBC patients.In order to specify our results,the same investigation was performed in 40 healthy controls and in a disease control group consisting of 40 asy.mptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of patients with other autoimmune liver diseases namely,autoimmune hepatitis-1 or primary sclerosing cholangitJs (AIH-1/PSC).RESULTS:AMA positivity was observed in 19 (only 4 with abnormal liver function tests) FDRs of PBC patients and none of the healthy controls.The prevalence of AMA was significantly higher in FDRs of PBC patients than in AIH-1/PSC FDRs and healthy controls [18.8％,95％ confidence interval (CI):12％-28.1％ vs 2.5％,95％ CI:0.1％-14.7％,P =0.01; 18.8％,95％ CI:12％-28.1％ vs 0％,95％ CI:0％-10.9％,P =0.003,respectively].PBC-specific ANA positivity was observed in only one FDR from a PSC patient.Multivariate analysis showed that having a proband with PBC independently associated with AMA positivity (odds ratio:11.24,95％ CI:1.27-25.34,P =0.03) whereas among the investigated comorbidities and risk factors,a positive past history for urinary tract infections (UTI)was also independently associated with AMA detection in FDRs of PBC patients (odds ratio:3.92,95％ CI:1.25-12.35,P =0.02).CONCLUSION:In FDRs of Greek PBC patients,AMA prevalence is significantly increased and independently associated with past UTI.PBC-specific ANA were not detected in anyone of PBC FDRs.
Oliveira, Tiago Roux; Costa, Luiz Rennó; Catunda, João Marcos Yamasaki; Pino, Alexandre Visintainer; Barbosa, William; Souza, Márcio Nogueira de
This paper addresses the application of the sliding mode approach to control the arm movements by artificial recruitment of muscles using Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Such a technique allows the activation of motor nerves using surface electrodes. The goal of the proposed control system is to move the upper limbs of subjects through electrical stimulation to achieve a desired elbow angular displacement. Since the human neuro-motor system has individual characteristics, being time-varying, nonlinear and subject to uncertainties, the use of advanced robust control schemes may represent a better solution than classical Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers and model-based approaches, being simpler than more sophisticated strategies using fuzzy logic or neural networks usually applied in this control problem. The objective is the introduction of a new time-scaling base sliding mode control (SMC) strategy for NMES and its experimental evaluation. The main qualitative advantages of the proposed controller via time-scaling procedure are its independence of the knowledge of the plant relative degree and the design/tuning simplicity. The developed sliding mode strategy allows for chattering alleviation due to the impact of the integrator in smoothing the control signal. In addition, no differentiator is applied to construct the sliding surface. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is also carried out by using singular perturbation methods. Experimental results are conducted with healthy volunteers as well as stroke patients. Quantitative results show a reduction of 45% in terms of root mean square (RMS) error (from 5.9° to [Formula: see text] ) in comparison with PI control scheme, which is similar to that obtained in the literature.
Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Alvarez-Cuenllas, Begoña; Hernando, Mercedes; Iglesias-Blazquez, Cristina; Menéndez-Arias, Cristina; Vivas, Santiago
The first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with coeliac disease are the main risk group for disease development. To evaluate the screening strategy in FDRs with negative coeliac serology based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping, followed by duodenal biopsy, and to analyze the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the influence of gluten intake. Adult FDRs with negative coeliac serology were invited to participate (n = 205), and a total of 139 completed the study protocol. HLA genotyping, transglutaminase antibody assessment, and duodenal biopsy were performed. Symptomatology was assessed using questionnaires during the various phases of dietary modification (baseline diet, gluten-free diet, and gluten overload). The study included 139 participants (mean age, 42 years; 53.2% women). HLA-DQ2/8 was positive in 78.4% of the participants (homozygous, 15.1%; heterozygous, 63.3%). Histopathological alterations were noted in 37.1% of participants who underwent duodenal biopsy (Marsh I, 32.7%; Marsh IIIa, 4.4%). At baseline, symptoms were observed in 45.7% of the participants, and the proportion decreased to 24.5% after the gluten-free diet (p < 0.001). Symptoms were not associated with the presence of histological alterations or genetic risk. However, younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91), female sex (OR = 2.9), and the presence of autoimmune disorders (OR = 2.8) were independently associated with a significant symptom response to the gluten-free diet. Duodenal lymphocytosis and atrophy are frequently noted in FDRs, despite negative serological markers. In addition, gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly present and associated with gluten intake regardless of the histological pathology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this study, we examined hemispheric differences in corticospinal excitability and in transcallosal inhibition in a selected group of young adults (n = 34 grouped into three handedness categories (RH: strongly right-handed, n = 17; LH: strongly left-handed, n = 10; MH: mixed-handed, n = 7 based on laterality quotients (LQ derived from the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Performance measures were also used to derive a laterality index reflecting right-left asymmetries in manual dexterity (Dextli and in finger tapping speed (Speedli. Corticospinal excitability was assessed in each hemisphere by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS using the first dorsal interosseus as the target muscle. TMS measures consisted of resting motor threshold (rMT, motor evoked potential (MEP recruitment curve (RC and the contralateral silent period (cSP with the accompanying MEP facilitation. Hemispheric interactions were assessed by means of the ipsilateral silent period (iSP to determine the onset latency and the duration of transcallosal inhibition (i.e., LTI and DTI. Analysis of hemispheric variations in measures of corticospinal excitability revealed no major asymmetries in relation to degrees of laterality or handedness, with the exception of a rightward increase in rMTs in the LH group. Similarly, no clear asymmetries were found when looking at hemispheric variations in measures of transcallosal inhibition. However, a large group effect was detected for LTI measures, which were found to be significantly shorter in the MH group than in either the LH or RH group. MH participants also tended to show longer DTI than the other participants. Further inspection of overall variations in LTI and DTI measures as a function of LQs revealed that both variables followed a non-linear relationship, which was best described by a 2(nd order polynomial function. Overall, these findings provide converging evidence for a link between mixed-handedness and more efficient
Stone, J L
Sir Charles A. Ballance (1856-1936) began his medical career at St. Thomas's Hospital the University College, London, England, in 1875, receiving honors in every subject and a gold medal in surgery. Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and Ballance were classmates at the University and in the later 1880s began work together at the Brown Institute and the National Hospital, Queen Square. In addition to important studies on vascular surgery, Ballance was involved in primate work on cerebral localization with lifelong friends Charles Beevor, Charles Sherrington, David Ferrier, and others. In June of 1887, Ballance assisted Horsley at Queen Square in the successful removal of an extramedullary spinal cord tumor. Horsley was about to abandon the operation, but his friend urged the removal of one lamina higher and the tumor was discovered. Ballance, a demonstrator in anatomy, realized the spinal cord segments lay higher in relation to the vertebral bodies than was generally appreciated. Ballance popularized the operation of radical mastoidectomy for advanced middle ear infection (1890), standardized an approach to drain or excise temporal brain abscesses, and was the first to clearly understand the neurological signs of cerebellar abscess (1894). Ballance also devised cranial base approaches to attack infectious thrombophlebitis of the lateral, petrosal, and cavernous sinuses. He was the first to completely remove an acoustic tumor (1894); 18 years later, the patient remained well. Ballance also drained a posterior fossa subdural hematoma (1906) and successfully sectioned the auditory nerve for Meniere's syndrome (1908). Ballance's operative experience with both supra- and infratentorial brain lesions included approximately 400 cases, which are detailed in his 1907 book, Some Points in the Surgery of the Brain and Its Membranes. His two-volume set, Essays on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone (1919), remains a brilliantly written and illustrated classic. Ballance was an expert on
Osthus, Dave; Hickmann, Kyle S; Caragea, Petruţa C; Higdon, Dave; Del Valle, Sara Y
Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence. This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U.S. remains challenging because the form of the disease transmission process is uncertain, the disease dynamics are only partially observed, and the public health observations are noisy. Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data. We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics.
Ganjoo, Sheetal; Ahmad, Kaisar; Qureshi, Umar Amin; Mir, Zahed Hussain
To assess the clinical and demographic profile of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, among newly admitted children in different age groups in a hospital in North India. This prospective study was conducted at a referral care centre in Northern India. All children, age group 0 to SIRS) and sepsis and to gain clinical and demographic data. The criteria laid at International consensus conference, 2002, were used to define patients as SIRS, Sepsis, Severe sepsis and Septic shock. During the study period, a total of 865 patients were screened for SIRS. Prevalence of SIRS amongst hospitalised children was 23 % (n = 201). Seventy nine percent (n = 159) of patients had infection associated SIRS and 21 % (42) had non-infective SIRS. Sixty four percent (n = 129) SIRS patients had uncomplicated sepsis, 15 % (n = 30) patients fulfilled criteria for severe sepsis. Out of the latter 30, 19 had septic shock. Organ dysfunction in SIRS was noted in 25 % (n = 51). 37.25 % (n = 19) had multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The most common organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 9). Focus of infection in majority was pulmonary (44 %). Mean duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay in the SIRS group were 6.4 and 6.5 d respectively. In the group without SIRS, mean duration were 2.44 d and 3.07 d respectively The differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, the proportion of sepsis contributing to SIRS is high in a tertiary care hospital. Therefore rapid recognition of SIRS is essential. Goal directed treatment of sepsis is also important so that high mortality associated with severe sepsis and septic shock are prevented.
Haydar, Samir; Spanier, Matthew; Weems, Patricia; Wood, Samantha; Strout, Tania
The Quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score has been shown to accurately predict mortality in septic patients and is part of recently proposed diagnostic criteria for sepsis. We sought to ascertain the sensitive of the score in diagnosing sepsis, as well as the diagnostic timeliness of the score when compared to traditional systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria in a population of emergency department (ED) patients treated in the ED, admitted, and subsequently discharged with a diagnosis of sepsis. Electronic health records of 200 patients who were treated for suspected sepsis in our ED and ultimately discharged from our hospital with a diagnosis of sepsis were randomly selected for review from a population of adult ED patients (N=1880). Data extracted included the presence of SIRS criteria and the qSOFA score as well as time required to meet said criteria. In this cohort, 94.5% met SIRS criteria while in the ED whereas only 58.3% met qSOFA. The mean time from arrival to SIRS documentation was 47.1min (95% CI: 36.5-57.8) compared to 84.0min (95% CI: 62.2-105.8) for qSOFA. The median ED "door" to positive SIRS criteria was 12min and 29min for qSOFA. Although qSOFA may be valuable in predicting sepsis-related mortality, it performed poorly as a screening tool for identifying sepsis in the ED. As the time to meet qSOFA criteria was significantly longer than for SIRS, relying on qSOFA alone may delay initiation of evidence-based interventions known to improve sepsis-related outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A homogeneous two-dimensional metric including the degrees of freedom of Teichm\\"uller deformation is developed. The Teichm\\"uller deformation is incorporated by affine stretching of complex structure. According to Yamada's investigation by pinching parameter, concrete formulation for a higher genus Riemann surface can be realized. We will have a homogeneous standard metric including the dynamical degrees of freedom as Teichm\\"uller deformation in a leading order of the pinching parameter, which would be treated as homogeneous anisotropic metric for a double torus universe, which satisfy momentum constraints.
Full Text Available Degree of hydration of cement paste controls many properties of hardened concrete and/or mortar such as compressive strength. During the drying process, the degree and the rate of hydration of cement paste in concrete/mortar samples are significantly affected by the ambient relative humidity of the exposure conditions. There are various parameters such as the amount of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH2 in the paste, quantity of the chemically bound water, specific gravity of the paste, fraction of un-hydrated cement, liberated heat of hydration and strength of the hydrated cement may be used to determine the degree of hydration of the cement paste. This paper presents the results of the experimental investigation for the determination of the degree of hydration of 100% cement paste and fly ash blended cement pastes. After 28 days moist curing, the samples were conditioned in 100%, 75%, 65%, 40% and 12% relative humidity. Conditioning of samples in different relative humidity had significant effects on the compressive strength of the mortar samples and the degree of hydration of the paste samples. Conditioning of samples in 100% RH resulted in higher compressive strength and the degree of hydration. Because of the 28 days moist curing and 12 weeks moisture conditioning in different RH, fly ash based samples showed better compressive strength than the OPC samples.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients. Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. Results Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires. The majority (94% of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48% of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. Conclusions A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Whitford, David L
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child) mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients). Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate) with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires). The majority (94%) of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48%) of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. CONCLUSIONS: A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Cavenar, Mary G.
Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…
Yen, G C; Chuang, D Y
The antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. (WECT) prepared under different degrees of roasting were investigated. The water extracts of unroasted C. tora L. (WEUCT) showed 94% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid at a dose of 0.2 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (82%). Water extracts prepared from C. tora L. roasted at 175 degrees C for 5 min and at 200 degrees C for 5 min exhibited 83% and 82%, respectively, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. This result indicated that the antioxidant activities of WECT decreased with longer roasting time or higher roasting temperature. The IC(50) of WEUCT in liposome oxidation induced by the Fenton reaction was 0.41 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL). WEUCT also exhibited good antioxidant activity in enzymatic and nonenzymatic microsome oxidative systems. The water extracts of roasted C. tora L. increased in the degree of browning and produced chemiluminescence when compared with the unroasted sample. However, the total polyphenolic compounds of WECT decreased after the roasting process finished. In conclusion, the decrease in the antioxidant activity of water extracts from roasted C. tora L. might have been due to the degradation of Maillard reaction products and the decrease of polyphenolic compounds.
Phillips, Jan Hirsch; And Others
A survey of market research managers' perceptions of the outcomes of a pharmacy administration master's program as compared to those of two popular master's-level business administration programs found a lack of awareness and understanding of the pharmacy administration degree program and a resulting perception of lower skill levels among its…
Abu-Shreah, Mohammad; Zidan, Hiam
The study aims to know the degree of schools principals practicing innovation and its relationship with the teachers' professional development; the population of the study is consisted of all male and female teachers numbering to 415 teachers; the sample of the study is consisted of 205 male and female teachers from members of the study…
Goodier, Robert I.; Ahmer, Brian M. M.
The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis. SirA orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but an evolutionarily conserved target of SirA regulation has never been identified. I...
Orlandi, Ivan; Stamerra, Giulia; Strippoli, Maurizio; Vai, Marina
Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound endowed with interesting biological properties/functions amongst which are its activity as an antioxidant and as Sirtuin activating compound towards SIRT1 in mammals. Sirtuins comprise a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are involved in many physiological and pathological processes including aging and age-related diseases. These enzymes are conserved across species and SIRT1 is the closest mammalian orthologue of Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the field of aging researches, it is well known that Sir2 is a positive regulator of replicative lifespan and, in this context, the RSV effects have been already examined. Here, we analyzed RSV effects during chronological aging, in which Sir2 acts as a negative regulator of chronological lifespan (CLS). Chronological aging refers to quiescent cells in stationary phase; these cells display a survival-based metabolism characterized by an increase in oxidative stress. We found that RSV supplementation at the onset of chronological aging, namely at the diauxic shift, increases oxidative stress and significantly reduces CLS. CLS reduction is dependent on Sir2 presence both in expired medium and in extreme Calorie Restriction. In addition, all data point to an enhancement of Sir2 activity, in particular Sir2-mediated deacetylation of the key gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1). This leads to a reduction in the amount of the acetylated active form of Pck1, whose enzymatic activity is essential for gluconeogenesis and CLS extension. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Mukhopadhyay, B. B.; Tapaswi, P. K.
An epidemiological model of the dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis (J.E.) spread coupling the SIRS (Susceptible/Infected/Removal/Susceptible) models of J.E. spread in the reservoir population and in the human population has been proposed. The basic reproductive rate R(0) in the coupled system has been worked out. Using Aron's results (cf.  and ), it has been observed that the disease-free system is stable in this coupled system also, if R(0) is less than unity, and if R(0) is greater tha...
Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan
Introduction The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long......-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized...
Hageman, Michiel G. J. S.; Ring, David C.; Gregory, Paul J.; Rubash, Harry E.; Harmon, Larry
Background There is evidence that feedback from 360-degree surveys—combined with coaching—can improve physician team performance and quality of patient care. The Physicians Universal Leadership-Teamwork Skills Education (PULSE) 360 is one such survey tool that is used to assess work colleagues’ and coworkers’ perceptions of a physician’s leadership, teamwork, and clinical practice style. The Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System (CG-CAHPS), developed by the ...
Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Penesova, A; Radikova, Z; Scipova, A; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M
Our recent studies showed blunted adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis, suggesting dysregulation of the adrenomedullary hormonal system (AMHS). Since no relationship has been found between degree of AMHS dysfunction and clinical or inflammatory parameters in those patients, we hypothesize the presence of an inherited perturbation of the AMHS. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (0.1 IU/kg) in premenopausal female subjects: 17 glucocorticoid-naïve RA patients, 15 healthy first-degree family members (FDR), and 18 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate that when compared to controls, RA patients had lower baseline epinephrine levels (P= 0.01) and lower area under response curve (AUC) levels of norepinephrine (P < 0.001) and epinephrine (P < 0.003). In contrast, FDR had lower (P= 0.001) AUC levels of norepinephrine compared to controls and higher (P= 0.033) AUC levels of epinephrine compared to RA patients. There were no significant differences in epinephrine response between FDR and controls. Although we found lower norepinephrine responses to hypoglycemia in FDR of RA patients, adrenomedullary responses to hypoglycemia does not appear to be altered to the degree found in RA patients.
Mutu dari karet remah sangat dipengaruhi oleh adanya konsentrasi zat menguap sebagai salah satu parameter penentuan kualitas karet remah yang dihasilkan. Analisa perbandingan sangat efektif dilakukan dalam menentukan kualitas karet remah bermutu paling baik berdasarkan klasifikasi antara mutu SIR 20 dengan mutu SIR 3WF. Parameter yang digunakan adalah mengetahui konsentrasi zat menguap yang lebih besar atau lebih kecil berdasarkan Standard Indonesian Rubber (SIR) yang telah ditentukan. ...
史咏梅; 傅玉才; 许铭言; 徐晓园; 许锦阶; 邓致刚
目的 探讨寄生性原虫阴道毛滴虫细胞生长和衰老的相关基因.方法 从阴道毛滴虫的cDNA表达文库中分离出两个与酵母沉寂信息调节因子 (Sir2) 有较高同源性的cDNA克隆,分别命名为TvSir2和TvSir2-like,它们的编码框分别长915 bp和1116 bp.结果 序列分析显示这两个cDNA克隆与酵母Sir2同源性很高,其氨基酸序列中含有Sk2p及其同源蛋白三个特征性保守结构域.分别从这两株cDNA克隆中扩增出表达片段植入表达载体pET-41a,转化宿主菌E.coli BL21并用IPTG(isoprupylthio-β-D-galactoside)诱导表达到大量融合蛋白.用亲和层析法纯化的融合蛋白分别免疫豚鼠,获得的抗血清用Western-blot法识别到滴虫虫体全蛋白中大小为34 000 Mr和42 000 Mr的条带.免疫荧光法检测TvSir2和TvSir2-like蛋白位于细胞核外的内质网和高尔基复合体区域.结论 TvSir2和TvSir2-like克隆是酵酶Sir2的同源基因,为TvSir2和TvSir2-like在模式生物阴道毛滴虫的功能研究奠定了基础.%Objective To screen cell growth and senescence-related genes of the parasitic pmtist Trichomonas vaginalis,we launched an EST program and isolated two cDNA clones from a T.vaginalis cDNA library,which showed high homology in deduced amino acid sequences to yeast Sir2 and designated as TvSir2 and TvSir2-like.Method The cDNA sequence of TvSIR2 had a length of 1034 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 915 bp,and TvSIR2-like,1214 bp with an open reading frame of 1116 bp.Result The two deduced amino acid sequences shared all the three conserved cole domains with yeast Sir2 and its homologues,suggesting that the two clones were Sir2 homologues. A cDNA fragment from each cDNA clone was subvloned into the expression vector pET-41a.The expression of the fusion proteins in E.coli BL21 stains was induced by isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG).Two anti-sera were prepared by immunizing two guinea pigs with the purified fusion proteins
Cara A Froyd
Full Text Available Deacetylases of the Sir2 or sirtuin family are thought to regulate life cycle progression and life span in response to nutrient availability. This family has undergone successive rounds of duplication and diversification, enabling the enzymes to perform a wide variety of biological functions. Two evolutionarily conserved functions of yeast Sir2 proteins are the generation of repressive chromatin in subtelomeric domains and the suppression of unbalanced recombination within the tandem rDNA array. Here, we describe the function of the Sir2 ortholog ClHst1 in the yeast Clavispora lusitaniae, an occasional opportunistic pathogen. ClHst1 was localized to the non-transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA repeats and deacetylated histones at these loci, indicating that, like other Sir2 proteins, ClHst1 modulates chromatin structure at the rDNA repeats. However, we found no evidence that ClHst1 associates with subtelomeric regions or impacts gene expression directly. This surprising observation highlights the plasticity of sirtuin function. Related yeast species, including Candida albicans, possess an additional Sir2 family member. Thus, it is likely that the ancestral Candida SIR2/HST1 gene was duplicated and subfunctionalized, such that HST1 retained the capacity to regulate rDNA whereas SIR2 had other functions, perhaps including the generation of subtelomeric chromatin. After subsequent species diversification, the SIR2 paralog was apparently lost in the C. lusitaniae lineage. Thus, C. lusitaniae presents an opportunity to discover how subtelomeric chromatin can be reconfigured.
Liu, Wen-hua; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Wang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Yu-hua; Huang, Jia; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H. K.; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chan, Raymond C. K.
Background Anhedonia is a cardinal feature of major depression and is hypothesized to be driven by low motivation, in particular blunted reward sensitivity. It has been suggested to be a marker that represents a genetic predisposition to this disorder. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heightened risk in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. We previously demonstrated abnormal reward biases in acutely depressed patients. The present study aimed to examine the development of reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. Methods Forty-seven first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (26 females, age 18-52) and 60 healthy controls with no family history of depression (34 females, age 21-48) were recruited. A probabilistically rewarded difficult visual discrimination task, in which participants were instructed about the contingencies, was used to assess blunted reward sensitivity. A response bias towards the more frequently rewarded stimulus (termed “reward bias”) was the primary outcome variable in this study. Participants also completed self-reported measures of anhedonia and depressive symptoms. Results Compared with the control group, relatives of patients with major depression with sub-clinical depressive symptoms displayed a blunted reward bias. Relatives without symptoms displayed largely intact motivational processing on both self-report and experimental measures. The degree of anhedonia was associated with attenuated reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression, especially in those with sub-clinical symptoms. Limitations The study did not include a depressed patient group, which restricted our ability to interpret the observed group differences. Conclusions Blunted reward sensitivity may be largely manifested in a subgroup of relatives with high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26590511
Anant VK Indaram; Santa Nandi; Sam Weissman; Sing Lam; Beverly Bailey; Meyer Blumstein; Ronald Greenberg; Simmy Bank
AIM To determine levels of cytokines in colonic mucosa of asymptomatic first degree relatives of Crohn's disease patients.METHODS Cytokines (Interleukin (IL) 1-Beta,IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) were measured using ELISA in biopsy samples of normal looking colonic mucosa of first degree relatives of Crohn's disease patients (n = 9) and from normal controls (n=10) with no family history of Crohn's disease.RESULTS Asymptomatic first degree relatives of patients with Crohn's disease had significantly higher levels of basal intestinal mucosal cytokines (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) than normal controls. Whether these increased cytokine levels serve as phenotypic markers for a genetic predisposition to developing Crohn's disease later on, or whether they indicate early (preclinical) damage has yet to be further defined.CONCLUSION Asymptomatic first degree relatives of Crohn's disease patients have higher levels of cytokines in their normal-looking intestinal mucosa compared to normal controls.This supports the hypothesis that increased cytokines may be a cause or an early event in the inflammatory cascade of Crohn's disease and are not merely a result of the inflammatory process.
KERNELL, D; LIND, A; VANDIEMEN, ABJP; DEHAAN, A
1. The relative degree of glycogen degradation, caused in different fibre types by supramaximal electrical activation of the muscle nerve, was investigated in m. gastrocnemius medialis of young adult rats under general pentobarbitone anaesthesia. Pour different protocols of intermittent maximal teta
Ohayon, MM; Ferini-Strambi, L; Plazzi, G; Smirne, S; Castronovo, [No Value
Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder affecting around 0.05% of the general population. Genetic factors are known to have an important role in narcolepsy. However, because of its very low prevalence, it is difficult to have groups of comparison between first-degree relatives and general p
Ohayon, MM; Ferini-Strambi, L; Plazzi, G; Smirne, S; Castronovo, [No Value
Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder affecting around 0.05% of the general population. Genetic factors are known to have an important role in narcolepsy. However, because of its very low prevalence, it is difficult to have groups of comparison between first-degree relatives and general
Laurent, A; Gilvarry, C; Russel, A; Mathieu-Cura, C; Murray, R
Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits. One hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (AS) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic (APA) patients completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism. They were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). In the AS group, the male relatives scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives in the APA group. There were no significant differences in personality between female relatives of the 2 patients groups. In the AS group, the NART scores were superior when the psychoticism scores were lower and the TMT performance was better when the extraversion scores were higher. These results seem to indicate some specificity as well as sex differences of the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to schizophrenia whereas extraversion decreases it.
Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David C; Gregory, Paul J; Rubash, Harry E; Harmon, Larry
There is evidence that feedback from 360-degree surveys-combined with coaching-can improve physician team performance and quality of patient care. The Physicians Universal Leadership-Teamwork Skills Education (PULSE) 360 is one such survey tool that is used to assess work colleagues' and coworkers' perceptions of a physician's leadership, teamwork, and clinical practice style. The Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System (CG-CAHPS), developed by the US Department of Health and Human Services to serve as the benchmark for quality health care, is a survey tool for patients to provide feedback that is based on their recent experiences with staff and clinicians and soon will be tied to Medicare-based compensation of participating physicians. Prior research has indicated that patients and coworkers often agree in their assessment of physicians' behavioral patterns. The goal of the current study was to determine whether 360-degree, also called multisource, feedback provided by coworkers could predict patient satisfaction/experience ratings. A significant relationship between these two forms of feedback could enable physicians to take a more proactive approach to reinforce their strengths and identify any improvement opportunities in their patient interactions by reviewing feedback from team members. An automated 360-degree software process may be a faster, simpler, and less resource-intensive approach than telephoning and interviewing patients for survey responses, and it potentially could facilitate a more rapid credentialing or quality improvement process leading to greater fiscal and professional development gains for physicians. Our primary research question was to determine if PULSE 360 coworkers' ratings correlate with CG-CAHPS patients' ratings of overall satisfaction, recommendation of the physician, surgeon respect, and clarity of the surgeon's explanation. Our secondary research questions were to determine whether CG-CAHPS scores
Mathiasen, Anders B; Harutjunjan, Marina; Jørgensen, Erik
YKL-40 is a glycoprotein secreted by macrophages and neutrophils in tissues with inflammation. Plasma YKL-40 is increased in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Furthermore, plasma YKL-40 seems related to the number of diseased...... main vessels in patients with stable CAD. The aim was to further study the relation between YKL-40 and stenosis degree, stenosis type and actual ischemia in stable CAD patients....
Laurent, Annie; Gilvarry, Catherine; Russell, Ailsa; Murray, Robin
Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits.One-hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SR) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic patients (APR) completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism; they were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). The male relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives of affective psychotic patients. In the SR group, there were significant correlations between the TMT performance and the extraversion scores and, between the IQ scores and the psychoticism scores. However, when logistical regression analyses were performed, none of the three personality scores predicted any of the neuropsychological performance in either the SR or the APR group. These results indicate some specificity as well as sex differences in the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to psychosis whereas extraversion decreases it.
Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Ontiveros-Hernandez, V.
The Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) are generated in the interplanetary medium when a fast solar wind stream overtakes a slower one. If these large-scale phenomena interact with the Earth's magnetosphere they can give rise to geomagnetic storms (GSs). In this study we analyze the degree of geoeffectiveness of 20 events that were generated by SIRs. The events were observed during the 2007-2008 period that comprising the minimum extended of solar cycle 23. The degree of geoeffectivity is measured using magnetic indices from different latitudes: PCN (Polar cap north), PCS (polar cap south), AA (antipodal amplitude), AE (Auroral Electrojet), Kp (estimated global index) and Dst (Disturbance storm time). We locate the peak of southward componente Bz if this occur before or after to current interface (CI). We identify the maximum intensity of GSs if this occur before or after to CI. We discuss and compare about the geoeffectivity of fast or slow solar wind stream associated to SIRs. Finally we determine the difference time between the peak of southward component Bz and the peak value of each GS.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional grey interval relational degree model for dynamic Multiattribute decision making. In the model, the observed values are interval grey numbers. Elements are selected in the system as the points in an m-dimensional linear space. Then observation data of each element to different time and objects are as the coordinates of point. An optimization model is employed to obtain each scheme’s affiliate degree for the positive and negative ideal schemes. And a three-dimensional grey interval relational degree model based on time, index, and scheme is constructed in the paper. The result shows that the three-dimensional grey relational degree simplifies the traditional dynamic multiattribute decision making method and can better resolve the dynamic multiattribute decision making problem of interval numbers. The example illustrates that the method presented in the paper can be used to deal with problems of uncertainty such as dynamic multiattribute decision making.
Hochberger, W C; Hill, S K; Nelson, C L M; Reilly, J L; Keefe, R S E; Pearlson, G D; Keshavan, M S; Tamminga, C A; Clementz, B A; Sweeney, J A
Despite robust evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction in psychotic patients, the degree of similarity in cognitive architecture across psychotic disorders and among their respective first-degree relatives is not well delineated. The present study examined the latent factor structure of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) neuropsychological battery. Analyses were conducted on 783 psychosis spectrum probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, psychotic bipolar), 887 of their first-degree relatives, and 396 non-psychiatric controls from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium. Exploratory factor analysis of BACS subtest scores indicated a single-factor solution that was similar across all groups and provided the best overall data fit in confirmatory analyses. Correlations between the standard BACS composite score and the sum of subscale scores weighted by their loadings on this unitary factor were very high in all groups (r≥.99). Thus, the BACS assesses a similar unitary cognitive construct in probands with different psychotic disorders, in their first-degree relatives, and in healthy controls, and this factor is well measured by the test's standard composite score.
Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R.
Dedicated to Professor Dietrich Stauffer on the occasion of his 65th birthday The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a real social network is described and investigated numerically. On the basis of data concerning amount of time devoted daily to social interactions, the influence of human activity on spreading process is investigated in the frame of SIRS model. It was found that the activity of an individual is positively correlated with its connectivity and the relation has power law form. The influence of control measures on the spreading process is investigated as a function of initial conditions. The cost-effectiveness of mass immunizations campaigns and target vaccinations is compared. It was found that the form of activity distribution has significant influence on the spreading phenomena in the network.
Kaeberlein, Matt; Powers, R Wilson
Activation of Sir2-family proteins in response to calorie restriction (CR) has been proposed as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for life span extension. This idea has been called into question with the discovery that Sir2-family proteins are not required for life span extension from CR in yeast. We present here a historical perspective and critical evaluation of the model that CR acts through Sir2 in yeast, and interpret prior reports in light of more recent discoveries. Several specific cases where the Sir2 model of CR is inconsistent with experimental data are noted. These shortcomings must be considered along with evidence supporting a role for Sir2 in CR in order to fully evaluate the validity of this model.
We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the SIR model, but rather by a novel model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from non-adopters to adopters is described by a non-standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.
Yu, Junhong; Rawtaer, Iris; Mahendran, Rathi; Kua, Ee-Heok; Feng, Lei
Despite the abundance of studies on asymmetries in manual laterality, a marker for atypical brain lateralization in depression and anxiety, findings in this area are mixed. Traditionally, research have looked at individual differences in depression and anxiety as a function of the direction of asymmetry. However, recent research has emphasized on studying the degree of asymmetry in addition to its direction. To these ends, the present study aims to unravel the associations between the degree and direction of manual lateralization, and depression/anxiety. Cognitively healthy elderlies (N = 326, 91 males, Mage = 68) were administered grip strength assessments on both hands and self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Partial correlation analyses controlling for age, education and sex revealed significant positive associations between degree of lateralization and anxiety in the overall sample and among right-dominant participants, as well as a significant positive relationship between degree of lateralization and depression among right-dominant participants. None of the correlations involving the direction of lateralization yielded significance, neither was there significant differences between left- and right-dominant participants on depression and anxiety scores. These findings suggest that the degree of manual lateralization, but not direction, is related to depression and anxiety at least among right-dominant individuals.
Stefani, Alessandro; Martorana, Alessandro; Bernardini, Sergio; Panella, Marta; Mercati, Flavio; Orlacchio, Antonio; Pierantozzi, Mariangela
Standard markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as soluble amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta1-42) and total tau protein (t-tau), may contribute to dementia subtypes diagnostic accuracy. Yet, their sensitivity to assess the different degree of cognitive deficit is not fully clarified. Our study analyses Abeta1-42 and t-tau CSF levels in different cohorts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, distinguished as early AD (mild cognitively impaired subjects recently converted to AD), mild AD (MMSE or =18), and moderately advanced AD (MMSEstage. In early AD patients, Abeta1-42 levels were already significantly low, if compared to the control group (336 vs 867 ng/L; pdiffer between AD subgroups, and in particular between mild to moderate AD. A significant progressive increase of t-tau concentration was found when comparing early AD (269 ng/L) to more advanced AD stages (468 ng/L and 495 ng/L for mild and moderate AD, respectively). Our findings confirm that the impairment of amyloidogenic cascade is an early, even pre-clinical process, but suggest that soluble Abeta1-42 concentration has a negligible correlation with the clinical progression. Conversely, t-tau concentration correlates with the transition towards marked cognitive impairment.
Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.
Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.
Davies, Alwyn G
Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between 1894 and 1898, he discovered five new elements. These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904, the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song. This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize.
Makovicky, E.; Karup-Møller, Sven
with gamma-(Pt,Fe), Pt3Fe and PtFe which dissolve respectively at least 5.1, 29.3 and 24.0 at.% Ir at 1100 degreesC (2.2, 23.6 and less than or equal to 17.2 at.% Ir at 1000 degreesC). Gaps between the nearly Ir-free Pt-Fe alloys gamma (Pt,Fe), Pt3Fe s.s., PtFe s.s. and gamma (Fe,Pt) were estimated as 20...
Aldous, David; Freeman, Jane
Changes to the relations "between" sport-education and employment labour markets have resulted in the increasing diversity of how academic and vocational skills, knowledge and practices are valued "within" the micro-level of qualifications. The implications of this are particularly felt by further education (FE) sport-lecturers…
Benseler, David P.
Lists titles of doctoral dissertations related to the teaching of German and completed in U.S. universities during 1982. Included are dissertations completed in German, comparative literature, linguistics, and foreign language education departments. The list is derived from the annual survey done by the Modern Language Journal. (SED)
Talsma, D.; Wijers, Albertus; Klaver, Peter; Mulder, Gijsbertus
This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and
Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.
This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and
In this paper, we study the cooperative semi-global output regulation problem for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback multi-agent systems, where the subsystems are assumed to have nonidentical relative degrees. We first introduce the so-called distributed internal model that converts our problem into the cooperative semi-global stabilization problem of the corresponding augmented system composed of the original multi-agent system and the internal model. We then put this augmented system into the general block lower triangular form, and develop the block semi-global backstepping technique to stabilize it. Comparing with some existing literatures, our design has removed the identical relative degree assumption, and hence applies to a much larger group of nonlinear multi-agent systems.
Ruocco, Anthony C; Lam, Jaeger; McMain, Shelley F
To examine the contributions of subjective cognitive complaints to functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their nonaffected relatives. Patients with BPD (n = 26), their first-degree biological relatives (n = 17), and nonpsychiatric control subjects (n = 31) completed a self-report measure of cognitive difficulties and rated the severity of their functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. After accounting for group differences in age and severity of depressive symptoms, patients and relatives endorsed more inattention and memory problems than control subjects. Whereas probands reported greater disability than relatives and control subjects across all functional domains, relatives described more difficulties than control subjects in managing multiple life activities, including domestic activities and occupational and academic functioning, and participating in society. For both probands and relatives, inattention and memory problems were linked primarily to difficulties with life activities, independent of depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Problems with inattention and forgetfulness may lead to difficulties carrying out activities of daily living and occupational or academic problems in patients with BPD, as well as their nonaffected first-degree relatives.
Vezzoni, P; Giardini, R; Raineri, M; Pozzi, M R; Lucchini, R; Vezzoni, M A; Clerici, L; Besana, C; Rugarli, C; Rilke, F
The relationship between the intracellular levels of DNA polymerase alpha (DP-alpha), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the degree of malignancy of human lymphomas was investigated. Twelve non-neoplastic lymph nodes and 88 malignant lymphomas were examined. For non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) the low or high grade of malignancy was established according to three classifications: the Rappaport, the Kiel and the Working Formulation for Clinical Usage, with the latter also recognizing an intermediate grade group. Non-neoplastic lymph nodes had significantly lower levels of all the three enzymes than those found in high-grade malignant NHL (the P value ranged from less than 0.02 to less than 0.001). Hodgkin's disease, a slowly evolving neoplasia, showed lower levels of DP-alpha (P less than 0.001) and ADA (P less than 0.001), but not of LDH, than high-grade NHL. Among NHL, whatever classification was used, the low-grade malignant lymphomas had significantly lower levels than the high-grade ones for all the three enzymes (P less than 0.005 or P less than 0.001). The intermediate-grade group of the Working Formulation differed from the high-grade group for DP-alpha (P less than 0.01) and ADA (P less than 0.02) but not for LDH. It differed from the low-grade group only for ADA (P less than 0.005). Lymphoblastic and Burkitt's lymphomas were the groups with the highest levels of the three enzymes. Among low-grade lymphomas very low values were found in the histological entities defined as DLWD in the Rappaport classification, CLL and lymphoplasmacytoid immunocytoma in the Kiel classification and small lymphocytic (group A) in the WF. The levels of all enzymes in these histotypes were always significantly different from the other low-grade histotypes, and from the intermediate-grade ones of the WF. In the Kiel classification polymorphous lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma, recently recognized as a group with a quite aggressive clinical course, was
Full Text Available Background Alopecia areata (AA is a common disease in the military population; however, a few studies have calculated the lifetime risk of alopecia areata in first-degree relatives of patients as well as the impact of stress. Objectives The primary aim of this study was to calculate the lifetime risk of alopecia areata in first-degree relatives of index patients. The secondary aim of this study was to assess the role of stressful events in the onset/recurrence of disease. Patients and Methods One hundred and twenty-one patients with alopecia areata and their first-degree relatives, which included 597 subjects in addition to 119 controls, were studied. We considered a gender and age-matched control for each patient. They were investigated for the occurrence of stressful events within the previous six months before the onset/recurrence of the disease. Results More than twenty-six percent of patients had a positive family history, while 6.4 percent of first-degree relatives were affected by alopecia areata. Lifetime risks were estimated at 7.6% for parents, 9.9% for siblings, and 6.4% for children. Eighty-eight patients (73.9% experienced stressful events within six months prior to the onset or recurrences of alopecia areata, while 32 subjects (26.9% of the control group reported such events in the last six months (P value = 0.000. Conclusions Calculated lifetime risks can be used in genetic counseling. It appears that stressful events can be considered to be contributing factors in the development of alopecia areata. Also, according to our results, the role of stress in the recurrence of alopecia areata is more prominent than the primary development of the disease.
Comstedt, Pal; Storgaard, Merete; Lassen, Annmarie T
. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In 437 consecutive patients, SIRS status......, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A hundred and fifty-four patients (35%) had SIRS on admission, 211 patients (48%) had no SIRS, and 72 patients (16%) had insufficient data to evaluate their SIRS status. SIRS patients were 2.......2 times more frequently infected, with 66/154 SIRS patients versus 41/211 non-SIRS patients: ppatients with 15/154 SIRS patients versus 3/211 non-SIRS patients: p=0.001, RR...
Geluk, C.A.; Halkes, C.J.M.; De Jaegere, P.P.Th.; Plokker, H.W.M.; Cabezas, M. Castro
Aims Despite agreement on the need for screening for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in first-degree family members of patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD), this is not routinely carried out in relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients. We evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in family members of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature CAD. Methods Eligible index subjects were patients with premature CAD (6.5 mmol/l were excluded. Sixteen index subjects were included with a mean age of 49±8 years and total cholesterol levels of 5.5±0.8 mmol/l. Sixty-four first-degree relatives from these 16 pedigrees were screened, namely 18 children, 42 siblings and four parents. National Cholesterol Education Program III guidelines were used to identify candidates for lipid-lowering treatment. Furthermore, the presence of four additional metabolic disorders was investigated: the metabolic syndrome, increased levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), hyperhomocysteinaemia and postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Results Of 64 relatives free of CAD, 34 subjects (53%) fulfilled the criteria to receive therapeutic advice, 20 of whom (31% of the relatives) were candidates for drug therapy. Sixty-one relatives were available for a full assessment of metabolic disorders and in 37 relatives (61%) at least one metabolic abnormality was present. Twelve subjects had hyper-Lp(a), seven subjects had postprandial hyperlipidaemia and two had the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, 16 subjects had a combination of at least two out of four metabolic disorders. Conclusion Careful evaluation of coronary risk factors and metabolic variables in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic CAD patients identifies a significant number of subjects at increased coronary risk in whom primary prevention measures should be initiated. PMID:25696610
(x,y)=0$ between plaintext $x$ and ciphertext $y$ that hold with small probability $\\mu$.The second attack needs access to $n=(2m/\\mu)^2$ plaintext/ciphertext pairs where $m=\\deg p$ and its running time is also polynomial in $n$. As a demonstration, we break up to 10 rounds of a cipher constructed...... employed is essentially Sudan's algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes beyond the error-correction diameter. The known-plaintext attack needs $n=2m/\\mu^2$ plaintext/ciphertext pairs and the running time is polynomial in $n$.Furthermore, it is shown how to discover more general non-linear relations $p...... by Nyberg and Knudsen provablysecure against differential and linear cryptanalysis.Key words: Cryptanalysis, block cipher, interpolation attack, non-linear relations, Reed-Solomon codes, Sudan's algorithm....
Trandafir, Anca; Méary, Alexandre; Schürhoff, Franck; Leboyer, Marion; Szöke, Andrei
BACKGROUND: Memory deficits have been clearly demonstrated in schizophrenic patients. However, studies of memory performances in their relatives compared to normal controls provide conflicting results. A meta-analysis was carried out to synthesize all the published data. Unlike previous meta-analyses, which were based on composite scores, we analyzed each memory test separately. This prevents theoretically questionable choices in grouping variables, leads to results with clearer implications ...
Vaschetto, Rosanna; Nicola, Stefania; Olivieri, Carlo; Boggio, Elena; Piccolella, Fabio; Mesturini, Riccardo; Damnotti, Federica; Colombo, Davide; Navalesi, Paolo; Della Corte, Francesco; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa
In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious agents. Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS, and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.796. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. 45. SIRS/Sepsis: clinical studies.
Reinehr, Thomas; Andler, Werner; Denzer, Christian; Siegried, Wolfgang; Mayer, H; Wabitsch, Martin
So far in Europe, no large studies have been published on the frequencies of the cardiovascular risk factors hypertension and dyslipidaemia in overweight children. Diagnosis of hypertension, decreased HDL-cholesterol, increased triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol were documented for 1004 overweight children and adolescents (aged 4-8 years, 52% girls, BMI-SDS in median 2.43) referred to four obesity centres. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were defined by cut off points above the 95th percentile of healthy children. Multivariate linear regression was conducted for the dependent variables systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-, LDL-, and total cholesterol, including gender, degree of overweight (SDS-BMI) and age as independent variables. Thirty-seven percent of the children studied suffered from hypertension, 27% displayed increased total cholesterol, 26% increased LDL-cholesterol, 20% increased triglycerides and 18% decreased HDL-cholesterol. Seventy percent of all children had at least one unfavourable cardiovascular risk factor. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were observed in any age group and in any degree of overweight at least twofold above the suspected rate of 5%. SDS-BMI was significantly related to blood pressure (systolic: coefficient 7.26, p European children and adolescents. They occurred mostly independently of age, gender and degree of overweight. Therefore, screening for cardiovascular risk factors seems meaningful at any age and degree of overweight in childhood.
Träger, Karl; Fritzler, Daniel; Fischer, Guenther; Schröder, Janpeter; Skrabal, Christian; Liebold, Andreas; Reinelt, Helmut
The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in cardiothoracic surgery results in a well-known activation of the immunologic response. In some cases, however, this triggered immunologic response may be excessive, leading to a severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and induced organ dysfunction. For example, patients frequently develop hemodynamic instability with hypotension and low systemic vascular resistance. To date, different therapeutic approaches, such as steroids, have been tried to control this maladaptive postoperative SIRS response, yet definitive proof of clinical efficacy is missing. A new cytokine adsorber device (CytoSorb; CytoSorbents) may be a useful approach to control hyperinflammatory systemic reactions by reducing a broad range of proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. This may, in turn, help to reestablish a physiologic immune response and help to restore deranged clinical parameters in these patients. In this retrospective case series study, we describe 16 cardiac surgery patients following prolonged CPB with post-CPB SIRS and subsequent acute kidney injury, who were then treated with hemoadsorption using CytoSorb in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Treatment of patients with CytoSorb who presented with severe post-CPB SIRS resulted in a reduction of elevated cytokine levels, which was associated with a clear stabilization of deranged hemodynamic, metabolic, and organ function parameters. Treatment was well tolerated and safe, with no device-related adverse events occurring. CytoSorb therapy combined with CRRT is a potentially promising new treatment approach to achieve hemodynamic stability, cytokine reduction, and improved organ function in cardiac surgery patients who develop post-CPB SIRS.
Goodier, R I; Ahmer, B M
The sirA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes a two-component response regulator of the FixJ family that has a positive regulatory influence on the expression of type III secretion genes involved with epithelial cell invasion and the elicitation of bovine gastroenteritis. SirA orthologs in Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Erwinia control the expression of distinct virulence genes in these genera, but an evolutionarily conserved target of SirA regulation has never been identified. In this study we tested the hypothesis that sirA may be an ancient member of the flagellar regulon. We examined the effect of a sirA mutation on transcriptional fusions to flagellar promoters (flhD, fliE, fliF, flgA, flgB, fliC, fliD, motA, and fliA) while using fusions to the virulence gene sopB as a positive control. SirA had only small regulatory effects on all fusions in liquid medium (less than fivefold). However, in various types of motility agar plates, sirA was able to activate a sopB fusion by up to 63-fold while repressing flagellar fusions by values exceeding 100-fold. Mutations in the sirA orthologs of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa result in defects in either motility or motility gene regulation, suggesting that control of flagellar regulons may be an evolutionarily conserved function of sirA orthologs. The implications for our understanding of virulence gene regulation in the gamma Proteobacteria are discussed.
Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff
This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG.
Phipps, Amanda I; Buist, Diana S M; Malone, Kathleen E; Barlow, William E; Porter, Peggy L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Li, Christopher I
Triple-negative breast cancer accounts for less than 20% of breast cancers overall, but is the predominant subtype among carriers of mutations in BRCA1. However, few studies have assessed the association between breast cancer family history and risk of triple-negative breast cancer. We examined the relationship between having a family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of triple-negative breast cancer, and risk of two other breast cancer subtypes defined by tumor marker expression. We evaluated data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium from 2,599,946 mammograms on 1,054,466 women, among whom 15% reported a first-degree family history of breast cancer. Using Cox regression in this cohort, we evaluated subtype-specific associations between family history and risk of triple-negative (N = 705), estrogen receptor-positive (ER+, N = 10,026), and hormone receptor-negative/HER2-expressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+, N = 308) breast cancer among women aged 40-84 years. First-degree family history was similarly and significantly associated with an increased risk of all the subtypes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-2.09, HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.54-1.70, and HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.15-2.13, for triple-negative, ER+, and ER-/PR-/HER2+, respectively]. Risk of all the subtypes was most pronounced among women with at least two affected first-degree relatives (versus women with no affected first-degree relatives, HR(triple-negative) = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.66-4.27, HR(ER+) = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.79-2.36, HR(ER)-(/PR)-(/HER2+) = 2.25, 95% CI: 0.99-5.08). Having a first-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk of triple-negative breast cancer with a magnitude of association similar to that for the predominant ER+ subtype and ER-/PR-/HER2+ breast cancer.
Jansen, Marcel P B; Pulskens, Wilco P; Butter, Loes M; Florquin, Sandrine; Juffermans, Nicole P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Leemans, Jaklien C
be related to intra-renal inflammation, coagulation processes, and renal dysfunction in the pathophysiology of SIRS.
Qian, Zhen; Tang, Shaoting; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming
Recent studies of rumor or information diffusion process in complex networks show that in contrast to traditional comprehension, individuals who participate in rumor spreading within one network do not always get the rumor from their neighbors. They can obtain the rumor from different sources like online social networks and then publish it on their personal sites. In our paper, we discuss this phenomenon in complex networks by adopting the concept of independent spreaders. Rather than getting the rumor from neighbors, independent spreaders learn it from other channels. We further develop the classic "ignorant-spreaders-stiflers" or SIR model of rumor diffusion process in complex networks. A steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the final spectrum of the rumor spreading under various spreading rate, stifling rate, density of independent spreaders and average degree of the network. Results show that independent spreaders effectively enhance the rumor diffusion process, by delivering the rumor to regions far away from the current rumor infected regions. And though the rumor spreading process in SF networks is faster than that in ER networks, the final size of rumor spreading in ER networks is larger than that in SF networks.
boundaries in order to have an impact on prevention. Furthermore, there is a need to move beyond the notion of ''magic bullets'', instead developing an integrated paradigm encompassing clusters of biomarkers related to behavioural measures of developmental psychopathology. Finally, as most psychiatric......: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected). At baseline 234 participants were divided......-risk twins and 5 low-risk twins) developed a psychiatric disorder during the 7-year follow-up period: 24 developed mood disorder (67%), 7 anxiety disorder (19%) and 5 (14%) substance abuse, schizophrenia or personality disorder. The results showed that familial risk, impaired stress tolerance and discrete...
Baptista, Trino; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Arapé, Yinet; Serrano, Ana; Mazzarella, Xiorella; Quiroz, Segundo; Ramirez, Clara Isabel; Padrón de Freytez, Alix
The authors quantified the prevalence of migraine in subjects with mental disorders, first-degree relatives and the adult general population (GP) in Mérida, Venezuela. After validation, a modified, short version of the Lipton's diagnostic scale was administered to consecutively admitted in- and out-patients (n = 1059), their first-degree relatives (n = 445) and a probabilistic sample of the GP (n = 516). In the GP, the frequency of migraine (percentage and 95% confidence interval) was 14.9 (11.8-17.9). The migraine frequencies were (percentage and odd ratio probability against the GP: bipolar disorder (15.7%, p = 0.5), schizophrenia (8.3%, p = 0.08), depression and dysthimia (24.4%, p = 0.2), anxiety disorders (10.0%, p = 0.02), personality disorders (11.4%, p = 0.15), all other disorders (15.5%, p = 0.4), relatives of bipolar patients (4.4%, p < 0.001), relatives of schizophrenia patients (3.5%, p = 0.003), and relatives of patients with all other mental disorders (12.8%, p = 0.4). Migraine was more common in women (p < 0.001), and the bipolar patients presented the highest female to male ratio (8:1). A high variability was observed in migraine prevalence among the diagnostic categories, but it was particularly high in subjects with affective disorders, mainly in women, who thus deserve special attention from clinicians.
Li Qiang; Ning Kon; Wenhui Zhao; Le Jiang; Colette M. Knight; Carrie Welch; Utpal Pajvani; Wei Gu; Domenico Accili
Obesity is associated with higher incidence of cancer, but the predisposing mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SirT1 orchestrates metabolism, cellular survival, and growth. However, there is no unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic and tumor-related effects of SirT1. In this work, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of the endogenous inhibitor of SirT1, Deleted-in-Breast-Cancer-1 (Dbc1), unexpectedly results in obesity and insulin resistance. Dbc1 defic...
Riedl, Marc A; Lumry, William R; Busse, Paula; Levy, Howard; Steele, Tamara; Dayno, Jeffrey; Li, H Henry
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurring attacks of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema caused by an inherited deficiency or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Symptoms can present years before an accurate diagnosis is made. The objective of this study, the Angioedema Clinical Epidemiology Testing Initiative for the Study of Hereditary Angioedema, was to determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of HAE in untested first-degree blood relatives of known patients with HAE. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE recruited first-degree relatives who had not been evaluated for HAE. Enrolled subjects underwent complement testing (C4, C1 INH antigen, and functional C1 INH). If the lab tests were abnormal, the enrolled subjects returned to the site for a follow-up visit and questionnaire. Overall, 31 patients with HAE and 46 first-degree relatives enrolled in the study. Of 46 enrolled relatives, 30 (65%) had lab test results that ruled out a diagnosis of HAE, two (4%) were categorized as "HAE not ruled out," and 14 (30%) were newly diagnosed with HAE. Of 14 newly diagnosed subjects, nine (64%) reported having experienced symptoms that may have been related to HAE, such as swelling in the throat, face, or extremities or abdominal pain. When reported, median age of symptom onset in these 14 subjects was nine years whereas newly diagnosed asymptomatic subjects had a median chronological age of six years. These 14 subjects reported a historic mean standard deviation rate of 2.51 (5.59) swelling episodes per month with a mean standard deviation duration of 1.6 (0.74) days. This study's findings reinforce the importance of testing family members of patients with HAE to detect this hereditary condition.
Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.
Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599
Boyd Lara A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most motor learning theories posit that proprioceptive sensation serves an important role in acquiring and performing movement patterns. However, we recently demonstrated that experimental disruption of proprioception peripherally altered motor performance but not motor learning in humans. Little work has considered humans with central nervous system damage. The purpose of the present study was to specifically consider the relationship between proprioception and motor learning at the level of the central nervous system in humans. Methods Individuals with chronic (> 6mo stroke and similarly aged healthy participants performed a continuous tracking task with an embedded repeating segment over two days and returned on a third day for retention testing. A limb-position matching task was used to quantify proprioception. Results Individuals with chronic stroke demonstrated the ability to learn to track a repeating segment; however, the magnitude of behavioral change associated with repeated segment-specific learning was directly related to the integrity of central proprioceptive processing as indexed by our limb-position matching task. Conclusion These results support the importance of central sensory processing for motor learning. The confirmation of central sensory processing dependent motor learning in humans is discussed in the context of our prior report of preserved motor learning when sensation is disrupted peripherally.
Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo
Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the
Shen, Pengfei; Wei, Wuran; Yang, Xiaochun; Zeng, Hao; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jie; Wang, Jia; Huang, Jiaoti
The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and open surgery nephrolithotomy on the systemic stress response, SIRS and renal function. Forty patients with kidney calculi were enrolled in the study. Twenty cases were randomized to the PNL group and the other twenty cases to the open surgery group. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6(IL-6), β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)-MG), respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature and white blood cell counts were examined. CRP and IL-6 were measured in all patients pre-operatively and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 6, respectively. There was significant difference in their pre- and post-operation levels (P SIRS in PNL group and 12 cases in open surgery group; there was significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05). Urine β(2)-MG levels were also measured. There was significant difference between pre- and the first day post-PNL (P 0.05). There was significant difference between pre- and first and third day post-open surgery (P 0.05). There was significant difference between two groups at the first, third and sixth days (P SIRS, but the degree of SIRS in PNL group was lesser than the other group. Both the groups have no obvious effect on glomerular filtration function after operation and have effect on renal tubular reabsorption in the early stage after operation; but the recovery of the PNL group is faster than the open surgery group. It is thus shown that PNL is much safer and more feasible and has lesser effect on renal function.
Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam
This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.
Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)
This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.
The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.
The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.
Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel
Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.
Kidd, Ian James
The aim of this paper is to use Sir William Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena as a sustained case study of the role of epistemic virtues within scientific enquiry. Despite growing interest in virtues in science, there are few integrated historical and philosophical studies, and even fewer studies focussing on controversial or 'fringe' sciences where, one might suppose, certain epistemic virtues (like open-mindedness and tolerance) may be subjected to sterner tests. Using the virtue of epistemic courage as my focus, it emerges that Crookes' psychical researches were indeed epistemically courageous, but that this judgment must be grounded in sensitivity to the motivational complexity and context-sensitivity of the exercise of epistemic virtues. The paper then considers Crookes' remarks on the relationship between epistemic virtuousness and the intellectual integrity and public duties of scientists, thereby placing epistemic virtues in the context of wider debates about the authority of science in late modern societies. I conclude that Crookes' researches into psychical phenomena offer instructive lessons for historians of science and virtue epistemologists concerning the complexity and contextuality of epistemic virtues, and the profitable forms that future studies of virtues in science could take. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
“One day, Sir, you may tax it”… Those are the words I used to get the audience's attention during my talk at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos, where I was invited to speak about the science agenda in 2011. For those of you who don’t know the quote, it was Michael Faraday’s response to William Gladstone when asked to comment on the utility of his blue-sky research into the newfangled phenomenon of electricity. So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today? A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable – as it turned out, electric light. Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of ...
Sir William (Bill) Mitchell, former President of the CERN Council, died on 30th October 2002 at the age of 77. Mitchell was professor of Physics at Oxford University from 1978 to 1989, having previously been Professor of Physics, Dean of Science and Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Reading University. From 1985 to 1990 he was Chairman of the UK's Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), which at the time was the funding agency for the UK's participation in the CERN programme. As Chairman, Mitchell was one of the UK representatives on the CERN Council, and in 1991 he was elected President, a position he held for three years. This was a difficult period for CERN. Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification. This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes. On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary...
Jiongxin XIONG; Shikai ZHU; Yu ZHOU; Heshui WU; Chunyou WANG
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of parenteral supplementation with ω-3 fish oil emulsion (Omegaven ) on systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) during the ini-tial stage of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).In a prospective,randomized and controlled trial,60 pa-tients with SAP were randomized either to treat with conventional therapy (Con group,n=30) or conventional therapy plus intravenous supplementation with 0-3 fish oil emulsion 0.2 g/kg every day (FO group,n=30).The effects were analyzed by the SIRS-related indexes.The results showed that APACHE-II scores in FO group were significantly lower,and the gap increased much farther after the 4th day than those in Con group (P<0.05).Fluid equilibrium time became shorter markedly in FO group than in Con group (5.1±9.2 days vs 8.4±2.3 days).In FO group,SIRS scores were markedly duced,while IL-10 decreased markedly,most prominently between the 4th and 7th day,and the ratio euteral supplementation with ω-3 fish oil emulsion could efficiently lower the magnitude and persis-tence time of the SIRS,markedly retrieve the unbalance of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines,im-prove severe condition of illness and may provide a new way to regulate the SIRS.
Sorolla, M Alba; Nierga, Clara; Rodríguez-Colman, M José; Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Arenas, Alicia; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Cabiscol, Elisa
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats, leading to an elongated polyglutamine sequence (polyQ) in the huntingtin protein. Misfolding of mutant polyQ proteins with expanded tracts results in aggregation, causing cytotoxicity. Oxidative stress in HD has been documented in humans as important to disease progression. Using yeast cells as a model of HD, we report that when grown at high glucose concentration, cells expressing mutant polyQ do not show apparent oxidative stress. At higher cell densities, when glucose becomes limiting and cells are metabolically shifting from fermentation to respiration, protein oxidation and catalase activity increases in relation to the length of the polyQ tract. Oxidative stress, either endogenous as a result of mutant polyQ expression or exogenously generated, increases Sir2 levels. Δ sir2 cells expressing expanded polyQ lengths show signs of oxidative stress even at the early exponential phase. In a wild-type background, isonicotinamide, a Sir2 activator, decreases mutant polyQ aggregation and the stress generated by expanded polyQ. Taken together, these results describe mutant polyQ proteins as being more toxic in respiring cells, causing oxidative stress and an increase in Sir2 levels. Activation of Sir2 would play a protective role against this toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUC(total for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Change in CorAUC(total showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUC(total, rho = -0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUC(total. CONCLUSION: The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00386841.
Bogaert, Delfien J A; De Bruyne, Marieke; Debacker, Veronique; Depuydt, Pauline; De Preter, Katleen; Bonroy, Carolien; Philippé, Jan; Bordon, Victoria; Lambrecht, Bart N; Kerre, Tessa; Cerutti, Andrea; Vermaelen, Karim Y; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa
The etiology of primary antibody deficiencies is largely unknown. Beside rare monogenic forms, the majority of cases seem to have a more complex genetic basis. Whereas common variable immunodeficiency has been investigated in depth, there are only a few reports on milder primary antibody deficiencies such as idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and IgG subclass deficiency. We performed flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 33 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 23 with idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and 21 with IgG subclass deficiency, as well as in 47 asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients and 101 unrelated healthy controls. All three groups of patients showed decreased memory B- and naïve T-cell subsets and decreased B-cell activating factor receptor expression. In contrast, circulating follicular helper T-cell frequency and expression of inducible T-cell co-stimulator and chemokine receptors were only significantly altered in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients demonstrated similar, albeit intermediate, alterations in naïve and memory B- and T-cell subsets. About 13% of asymptomatic relatives had an abnormal peripheral B-cell composition. Furthermore, asymptomatic relatives showed decreased levels of CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants and increased central memory T cells. Serum IgG and IgM levels were also significantly lower in asymptomatic relatives than in healthy controls. We conclude that, in our cohort, the immunophenotypic landscape of primary antibody deficiencies comprises a spectrum, in which some alterations are shared between all primary antibody deficiencies whereas others are only associated with common variable immunodeficiency. Importantly, asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients were found to have an intermediate phenotype for peripheral B- and T-cell subsets.
Full Text Available Background. Only a few biomarkers based on metabolic parameters for evaluating liver fibrosis have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of an index obtained from three metabolic variables (glycated albumin: GA, glycated hemoglobin: HbA1c, and branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio: BTR to the degree of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus virus- (HCV- positive patients. Methods. A total of 394 HCV-positive patients were assessed based on the values of a new index (GA/HbA1c/BTR. The index findings were used to investigate the relationship with the degree of liver fibrosis. Results. The new index showed an association with the stage of fibrosis (METAVIR scores: F0-1: 0.42 ± 0.10, F2: 0.48 ± 0.15, F3: 0.56 ± 0.22, and F4: 0.71 ± 0.30. The index was negatively correlated with three variables of liver function: the prothrombin time percentage (P<0.0001, albumin level (P<0.0001, and cholinesterase level (P<0.0001. The new index showed a higher correlation related to liver function than FIB-4 and the APRI did. In addition, the index showed a higher AUROC value than that of FIB-4 and the APRI for prediction of liver cirrhosis. Conclusion. The new metabolism-related index, GA/HbA1c/BTR value, is shown to relate to the degree of liver fibrosis in HCV-positive patients.
Arnal, Nathalie; Cristalli, Diana Olga; de Alaniz, María J T; Marra, Carlos Alberto
The concentration of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin (CRP), non-ceruloplasmin-bound Cu (NCBC), and metallothioneins (MTs) were studied as putative biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases in patients and in their first-degree relatives. We found increased levels of Cu in the plasma of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and vascular dementia (VD) patients, and the increase observed in VD group was linked to the evolution of the disease. CRP was also elevated in response to the inflammatory component of the diseases, however, a correlation with illness progression was only observed in VD patients. The level of MTs is proportional to the evolution of VD. The Cu/CRP and Cu/MTs ratios are both indicative of disease progression for AD patients but not for those with PD or VD. Moreover, there is a correlation between the NCBC levels and the cognitive impairment estimated through the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scale. This dependence is linear for AD and PD patients and non-linear for the VD ones. The relative values of NCBC showed dependence on the disease duration, especially for AD. Copper measurement and the Cu/CRP ratio may be predictive markers of risk for the first-degree relatives of AD patients. We believe that these results are valuable as a reliable clinical tool.
Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....
Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs by the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ pathway is critical for genome stability. In contrast to the complex eukaryotic repair system, bacterial NHEJ apparatus consists of only two proteins, Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase (LigD, whose functional mechanism has not been fully clarified. We show here for the first time that Sir2 is involved in the mycobacterial NHEJ repair pathway. Here, using tandem affinity purification (TAP screening, we have identified an NAD-dependent deacetylase in mycobacteria which is a homologue of the eukaryotic Sir2 protein and interacts directly with Ku. Results from an in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST pull-down assay suggest that Sir2 interacts directly with LigD. Plasmid-based end-joining assays revealed that the efficiency of DSB repair in a sir2 deletion mutant was reduced 2-fold. Moreover, the Δsir2 strain was about 10-fold more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR in the stationary phase than the wild-type. Our results suggest that Sir2 may function closely together with Ku and LigD in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway in mycobacteria.
Park, Moon Soo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Moon, Joo Hyun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
Public participation is essential in each step of the nuclear-related decision-making process. Recently, the electronic systems using the Internet have become quite popular, and have emerged as a good medium for communicating with the public. In this study, a comprehensive utilization of electronic public participation was used to analyze public opinion on a given nuclear-related decision-making process. The degree of deliberation and meditation of the public participating in an electronic poll survey was evaluated, and the decision-making factors representing the personal characteristics of the poll respondents such as age, income, education, residence, degree of knowledge and concern were carefully incorporated when preparing the poll-survey questionnaire for its evaluation. Fuzzy analysis was used to assess and aggregate the responses to each decision-making factor. As a case study, this procedure was used to analyzing public opinion on the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility on the campus of Seoul National University. The results show that there is a tendency of respondents who are on the negative side of the argument to be more deliberate and meditative in their decision-making process than those on the positive side. Knowledge and residence were found to be important decision-making factors.
Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the dietary content of micronutrients in first-degree relatives of type II diabetic patients, with respect to the influence of dietary composition on the development of diabetes. Methods and Materials: 210 first-degree relatives of type II diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups (normal and IGT+ diabetic, according to the results of OGTT. 3-Day food recall questionnaire was completed by skilled nutritionists from all subjects. The participants’ intake of calorie, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, chromium and vitamins B1, B6, C and E was calculated and the results were compared between 2 groups. Results: The mean of age and BMI were 48.9 5.2, 43.6 6.7 years (P=0.373 and 29.3 0.7, 28.7 0.8 kg/m2 in impaired and normal groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in energy, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, chromium and vitamins B1, B6, C and E intake between 2 groups. Conclusion: Although the micronutrient intake between studied groups didn’t differ significantly, the dietary content of chromium, magnesium, zinc and vitamin E was less than recommended daily allowance values. This finding can be taken into consideration with respect to the influence of some micronutrients, including magnesium and chromium, on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.
Parada, Javier; Aguilera, José M
Starch granule microstructure affects the digestion of starch and its nutritional impact; however, the exact relationship between both factors is not clear. This study reports quantitative relationships between granule size (length and polygonal area), degree of gelatinization (DG), in vitro digestibility (by enzymatic methods), and glycemic response of potato starch granules gelatinized to various extents by heating at several constant temperatures in the range of 55 to 65 degrees C. DG measured by differential scanning calorimetry was closely related with heating temperature (R(2)= 0.997), size parameters of granules (measured by image analysis), in vitro digestion, and in vivo glycemic response (R(2) of adjusted models > 0.9); shape parameters of granules (measured by image analysis) were not related with DG. Results demonstrate that DG of starch strongly affects its digestibility in vitro, and may influence the postpandrial glycemic response. Future studies should be performed to investigate the effect of potato starch gelatinization on the nutritional impact at other temperatures and in more complex matrices.
A Guntur Hermawan
Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in 1991 as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. In addition to the previous criteria, the 2001 conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. The primary recommendation of the panel was the implementation of the Predisposition, insult Infection, Response, and Organ dysfunction (PIRO.The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents. Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses. The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex. This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines. Proinflammatory cytokines especially IFN-γ and TNF-α, the key cytokines causing toxic shock syndrome. KEYWORDS: sepsis, innate immunity, adaptive.
McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali
A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.
Balk, Robert A
The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a 1991 consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis. There was recognition that a diverse group of injuries produced a common inflammatory response in the host and provided attractive targets for new anti-inflammatory molecules designed to prevent further propagation and/or provide specific treatment. Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention. It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events. Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings. With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition.
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with higher incidence of cancer, but the predisposing mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SirT1 orchestrates metabolism, cellular survival, and growth. However, there is no unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic and tumor-related effects of SirT1. In this work, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of the endogenous inhibitor of SirT1, Deleted-in-Breast-Cancer-1 (Dbc1, unexpectedly results in obesity and insulin resistance. Dbc1 deficiency promoted SirT1-dependent gain of function of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, increasing plasma and tissue levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The metabolic abnormalities in Dbc1–/– mice were reversed by ablation of hepatic SirT1 or by inhibition of Scd1 activity. Furthermore, loss of Dbc1 impaired activation of the master tumor suppressor p53 and treatment with an Scd1 inhibitor extended survival of tumor-prone TP53–/– mice by decreasing tumor-related death. Together, our findings illustrate a shared mechanism of obesity and tumor progression mediated by hepatic SirT1 and resulting in the activation of a key lipid synthetic enzyme, with potential therapeutic implications.
Qiang, Li; Kon, Ning; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Le; Knight, Colette M; Welch, Carrie; Pajvani, Utpal; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico
Obesity is associated with higher incidence of cancer, but the predisposing mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1 orchestrates metabolism, cellular survival, and growth. However, there is no unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic and tumor-related effects of SirT1. In this work, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of the endogenous inhibitor of SirT1, Deleted-in-Breast-Cancer-1 (Dbc1), unexpectedly results in obesity and insulin resistance. Dbc1 deficiency promoted SirT1-dependent gain of function of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), increasing plasma and tissue levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The metabolic abnormalities in Dbc1(-/-) mice were reversed by ablation of hepatic SirT1 or by inhibition of Scd1 activity. Furthermore, loss of Dbc1 impaired activation of the master tumor suppressor p53 and treatment with an Scd1 inhibitor extended survival of tumor-prone TP53(-/-) mice by decreasing tumor-related death. Together, our findings illustrate a shared mechanism of obesity and tumor progression mediated by hepatic SirT1 and resulting in the activation of a key lipid synthetic enzyme, with potential therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff
We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring.
Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A
BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two...... in rMD+ but not in rMD- individuals. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) displayed a stronger neural response when subjects missed a large reward after a low-risk choice in the rMD+ group compared to the rMD- group. The enhanced orbitofrontal response to negative outcomes was reversed following escitalopram...... intervention compared to placebo. Conversely, for positive outcomes, the left hippocampus showed attenuated response to high wins in the rMD+ compared to the rMD- group. The SSRI intervention reinforced the hippocampal response to large wins. A subsequent structural analysis revealed that the abnormal neural...
Gordo, Isabel; Gomes, M Gabriela M; Reis, Daniel G; Campos, Paulo R A
We introduce a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in pathogen populations, whose epidemiology follows a susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIR). We model the population of pathogens as a metapopulation composed of subpopulations (infected hosts), where pathogens replicate and mutate. Hosts transmit pathogens to uninfected hosts. We show that the level of pathogen variation is well predicted by analytical expressions, such that pathogen neutral molecular variation is bounded by the level of infection and increases with the duration of infection. We then introduce selection in the model and study the invasion probability of a new pathogenic strain whose fitness (R(0)(1+s)) is higher than the fitness of the resident strain (R(0)). We show that this invasion probability is given by the relative increment in R(0) of the new pathogen (s). By analyzing the patterns of genetic diversity in this framework, we identify the molecular signatures during the replacement and compare these with those observed in sequences of influenza A.
Full Text Available We introduce a model for assessing the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in pathogen populations, whose epidemiology follows a susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIR. We model the population of pathogens as a metapopulation composed of subpopulations (infected hosts, where pathogens replicate and mutate. Hosts transmit pathogens to uninfected hosts. We show that the level of pathogen variation is well predicted by analytical expressions, such that pathogen neutral molecular variation is bounded by the level of infection and increases with the duration of infection. We then introduce selection in the model and study the invasion probability of a new pathogenic strain whose fitness (R(0(1+s is higher than the fitness of the resident strain (R(0. We show that this invasion probability is given by the relative increment in R(0 of the new pathogen (s. By analyzing the patterns of genetic diversity in this framework, we identify the molecular signatures during the replacement and compare these with those observed in sequences of influenza A.
Chen, Yu-Fan; Chou, Chia-Ching; Gartenberg, Marc R
Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir2 and silent chromatin.
Carl, Janet E.
Researchers have shown that women remain underrepresented in the sciences particularly in doctorate degree attainment. This investigator aimed to extend previous research by examining possible causes of gender disparity in science graduate education using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, B&B.:93/03. Variables in categories of demographics, academic achievement, financial resources, degree expectations and attitudes toward educational experiences, future study and employment were analyzed by t tests and hierarchical regression to determine gender differences in graduate degree expectations and attainment by male and female science majors. Findings supported gender disparity in undergraduate and graduate fields of study. Women dominated health areas and earned terminal master's degrees, whereas men dominated the physical science field and attained a higher proportion of doctorate degrees. Results also showed no gender differences in master's degree attainment in other fields thus confirming that these graduates did not persist in science fields. Graduate degree expectation was a strong predictor for master's and doctorate degree attainment. Parent education had a significant effect on degree expectations but not on graduate degree attainment. Women tended to have lower degree expectations and earned fewer science and math credits than men. Results showed that unemployment and loans predicted doctorate degree attainment by men and women showed higher levels of employment in graduate school.
Ding, Y; Pereira, F; Hoehne, A; Beaulieu, M-M; Lepage, M; Turecki, G; Jollant, F
Suicidal behavior is heritable, with the transmission of risk being related to the transmission of vulnerability traits. Previous studies suggest that risky decision-making may be an endophenotype of suicide. Here, we aimed at investigating brain processing of decision-making in relatives of suicide completers in order to shed light on heritable mechanisms of suicidal vulnerability. Seventeen healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers with no personal history of suicidal behavior, 16 relatives of depressed patients without any personal or family history of suicidal behavior, and 19 healthy controls were recruited. Functional 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired while participants underwent the Iowa Gambling Task, an economic decision-making test. Whole-brain analyses contrasting activations during risky vs safe choices were conducted with AFNI and FSL. Individuals with a family history of suicide in comparison to control groups showed altered contrasts in left medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern was different from the neural basis of familial depression. Moreover, controls in comparison to relatives showed increased contrast in several regions including the post-central gyrus, posterior cingulate and parietal cortices, and cerebellum (culmen) in familial suicide; and inferior parietal, temporal, occipital, anteromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and cerebellum (vermis) in familial depression. These findings most likely represent a complex combination of vulnerability and protective mechanisms in relatives. They also support a significant role for deficient risk processing, and ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex functioning in the suicidal diathesis.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 13 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.221.
Full Text Available Until the 1970´s of the last century sulfur (S was mainly regarded as a pollutant being the main contributor of acid rain, causing forest dieback in central Europe. When Clean Air Acts came into force at the start of the 1980´s SO2 contaminations in the air were consequently reduced within the next years. S changed from an unwanted pollutant into a lacking plant nutrient in agriculture since agricultural fields were no longer fertilized indirectly by industrial pollution. S deficiency was first noticed in Brassica crops that display an especially high S demand because of its content of S-containing secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates. In Scotland, where S depositions decreased even faster than in continental Europe, an increasing disease incidence with Pyrenopeziza brassicae was observed in oilseed rape in the beginning 1990´s and the concept of sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR was developed after a relationship between the S status and the disease incidence was uncovered. Since then a lot of research was carried out to unravel the background of SIR in the metabolism of agricultural crops and to identify metabolites, enzymes and reactions, which are potentially activated by the S metabolism to combat fungal pathogens. The S status of the crop is affecting many different plant features such as color and scent of flowers, pigments in leaves, metabolite concentrations and the release of gaseous S compounds which are directly influencing the desirability of a crop for a variety of different organisms from microorganisms, over insects and slugs to the point of grazing animals.The present paper is an attempt to sum up the knowledge about the effect of the S nutritional status of agricultural crops on parameters that are directly related to their health status and by this to SIR. Milestones in SIR research are compiled, open questions are addressed and future projections were developed.
Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S
Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies.
Ganesh, Aparna B; Rajasingh, Hannah; Mande, Sharmila S
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invades the intestinal epithelial cells using type three secretion system (TTSS) encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). The key regulator of this secretion system is HilA, which is in turn regulated by HilD, HilC and RtsA. It is also known that SirA/BarA system, a two-component regulatory system plays a crucial role in regulating HilA. There are two different mechanisms that have been proposed earlier for regulation of HilD-HilC-RtsA-HilA network by SirA. One considers SirA to be acting through HilA and HilC, whereas the other considers SirA to be acting through HilD. In this paper, we have built mathematical models corresponding to both these scenarios and carried out simulations under different gene knock-out conditions. Additionally, since the two proposed mechanisms based on the experimental data are equally likely, we also considered a mechanism which is a combination of the two proposed mechanisms. The simulations were carried out to check the levels of HilA, the factor regulating the virulence, as well as the levels of the intermediate components in the network, namely HilC and RtsA. The simulation results were used to check the consistency of various models and also to suggest the most probable mechanism of hilA regulation. The results of our study show that while most of the mathematical models are able to predict the virulence data, the models considering SirA to regulate through HilA and HilC fail to predict the levels of intermediate components, HilC and RtsA. Nevertheless, one of the models considering regulation of virulence by SirA via HilD was able to predict results comparable to the experimental data. In addition, combination of this model (regulation by SirA via HilD) with the model considering regulation by SirA through HilA and HilC, also predicted results consistent with experimental observations. Our conclusions were further validated by testing the stability of the results against
Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio (SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading. The probability density function (pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami- channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami- channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods. Furthermore, the pdf of the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR is provided as an extension to the SIR derivation. The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers.
Cimino, Jo Bea; Holt, Benjamin; Richardson, Annie
The primary objective of the SIR-B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR-B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR-B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products (including auxiliary data), calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples.
We study a susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model with multiple seeds on a random regular graph. Many researchers have studied the epidemic threshold of epidemic models above which a global outbreak can occur, starting from an infinitesimal fraction of seeds. However, there have been few studies on the epidemic models with finite fractions of seeds. The aim of this paper is to clarify what happens on phase transitions in such cases. The SIR model on networks exhibits two percolation transitions. We derive the percolation transition points for the SIR model with multiple seeds to show that as the infection rate increases epidemic clusters generated from each seed percolate before a single seed can induce a global outbreak.
Houle, Cyril O.
This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)
Grosse, Guido; Lantuit, Hugues; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle
PYRN-Bib is an international bibliographical database aiming at collecting and distributing information on all theses submitted for earning a scientific degree in permafrost-related research. PYRN-Bib is hosted by the Permafrost Young Researchers Network (PYRN, http://pyrn.ways.org), an international network of early career students and young scientists in permafrost related research with currently more than 750 members. The fully educational, non-profit project PYRN-Bib is published under the patronage of the International Permafrost Association (IPA). The bibliography covers all theses as long as they clearly treat aspects of permafrost research from such diverse fields as: Geophysics, Geology, Cryolithology, Biology, Biogeochemistry, Microbiology, Astrobiology, Chemistry, Engineering, Geomorphology, Remote Sensing, Modeling, Mineral and Hydrocarbon Exploration, and Science History and Education. The specific goals of PYRN-Bib are (1) to generate a comprehensive database that includes all degree-earning theses (e.g. Diploma, Ph.D., Master, etc.), coming from any country and any scientific field, under the single condition that the thesis is strongly related to research on permafrost and/or periglacial processes; (2) to reference unique but buried sources of information including theses published in languages other than English; (3) to make the database widely available to the scientific community and the general public; (4) to solicit PYRN membership; and (5) to provide a mean to map the evolution of permafrost research over the last decades, including regional trends, shifts in research direction, and/or the place of permafrost research in society. PYRN-Bib is available online and maintained by PYRN. The complete bibliography can be downloaded at no cost and is offered in different file formats: tagged Endnote library, XML, BibTex, and PDF. New entries are continuously provided by PYRN members and the scientific community. PYRN-Bib currently contains more than
Jeffery, Alvin D; Mutsch, Karen Steffen; Knapp, Lisa
A large amount of research demonstrates the importance of key interventions in reducing mortality rates of pediatric patients with sepsis (Dellinger et al., 2008). Assessment and recognition of declining status must occur for interventions to be initiated. Of health care practitioners, nurses typically spend the most time with patients, and they must be knowledgeable in recognizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis while also being aware of the importance of prompt intervention. The literature does not discuss pediatric nurses' knowledge of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)/sepsis recognition. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of acute and critical care pediatric nurses of SIRS diagnostic criteria, sepsis guidelines, and the importance of SIRS recognition. This cross-sectional, quantitative, correlational descriptive study included 242 acute and critical care pediatric nurses at a 490-bed urban pediatric hospital. Participants completed an original questionnaire with face and content validity regarding SIRS criteria, sepsis guidelines, priority interventions, and attitude toward the importance of SIRS recognition. Findings demonstrated a significant knowledge deficit among participants in several key areas of SIRS/sepsis recognition. The mean score was 60.8% ± 7.4%. Item analyses demonstrated nurses easily recognize septic shock but have difficulty recognizing patients in earlier stages of the sepsis continuum. Significant confusion was evident regarding the role of blood pressure and serum lactic acid levels in diagnosing sepsis. It is recommended that an educational intervention be created for acute and critical care pediatric nurses to aid them in recognizing sepsis in its earlier stages.
Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand
Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shared neuropathological features between schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives have potential as indicators of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. We sought to explore genetic influences on brain morphology and function in schizophrenic patients and their relatives. METHODS: Using a multimodal imaging strategy, we studied 33 schizophrenic patients, 55 of their unaffected parents, 30 healthy controls for patients, and 29 healthy controls for parents with voxel-based morphometry of structural MRI scans and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional MRI data. RESULTS: Schizophrenic patients showed widespread gray matter reductions in the bilateral frontal cortices, bilateral insulae, bilateral occipital cortices, left amygdala and right thalamus, whereas their parents showed more localized reductions in the left amygdala, left thalamus and right orbitofrontal cortex. Patients and their parents shared gray matter loss in the left amygdala. Further investigation of the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala in the patients showed abnormal functional connectivity with the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral precunei, bilateral dorsolateral frontal cortices and right insula. Their parents showed slightly less, but similar changes in the pattern in the amygdala connectivity. Co-occurrences of abnormal connectivity of the left amygdala with the left orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral frontal cortex and right precuneus were observed in schizophrenic patients and their parents. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential genetic influence on structural and functional abnormalities of the amygdala in schizophrenia. Such information could help future efforts to identify the endophenotypes that characterize the complex disorder of schizophrenia.
Curlander, J. C.
A ground-based system to generate digital SAR image products has been developed and implemented in support of the SIR-B mission. This system is designed to achieve the maximum throughput while meeting strict image fidelity criteria. Its capabilities include: automated radiometric and geometric correction of the output imagery; high-precision absolute location without tiepoint registration; filtering of the raw data to remove spurious signals from alien radars; and automated catologing to maintain a full set of radar and image production facility in support of the SIR-B science investigators routinely produces over 80 image frames per week.
Gout impacts on function and health-related quality of life beyond associated risk factors and medical conditions: results from the KING observational study of the Italian Society for Rheumatology (SIR)
Introduction Gout is the most prevalent arthritis and significantly impacts on function and quality of life. Given that gout associates with disabling comorbid conditions, it is not clear whether such a complex of diseases accounts for the increased disability or if gout may play a role by itself. This study aims to evaluate the specific influence of gout and disease-related features on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with gout followed in rheumatology clinics. Methods A random sample of patients was drawn from clinical registries of 30 rheumatology clinics across Italy. Sociodemographic, general health and gout-specific variables were collected. Functional disability and HRQoL were assessed by the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and the Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS) of the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Crude and adjusted ordinal logistic and linear regression models were applied to investigate the specific contribution of different variables on HAQ and SF-36 scores. Results are presented as odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals. Results Out of 446 patients with gout, 90% were males with a mean age of 63.9 years and median disease duration of 3.8 years; the majority of patients were overweight or obese, and with several comorbidities; 21.1% showed at least moderate disability; the PCS score was significantly lower than expected age- and gender-matched samples in the general population, while MCS score was not. After adjusting for potential sociodemographic and general-health confounders, gout-specific variables significantly impacted on HAQ, including polyarticular involvement OR 3.82 (1.63, 8.95), presence of tophi OR 1.92 (1.07, 3.43) and recent attacks OR 2.20 (1.27, 3.81). Consistent results were found for PCS. The impairment of PCS compared to the general population was limited to patients with features of chronic gout. MCS was only affected by recent
Norwood, M G; Bown, M J; Lloyd, G; Bell, P R F; Sayers, R D
The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is common after major surgery. We examine the dynamics of SIRS in AAA patients, and assess the impact of the number of SIRS criteria on patient outcome. Prospective study of 151 consecutive patients with AAA, undergoing repair electively, urgently or with rupture. SIRS scores and organ failure scores were recorded prospectively each day for all patients. Outcome measures included length of stay, evidence of organ failure and mortality. The majority of patients developed SIRS postoperatively. Elective patients with a cumulative SIRS score of > or =10 during postoperative days 1-4 were more likely to die, compared to patients with a SIRS score of SIRS late in the postoperative period (day 5-10) was associated with adverse outcome (death) in elective patients (p=0.01). The actual number of SIRS criteria present did not significantly correlate with either outcome or the incidence of organ failure. SIRS is common in patients undergoing AAA repair. The SIRS score provides useful information regarding a patient's physiological state. High SIRS scores, and the development of SIRS late in the postoperative period are associated with adverse outcome in elective patients, and can therefore be used as an indicator of potential problems.
Madhu, Sri Venkata; Muduli, Subrat Kumar; Avasthi, Rajnish
The conventionally used oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been the mainstay for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. However, recent studies have indicated that a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could detect impaired glycemia much earlier than OGTT, especially in certain groups. We aimed to study the 24-h glucose profile of high-risk obese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients by CGMS and ascertain if it was better than OGTT for early detection of type 2 diabetes. CGMS data of 20 subjects each in normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) groups were obtained. We considered minimum, maximum, mean, and range of glucose levels as well as number, duration, and area under the curve (AUC) for excursions. We found three (15%) NGT, seven (35%) IFG, and eight (40%) IGT subjects showed excursions in the diabetes range, whereas 18 (90%) NGT and 17 (85%) pure IFG subjects showed excursions in the IGT range. The maximum glucose values for NGT and IFG subjects were 176.0±41.4 mg/dL and 186.5±39.3 mg/dL, respectively, which is much above the present 2-h OGTT cutoff limit of 140 mg/dL. However, the average number of excursions and AUC of excursions did not differ significantly among the NGT, IFG, and IGT groups. The differences in the duration of excursion between NGT subjects with IFG values and NGT subjects with IGT values were statistically significant for an excursion limit of 140 mg/dL. However, this did not differ significantly between the IFG and IGT groups. CGMS indicated the presence of significant dysglycemia in first-degree relatives of diabetes patients without diabetes who were centrally obese. Hence it could be useful for early identification of individuals at greater risk of diabetes. A deranged glycemic profile may precede onset of overt diabetes by a long time, which may partly explain why some patients with new-onset type 2
Pironti, Valentino Antonio; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Müller, Ulrich; Bullmore, Edward Thomas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows clear, albeit heterogeneous, cognitive dysfunctions. However, personality traits are not well understood in adults with ADHD, and it is unclear whether they are predisposing factors or phenotypical facets of the condition. To assess whether personality traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment and reward are predisposing factors for ADHD or aspects of the clinical phenotype. Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 controls completed rating scales assessing traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment/reward. Compared with relatives and controls, individuals with ADHD showed increased impulsive personality traits, were more susceptible to boredom and presented hypersensitivity to reward but normal sensitivity to punishment. High impulsivity traits, heightened sensitivity to reward and boredom are associated with the phenotype of ADHD, rather than being predisposing factors, as these traits were not shared between ADHD probands and their relatives. E.T.B. is employed part-time by GSK and part-time by the University of Cambridge; he holds stock in GSK. B.J.S. consults for Cambridge Cognition, Servier and Lundbeck; she holds a grant from Janssen/J&J. U.M. has received honoraria for consultancy and speaking at conferences and travel expenses from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, Pharmacia-Upjohn and UCB Pharma. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.
This paper is concerned with the analysis of vaccination strategies in a stochastic SIR (susceptible $\\to$ infected $\\to$ removed) model for the spread of an epidemic amongst a population of individuals with a random network of social contacts that is also partitioned into households. Under various vaccine action models, we consider both household-based vaccination schemes, in which the way in which individuals are chosen for vaccination depends on the size of the households in which they reside, and acquaintance vaccination, which targets individuals of high degree in the social network. For both types of vaccination scheme, assuming a large population with few initial infectives, we derive a threshold parameter which determines whether or not a large outbreak can occur and also the probability and fraction of the population infected by such an outbreak. The performance of these schemes is studied numerically, focusing on the influence of the household size distribution and the degree distribution of the soc...
Akbari, Ramin; Moradkhani, Shahab
This paper studies the difference between the pedagogical thought units of ELT practitioners with English-relevant degrees and those with non-relevant degrees. An entire teaching session of eight EFL teachers' performance was video recorded and their pedagogical thoughts were identified by using stimulated recall technique. The findings revealed…
van der Werf, Christian; Stiekema, Lotte; Tan, Hanno L.; Hofman, Nynke; Alders, Marielle; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexplained death syndrome (SUDS) in young individuals often results from inherited cardiac disease. Accordingly, comprehensive examination in surviving first-degree relatives unmasks such disease in approximately 35% of the families. It is unknown whether individuals from diagnos
Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporomandibular joint is a unique bi-condylar joint involved in mastication and speech. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD have a range of symptoms, including aural symptoms, and are present in approximately 75% of normal populations. The present study examined the relationship between signs and symptoms of TMD and mouth opening, gender, joint and aural symptoms, and hearing loss. Methods The study involved 464 healthy Greek university students (156 men and 308 women with a mean age of 19.6 years. Age, gender and maximum mouth opening was recorded. Mouth opening was measured using Vernier calipers. An anamnestic questionnaire was used to stratify the subjects into four groups based on TMD severity. Aural symptoms and an audiogram were recorded for each subject too. Data were analyzed using multifactor ANOVA, chi-square, t-test, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results The overall incidence of TMD signs and symptoms was 73.3%. The incidence and severity was greater in females than males (p-value 0.0001 Conclusions TMD signs and symptoms were more common and severe in females than males. TMD severity is correlated with the degree of mouth opening and the number of aural symptoms. The absence or presence of mild TMD are associated with normal audiograms while moderate and severe TMD are related to hearing loss in median and low tones respectively. Bruxism, joint ankylosis, joint pain and ear itching were more common in TMD than non-TMD patients.
Majumdar Sumit R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a chronic medical condition accompanied by a considerable health-related quality of life (HRQL burden. The purpose of this analysis was to use generic measures of HRQL to describe HRQL deficits associated with varying degrees of severity of type 2 diabetes. Methods The RAND-12 physical and mental health composites (PHC and MHC, respectively and Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 were self-completed by 372 subjects enrolled in a prospective, controlled study of an intervention to improve care for individuals with type 2 diabetes in rural communities. Analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in HRQL according to disease severity and control of blood glucose. Disease severity was defined in terms of treatment intensity, emergency room visits and absenteeism from work specifically attributable to diabetes. To control for potential confounding, the analysis was adjusted for important sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results The PHC and MHC were significantly lower for individuals treated with insulin as compared to diet alone (PHC: 41.01 vs 45.11, MHC: 43.23 vs 47.00, p Conclusions We concluded that generic measures of HRQL captured deficits associated with more severe disease in type 2 diabetes.
Beristain-Covarrubias, Nonantzin; Canche-Pool, Elsy; Gomez-Diaz, Rita; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia E; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by the specific destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been associated with development of T1D. Class I MHC-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM) is expressed on activated iNKT, CD8(+), and CD4(+) T cells, and it is associated with the pro-inflammatory profiles of these cells. Crtam gene expression in CD3(+) lymphocytes from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice is associated with T1D onset. However, expression of CRTAM on T cells from patients with T1D has not yet been evaluated. We compared iNKT cell (CD3(+)Vα24(+)Vβ11(+)) numbers and CRTAM expression in a Mexican population with recent-onset T1D and their first-degree relatives with control families. Remarkably, we found lower iNKT cell numbers in T1D families, and we identified two iNKT cell populations in some of the families. One iNKT cell population expressed high iTCR levels (iNKT(hi)), whereas another expressed low levels (iNKT(lo)) and also expressed CRTAM. These findings support a probable genetic determinant of iNKT cell numbers and a possible role for these cells in T1D development. This study also suggests that CRTAM identifies recently activated iNKT lymphocytes.
Unriza-Puin, Sonia; Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Lafaurie, Gloria I; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Chalem, Philippe; Chila-Moreno, Lorena; Bello-Gualtero, Juan Manuel; Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo
The aim of this study was to investigate the body mass index (BMI), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) status and the presence of periodontitis and IgG-1/IgG-2 antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) in the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and compare these variables with a control group of healthy individuals from the general population. In total, 100 FDR individuals and 200 healthy controls matched by age and gender were included. Rheumatologic and periodontal assessment was performed, and the presence of ACPAs and anti-P. gingivalis antibodies was evaluated. Groupwise comparisons were analysed using the McNemar and Wilcoxon tests. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the associations between BMI, ACPAs and periodontitis in both groups. In the FDR group, 70% of the subjects were female, with a mean age of 37.3 ± 13 years. Obesity was observed in 17 and 7% of the FDRs and controls, respectively. ACPAs were found in 7% of the FDRs vs. 2.5% of the controls. Periodontitis was diagnosed in 79 and 56% of the FDRs and controls, respectively. Among the FDRs, 15% had severe periodontitis. There were associations in the FDR group related to the presence of obesity (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.03-8.28), ACPAs (OR 2.45, 95% CI 0.7-8.32) and periodontitis (OR 3.70 95% CI 1.89-7.29). Regarding anti-P. gingivalis antibodies and smoking history, no differences were found between the groups. Obesity, ACPAs and periodontitis (diagnosis and severity) can be considered as relevant conditions associated with the development of RA in FDRs.
McCleary, David F; Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper
Sir2 protein has been reported to be recruited to dicentric chromosomes under tension, and such chromosomes are reported to be especially vulnerable to breakage in sir2Δ mutants. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir(-) mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.
Wang, Lina; Wang, Hua-Cheng; Chen, Cha; Zeng, Jianming; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Yu, Huan-DU
Sepsis is a subtype of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is characterized by infection. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-150, miR-146a and miR-223, are potential biomarkers of sepsis. In this study, we demonstrated that measuring the relative expression of miR-146a/U6 in plasma, using the 2(-ΔΔCt) method, provides a method for differentiating between sepsis and non-sepsis-SIRS. We observed a significant increase in miR-146a expression in the initial cohort of 6 non-sepsis-SIRS patients compared to the 4 sepsis patients (P=0.01) and in the second cohort of 8 non-sepsis-SIRS patients compared to the 10 sepsis patients (P=0.027). Additionally, we identified that sodium citrate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) K2 may be used as anticoagulant reagents. Generation of a standard curve is not necessary in these diagnostic tests, unless the standard of normalization is carefully selected. Thus we provide more detailed guidance for the clinical use of circulating miRNA biomarkers.
Xiong, Jiongxin; Zhu, Shikai; Zhou, Yu; Wu, Heshui; Wang, Chunyou
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of parenteral supplementation with omega-3 fish oil emulsion (Omegaven) on systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) during the initial stage of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). In a prospective, randomized and controlled trial, 60 patients with SAP were randomized either to treat with conventional therapy (Con group, n=30) or conventional therapy plus intravenous supplementation with omega-3 fish oil emulsion 0.2 g/kg every day (FO group, n=30). The effects were analyzed by the SIRS-related indexes. The results showed that APACHE-II scores in FO group were significantly lower, and the gap increased much farther after the 4th day than those in Con group (PSIRS scores were markedly decreased and the SIRS state vanished after the 4th day; Plasma level of TNF-alpha was significantly reduced, while IL-10 decreased markedly, most prominently between the 4th and 7th day, and the ratio of IL-10/TNF-alpha raised as compared with Con group (PSIRS, markedly retrieve the unbalance of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, improve severe condition of illness and may provide a new way to regulate the SIRS.
Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life
Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita
Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…
Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading. If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and (peer) review, they would seriously hamper progress.
Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu
Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)
Zhen Jin; Ma Zhien; Han Maoan
In this article, an SIRS epidemic model spread by vectors (mosquitoes) which have an incubation time to become infectious is formulated. It is shown that a disease-free equilibrium point is globally stable if no endemic equilibrium point exists. Further, the endemic equilibrium point (if it exists) is globally stable with a respect "weak delay". Some known results are generalized.
Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu
Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)
Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume. The rivers dealt with are the Buffels (Wes), Elsies, Sir Lowry' Pass, Steenbras and Buffels (Oos). False...
This article presents an interview with Sir John Daniel outgoing President and CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning. Sir John Daniel's term as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) ended on May 31, 2012. Readers of "Distance Education" will know of Sir John's work at the Tele-universite (Directeur des…
This article presents an interview with Sir John Daniel outgoing President and CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning. Sir John Daniel's term as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) ended on May 31, 2012. Readers of "Distance Education" will know of Sir John's work at the Tele-universite (Directeur des…
PAN GUANGMING; MIAO BAIQI; ZHU CHUNHUA
The output signal-to-interference (SIR) of conventional matched filter receiver in random environment is considered. When the number of users and the spreading factors tend to infinity with their ratio fixed, the convergence of SIR is showed to be with probability one under finite fourth.moment of the spreading sequences. The asymptotic distribution of the SIR is also obtained.
Semple, John; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Armel, Susan; Lynch, Henry T; Karlan, Beth; Foulkes, William; Singer, Christian F; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eng, Charis; Iqbal, Javaid; Narod, Steven A
The purpose of this study is to estimate the age-specific annual risks of breast cancer in a woman with a germline BRCA mutation and an affected first-degree relative according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the relative. Women with BRCA mutations with no previous diagnosis of breast cancer and with one first-degree relative with breast cancer were followed for breast cancers for a mean of 5.9 years (minimum 2 years). Age-specific annual breast cancer risks were calculated, according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the proband and the first-degree relative. 1114 cancer-free women with a BRCA mutation with a single first-degree relative with breast cancer were eligible for the study. 122 women (11.0 %) were diagnosed with incident breast cancer. The annual risk of breast cancer was 2.0 % for women with BRCA1 mutations and was 1.6 % for women with BRCA2 mutations. The age of breast cancer diagnosis in the first-degree relative did not affect the annual breast cancer risks for BRCA1 mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, the annual breast cancer risk was 4.5 % for women with a first-degree relative diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 30 years and was 0.7 % for women with a relative diagnosed over the age of 60. Among women with BRCA2 mutations, a family history of early-onset breast cancer is a risk factor for developing breast cancer. Risk assessment for healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers should consider the ages of breast cancers diagnosed in first-degree relatives.
Young, K A; Terrell, D R; Guthridge, J M; Kamen, D L; Gilkeson, G S; Karp, D R; Ishimori, M L; Weisman, M H; Holers, V M; Harley, J B; Norris, J M; James, J A
The objective of this paper is to examine whether smoking is associated with autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of individuals with SLE--a group at increased risk of developing SLE--or unaffected, unrelated controls. Detailed demographic, environmental, clinical, and therapeutic information was collected by questionnaire on 1242 SLE patients, 981 FDRs, and 946 controls in the Lupus Family Registry and Repository; a blood sample was obtained. All sera were tested for multiple lupus autoantibodies by immunofluorescence and luminex bead-based assays. Generalized estimating equations, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity and accounting for correlation within families, were used to assess smoking status with the dichotomous outcome variables of positivity for SLE status, positivity of ANA by immunofluorescence (≥1:120), positivity for ≥1 autoantibody by the luminex assay, and positivity for each of the 11 autoantibodies. Current smoking was associated with being positive for ≥1 autoantibody (excluding ANA) (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.24) in our subjects with SLE. No association was observed in unaffected FDRs or healthy controls. Former smoking was associated with anti-Ro/SS-A60 in our unaffected FDRs. There was an increased association with anti-nRNP A seropositivity, as well as a decreased association with anti-nRNP 68 positivity, in current smokers in SLE subjects. No clear association between smoking status and individual autoantibodies was detected in SLE patients, unaffected FDRs, nor healthy controls within this collection. The association of smoking with SLE may therefore manifest its risk through mechanisms outside of autoantibody production, at least for the specificities tested.
Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W
This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment. Rates of maltreatment were higher in FDRs of PG subjects than controls (41 vs. 24 %, P = .002). Rates in FDRs of individuals with PG who experienced maltreatment themselves were still higher that in FDRs of those with PG who did not experience maltreatment (50 vs. 28 %, P = .009). The former were also more likely to have anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Jessie G. Gorospe
Full Text Available The power of computers have enabled the field of biology to make significant leaps in quantitative methods. Fresh ideas from other disciplines in science and technology offer insight on how old techniques can be evolved into new ones for the benefit of biologists worldwide. In this study, a different approach to Drosophila species identification is presented by making use of binary coding and computer automation. The developed software, a System of Identification for Drosophilidae (SIrD uses binary strings to describe species characteristics and use it to calculate the degree of similarity between a sample specimen and the species stored in the database. This method of identification allows for greater tolerance to errors and flexibility in adding new species characters. The linear nature of the binary string enables the software to eliminate the common problems encountered in the couplet system of the dichotomous key, such as, species-specific paths, low tolerance to errors and rigidity in adding new characters. SIrD has a user-friendly interface and is created using open-source web development software, making it Internet-ready, for easy access on the World Wide Web.
Full Text Available HLA-linked genes are relevant to celiac disease (CD; the potential genetic differences present worldwide are not fully understood. Previous results suggest that the distribution of HLA-DQ2/DQ7/DQ8 in Chile may differ from that in Europe and North America. In celiac patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRS, we assessed their clinical, serological and histological characteristics, determined HLA-DQ2, HLA-DQ7 and HLA-DQ8 alleles and genotypes, and evaluated the relations between them. A total of 222 individuals were assessed (56 cases, 166 FDRs. 16.9% of FDRs were tTG positive; 53.6% of them showed overweight/obesity and 3% undernourishment; they spontaneously declared being asymptomatic, but detailed questioning revealed that 60.7% experienced symptoms, which had not been investigated. DQ2 was present in 53.9% and 43.9.0% of cases and FDRs (p < 0.05. The most frequent genotype distribution was DQ2/DQ7 (fr 0.392 (cases and 0.248 (FDRs, respectively, p < 0.02. The next most common genotypes were HLA-DQ2/DQ8 (fr 0.236 in FDRs and 0.176 in cases, p < 0.05. 3.92% cases were not HLA-DQ2/DQ8 carriers. Among tTG positive FDRs, 57.4%, 22.3% and 20.2% carried DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8, respectively. In cases, 72.7% of the biopsies classified Marsh ≥3 carried at least one DQ2; 91.7% of DQ2/DQ2 and 88.3% of DQ2/DQ7 were Marsh ≥3. Thus, DQ2 frequency is lower than reported; the higher frequency found for DQ8 and DQ7 concur with recent publications from Argentine and Brazil. These results suggest that although CD may manifest clinically in ways similar to those described in other populations, some genetic peculiarities in this region deserve further study.
Likelihood of obtaining Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 elevations among forensic psychiatric inpatients with screening elevations on the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test.
Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Gottfried, Emily D
The Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) was designed as a screening measure for feigned psychiatric symptoms. When M-FAST Total Scores are elevated (raw score ≥6), the test manual recommends follow-up with a more comprehensive measure of feigning, such as the widely used and researched Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) or the revised version of the test (SIRS-2). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how often M-FAST screening elevations are associated with subsequent elevations on the SIRS or SIRS-2. The sample included archival data from 100 forensic psychiatric inpatients who obtained M-FAST Total Score elevations ≥6 during screening and were subsequently administered the SIRS (that was also rescored using SIRS-2 criteria). Among examinees who elevated the M-FAST over the recommended cutoff, 66.0% met standard SIRS feigning criteria, 42% met SIRS-2 criteria for feigning, and 81.0% obtained at least 1 SIRS/SIRS-2 elevation in the Probable Feigning range or higher. These results are consistent with the M-FAST manual guidelines, which support the use of the ≥6 M-FAST cutoff score to screen for potential feigning (but not as an independent marker of feigning). A higher M-FAST cutoff score of ≥16 was associated with subsequently meeting full SIRS criteria for feigning in 100.0% of protocols. Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jacome, Tomas; Tatum, Danielle
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury (TBI). SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic utility of SIRS present at admission in trauma patients with isolated TBI. This was a 5-year retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with isolated TBI admitted to a Level II trauma center. The prognostic value of SIRS, total SIRS scores, and each SIRS criterion was examined by Χ (2) and logistic regression analyses. Of the 330 patients identified, 50 (15.2%) met SIRS criteria. SIRS was significantly associated with poor outcome (P SIRS score of 2 on admission (P = 0.007) and increased significantly to 6.5 times in patients with a SIRS score of 3 (P = 0.002). Logistic regression demonstrated SIRS and each criterion to be significant independent prognostic factors (SIRS, P = 0.030; body temperature, P = 0.006; tachypnea, P = 0.022, tachycardia P = 0.023). SIRS at admission is an independent predictor of poor outcome in isolated TBI patients. These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients. Future prospective studies aimed at therapeutic interventions to mitigate SIRS in TBI patients are warranted. Prognostic, Level III.
Průcha, M; Zazula, R; Herold, I; Dostál, M; Hyánek, T; Bellingan, G
In this retrospective study we assessed the frequency of hypogammaglobulinemia in 708 patients with SIRS, severe sepsis and septic shock. We evaluated the relationship between hypogammaglobulinemia IgG, IgM and 28 day mortality. Total of 708 patients and 1,513 samples were analyzed. In the three subgroups we investigated, patients met the criteria of SIRS, severe sepsis and septic shock. IgG hypogammaglobulinemia was demonstrated in 114 patients with severe sepsis (25.2%), 11 septic shock patients (24.4%), and in 29 SIRS patients (13.9%). IgM hypogammaglobulinemia was documented in 55 patients with severe sepsis (12.2%), 6 septic shock patients (13.3%), and in 17 SIRS patients (8.1%). Mortality of patients with severe sepsis and normal IgG levels was significantly lower (111 patients; 32.8%) compared with those with IgG hypogammaglobulinemia (49 patients; 43.0%; p=0.001). Mortality of patients with septic shock and IgG hypogammaglobulinemia (n=5) was significantly higher compared with those with normal IgG levels (45.5% vs. 38.2%; p=0.001). Mortality of patients with severe sepsis and IgM hypogammaglobulinemia did not differ from that of patients with normal IgM levels (37.0 vs. 41.8%). Mortality of patients with septic shock and IgM hypogammaglobulinemia was significantly higher compared with those with normal IgM levels (50% vs. 38.5%; p=0.0001). This study documented relatively high incidence of hypogammaglobulinemia IgG and IgM in patients with severe sepsis, septic shock and SIRS respectively. The presence of IgG hypogammaglobulinemia in patients with severe sepsis is independent factor of mortality.
Somani, Riyaz; Richardson, Victoria R.; Standeven, Kristina F.; Grant, Peter J.; Carter, Angela M.
OBJECTIVE Emerging data implicate activation of the complement cascade in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the relationships between components of the complement system, metabolic risk factors, and family history of type 2 diabetes in healthy South Asians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We recruited 119 healthy, first-degree relatives of South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes (SARs) and 119 age- and sex-matched, healthy South Asian control subjects (SACs). Fasting blood samples were taken for measurement of complement factors and standard metabolic risk factors. RESULTS SARs were characterized by significantly higher properdin (mean concentration 12.6 [95% CI 12.2–13.1] mg/L vs. SACs 10.1 [9.7–10.5] mg/L, P < 0.0001), factor B (187.4 [180.1–195.0] mg/L vs. SACs 165.0 [158.0–172.2] mg/L, P < 0.0001), and SC5b-9 (92.0 [86.1–98.3] ng/mL vs. SACs 75.3 [71.9–78.9] ng/mL, P < 0.0001) and increased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (2.86 [2.61–3.13] vs. SACs 2.31 [2.05–2.61], P = 0.007). C-reactive protein did not differ between SARs and SACs (P = 0.17). In subgroup analysis of 25 SARs and 25 SACs with normal oral glucose tolerance tests, properdin, factor B, and SC5b-9 remained significantly elevated in SARs. CONCLUSIONS Increased properdin and complement activation are associated with a family history of type 2 diabetes in South Asians independent of insulin resistance, and predate the development of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Properdin and SC5b-9 may be novel biomarkers for future risk of type 2 diabetes in this high-risk population and warrant further investigation. PMID:22338105
Vardas, K; Apostolou, K; Briassouli, E; Goukos, D; Psarra, K; Botoula, E; Tsagarakis, S; Magira, E; Routsi, C; Nanas, S; Briassoulis, G
To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP) and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) compared to healthy subjects (H). Patients with early (first 48 hrs) SS (n = 29) or SIRS (n = 29) admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72) and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α) were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P SIRS compared to H (P SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.
Shukla, A. P.; Prakash, Jai
Religion has played a dominant role in the lives of people all over the world. It is a widespread and significant social force in human societies. This study examined the degree of religiosity among Muslims, Christians, and Hindus and its effects on dependency and self-esteem. Subjects (N=300) were college students divided evenly among each of the…
Harirchi, Gouya; Chaminade, Cristina
User–producer interactions have been recognized as important for innovation. With the rapid growth of emerging economies’ markets, and an increasing degree of technological sophistication of both users and producers in those markets, user–producer interaction is becoming global. Using original firm...
van Kranenburg, H.L.; Hagedoorn, J.; Lorenz-Orlean, S.
This research studies the effect of specific institutional and distance cost issues, in particular the protection of intellectual property rights and geographic distance, on the preference of companies for different governance modalities in terms of the degree of their involvement in international
Horeczko, Timothy; Green, Jeffrey P; Panacek, Edward A
Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department (ED) patients is poorly understood. Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness. This was a retrospective analysis of ED visits by adults from 2007 to 2010 in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering. We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals (mCIs). We used 103,701 raw patient encounters in NHAMCS to estimate 372,844,465 ED visits over the 4-year period. The moderate estimate of SIRS in the ED was 17.8% (95% mCI: 9.7 to 26%). This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately 16.6 million adult ED visits with SIRS per year. Adults with and without SIRS had similar demographic characteristics, but those with SIRS were more likely to be categorized as emergent in triage (17.7% versus 9.9%, pSIRS patients. Traumatic causes of SIRS comprised 10% of presentations; other traditional categories of SIRS were rare. SIRS is very common in the ED. Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases. SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):329-336.].
The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.
Kuleš, J; de Torre-Minguela, C; Barić Rafaj, R; Gotić, J; Nižić, P; Ceron, J J; Mrljak, V
Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. canis canis, five dogs with babesiosis and SIRS, five dogs with babesiosis and MODS, and five healthy dogs. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marious; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S
Sir William Turner (1832-1916) was Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. His classic paper of 1863 on the anastomoses between the parietal and visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, later known as the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus of Turner, has mostly been forgotten. Located in the retroperitoneum and surrounding the kidneys and other adjacent structures, this plexus is an important route of collateral circulation. In the current paper, we discuss the sub-peritoneal arterial plexus as described by Turner in 1863 and review the literature concerning its potential clinical significance in the kidney, emphasizing its probable role in the metastatic spread of various tumors of abdominal organs and in the continuing viability of the kidney after renal artery occlusion. A biographical sketch of Sir William Turner is also presented.
Kobrick, M.; Leberi, F.; Raggam, J.; Domik, G.; Welch, R.; Carr, H.; Hammak, J.; Kaupp, V.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.
The SIR-B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR-B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters. This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives.
Richard B. Woodbury
Full Text Available In the early 19th century there were no "archaeologists" as we use the term today, although antiquarians studied the relics of the past, mainly of the classical world but occcasionally also Egypt and other distant, exotic lands, and dilettantes, men of wealth and taste, collected antiquities. Gardner Wilkinson, the subject of this excellent biography, considered himself neither, but rather a gentleman traveler and writer. He became interested in Egypt only by accident Leaving Oxford in 1819 before completing a degree he began a Grand Tour, the long-standing tradition of travel on the Continent by which an English gentleman "completed" his education. Wilkinson's tour included Paris, Strasbourg, Geneva, Turin, and Rome, where he met Sir William Gell, a scholar with whom he struck up an instant friendship.
Jellinek, E H
Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004.
In order to maximize the benefit of prompt antimicrobial therapy and avoid the risk associated with inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, patients with suspected sepsis must be rapidly differentiated from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In combination with standard microbiological testing, a number of biomarkers have been recently evaluated for this purpose, and the performance characteristics of the most promising of these are reviewed. PMID:25631808
Zhang, Zhonghua; Peng, Jigen
Based on J. Mena-Lorca and H.W. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.
Angstmann, C N; Henry, B I; McGann, A V
Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The fractional order recovery model is shown to be consistent with the Kermack-McKendrick age-structured SIR model, and it reduces to the Hethcote-Tudor integral equation SIR model. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations. We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero.
Full Text Available The signal to interference ratio (SIR in the presence of multipath fading, shadowing and path loss is a valuable parameter for studying the capacity of a wireless system. This paper presents a new generalized path loss equation that takes into account the large-scale path loss as well as the small-scale multipath fading. The probability density function (pdf of the SIR for self-organising wireless networks with Nakagami-m channel model is analytically derived using the new path loss equation. We chose the Nakagami-m channel fading model because it encompasses a large class of fading channels. The results presented show good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo- based methods. Furthermore, the pdf of the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR is provided as an extension to the SIR derivation. The analytical derivation of the pdf for a single interferer in this paper lays a solid foundation to calculate the statistics for multiple interferers.
Nguyen, Thuy T.; Caito, Samuel W.; Zackert, William E.; West, James D.; Zhu, Shijun
Isoketals (IsoKs) are highly reactive γ-ketoaldehyde products of lipid peroxidation that covalently adduct lysine side chains in proteins, impairing their function. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we sought to test the hypothesis that IsoKs contribute to molecular aging through adduction and inactivation of specific protein targets, and that this process can be abrogated using salicylamine (SA), a selective IsoK scavenger. Treatment with SA extends adult nematode longevity by nearly 56% and prevents multiple deleterious age-related biochemical and functional changes. Testing of a variety of molecular targets for SA's action revealed the sirtuin SIR-2.1 as the leading candidate. When SA was administered to a SIR-2.1 knockout strain, the effects on lifespan and healthspan extension were abolished. The SIR-2.1-dependent effects of SA were not mediated by large changes in gene expression programs or by significant changes in mitochondrial function. However, expression array analysis did show SA-dependent regulation of the transcription factor ets-7 and associated genes. In ets-7 knockout worms, SA's longevity effects were abolished, similar to sir-2.1 knockouts. However, SA dose-dependently increases ets-7 mRNA levels in non-functional SIR-2.1 mutant, suggesting that both are necessary for SA's complete lifespan and healthspan extension. PMID:27514077
Nguyen, Thuy T; Caito, Samuel W; Zackert, William E; West, James D; Zhu, Shijun; Aschner, Michael; Fessel, Joshua P; Roberts, L Jackson
Isoketals (IsoKs) are highly reactive γ-ketoaldehyde products of lipid peroxidation that covalently adduct lysine side chains in proteins, impairing their function. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we sought to test the hypothesis that IsoKs contribute to molecular aging through adduction and inactivation of specific protein targets, and that this process can be abrogated using salicylamine (SA), a selective IsoK scavenger. Treatment with SA extends adult nematode longevity by nearly 56% and prevents multiple deleterious age-related biochemical and functional changes. Testing of a variety of molecular targets for SA's action revealed the sirtuin SIR-2.1 as the leading candidate. When SA was administered to a SIR-2.1 knockout strain, the effects on lifespan and healthspan extension were abolished. The SIR-2.1-dependent effects of SA were not mediated by large changes in gene expression programs or by significant changes in mitochondrial function. However, expression array analysis did show SA-dependent regulation of the transcription factor ets-7 and associated genes. In ets-7 knockout worms, SA's longevity effects were abolished, similar to sir-2.1 knockouts. However, SA dose-dependently increases ets-7 mRNA levels in non-functional SIR-2.1 mutant, suggesting that both are necessary for SA's complete lifespan and healthspan extension.
Quintero, Enrique; Gargallo, Carla; Lanas, Angel; Bujanda, Luis; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z.; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Morillas, Juan Diego; Balaguer, Francesc; Muriel, Alfonso
Background First-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with colorectal cancer have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer than the general population. For this reason, screening guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 5 or 10 y, starting at the age of 40, depending on whether colorectal cancer in the index-case is diagnosed at <60 or ≥60 y, respectively. However, studies on the risk of neoplastic lesions are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of advanced neoplasia (three or more non-advanced adenomas, advanced adenoma, or invasive cancer) in FDR of patients with colorectal cancer compared to average-risk individuals (i.e., asymptomatic adults 50 to 69 y of age with no family history of colorectal cancer). Methods and Findings This cross-sectional analysis includes data from 8,498 individuals undergoing their first lifetime screening colonoscopy between 2006 and 2012 at six Spanish tertiary hospitals. Of these individuals, 3,015 were defined as asymptomatic FDR of patients with colorectal cancer (“familial-risk group”) and 3,038 as asymptomatic with average-risk for colorectal cancer (“average-risk group”). The familial-risk group was stratified as one FDR, with one family member diagnosed with colorectal cancer at ≥60 y (n = 1,884) or at <60 y (n = 831), and as two FDR, with two family members diagnosed with colorectal cancer at any age (n = 300). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for between-group comparisons after adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, and center). Compared with the average-risk group, advanced neoplasia was significantly more prevalent in individuals having two FDR with colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–2.66, p < 0.001), but not in those having one FDR with colorectal cancer diagnosed at ≥60 y (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.83–1.27, p = 0.77) and <60 y (OR 1.19; 95% CI 0.90–1.58, p = 0.20). After the age of 50 y, men developed advanced
Sharma, Srikant; Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Deshpande, Smita N.
Both neurological soft signs (NSS) and cognitive deficits are present among euthymic bipolar patients. NSS could be related to neurocognitive performance, but this is not explored thoroughly. Healthy relatives of patients may also suffer from similar deficits. This study compared NSS and cognitive functions in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) cases to their non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls. We also investigated the association between NSS and cognitive functions in these three groups. NSS were assessed in three groups using Neurological Evaluation Scale-revised (NES-r). Eight cognitive domains were assessed in 31 euthymic BPI cases, their 30 non-affected first degree relatives and 30 healthy controls using Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Euthymic BPI patients had significantly more NSS than non-affected first degree relatives on 5/7 tests (p-value ranges from 0.042 to p = 0.0001) and healthy controls on all tests (p-value from 0.042 to <0.0001). Non-affected first degree relatives and controls did not have any significant difference. BPI participants performed worse than their non-affected first degree relatives on one neurocognitive domain of CNB (spatial memory accuracy, p = 0.03) and healthy controls on four domains (spatial memory accuracy (p = 0.04), abstraction and mental flexibility efficiency (p = 0.04), spatial memory efficiency (p = 0.04), and emotion efficiency (p = 0.04). Non-affected relatives and healthy controls were similar on neurocognitive domains. Accuracy and efficiency indices of some specific cognitive domains were negatively associated with AV rating and tap copying NSS ratings. PMID:27520894
Banerjee, Kushal K.; Ayyub, Champakali; Sengupta, Samudra
Sir2 is an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase which has been shown to play a critical role in glucose and fat metabolism. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that dSir2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body dSir2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between dSir2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide (dILP)-dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body dSir2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids (FFA) and dILPs (from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs]). In summary, we show that fat body dSir2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. PMID:23129806
Osthus, Dave; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Caragea, Petruţa C.; Higdon, Dave; Del Valle, Sara Y.
Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence. This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U.S. remains challenging because the form of the disease transmission process is uncertain, the disease dynamics are only partially observed, and the public health observations are noisy. Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data. We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics. PMID:28979611
Igarashi, Chinami; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Imanaka, Masahiro; Yuasa, Masao; Yamamoto, Akira [Tsurumi Univ., Yokohama (Japan). School of Dental Medicine
This study was designed to evaluate the configuration of the articular disc and degree of anterior disc displacement on magnetic resonance (MR) imagings in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) with internal derangement. A total of 363 joints diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADD w R) and 523 joints diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADD wo R) by MR imaging were examined. These joints did not show severe osseous changes on the condylar head or glenoid fossa. We assessed the configuration of the articular disc and degree of anterior disc displacement. In the ADD w R group, 82.6% of the articular discs showed biconcave configuration; enlargement of the posterior band in 4.6%, biconvex configuration in 0.5%, and others in 10.7%. Moreover 62.5% of the discs showed a slight degree of anterior disc displacement; were 27.2% moderately displaced and were 10.2% severe displaced. The prevalence of slightly displaced discs was higher in the TMJs of cases over 50 years of age than in cases under 30 years in the ADD w R group. On the other hand, in the ADD wo R group 35.9% of the articular discs showed biconcave configuration; enlargement of the posterior band in 12.6%, biconvex configuration in 25.4%, and others in 22.3%. Furthermore, 4.4% of the discs were slightly displaced; 43.9% moderately displaced and 51.6% were severely displaced. The prevalence of severely displaced and deformed discs in joints of cases over 40 years of age was high in the ADD wo R group. The prevalence of slightly displaced biconcave discs was higher in the ADD w R group. The other hand, the prevalence of severely displaced deformed discs was higher in the ADD wo R group. MR findings of internal derangement of the TMJ were found to be significantly correlated with age. (author)
Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Gabrys, Bartholomäus
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Since insulin secretion in response to exogenous gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished not only in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also in their normal glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives, it was the aim to investigate the integrity of the entero-insular axis ...
Carpenter, Serena; Hoag, Anne; Grant, August E.; Bowe, Brian J.
The newsroom is a powerful influence in a journalist's identity formation. Research has yet to verify the socializing impact of academia. This research utilized the quantitative survey method applying it to undergraduate journalism students (n = 798) to assess how academic status relates to students' degree motivations, life values, and technology…
Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric
First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...
Carpenter, Serena; Hoag, Anne; Grant, August E.; Bowe, Brian J.
The newsroom is a powerful influence in a journalist's identity formation. Research has yet to verify the socializing impact of academia. This research utilized the quantitative survey method applying it to undergraduate journalism students (n = 798) to assess how academic status relates to students' degree motivations, life values, and technology…
Koning, Jeroen P. F.; Tenback, Diederik E.; van Os, Jim; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.; van Harten, Peter N.
Background: Several studies have reported the presence of dyskinesia and parkinsonism in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia as well as in their first-degree relatives. These movement disorders may therefore form an integral part of the illness and its (genetic) liability. Method: A syst
Takahashi, Tomoki; Imai, Masanao; Suzuki, Isao
Phenol oxidant is successfully removed by using chitosan particles in the aqueous phase. Removal of p-quinone by chitosan from crab shells was investigated kinetically from molecular weight (MW) of chitosan, deacetylation degree (DD) and reaction temperature. The rate constant assuming first-ordered reaction on removal of p-quinone in aqueous phase primarily depended on the MW of chitosan, not on the DD. Quantities of chitosan exceeding 5 x 10(5) MW are able to obtain a sufficiently high rate constant (10(-3) s(-1)). At higher temperatures, higher rate constants were obtained in the entire experimental MW and DD. The activation energy obtained was 43.8 kJ x mol(-1).
Fugono, N.; Furuhama, Y.; Takasugi, T.; Okamoto, K.; Fujita, M.; Yoshikado, S.; Masuko, H.; Shinozuka, T.; Inomata, H.; Shiro, I.
Sensor calibration, rice fields, and sea pollution are to be investigated with respect to shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B). It is planned that the resolution characteristics of the SIR-B be evaluated, the sidelobe characteristics of the SIR-B be investigated, and the relationship between backscatter cross section and image intensity be established. The microwave-scattering characteristics of rice fields are to be studied using SIR-B data. The possibility of classifying crops from SIR-B data is to be explored. The characteristics of the radar image of oil-like surface films under several sea surface conditions are to be determined. The absolute measurement capability of the sea surface scattering cross section is to be estimated using the SIR.
Guerra, Seidel; Ibanez, Agustin; Martin, Migdyrai; Bobes, Maria Antonieta; Reyes, Adnelys; Mendoza, Raul; Bravo, Tania; Dominguez, Mayelin; Sosa, Mitchell Valdes
Endophenotypes is one emerging strategy in schizophrenia research that is being used to identify the functional importance of genetically transmitted, brain-based deficits present in this disease. Currently, event-related potentials (ERPs) are timely used in this search. Several ERPs, including N400, present deficits in relation to schizophrenia.…
de Groot, Marieke; de Keijser, Adrianus; Neeleman, Jan
Chronic dysfunction after complicated grief is not rare and emphasizes the need to identify bereaved individuals at risk. Three months following bereavement, self-reported psychiatric and general health of 153 relatives of 74 suicides was worse than of 70 relatives of 39 natural deaths. Moreover, th
McCleary, David F.; Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper
Sir2 protein has been reported to be recruited to dicentric chromosomes under tension, and such chromosomes are reported to be especially vulnerable to breakage in sir2Δ mutants. We found that the loss of viability in such mutants was an indirect effect of the repression of nonhomologous end joining in Sir− mutants and that the apparent recruitment of Sir2 protein to chromosomes under tension was likely due to methodological weakness in early chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. PMID:27466318
Pavare, Jana; Grope, Ilze; Gardovska, Dace
In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia. A descriptive prospective point prevalence study (using two time periods, each 24 h, randomly chosen) was conducted on all children (n = 943) treated in the hospital. All children with abnormal temperatures - fever or hypothermia (n = 92) - were included in the study. Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. The prevalence of SIRS was detected with 95% CI. Out of a total of 943 patients treated in the hospital, 10% (n = 92) had abnormal temperatures. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. Of the children with fever, 72% (n = 66) had SIRS. Of the SIRS patients, 8% (n = 5) developed sepsis, 5% (n = 3) severe sepsis and 2% (n = 1) septic shock. Seventy-six percent (n = 50) of the SIRS patients had fever in combination with respiratory rate >2 SD above normal for age; 50% (n = 33) had fever with abnormal leukocyte count; 15% (n = 10) had fever with tachycardia >2 SD above normal for age. Most of the SIRS patients (39%, n = 25) were aged 2-5 years. Twenty-one percent (n = 14) of the children with SIRS and 50% (n = 2) of those with severe sepsis and septic shock had an underlying disease. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis.
Schilling, Claudia; Schlipf, Manuel; Spietzack, Simone; Rausch, Franziska; Eisenacher, Sarah; Englisch, Susanne; Reinhard, Iris; Haller, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Deuschle, Michael; Tost, Heike; Zink, Mathias; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Schredl, Michael
Several studies in patients with schizophrenia reported a marked reduction in sleep spindle activity. To investigate whether the reduction may be linked to genetic risk of the illness, we analysed sleep spindle activity in healthy volunteers, patients with schizophrenia and first-degree relatives, who share an enriched set of schizophrenia susceptibility genes. We further investigated the correlation of spindle activity with cognitive function in first-degree relatives and whether spindle abnormalities affect both fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) sleep spindles. We investigated fast and slow sleep spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in a total of 47 subjects comprising 17 patients with schizophrenia, 13 healthy first-degree relatives and 17 healthy volunteers. Groups were balanced for age, gender, years of education and estimated verbal IQ. A subsample of relatives received additional testing for memory performance. Compared to healthy volunteers, fast spindle density was reduced in patients with schizophrenia and healthy first-degree relatives following a pattern consistent with an assumed genetic load for schizophrenia. The deficit in spindle density was specific to fast spindles and was associated with decreased memory performance. Our findings indicate familial occurrence of this phenotype and thus support the hypothesis that deficient spindle activity relates to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Furthermore, spindle reductions predict impaired cognitive function and are specific to fast spindles. This physiological marker should be further investigated as an intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. It could also constitute a target for drug development, especially with regard to cognitive dysfunction.
Schumpert, Charles A; Anderson, Craig; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C
The ability to appropriately respond to proteotoxic stimuli is a major determinant of longevity and involves induction of various heat shock response (HSR) genes, which are essential to cope with cellular and organismal insults throughout lifespan. The activity of NAD+-dependent deacetylase Sir2, originally discovered in yeast, is known to be essential for effective HSR and longevity. Our previous work on HSR inDaphnia pulicaria indicated a drastic reduction of the HSR in older organisms. In this report we investigate the role of Sir2 in regulating HSR during the lifespan of D. pulicaria. We cloned Daphnia Sir2 open reading frame (ORF) to characterize the enzyme activity and confirmed that the overall function of Sir2 was conserved in Daphnia. The Sir2 mRNA levels increased while the enzyme activity declined with age and considering that Sir2 activity regulates HSR, this explains the previously observed age-dependent decline in HSR. Finally, we tested the effect of Sir2 knockdown throughout adult life by using our new RNA interference (RNAi) method by feeding. Sir2 knockdown severely reduced both the median lifespan as well as significantly increased mortality following heat shock. Our study provides the first characterization and functional study of Daphnia Sir2.
Xue, Yuan-yuan; Xu, Xiao-yun; Li, Gang; Wang, Yue
To investigate whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after cerebral infarction is associated with poor outcome and its associated clinical factors. We prospectively studied 500 patients with cerebral infarction, recorded the associated clinical factors on presentation and calculated the mortality at 21st day. There are 85 SIRS patients in 500 patients with cerebral infarction, 31 with total anterior cerebral infarction (TACI), 34 with partial anterior cerebral infarction (PACI), 15 with posterior cerebral infarction (POCI) and 5 with lacunar cerebral infarction (LACI). The frequency of SIRS was positively correlated with mortality rate according to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) subtypes in cerebral infarction patients with fever (Spearman correlation coefficient = 1.0; P SIRS and mortality of cerebral infarction were as follows: age, infection, 48 h Chinese Stroke Scale score, 48 h Glasgow score, OCSP subtypes and dysphagia. Diabetes was the risk factor for SIRS, but had no effect on mortality. On Cox regression, 48 h Glasgow score was the sole independent risk factor of outcome. However, if SIRS was included in the formula, P > 0.05. SIRS is the predictor of poor outcome after acute cerebral infarction. It is important to prevent SIRS especially in TACI and POCI. Diabetes is the risk factor for SIRS, but has no effect on mortality.
Sablotzki, A; Mann, V; Simm, A; Czeslick, E
Changes in the Cytokine Network Through Escalating SIRS After Heart Surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an injury that may cause pathophysiological changes in form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). There is a lot of information about the immunologic alterations in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, but only little is known about the expression of cytokines in patients with severe SIRS or MODS following cardiovascular surgery. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response of patients with an escalating SIRS following open heart surgery. Plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, GM-CSF and TGF-beta) were measured at the first four postoperative days in 12 adult male patients with severe SIRS (SIRS-group), and 15 patients with uncomplicated course (control-group) following myocardial revascularization. All cytokines (except IL-1beta) were significantly elevated in SIRS-patients, the analysis of differences between the survivors and non-survivors within the SIRS-group showed dramatically elevated levels of IL-8 and IL-18 in non-survivors. From the results of our investigation we can conclude that monitoring of immunologic parameters, e.g. IL-8 and/or IL-18 may be helpful for the early detection and prognosis of high-risk patients with severe SIRS and MODS following cardiac surgery.
Ishikawa, M; Nishioka, M; Hanaki, N; Kikutsuji, T; Miyauchi, T; Kashiwagi, Y; Miki, H
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) includes a number of pathologic states because of its loose definition. This study assessed differences in metabolic and circulatory host responses in various patients with SIRS perioperatively. Fifty-four patients who underwent abdominal surgeries [gastric resection (n=20), colorectal resection (n=24), hepatic resection (n=8)] were divided into two groups: Group A; SIRS (+) on 1 postoperative day (POD), (n=29), B; SIRS (-) on 1 POD, (n=25). The other eight non-operated patients with SIRS caused by infection were enrolled in Group C, as common SIRS. Indirect calorimetry, body impedance measurement to assess water compartments and pulse dye-densitometry for hemodynamic examination were performed in subjects until 14 POD. The ratio of energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure (%REE) was significantly increased postoperatively, and there were significant differences on %REE from 3 POD to 14 POD between groups A and B. However, %REE in group C was 162+/-23%, which was significantly increased compared with that at 1 POD of groups A (130 +/- 17%) and B (125+/-18%). Cardiac output in group A showed a significant increase until 3 POD compared with that in group B but was significantly lower than that in group C. Subjects with common SIRS caused by infection were significantly more hypermetabolic than subjects with postoperative SIRS. Adequate energy intake and circulatory management should be cautiously determined according to the severity of SIRS.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries, according to the patient's degree of osteopenia.METHOD: 138 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. Those operated from October 2008 onwards formed a prospective cohort, while the remainder formed a retrospective cohort. Also from October 2008 onwards, bone densitometry evaluation was requested at the time of the surgical treatment. For the patients operated before this date, densitometry examinations performed up to two years before or after the surgical treatment were investigated. The patients were divided into three groups. Those with osteoporosis formed group 1 (n = 16; those with osteopenia, group 2 (n = 33; and normal individuals, group 3 (n = 55.RESULTS: In analyzing the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA scores of group 3 and comparing them with group 2, no statistically significant difference was seen (p = 0.070. Analysis on group 3 in comparison with group 1 showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.027.CONCLUSION: The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries seem to be influenced by the patient's bone mineral density, as assessed using bone densitometry.
Ravin, J G; Migdal, C
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, and his faithful companion, Dr. Watson. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle (1859-1930) spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.
Ligon, B Lee
The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people. Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history. This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine.
This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike. As an effecti
Molnár, Zoltán; Brown, Richard E
Much of the original historical data behind the greatest discoveries in neuroscience are now lost. However, a recently rediscovered box of histological slides belonging to Sir Charles Sherrington, a pioneer in spinal cord and motor control research, has survived at the University of Oxford since 1936. Sherrington coined the term 'synapse', developed the concept of inhibition in neuronal function, demonstrated the integration of sensory and motor actions of the nervous system, and examined the synaptic activity of single neurons and their integration into neuronal circuits. Here, we explore Sherrington's lifetime of discoveries, with reference to histological specimens from his box of slides.
Rojas Donald C; Teale Peter D; Maharajh Keeran; Kronberg Eugene; Youngpeter Katie; Wilson Lisa B; Wallace Alissa; Hepburn Susan
Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD) and 20 healthy ad...
Judith Pichler; Matthias Zilbauer; Franco Torrente; Robert Heuschkel; Alan Phillips; Camilla Salvestrini
AIM: To assess feasibility of a finger prick-based kit as method for self-testing of first and second-degree relatives of coeliac disease (CD) patients.METHODS: A total number of 379 subjects were invited to participate in this study, consisting of 197 firstdegree and 182 second-degree relatives of CD patients.The self-testing kit (Biocard.) was sent out with included instructions for use.Completed tests were sent back to the study coordinator for assessment.RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-six invited relatives carried out the Biocard.test at home.Amongst these, 70% were children.In 97% of the cases the test was performed correctly.Three tests revealed a positive result, all of which were later confirmed by serology and histology as coeliac disease.CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that Biocard.test is a reliable, easy to use and well-accepted tool for home testing of first- and second-degree relatives of CD patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and aim The identification of right ventricular abnormalities in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC in early stages is still difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate if longitudinal strain based on speckle tracking can detect subtle right (RV or left ventricular (LV dysfunction as an early sign of ARVC. Methods and results Seventeen male patients, fulfilling Task force criteria for ARVC, 49 (32–70 years old, nineteen male first degree relatives 29 (19–73 y.o. and twenty-two healthy male volunteers 36 (24–66 y.o participated in the study. Twelve-lead and signal-averaged electrocardiograms were recorded. All subjects underwent echocardiography. LV and RV diameters, peak systolic velocity from tissue Doppler and longitudinal strain based on speckle tracking were measured from the basal and mid segments in both ventricles. RV longitudinal strain measurement was successful in first degree relatives and controls (95 resp. 86% but less feasible in patients (59%. Results were not systematically different between first degree relatives and controls. Using discriminant analysis, we then developed an index based on echocardiographic parameters. All normal controls had an index Conclusion Longitudinal strain of LV and RV segments was significantly lower in patients than in relatives and controls. An index was developed incorporating dimensional and functional echocardiographic parameters. In combination with genetic testing this index might help to detect early phenotype expression in mutation carriers.
Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian (pco syndrome is one of the most prevalent( 4-8% endocrine glands disorders among premenopause women. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenemia may has characteristics such as choronic anovulation, infertility, abnormal menstruation and android obesity. This diseas has genetic aspect and in different studies similar abnormalities have been seen in their first degree relatives. Materials and Methods: This research is a case-control study carried out on 107 individuals as case group and 107 individuals as control group selected by simple random sampling in 2009. After recognition patients with PCO syndrome , their first degree relatives (Father,mother,sister and brother have been interviewed. BMI and WHR indices of the both blood samples were taken to study their serum glucose tolerance. Results: Case group, from view point of obesity (BMI≥30 and centeral obesity , ITG level and diabetes regarding WHO standards was higher than similar individuals in control group,but this difference was not statistically significant . The mean of fasting blood sugar in fathers , mothers , brothers and sisters of cas group was significantly higher (p=0.001. Regarding Chi-square test there was no significant relation between obesity diabetes in the both groups. , (BMI≥30kg/m2, centeral obesity and lack of impaired glucose tolerance and type2 diabetes in the both groups. Conclusion: The first degree relatives of the women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are exposed to abnormal glucose tolerance and android obesity.
James C. Barton
Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study of autoimmune conditions (ACs in 235 hemochromatosis probands at diagnosis by analyzing age, sex, ACs, history of first-degree family members with ACs (FH, diabetes, heavy ethanol consumption, elevated serum ALT/AST, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, iron removed to achieve iron depletion (QFe, and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA haplotypes A∗01, B∗08; A∗02, B∗44; A∗03, B∗07; A∗03, B∗14; and A∗29, B∗44. There were 138 men (58.7%. Median followup was 19.6 y. One or more of 19 ACs were diagnosed in each of 35 probands (14.9%. Prevalences of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis were 8.1% (95% CI: [5.1, 12.5], 1.7% [0.6, 4.6], and 0.0085 [0.0015, 0.0337], respectively. Eighteen probands (7.7% had a FH. Eight probands with ACs had 9 family members with ACs. In a logistic regression, ACs were less likely in men (odds ratio (OR 0.3 [0.1, 0.6] and more likely in probands with a FH (OR 4.1 [1.4, 11.8]. Overall ACs risk was not significantly associated with QFe or HLA haplotypes. Estimated survival of probands with and without ACs did not differ significantly. We conclude that ACs are common in hemochromatosis probands, especially women and probands with a FH.
Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn
We performed a retrospective study of autoimmune conditions (ACs) in 235 hemochromatosis probands at diagnosis by analyzing age, sex, ACs, history of first-degree family members with ACs (FH), diabetes, heavy ethanol consumption, elevated serum ALT/AST, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, iron removed to achieve iron depletion (QFe), and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes A (∗) 01, B (∗) 08; A (∗) 02, B (∗) 44; A (∗) 03, B (∗) 07; A (∗) 03, B (∗) 14; and A (∗) 29, B (∗) 44. There were 138 men (58.7%). Median followup was 19.6 y. One or more of 19 ACs were diagnosed in each of 35 probands (14.9%). Prevalences of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis were 8.1% (95% CI: [5.1, 12.5]), 1.7% [0.6, 4.6], and 0.0085 [0.0015, 0.0337], respectively. Eighteen probands (7.7%) had a FH. Eight probands with ACs had 9 family members with ACs. In a logistic regression, ACs were less likely in men (odds ratio (OR) 0.3 [0.1, 0.6]) and more likely in probands with a FH (OR 4.1 [1.4, 11.8]). Overall ACs risk was not significantly associated with QFe or HLA haplotypes. Estimated survival of probands with and without ACs did not differ significantly. We conclude that ACs are common in hemochromatosis probands, especially women and probands with a FH.
Marlen Treviño Villalobos
Full Text Available El Sistema de Información Regional de la Zona Económica Especial (SIR-ZEE nació en Costa Rica aproximadamente en 1998, cuando se concibió la idea de crear un sistema informático para recopilar, gestionar y ofrecer temáticas generadas en forma digital por diferentes entidades públicas y privadas. En el 2008, con los fondos del Programa de Regionalización Interuniversitaria del Consejo Nacional de Rectores, se aprobó la iniciativa SIR-ZEE, Plataforma Tecnológica para el Desarrollo Local, que buscó fortalecer las capacidades productivas y las capacidades de gobernabilidad en la Región Huetar Norte mediante el acceso a la información oportuna y relevante para el desarrollo económico local. Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar no solo la relevancia de un sistema de información en la planificación del desarrollo local, sino también que, en la actualidad, el SIR-ZEE se está convirtiendo en una ventaja competitiva para la Región Huetar Norte, ya que facilita el proceso de toma decisiones. Los principales resultados obtenidos al final de la iniciativa fueron una propuesta metodológica para la elaboración de planes estratégicos de desarrollo local en la Región Huetar Norte, la sensibilización de los actores locales sobre la participación ciudadana en las diferentes fases de la planificación, un diagnóstico territorial con el valor agregado de contar con la información georreferenciada y disponible en un sitio web, y avances en la elaboración del Plan estratégico de desarrollo local.The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone (SIR-ZEE was born about the year 1998 as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities. In 2008, with the funds of Interuniversity Regionalization Program the National Council of Rectors approved the initiative SIR- ZEE: Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive
Szkopek, K; Warming, Torsten; Neergaard, K;
and the bone bruise volume of the lateral femoral condyle. Patients with bone bruise of the medial tibia and patients with meniscal lesions had more pain. It is suggested that pain and decreased function after acute ACL injury most likely is related to soft tissue and cartilage injury and not to bone bruise....
Bello, Babawale T; Raji, Yemi R
In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8±12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.
Babawale T Bello
Full Text Available In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents′ socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8 ± 12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.
Murphy, Kerri Anne
This study explored the relationship between community college students' working lives and student engagement. Student engagement has been used as a proxy for student persistence based on its strong association with student persistence and its powerful negative association with school drop-out. Work has been studied extensively as related to…
Rozentryt, Piotr; Nowak, Jolanta; Niedziela, Jacek; Hudzik, Bartosz; Doehner, Wolfram; Jankowska, Ewa A; von Haehling, Stephan; Partyka, Robert; Kawecka, Edyta; Myrda, Krzysztof; Rywik, Tomasz; Szyguła, Bożena; Kokocińska, Danuta; Anker, Stefan D; Ponikowski, Piotr; Poloński, Lech
Serum phosphorus abnormalities may pose a risk on the cardiovascular system. In heart failure (HF) phosphorus homeostatic mechanisms are altered and may be modified by modern HF therapy. The impact of therapy optimization on phosphorus abnormalities and related outcome remains unknown. In 722 patients with HF subjected to treatment up-titration we analyzed the prevalence of serum phosphorus abnormalities and their relation to HF severity on top of optimal treatment, and we assessed adjusted risk of phosphorus abnormalities at different stages of HF. We analyzed predictors of hypo- and hyperphosphatemia and relation to prognosis. Hypophosphatemia was associated with better response to therapy, was more prevalent in milder HF, and the association was independent of age, sex, BMI, etiology of HF, kidney function and the use of diuretics. Hypophosphatemic patients lost more phosphorus into urine. They had also less catabolic profile. Patients with hyperphosphatemia on top of optimal therapy responded worse to treatment. Hyperphosphatemia was more prevalent in advanced HF, but the effect was attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders. Clinical and biochemical profiles of hyperphosphatemics suggested domination of catabolism. Neither hypophosphatemia nor hyperphosphatemia modifies the outcome Serum phosphorus abnormalities are related to HF severity on top of optimal therapy. Hypophosphatemia occurring on HF up-titration therapy likely has a multifactorial pathophysiology comprising of urinary phosphorus wasting and refeeding effects. Hyperphosphatemia is linked to the catabolic profile but the effect of renal impairment can't be ruled out. The prognostic impact of serum phosphorus abnormalities remain to be established.
Knorr, Ulla Benedichte
in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Further, to test the hypothesis that a SSRI may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Finally, to test whether SSRI enhance...... in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. The secondary outcomes were a) change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the 240-items Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO...... and the placebo group, p = 0.47. Fur-ther, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported neu-roticism compared with placebo, NEO-PI-R (p = 0.09) and EPQ (p = 0.73). Finally, mean change in the general cognition score was not significantly increased with escitalopram compared with placebo, (p = 0...
Stocks, Nigel P; Broadbent, Jessica L; Lorimer, Michelle F; Tideman, Philip; Chew, Derek P; Wittert, Gary; Ryan, Philip
This study aimed to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in adult first degree relatives of patients with premature ischaemic heart disease (PIHD) using written and verbal advice. A prospective, randomised controlled trial. Cardiovascular wards at three South Australian hospitals. Cardiovascular risk assessments were performed in general practice. Patients experiencing PIHD (heart disease in men aged risk assessment or general information about heart disease only, to their first degrees relatives. The primary outcome was the proportion of relatives who attended their GP for CVD risk assessment within 6 months of the patients' PIHD event. One hundred forty four patients were recruited who had 541 eligible relatives; 97/541 (18 %) of relatives agreed to participate. A larger number of intervention 41/55 (75 %) than control group 9/42 (21 %) [difference 53 %, 95 % CI 36 % - 71 %] relatives attended their GP for a CVD assessment, and 34 % of these had moderate to very high 5-year absolute risk for CVD. This low cost intervention demonstrates that individuals who have a family history of PIHD and are at moderate or high risk of CVD can be targeted for early intervention of modifiable risk factors. Further research is required to improve the uptake of the intervention in relatives. The trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN), Registration ID 12613000557730 .
In this work we performed a numerical study of an epidemic model that mimics the endemic state of whooping cough in the pre-vaccine era. We considered a stochastic SIR model on two-dimensional Watts-Strogatz-type networks and analyzed the influence of the network properties on the characterization of the quasi-stationary state. We computed probability density functions (PDF) for infected fraction of individuals and found that they are well fitted by gamma functions, excepted the tails of the distributions that are q-exponentials. We also computed the fluctuation power spectra of infective time series for different networks. We found that network effects can be partially absorbed by rescaling the rate of infective contacts of the model. An explicit relation between the effective transmission rate of the disease and the correlation of susceptible individuals with their infective nearest neighbours was obtained. This relation quantifies the known screening of infective individuals observed in these networks. We ...
Sympathovagal Imbalance Contributes to Prehypertension Status and Cardiovascular Risks Attributed by Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Dyslipidemia and Oxidative Stress in First Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetics
Gopal Krushna Pal; Chandrasekaran Adithan; Palghat Hariharan Ananthanarayanan; Pravati Pal; Nivedita Nanda; Thiyagarajan Durgadevi; Venugopal Lalitha; Avupati Naga Syamsunder; Tarun Kumar Dutta
BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular (CV) risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR) of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) with CV risks in these subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), rate-pressure product (RPP), spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic function tests, insulin resistan...
Koch, Susanne V; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Mouridsen, Svend E
BACKGROUND: Clinical and population-based studies report increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their relatives. No nationwide study has yet been published on co-occurrence of these disorders. AIMS: To investigate comorbidity of ASD...... in individuals with anorexia nervosa, and aggregation of ASD and anorexia nervosa in their relatives. METHOD: In Danish registers we identified all individuals born in 1981-2008, their parents, and full and half siblings, and linked them to data on hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Risk...... of comorbidity of ASD in probands with anorexia nervosa and aggregation of ASD in families of anorexia nervosa probands were increased. However, the risk of comorbid and familial ASD did not differ significantly from comorbid and familial major depression or any psychiatric disorder in anorexia nervosa probands...
Moran, Michael E
Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.
Teplitski, Max; Goodier, Robert I; Ahmer, Brian M M
Orthologs of the Salmonella BarA/SirA two-component system are required for virulence, motility, secondary metabolism and stress survival throughout the gamma-proteobacteria. BarA is a sensor kinase that responds to an unknown signal by phosphorylating the response regulator SirA. SirA increases the expression of genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) that encode a type III secretion system (TTSS-1). SirA does this by directly activating the hilA and hilC regulatory genes encoded within SPI1. SirA also directly activates the csrB regulatory RNA gene. This RNA antagonizes the activity of the post-transcriptional regulatory protein CsrA that binds the mRNA of its targets to regulate SPI1, motility and secondary metabolism. A second regulatory RNA, csrC, is also strongly regulated by SirA, although gel mobility shift assays do not demonstrate a direct interaction. Additionally, we have determined that the sirA gene is activated by crp and cya. The effects of crp and cya were also observed on the downstream members of the SirA regulon, hilA, sopB, csrB, and csrC. However, gel mobility shift experiments and DNA sequence analysis suggest that the regulation of sirA by CRP is probably indirect. Although SirA does not regulate csrA, this gene was also under crp/cya control. Supplementation of a rich medium with phosphate diminished the catabolite control of the csr portion but not the virulence portion of the SirA regulon.
Yücel, Mehmet Onur; Devrimci Özgüven, Halise; Sakarya, Ayşegül; Baskak, Bora; Özel Kızıl, Erguvan Tuğba; Sakarya, Direnç; Haran, Seda
We aimed to compare Theory of Mind (ToM) functions and investigate the relationship between ToM functions and verbal working memory (VWM) in first degree relatives of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients. The sample consisted of first degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (n=22), schizophrenia (n=28), and age, gender, education and total IQ matched healthy volunteers (n=27) without a family history of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. We administered Auditory Consonants Test (ACT) to evaluate VWM, first and second order false belief tests (ToM-1, ToM-2), Faux Pas Test (FPT), Hinting Test (HT) to evaluate different domains of ToM functions. Both relative groups performed significantly lower in all components of ToM and VWM tests compared to the control group. When VWM scores were employed as covariate in the analyses, the FPT difference between the groups remained significant, HT difference regressed to a marginal level, and the difference between ToM-1 and ToM-2 disappeared. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of ToM impairment among first degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients similar to relatives of schizophrenia patients. VWM performance seems to affect first and second order ToM functions in relatives of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. On the other hand, FPT and HT domains seem to be independent of VWM performances in these groups. FPT and HT impairments may be familial vulnerability markers that are independent from neurocognitive impairment.
Castro-Rivas, Erida; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Milan, Maria; Kanna, Balavenkatesh
Background. The South Bronx, a largely Latino community, has become an epicenter of the diabetes epidemic in New York City. In this community, nondiabetic first-degree relatives of people with diabetes are prime targets for intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of diabetes and attitudes toward health behavior modification of Latino adults who are first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. Methods. Participants were recruited from three settings in the South Bronx (a community-based organization, a faith-based organization, and a taxi station). The Common Sense Model was used to develop focus-group items. This model provides a framework for exploring illness representations along five domains: identity, cause, consequences, timeline, and perceptions of curability. Responses were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis proceeded in the following order: data immersion, assignment of codes, grouping of key concepts to form categories, and construction of higher-order themes. Results. Of the 115 potential participants identified, 53 were found to be eligible, and 23 of these participated in the focus group. Of these, 20 were Dominicans, 2 were Puerto Ricans, and 1 was Salvadorian. The mean age was 46.39 years, 35% were women, 61% were married, and 26% had less than a high school education. Qualitative analyses resulted in 547 codes that were grouped into 52 concepts, from which 9 categories and 4 overarching themes emerged. The dominant themes were 1) family, genetics, and culture play a major role in the etiology of diabetes; 2) being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes makes getting diabetes inevitable, and, like a time bomb exploding, it is destined to happen; 3) once one develops diabetes, the physical and emotional consequences are devastating and destructive; and 4) diabetes can be "cured" through healthy eating and with insulin. Conclusions.In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with
Brod, Staley A; Hood, Zachary
Ingested type I IFN inhibits clinical attacks, relapses and inflammation in murine chronic relapsing EAE by inhibiting Th1-like cytokines. Type I IFN activates human suppressor T cells that produce SIRS. We examined whether oral (ingested) SIRS peptide inhibits EAE by decreasing Th1-like cytokines. Parenteral SIRS peptide 1-21 showed a significant inhibition of disease severity in murine EAE. Ingested SIRS peptide at 10 and 100 microg SIRS peptide showed a significant inhibition of disease severity but also a prolonged delay in the onset of disease compared to placebo. There were significantly less inflammatory foci in the SIRS peptide fed group compared to the control mock fed group. Splenocytes from SIRS peptide 1-21 fed mice showed increased production of Th2-like CD30L, IL-13, TCA-3 cytokines/chemokines and decreased production of Th1-like cytokine lymphotactin. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide significantly inhibits both clinical EAE and inflammation predominately via counter-regulatory type 2-like cytokines/chemokines IL-13, CD30L and TCA-3.
Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo; Hong, Wan Soo; Kim, Dong Geon; Hong, Yang Hee; Hong, In Sun; Chang, Un Jae
Cooking processes that gelatinize granules or disrupt structure might increase the glucose and insulin responses because a disruption of the structure of starch by gelatinization increases its availability for digestion and absorption in the small intestine. We hypothesized that the uncooked form of rice, which has a relatively low degree of gelatinization even though in powder form, would result in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice (CR). To assess the effects of the gelatinization of rice on metabolic response of glucose and insulin, we investigated the glucose and insulin responses to 3 rice meals of different gelatinization degree in female college students (n = 12): CR (76.9% gelatinized), uncooked rice powder (UP; 3.5% gelatinized), and uncooked freeze-dried rice powder (UFP; 5.4% gelatinized). Uncooked rice powders (UP and UFP) induced lower glucose and insulin responses compared with CR. The relatively low gelatinization degree of UPs resulted in low metabolic responses in terms of the glycemic index (CR: 72.4% vs UP: 49.7%, UFP: 59.8%) and insulin index (CR: 94.8% vs UP: 74.4%, UFP: 68.0%). In summary, UPs that were less gelatinized than CR induced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses.
Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kjærstad, Hanne L; Meluken, Iselin; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Maciel, Beatriz R; Köhler, Cristiano A; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Carvalho, André F
The phenomenology and underlying pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) are heterogeneous. The identification of putative endophenotypes for BD can aid in the investigation of unique patho-etiological pathways, which may lead to the development of personalised preventative and therapeutic approaches for this multi-faceted disorder. We included original studies involving unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients (URs) and a healthy control (HC) comparison group with no first-degree family history of mental disorders, investigating: 'cold' and 'hot' cognition and functional and structural neuroimaging. Seventy-seven cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. The present review revealed that URs in comparison with HCs showed: (i) widespread deficits in verbal memory, sustained attention, and executive function; (ii) abnormalities in the reactivity to and regulation of emotional information along with aberrant reward processing, and heightened attentional interference by emotional stimuli; and (iii) less consistency in the findings regarding structural and resting state neuroimaging, and electrophysiological measures.
This descriptive type study was conducted for the purpose of determining the level of autonomy of final-year students at Cumhuriyet University Nursing School, School for Health Sciences Midwifery School, Medical Faculty and Doctor of Dentistry Faculty. The research was conducted with a total of 221 students. Two forms were used for data collection in the research. The first was a 25-question personal information form including factors that affect autonomy in university students, which was prepared based on information in the literature. The second was the 30-item autonomy subscale from the Sociotropy/Autonomy Scale (SAS), which was developed by Beck et al (1983). It has been adapted for Turkish and has been tested for validity and reliability by Sahin et al (1993). The research data were loaded on the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 11.0 program, and then frequency distribution, arithmetic mean, variance analysis (One-Way ANOVA) and Independent-Samples t Test were used in the evaluation of the data. According to the General Autonomy score mean from the SAS used in this study, the students' General Autonomy score mean was 80.94 +/- 15.40, the final year midwifery students had the highest level of autonomy (X = 83.48 +/- 11.98), followed by medical students (X = 81.23 +/- 15.36), nursing students (X = 77.33 +/- 15.19) and dental students (X = 72.90 +/- 14.41). According to the results obtained, the nursing students' level of autonomy was lower than the students' levels of autonomy in the other health-related branches except for dental students.
Blom, R.; Elachi, C.; Evans, D.
Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) synthetic aperture radar images of sand dunes and volcanic fields are presented and preliminary interpretation provided. The SIR-A images are compared with Seasat images where available. Unvegetated sand dunes are recorded as black areas on SIR-A images due to the specular reflection away from the sensor at the SIR-A incidence angle. Even a very small amount of vegetation provides some backscatter, however. Interdune areas frequently contain rough lag gravels which outline the dunes. Lava flows are typically very rough surfaces which are bright areas on radar images. Cinder cones are smooth and therefore black on the image unless they have a blocky crater rim at the SIR-A incidence angle. Ash dunes and ash fields are smooth and imaged as dark areas.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.
Teplitski, Max; Goodier, Robert I; Ahmer, Brian M M
The barA and sirA genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encode a two-component sensor kinase and a response regulator, respectively. This system increases the expression of virulence genes and decreases the expression of motility genes. In this study, we examined the pathways by which SirA affects these genes. We found that the master regulator of flagellar genes, flhDC, had a positive regulatory effect on the primary regulator of intestinal virulence determinants, hilA, but that hilA had no effect on flhDC. SirA was able to repress flhDC in a hilA mutant and activate hilA in an flhDC mutant. Therefore, although the flhDC and hilA regulatory cascades interact, sirA affects each of them independently. A form of BarA lacking the two N-terminal membrane-spanning domains, BarA198, autophosphorylates in the presence of ATP and transfers the phosphate to purified SirA. Phosphorylated SirA was found to directly bind the hilA and hilC promoters in gel mobility shift assays but not the flhD, fliA, hilD, and invF promoters. Given that the CsrA/csrB system is known to directly affect flagellar gene expression, we tested the hypothesis that SirA affects flagellar gene expression indirectly by regulating csrA or csrB. The sirA gene did not regulate csrA but did activate csrB expression. Consistent with these results, phosphorylated SirA was found to directly bind the csrB promoter but not the csrA promoter. We propose a model in which SirA directly activates virulence expression via hilA and hilC while repressing the flagellar regulon indirectly via csrB.
Dara S Manoach
Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic medicated patients with schizophrenia have marked reductions in sleep spindle activity and a correlated deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Using archival data, we investigated whether antipsychotic-naïve early course patients with schizophrenia and young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia also show reduced sleep spindle activity and whether spindle activity correlates with cognitive function and symptoms.Method: Sleep spindles during Stage 2 sleep were compared in antipsychotic-naïve adults newly diagnosed with psychosis, young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and two samples of healthy controls matched to the patients and relatives. The relations of spindle parameters with cognitive measures and symptom ratings were examined.Results: Early course schizophrenia patients showed significantly reduced spindle activity relative to healthy controls and to early course patients with other psychotic disorders. Relatives of schizophrenia patients also showed reduced spindle activity compared with controls. Reduced spindle activity correlated with measures of executive function in early course patients, positive symptoms in schizophrenia and IQ estimates across groups.Conclusions: Like chronic medicated schizophrenia patients, antipsychotic-naïve early course schizophrenia patients and young non-psychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia have reduced sleep spindle activity. These findings indicate that the spindle deficit is not an antipsychotic side-effect or a general feature of psychosis. Instead, the spindle deficit may predate the onset of schizophrenia, persist throughout its course and be an endophenotype that contributes to cognitive dysfunction.
Parmi les manuscrits de l’encyclopédiste et « agenceur » du dix-septième siècle Samuel Hartlib, maintenant conservés à la bibliothèque universitaire de Sheffield, se remarque un ensemble de lettres de 1648-1649 provenant de Sir Balthazar Gerbier et le concernant en 1648-49. Gerbier était à Paris jusqu’au début de l’été 1649 où il revint en Angleterre. Dans une de ses lettres, datée du 4 octobre 1648, il fournit une description intéressante de la machine à calculer de Blaise Pascal accompagné ...
Fava, Giovanni A; Rafanelli, Chiara; Tossani, Eliana; Grandi, Silvana
The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks. In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al. indicates that agoraphobia, as a diagnostic category, is frequently independent of panic disorder and panic attacks, is unlikely to remit spontaneously and entails compromised quality of life. A staging system of agoraphobia is presented. Panic may ensue in the longitudinal development of agoraphobia, as well as of other anxiety disorders, and be conceptualized as a potential outcome in the course of anxiety, phobias and hypochondriasis as more than a specific disease entity. These recent research findings confirm the clinical observations and phenomenological research of Sir Martin Roth (1917-2006) and call for a reassessment of the concept of neurosis.
Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian
An SIRS epidemic model incorporating media coverage with time delay is proposed. The positivity and boundedness are studied firstly. The locally asymptotical stability of the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is studied in succession. And then, the conditions on which periodic orbits bifurcate are given. Furthermore, we show that the local Hopf bifurcation implies the global Hopf bifurcation after the second critical value of the delay. The obtained results show that the time delay in media coverage can not affect the stability of the disease-free equilibrium when the basic reproduction number R0 1, the stability of the endemic equilibrium will be affected by the time delay; there will be a family of periodic orbits bifurcating from the endemic equilibrium when the time delay increases through a critical value. Finally, some examples for numerical simulations are also included. PMID:24723967
R. K. Maharjan
Full Text Available A simple and compact 4.9 GHz bandpass filter for C-band applications is proposed. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator (SIR based bandpass filter (BPF.The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer (VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss (S21 and return loss (S11 were 0.3 dB and 28 dB, respectively, at resonance frequency which were almost close to the simulation results.
Ouboter, Tanneke; Trapman, Pieter
We study the spread of stochastic SIR (Susceptible $\\to$ Infectious $\\to$ Recovered) epidemics in two types of structured populations, both consisting of schools and households. In each of the types, every individual is part of one school and one household. In the independent partition model, the partitions of the population into schools and households are independent of each other. This model corresponds to the well-studied household-workplace model. In the hierarchical model which we introduce here, members of the same household are also members of the same school. We introduce computable branching process approximations for both types of populations and use these to compare the probabilities of a large outbreak. The branching process approximation in the hierarchical model is novel and of independent interest. We prove by a coupling argument that if all households and schools have the same size, an epidemic spreads easier (in the sense that the number of individuals infected is stochastically larger) in th...
Ichinose, Masaru; Echizenya, Yoshimatsu; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Kawai, Eiji; Hiromoto, Norihisa
A sensor calibration experiment was proposed as part of SIR-B experiments in Japan, together with the rice crop experiment and the ocean oil-pollution detection experiment. This sensor calibration experiment was intended (1) to establish a transfer function from image data to radar backscattering characteristics, (2) to evaluate 3-dB resolutions, (3) to verify the ability to resolve two closely-spaced targets, and (4) to clarify sidelobe structures due to range and azimuth compressions. The disused Akita Airport was chosen as the main test site for the calibration experiment on the first three objectives. This paper describes the test site, the design of the corner reflectors, and briefly predicts the results.
Zhou, Yinggao; Yang, Kuan; Zhou, Kai; Liang, Yiting
The purpose of the paper is to use analytical method and optimization tool to suggest a vaccination program intensity for a basic SIR epidemic model with limited resources for vaccination. We show that there are two different scenarios for optimal vaccination strategies, and obtain analytical solutions for the optimal control problem that minimizes the total cost of disease under the assumption of daily vaccine supply being limited. These solutions and their corresponding optimal control policies are derived explicitly in terms of initial conditions, model parameters and resources for vaccination. With sufficient resources, the optimal control strategy is the normal Bang-Bang control. However, with limited resources, the optimal control strategy requires to switch to time-variant vaccination.
During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors.
Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B
Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.
Hao, Lijie; Jiang, Guirong; Liu, Suyu; Ling, Lin
In this paper, the dynamical behavior of an SIRS epidemic model with birth pulse, pulse vaccination, and saturation incidence is studied. By using a discrete map, the existence and stability of the infection-free periodic solution and the endemic periodic solution are investigated. The conditions required for the existence of supercritical bifurcation are derived. A threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic is established. The Poincaré map and center manifold theorem are used to discuss flip bifurcation of the endemic periodic solution. Moreover, numerical simulations for bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and periodic solutions, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyrovola, Joanna B; Perrea, Despoina; Halazonetis, Dimitrios J; Dontas, Ismene; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Makou, Margarita
The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the need for diabetes primary prevention program in isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG of the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 793 individuals with prediabetes [543 with i-IFG and 250 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT] who were the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients, were enrolled. Isolated IFG was considered as fasting plasma glucose between 100-125 mg/dl and 2 hour plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl and isolated IGT as FPG < 100 mg/dl and 2 hour plasma glucose between 140-199 mg/dl during an overnight fasting 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Mean of the age, weight, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1C, and lipid profile were compared between two groups (i-IFG and i-IGT. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, hypertension, cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl, LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dl, HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dl, and triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl adjusted by age, sex and BMI were compared. Results: The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is higher in i-IFG group than i-IGT. The mean level of LDL-C is significantly higher in i-IFG than i-IGT group. Conclusions: First degree relatives of T2DM with isolated impaired fasting glucose should probably be included in the primary preventive program for diabetes. However, longitudinal cohort study is required to show high progression of i-IFG to T2DM.
张治坤; 秦鹏; 谭立文; 谢光荣
This article summarized the cognitive function in the first - degree relatives of schizophrenic patients including sus-tained attention, intelligence, working memory, and executive functions, and so on.
Wang, Yong-Guang; Roberts, David L; Liang, Yan; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Kai
We assessed theory of mind (ToM) in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with schizophrenia (SC) and bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls with a revised computerized referential communication task. Results showed that FDR of SC performed worse than FDR of BD and controls on a task requiring ToM-use, but not on a task requiring ToM-understanding. This indicates that deficient ToM-use, rather than ToM-understanding impairments, may represent a potential candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective:To explore the mental health status of the first-degree relatives of the heroin addicts. Methods: Three hundred twenty first-degree relatives of the heroin addicts were evaluated with SCL-90. Results: The scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, paranoia, and psychiatric factor among the first-degree relatives were significantly higher than the national norm. The first-degree relatives of heroin addicts who had addicted more than 5 years had significantly higher score than the relatives of heroin addicts who had addicts less than 5 years. Conclusion: The mental health condition of the first-degree relatives of heroin addicts was poor, especially those relatives of heroin addicts who have addicted for more than 5 years.
Social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected first degree relatives and healthy controls. Comparison between groups and analysis of associated clinical and sociodemographic variables.
Rodríguez Sosa, Juana Teresa; Gil Santiago, Hiurma; Trujillo Cubas, Angel; Winter Navarro, Marta; León Pérez, Petra; Guerra Cazorla, Luz Marina; Martín Jiménez, José María
To evaluate and compare the social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, healthy first-degree relatives and controls, by studying the relationship between social cognition and nonsocial cognition, psychopathology, and other clinical and sociodemographic variables. The total sample was comprised of patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (N = 29), healthy first-degree relatives (N = 21) and controls (N = 28). All groups were assessed with an ad hoc questionnaire and a Social Cognition Scale, which assessed the domains: emotional processing, social perception and attributional style in a Spanish population. The patient group was also assessed with the Scale for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Mini-mental state examination. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 15.0. Patients scored significantly worse in all domains of social cognition assessed, compared with controls, and mastery attributional style, compared with relatives. The type of psychopathology correlated negatively and statistically significantly with different domains of social cognition: negative symptoms with emotional processing and attributional style, and positive symptoms with social perception. Basic cognition scores correlated positively and statistically significantly with the domains social perception and attributional style. Social cognition has become an interesting object of study, especially in how it relates to non-social cognition, psychopathology and global functioning of patients, bringing new elements to be considered in the early detection, comprehensive treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of patients. Its conceptualization as trait variable, the consideration of the existence of a continuum between patients and relatives are plausible hypotheses that require further research. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Rojas Donald C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.
Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Veseli, Kujtim; Stang, Katharina; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Walker, Tobias
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. 21 Patients scheduled for planned cardiovascular surgery were recruited in the study, monitored for signs of SIRS and blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers at pre-assigned time points: day of admission, start of surgery, end of surgery, days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 post surgery. Stored plasma and cryopreserved blood samples were analyzed for cytokine expression (IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ), other pro-inflammatory markers (sCD163, sTREM-1, ESM-1) and response to endotoxin. Acute phase proteins CRP, PCT and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 were significantly increased (pSIRS group at the end of surgery. Soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly increased in patients with SIRS (pSIRS after cardiovascular surgery. A combination of normalized IL1β plasma levels, responses to endotoxin and soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations at the end of surgery are predictive markers of SIRS development in this small scale study and could act as an indicator for starting early therapeutic interventions.
Oku, Reiko; Oda, Shigeto; Nakada, Taka-aki; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Nakamura, Masataka; Hirayama, Yoh; Abe, Ryuzo; Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Ito, Michihiro; Iseki, Toru; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) was reported to play a key roll in amplification of production of inflammatory cytokines. TREM-1 is suggested to be a specific biomarker for sepsis for this reason, but the clinical significance of TREM-1 has not been elucidated. We investigated TREM-1 expression on the cell-surface, and plasma levels of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) in patients with non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis admitted to the ICU. Thirty-five patients with SIRS and 21 patients with sepsis admitted to ICU were subjected to the study. TREM-1 expressions on the surfaces of monocytes and neutrophils were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma sTREM-1 level and serum interleukin (IL)-6 level were measured. Septic patients had decreased TREM-1 expression, clearly on neutrophils or to a lesser extent on monocyte compared to SIRS patients on ICU admission (neutrophils pSIRS patients (pSIRS/sepsis patients (pSIRS patients. sTREM-1 may be useful to evaluate disease severity and outcome of patients with SIRS or sepsis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samuel, Jonathan C; Varela, Carlos; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G
Little is known regarding systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and mortality in developing countries. We evaluated the utility of the SIRS criteria to predict death among a paediatric surgical population in Lilongwe, Malawi. Age, SIRS variables (temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and leucocyte count), diagnosis, surgical procedure and outcome were analysed for paediatric surgical patients during 2012. Age-specific criteria for SIRS variables were then applied to the data. Using published SIRS criteria, temperature was the only variable that correlated with mortality. When norms for an African population were used, leucocyte count also correlated with mortality. With the exception of temperature, published SIRS criteria were not predictive of mortality. Leucocyte count became predictive of death using norms specific to an African population. SIRS and its component data are a worthwhile area of future prospective research in developing countries. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Teplitski, Max; Al-Agely, Ali; Ahmer, Brian M M
Orthologues of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) BarA/SirA two-component system are important for biofilm formation and virulence in many gamma-Proteobacteria. In S. typhimurium, SirA activates the csrB and csrC carbon storage regulatory RNAs and the virulence gene regulators hilA and hilC. The regulatory RNAs antagonize the activity of the CsrA protein, allowing translation of those same virulence genes, and inhibiting the translation of flagellar genes. In this report, it was determined that SirA and the Csr system also control the fim operon that encodes type 1 fimbriae. sirA orthologues in other bacterial species, and the fim operon of S. typhimurium, are known to play a role in biofilm formation; therefore, all members of the S. typhimurium sirA regulon were tested for in vitro biofilm production. A sirA mutant, a csrB csrC double mutant, and a fimI mutant, were all defective in biofilm formation. Conversely, inactivation of flhDC increased biofilm formation. Therefore, SirA activates csrB, csrC and the fim operon to promote biofilm formation. In turn, csrB and csrC promote the translation of the fim operon, while at the same time inhibiting the translation of flagella, which are inhibitory to biofilm formation.
Norma Breda dos Santos
Full Text Available Este trabalho trata dos programas de pós-graduação em Relações Internacionais no Brasil, cujo número tem crescido de forma expressiva, passando de dois, na década de 1980, para oito, em 2008. Em sua primeira parte, são abordados a evolução, o crescimento e as políticas de indução para a criação e a consolidação dos programas na área. A segunda parte trata da avaliação desses programas pela Capes e busca mapear, de forma aproximativa, a situação da área com relação ao fomento à pesquisa na Capes e no CNPq.This work is on advanced degrees in International Relations in Brazil, which have grown four-fold from two in the 1980s to eight in 2008. The first part of the paper discusses this increase in the total of degrees and public policy incentives for the creation and consolidation of such programs. The second part discusses the evaluation of these programs by Capes and maps out the state of International Relations in Brazil given research incentives from Capes and CNPq.
Song, Jun-Long; Chen, Chuang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Li, Juan-Juan; Sun, Sheng-Rong
Whether a first-degree family history of others cancers (FHOC) than breast or ovarian cancer (BOC) is associated with breast cancer prognosis remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify this issue. Women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2010 to 2013 were included in the study. The demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were extracted. FHOC was considered positive for any patient who had a relative who had been diagnosed with cancer other than BOC. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated based on the date of diagnosis. DFS was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 434 breast cancer patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 61 (14.06%) had a positive FHOC in first-degree relatives. Patients with a positive FHOC tended to have HER2-positive breast cancer (p = 0.03). In the survival analysis, FHOC was associated with poor DFS in both univariate (HR = 2.21 (1.28-3.83), 95% CI: 1.28-3.83, p breast cancer patients with FHOC, especially in patients with luminal A subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hajnal, András; Csábi, Györgyi; Herold, Róbert; Jeges, Sára; Halmai, Tamás; Trixler, Dániel; Simon, Maria; Tóth, Ákos Levente; Tényi, Tamás
Minor physical anomalies are external markers of abnormal brain development,so the more common appearance of these signs among the relatives of schizophrenia patients can confirm minor physical anomalies as intermediate phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and topological profile of minor physical anomalies in the first-degree unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia compared to matched normal control subjects. Using a list of 57 minor physical anomalies (the Méhes Scale), 20 relatives of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and as a comparison 20 matched normal control subjects were examined. Minor physical anomalies were more common in the head and mouth regions among the relatives of schizophrenia patients compared to normal controls. By the differentiation of minor malformations and phenogenetic variants, we have found that only phenogenetic variants were more common in the relatives of schizophrenia patients compared to the control group, however individual analyses showed, that one minor malformation (flat forehead) was more prevalent in the relative group. The results can promote the concept, that minor physical anomalies can be endophenotypic markers of the illness.
McFadden Kristina L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Synchronous neural oscillatory activity in the gamma range (30–80 Hz has been shown to be abnormal in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and their first-degree relatives in response to simple auditory stimuli. Gamma-band abnormalities in ASD probands have been seen in response to language stimuli, but this has not been investigated in first-degree relatives. This is of particular interest given that language impairments are a core symptom of ASD and may be part of the broad autism phenotype (BAP seen in relatives. Methods Magnetoencephalography recordings during a continuous word recognition task were obtained for 23 parents of a child with ASD (pASD and 28 adult control participants. Total and evoked gamma-band activity, as well as inter-trial phase-locking factor (PLF, were measured in response to the task. Beta-band activity was also measured, due to its suggested role in language processing. Participants completed a series of language measures to assess the relationship between brain activity and language function, and lateralization of task-related activity was assessed. Results The pASD group showed increased evoked gamma and beta activity, while controls had decreased evoked activity. Additionally, while both groups showed a reduction in total gamma power (commonly seen in language tasks, this reduction was more prominent in the control group. The pASD group demonstrated significantly worse performance on a measure of phonology compared to controls. Significant but distinct relationships were found between gamma/beta activity and language measures within the two groups. In addition, while the overall task generally elicited left lateralized responses, pASD showed greater left lateralization than controls in some regions of interest. Conclusions Abnormalities in oscillatory responses to language were seen in pASD that are consistent with previous findings in ASD probands. Gamma-band responses to language
Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gade, Anders
The effect of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) on healthy individuals remains unclear. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (FDRs). A total of 80...... following treatment of depressed patients with SSRIs seems to be related to the effects on depressive symptoms rather than to a direct effect of the SSRI....... cognitive score and the variables age, sex, Hamilton depression score 17 items, Danish Adult Reading Test-45, and plasma escitalopram levels, respectively. These results suggest that treatment with escitalopram does not improve or impair cognitive function in FDRs. Improvement in cognitive function...
Mellick, Sam A
Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man.
Sir Thomas Browne, 1605-1682, a physician of great scholarship, published his Religio Medici in 1642 as an expression of his own religious and professional beliefs. He had studied in Oxford and then turned to medicine and he pursued these studies in the Uni-versities of Montpellier, Padua and Leiden in Europe. Returning to Britain, he completed his medical degree and practised in Norwich for over three decades. He was considered one of the foremost physicians in England, although he did not practise in London, and he was conscious of the need for doctors to have a good knowledge of anatomy at a time when, before anaesthesia, surgery was becoming more adventurous. He was knighted by King Charles II in 1671. The curtailment of anatomy teaching in many undergraduate and postgraduate schools of medicine today would not have appealed to Browne. It is of growing concern to surgical colleges and academies who are now required to provide additional postgraduate anatomy teaching in order to satisfy the requirements of their examinations for surgeons.
Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An
Reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been observed in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, suggesting genetic predispositions. However, findings have not been consistent. We assessed cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (n=45; 26 female; aged 39.69±14.82 years). Data were compared to healthy controls (n=45; 26 female; aged 38.27±9.79 years) matched for age, gender, body mass index and physical activity as well as to unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia (n=45; 25 female; aged 37.31±12.65 years). Electrocardiograms were recorded under supine resting and deep-breathing conditions (10-12breaths/min). We measured HRV components including variance, low-frequency (LF) power, which may reflect baroreflex function, high-frequency (HF) power, which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, and LF/HF ratio, which may reflect sympatho-vagal balance. Patients rather than relatives exhibited lower resting-state HRV (variance, LF, and HF) than controls. As expected, deep breathing induced an increase in variance and HF-HRV in controls. However, such a response was significantly reduced in both patients and their relatives. In conclusion, the diminished cardiac autonomic reactivity to deep breathing seen in patients and their unaffected relatives indicates that this pattern of cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be regarded as a genetic trait marker for schizophrenia.
Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.
Objectives To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert
Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Zhifang; Du, Ruiqin; Hu, Xiaoqiang; Yan, Yan; Gao, Qing; Fan, Yanting
To investigate the relationship between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1), vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), monocytes chemotactic protein (MCP-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and coronary artery stenoses degree in coronary heart disease (CHD) within type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A total of 92 subjects were treated with coronary angiography (CAG), including 62 subjects with CHD. The individuals were divided into three groups, group A (32 patients with CHD and T2DM), group B (30 patients with CHD but no T2DM) and group C (30 patients with no CHD and T2DM). All patients were treated with a Gensini coronary angiography check. The correlations between sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1 and vWF in peripheral blood and coronary artery stenosis degree were analyzed. The average score of coronary artery stenosis degree was 30.75 +/-12.67 in group A, which was significantly higher than group B (11.20 +/-7.51) and group C (2.40 +/- 1.23) (p coronary artery stenosis and the mean level of sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, vWF in group A (p 0.05). Association analysis shown that the level of sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1 and vWF elevated in CHD with T2DM patients. Vascular endothelial dysfunction could be caused to the coronary artery stenosis pathophysiological process. Results from this study suggested that sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1 and vWF may contribute to the occurrence and development of vascular lesions in T2DM. These endothelial function related factors could be acceptable as a prediction and testing index of vascular complications in T2DM.
Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie
The motion of a rigid body in a uniformly rotating second degree and order gravity field is a good model for the gravitationally coupled orbit-attitude motion of a spacecraft in the close proximity of an asteroid. The relative equilibria of this full dynamics model are investigated using geometric mechanics from a global point of view. Two types of relative equilibria are found based on the equilibrium conditions: one is the Lagrangian relative equilibria, at which the circular orbit of the rigid body is in the equatorial plane of the central body; the other is the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria, at which the circular orbit is parallel to but not in the equatorial plane of central body. The existences of the Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian relative equilibria are discussed numerically with respect to the parameters of the gravity field and the rigid body. The effect of the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling is especially assessed. The existence region of the Lagrangian relative equilibria is given on the plane of the system parameters. Numerical results suggest that the negative C 20 with a small absolute value and a negative C 22 with a large absolute value favor the existence of the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria. The effect of the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling of the rigid body on the existence of the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria can be positive or negative, which depends on the harmonics C 20 and C 22, and the angular velocity of the rotation of the gravity field.
Singh, Prashant; Arora, Shubhangi; Lal, Suman; Strand, Tor A; Makharia, Govind K
First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with celiac disease (CD) are at high risk for CD and prevalence among them varies from 1.6 to 38%. The risk of having CD among FDRs if the FDR is sister, brother, mother, father, son, or daughter of index patient with CD is not known. We conducted a meta-analysis and calculated pooled prevalence of CD among FDRs, second-degree relatives (SDRs), and specific relations with index patient. On search of literature, 2,259 articles appeared of which 54 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Diagnosis of CD was based on standard criteria. Pooled prevalence of CD was 7.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.3%, 8.8%) in 10,252 FDRs and 2.3% (95% CI 1.3%, 3.8%) in 642 SDRs. Pooled prevalence of CD was highest in siblings (8.9%), followed by offsprings (7.9%) and parents (3.0%). Female FDRs had higher prevalence than male FDRs (8.4% vs. 5.2%, P=0.047). While sisters and daughters of index patient had the highest risk of having CD (1 in 7 and 1 in 8, respectively), the risk was 1 in 13 in sons, 1 in 16 in brothers, 1 in 32 in mothers, and 1 in 33 in fathers. There were also differences in the pooled prevalence of CD in FDRs according to their geographic location. Pooled prevalence of CD among FDRs is 7.5% and varies considerably with their relationship with the index patient. The risk of CD in FDRs also varies according to gender and geographical location.
Yu, Qing; Liu, Bin; Ruan, Dandan; Niu, Chao; Shen, Jiayi; Ni, Maowei; Cong, Weitao; Lu, Xianghong; Jin, Litai
For analysis of nitration modification of α oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-OGDH) induced by diabetes, a targeted proteomics strategy was developed through the use of Skyline. All peptides containing Y and W of the target proteins were nitrated in silico and output to produce parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) or SRM method for nitration analysis. A nitrated casein mixture was used as standard protein to assess the feasibility of this method. The results demonstrated the availability of this strategy for nitration identification, and subsequently this method was used to analyze the nitration of α-OGDH from myocardial tissue extracts of diabetic mouse. The PRM method was primarily generated by Skyline for identification of the actual nitrated peptides from all possible nitrated peptides of α-OGDH due to the complexity of α-OGDH. The PRM-based data were analyzed by SEQUEST, and transitions of the identified nitrated peptides were used to develop an SRM method for relative quantitation of nitration degree. The nitration degree of α-OGDH for diabetic mouse is higher than that for control mouse, indicating that α-OGDH of the diabetic mouse suffered from more intense oxidative damage. We believe that this approach for obtaining information regarding nitration will facilitate the study of other PTMs in complex mixtures. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A.
We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Trancranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. PMID:25735637
SIR-B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses. Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended.
Shapiro, A.; Blecher, S.; Verson, E. E.; King, M. L. (Editor)
A general overview is given of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Standard Information Retrieval System. A description, in general terms, the information system that contains the data files and the software system that processes and manipulates the files maintained at the Data Center. Emphasis is placed on providing users with an overview of the capabilities and uses of the NSSDC Standard Information Retrieval System (SIRS). Examples given are taken from the files at the Data Center. Detailed information about NSSDC data files is documented in a set of File Users Guides, with one user's guide prepared for each file processed by SIRS. Detailed information about SIRS is presented in the SIRS Users Guide.
Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete
Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...... and peripherally in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue as well as insulin-secretory capacity in seven FDR and eight control (CON) subjects before and after 12 wk of endurance training. Training improved physical fitness. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake (GU) increased (whole body and leg; P ... adipose tissue and quadriceps muscle with no difference between FDR and CON. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was lower in FDR compared with CON, but no effect of training was seen. Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulated insulin secretion five...
Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik
intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically......The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80...... healthy first-degree relatives to patients with depression were randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10mg or placebo for 4 weeks. The area under the curve (AUC) for awakening and all day salivary cortisol was analysed in samples taken immediately after awakening and at 15-min...
Holst, J J; Gregersen, S; Pedersen, S B
Background/Objectives:Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their nondiabetic first-degree relatives (REL) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial triglyceridemia (PPL), influenced by diet, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Dietary fat elicits increased PPL in T2D...... compared with nondiabetic controls, but our knowledge of PPL responses to fat in REL is sparse. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that REL respond to a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) challenge with a higher PPL response compared with controls who have no family history of T2D (CON) and that MUFAs exert...... a differential impact on incretin responses and on the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues of REL and CON.Subjects/Methods:A total of 17 REL and 17 CON consumed a meal with 72 energy percent derived from MUFAs (macadamia nut oil). Plasma triglycerides...
Full Text Available Joint fluid aspiration, or arthrocentesis, is one of the most useful and commonly performed procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases, but to date no definite guidelines have been published. For this reason, a group of experts of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR produced evidence based recommendations for performing arthrocentesis. Among them, the most relevant are: a arthrocentesis is necessary when synovial effusion of unknown origin is present, especially if septic or crystal arthritis is suspected; b the patient should be clearly informed of the benefits and risks of the procedure in order to give an informed consent; c ultrasonography should be used to facilitate arthrocentesis in difficult joints; d fluid evacuation often has a therapeutic effect and facilitates the success of the following intraarticular injection; e careful skin disinfection and the use of sterile, disposable material is mandatory for avoiding septic complications. Disposable, non sterile gloves should always be used by the operator, mainly for his own protection; f contraindications are the presence of skin lesions or infections in the area of the puncture; g the patient’s anticoagulant treatment is not a contraindication, providing the therapeutic range is not exceeded; h joint rest after arthrocentesis is not indicated. Several of these recommendations were based on experts’ opinion rather than on published evidence which is scanty.
Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. To provide an overall assessment of his career. Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian. A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation. The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine. William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Full Text Available In 1646 Sir Thomas Browne published his Pseudodoxia Epidemica, a broad, somewhat encyclopedic catalogue of errors divided into seven books. Browne intended his work as “Enquiries into Vulgar and Common Errors” to help discourage “radicated beliefs” – that is, received opinions based on popular credulity and the unchallenged authority of tradition. Far from being dogmatic and assertive, the treatise engages the modern reader for its defence of open debate and of the value of contradiction; actually, Pseudodoxia appears deeply in tune with the epistemological uncertainty of our times for its complex, relativising and even dubitative approach to all things human. Browne endorses the idea that uncritical acceptance of received notions about the world hinders the advancement of learning; at the same time, though, a rigidly straight path – a unique, simplified method to decipher reality – equally perverts knowledge and is the source of misapprehension and mystification. Building on recent studies on his style and his connection with a culturally and politically convulsed historical period, the present contribution discusses Browne’s notion of complexity and highlights exemplary passages in which he discusses the main source of error: the human tendency to simplify what is complex, thus reducing the interpretation of notions, signs and phenomena to a one-sided and necessarily inadequate undertaking.
The subject of experimental tectonics is the study of geodynamic processes by means of laboratory scale models. The first roughly scaled experiments were performed by Sir James Hall about two centuries ago, in the intellectual atmosphere generated by the appearance of Hutton's Theory of the Earth (Hutton, J., 1795. Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations, Vols. I & II. Cadell & Davies, Edinburgh). Their aim was to test the hypothesis that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression. The idea to test hypotheses by laboratory experiments had already been applied by Hall to petrological problems (crystallization and melting) not involving scaling. Interestingly, however, he constructed a scale model of a Gothic cathedral, using a line of reasoning parallel to that used in his tectonic experiments. From these beginnings, the theory and practice of scale models have grown to become an important part of an integrated approach to the study of geodynamics. One topic which is at present the focus of much attention is the choice of model materials correctly scaling the temperature dependence of lithospheric materials. As an example, a brief discussion is offered of two geodynamic problems where the application of scale models is proving very fruitful: the initiation and time-history of subduction of oceanic and continental lithosphere, and the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges.
Ledermann D, Walter
Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.
Ripping, Theodora Maria; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Otten, Johannes D M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M
Several reviews have estimated the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic screening in the general population. The balance may, however, differ between individuals with and without family history. Therefore, our aim is to assess the cumulative risk of screening outcomes; screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer, and false-positive results, in women screenees aged 50-75 and 40-75, with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer at the start of screening. Data on screening attendance, recall and breast cancer detection were collected for each woman living in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) since 1975. We used a discrete time survival model to calculate the cumulative probability of each major screening outcome over 19 screening rounds. Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher risk of all screening outcomes. For women screened from age 50-75, the cumulative risk of screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer and false-positive results were 9.0, 4.4 and 11.1% for women with a family history and 6.3, 2.7 and 7.3% for women without a family history, respectively. The results for women 40-75 followed the same pattern for women screened 50-75 for cancer outcomes, but were almost doubled for false-positive results. To conclude, women with a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer are more likely to experience benefits and harms of screening than women without a family history. To complete the balance and provide risk-based screening recommendations, the breast cancer mortality reduction and overdiagnosis should be estimated for family history subgroups.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD. METHODS: The trial used a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group design. We examined the effect of four weeks escitalopram 10 mg daily versus matching placebo on personality in 80 people who had a biological parent or sibling with a history of MD. The outcome measure on personality traits was change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ from entry until end of four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: When compared with placebo, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported NEO-PI-R and EPQ neuroticism and extroversion, EPQ psychoticism, NEO-PI-R openness, or NEO-PI-R conscientiousness (p all above 0.05. However, escitalopram increased NEO-PI-R agreeableness scores significantly compared with placebo (mean; SD (2.38; 8.09 versus (-1.32; 7.94, p = 0.046, but not following correction for multiplicity. A trend was shown for increased conscientiousness (p = 0.07. There was no significant effect on subclinical depressive symptoms (p = 0.6. CONCLUSION: In healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MD, there is no effect of escitalopram on neuroticism, but it is possible that escitalopram may increase the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT
Basaranoglu, Metin; Canbakan, Billur; Yildiz, Kemal; Ceylan, Bahadir; Baysal, Birol; Uysal, Omer; Senturk, Hakan
Fatty liver is a common disease in developed countries. We investigated the frequency of operation in patients with fatty liver and the frequency of cancer in their first-degree relatives. In this study, we evaluated 105 patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 121 patients with hepatitis C (61 patients with fatty liver and 60 patients without fatty liver), 50 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 109 patients with dyspepsia as a control group. There was no difference for sex, mean age, and marital status among the groups, except that patients with IBD were younger than others (p family was as follows: 18 % in IBD, 9 % in dyspepsia, 28 % in hepatitis C with hepatic steatosis, 21.5 % in hepatitis C without steatosis, and 27 % in NAFLD (p = 0.006). Then, we divided the study group into two groups-group 1: IBD + dyspepsia + hepatitis C without hepatic steatosis, and group 2: hepatitis C with hepatic steatosis + NAFLD-and performed the same analysis. We found that the frequency of cancer in family was 16 % in group 1 (the patients without fatty liver) vs. 24.4 % in group 2 (those with fatty liver; p = 0.037). We also investigated the rate of operation in patients. The results were as follows: 33 % in group 1 vs. 43 % in group 2 (p = 0.043). Independently of the underlying chronic diseases, occurrence of fat in the liver increased the frequency of operation in patients with fatty liver and the rate of cancer in their first-degree relatives. Understanding the underlying causes of fatty liver forms might decrease the cancer frequency in the population and number of operation in patients with fatty liver.
Ford, J. P.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Asmoro, P., Jr.
The discrimination and mapping capabilities are to be evaluated for shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) images of geologic features in Indonesia that are covered by equatorial rain forest canopy. The SIR-B backscatter from the rain forest at L-band is to be compared to backscatter acquired by the SEASAT scatterometer system at Ku-band ever corresponding areas. The approach for data acquisition, handling, and analysis and the expected results of the investigation are discussed.
Buonomo, B.; Rionero, S.
We study an epidemic model for infections with non permanent acquired immunity (SIRS). The incidence rate is assumed to be convex respect to the infective class. By using a peculiar Lyapunov function, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the local nonlinear stability of equilibria. Conditions ensuring the global stability of the endemic equilibrium are also obtained. Our procedure allows to enlarge the class of incidence rates ensuring the Lyapunov nonlinear stability of the endemic equilibrium for SIRS models.
Rogers, Richard; Payne, Joshua W; Berry, David T R; Granacher, Robert P
The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers et al., Structured interview of reported symptoms (SIRS) and professional manual, 1992) is a well-validated psychological measure for the assessment of feigned mental disorders (FMD) in clinical, forensic, and correctional settings. Comparatively little work has evaluated its usefulness in compensation and disability contexts. The present study examined SIRS data from 569 individuals undergoing forensic neuropsychiatric examinations for the purposes of workers' compensation, personal injury, or disability proceedings. Using bootstrapping comparisons, three primary groups were identified: FMD, feigned cognitive impairment (FCI), genuine-both (GEN-Both) that encompasses both genuine disorders (GEN-D) and genuine-cognitive presentation (GEN-C). Consistent with the SIRS main objective, very large effect sizes (M Cohen's d = 1.94) were observed between FMD and GEN-Both groups. Although not intended for this purpose, moderate to large effect sizes (M d = 1.13) were found between FCI and GEN-Both groups. An important consideration is whether SIRS results are unduly affected by common diagnoses or clinical conditions. Systematic comparisons were performed based on common disorders (major depressive disorder, PTSD, and other anxiety disorders), presence of a cognitive disorder (dementia, amnestic disorder, or cognitive disorder NOS), or intellectual deficits (FSIQ SIRS primary scales was small and nonsignificant, providing evidence of the SIRS generalizability across these diagnostic categories. Finally, the usefulness of the SIRS improbable failure-revised (IF-R) scale was tested as a FCI screen. Although it has potential in ruling out genuine cases, the IF-R should not be used as a feigning screen.
Cao, Jia-Feng; Li, Wan-Tong; Wang, Jie; Yang, Fei-Ying
This paper is concerned with the spreading (persistence) and vanishing (extinction) of a disease which is characterized by a diffusive SIRS model with a bilinear incidence rate and free boundary. Through discussing the dynamics of a free boundary problem of an SIRS model, the spreading of a disease is described. We get the sufficient conditions which ensure the disease spreading or vanishing. In addition, the estimate of the expanding speed is also given when the free boundaries extend to the whole R.
Santos, Pedro P.; Silveira, Paula S. Da; Souza-Duran, Fabio L.; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline H.; Scazufca, Márcia; Menezes, Paulo R.; Leite, Claudia Da Costa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Vallada, Homero; Wajngarten, Maurício; De Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tânia C.; Rzezak, Patricia; Busatto, Geraldo F.
Cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors may be associated with poor cognitive functioning in elderlies and impairments in brain structure. Using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we assessed regional white matter (WM) volumes in a population-based sample of individuals aged 65–75 years (n = 156), subdivided in three CVR subgroups using the Framingham Risk Score. Cognition was assessed using the Short Cognitive Performance Test. In high-risk subjects, we detected significantly reduced WM volume in the right juxtacortical dorsolateral prefrontal region compared to both low and intermediate CVR subgroups. Findings remained significant after accounting for the presence of the APOEε4 allele. Inhibitory control performance was negatively related to right prefrontal WM volume, proportionally to the degree of CVR. Significantly reduced deep parietal WM was also detected bilaterally in the high CVR subgroup. This is the first large study documenting the topography of CVR-related WM brain volume deficits. The significant association regarding poor response inhibition indicates that prefrontal WM deficits related to CVR are clinically meaningful, since inhibitory control is known to rely on prefrontal integrity. PMID:28184203
Costa, A; Rios, M; Casamitjana, R; Gomis, R; Conget, I
Our study aimed to analyse clinical and metabolic characteristics of first degree relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Catalonia. Two hundred and five subjects (39.8 +/- 14.2 year-old, 61% women) were included in the study. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed, obtaining basal plasma glucose and insulin, in order to calculate, %B (HOMA beta cell function) and %S (HOMA insulin sensitivity). A 30.7% of subjects showed an abnormal glucose tolerance, either as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (20.5%) or as NIDDM (10.2%). Glycaemia after the OGTT (120 min) was independently determined by fasting glycaemia and age (R2 = 0.50; P history of NIDDM (log %S, 3.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4; P = 0.000; log-insulin 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6 mU/l; P history of NIDDM. Interestingly, the rates, of abnormal glucose tolerance in the 55-64 and > 64 year groups in the general population were similar to those seen in relatives two decades younger. Our study not only confirms a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and NIDDM) in subjects with a family history of NIDDM, but also that these abnormalities can be detected at a very early age. Globally, this piece of information corroborates that special attention and precocious detection programs should be addressed to relatives of NIDDM patients.
Armbruster, Benjamin; Beck, Ekkehard
The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model has been used extensively to model disease spread and other processes. Despite the widespread usage of this ordinary differential equation (ODE) based model which represents the mean-field approximation of the underlying stochastic SIR process on contact networks, only few rigorous approaches exist and these use complex semigroup and martingale techniques to prove that the expected fraction of the susceptible and infected nodes of the stochastic SIR process on a complete graph converges as the number of nodes increases to the solution of the mean-field ODE model. Extending the elementary proof of convergence for the SIS process introduced by Armbruster and Beck (IMA J Appl Math, doi: 10.1093/imamat/hxw010 , 2016) to the SIR process, we show convergence using only a system of three ODEs, simple probabilistic inequalities, and basic ODE theory. Our approach can also be generalized to many other types of compartmental models (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS)) which are linear ODEs with the addition of quadratic terms for the number of new infections similar to the SI term in the SIR model.
We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.
Basilevsky, A. T.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Hiesinger, H.; Rosiek, M.
The European SMART-1 mission to the Moon, primarily a testbed for innovative technologies, was launched in September 2003 and will reach the Moon in 2005. On board are several scientific instruments, including the point-spectrometer SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR). Taking into account the capabilities of the SMART-1 mission and the SIR instrument in particular, as well as the open questions in lunar science, a selection of targets for SIR observations has been compiled. SIR can address at least five topics: (1) Surface/regolith processes; (2) Lunar volcanism; (3) Lunar crust structure; (4) Search for spectral signatures of ices at the lunar poles; and (5) Ground truth and study of geometric effects on the spectral shape. For each topic we will discuss specific observation modes, necessary to achieve our scientific goals. The majority of SIR targets will be observed in the nadir-tracking mode. More than 100 targets, which require off-nadir pointing and off-nadir tracking, are planned. It is expected that results of SIR observations will significantly increase our understanding of the Moon. Since the exact arrival date and the orbital parameters of the SMART-1 spacecraft are not known yet, a more detailed planning of the scientific observations will follow in the near future.
Zhou Hua Yang Dacheng
Signal-to-Interference Ratio(SIR) is a very important metric of communication link quality. For wireless cellular systems, several control mechanisms, such as power control mechanisms, rate control mechanisms, and allocation of radio resource, are based on SIR estimation.In previous researches, most of researchers concentrated on WCDMA systems, in which pilot symbol is time-multiplexed with data symbol; the method developed in this case is not feasible for cdma2000 systems where pilot symbol is code-multiplexed with data symbol. This paper first develops the SIR estimators based on the reverse pilot channel and then derives the approximate analytic expression for its Mean Squared Error (MSE) function, the accuracy of which is validated through simulation. It is shown that the MSE of the new SIR estimator is significantly smaller than that of other widely used SIR estimators, especially in low SIR case. Finally, the estimate quality of the proposed method is further improved by long-termly averaging the sample interference.
We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.
Chen, Yunxia; Li, Chunsheng
The study was conducted to know the significance of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) for prognosis of septic patients. The subjects were 1000 patients selected in emergency department of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital of the Capital Medical University (Beijing, China) and were classified into 3 groups as follows: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), non-SIRS, and sepsis groups. Plasma serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and the positive detection rates of BNP were examined. The BNP level of 100 pg/mL or more was regarded as positive, and then the positive detection rates of BNP of these groups were compared. The prognostic values of BNP and APACHE (Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) II score for the 28-day mortality were investigated, and their cutoff values for death were determined. There were significant differences in the positive detection rates of BNP between any 2 groups and in 28-day mortality between the patients with SIRS and non-SIRS groups. The BNP level had positive correlation to APACHE II score in 3 groups. Brain natriuretic peptide level of more than 113 pg/mL was independent predictor of death in septic patients. The positive rates of BNP in SIRS and septic patients were significantly higher than that of non-SIRS patients, and this is an index for unfavorable prognosis in septic patients.
Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Lykosov, V. N.; Vaganov, E. A.
The Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is the Siberia-focused NEESPI Mega-Project. SIRS is developed in line with Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach in cooperation of Russian Academy of Science (Siberian Branch) specialists with their European, American and Asian partners/counterparts and is aimed at coordination of multidisciplinary and "distributed" teams of specialists carrying out different scale projects on Siberia environment dynamics. Currently SIRS is supervised by the Russian National Committee for IGBP and managed by its Siberian Branch. Reported are recent results of investigations of the two major Siberian ecosystems dynamics, which are boreal forests and wetlands, with special emphasis on their role in the carbon cycle as well as results of climatic modeling for the region under study and first elements of the SIRS information-computational infrastructure forming glue for relevant multidisciplinary research. Among those are: recent results obtained at the Zotino Tall Tower Observation Facility; analysis of carbon balance between СО2 emission and accumulation based on ground observations performed at the Great Vasyugan Bog, recent development in high resolution regional climate modeling and new elements of the SIRS information-computational infrastructure. New SB RAS initiatives aimed at organization across Siberia a set of environmental observatories to monitor regional ecosystems and climate dynamics with special emphasis upon desertification and permafrost thawing processes and synchronized development of distributed facilities supporting obtained data storage and delivery are described in details. Scientific plans relying upon these developments are discussed as well.
Kerbaul, François; Bénard, Frédéric; Giorgi, Roch; Youlet, By; Carrega, Louis; Zouher, Ibrahim; Mercier, Laurence; Gérolami, Victoria; Bénas, Vincent; Blayac, Dorothée; Gariboldi, Vlad; Collart, Frédéric; Guieu, Régis
Adenosine (ADO) is an endogenous nucleoside, which has been involved in blood pressure failure during severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (severe SIRS) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Adenosine acts via its receptor subtypes, namely A1, A2A, A2B, or A3. Because A2A receptors are implicated in vascular tone, their expression might contribute to severe SIRS. We compared adenosine plasma levels (APLs) and A2A ADO receptor expression (ie, B, K, and mRNA amount) in patients with or without postoperative SIRS. : This was a prospective comparative observational study. Forty-four patients who underwent cardiac surgery involving CPB. Ten healthy subjects served as controls. Among the patients, 11 presented operative vasoplegia and postoperative SIRS (named complicated patients) and 33 were without vasoplegia or SIRS (named uncomplicated patients). Adenosine plasma levels, K, B, and mRNA amount (mean +/- SD) were measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Adenosine plasma levels, B, and K were significantly higher in complicated patients than in uncomplicated patients (APLs: 2.7 +/- 1.0 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 micromol l, P SIRS after CPB.
Brod, Staley A; Hood, Zachary
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model of the human autoimmune disease T1D. Soluble immune response suppressor (SIRS) is a nonspecific protein suppressor of immune response produced by immunomodulatory T cells stimulated by type I interferon (IFN). SIRS inhibits antibody responses in vivo, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. Previous investigators have isolated the N-terminal sequence of SIRS protein consisting of 21 amino acids. Mice ingesting 1 microg SIRS peptide 1-21 showed significant delayed onset of T1D and a decreased frequency of T1D compared with mock-fed and 10-microg-fed mice and a significant decrease in islet inflammation. There were significant decreases in islet lymphocyte chemokine production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 gamma (MIP-1 gamma), regulated upon activation, normal T cell-expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTES), and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the SIRS-fed mice, factors important in migration of inflammatory cell into the islets. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide inhibits clinical T1D by decreasing target organ cellular migration of islet destructive populations by suppression of islet lymphocyte chemokine secretion.
Thangappan, Karthik; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C; Baram, Michael; Thoma, Brandi; Hirose, Hitoshi
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is frequently observed after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) decannulation; however, these issues have not been investigated well in the past. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify post-ECMO SIRS phenomenon, defined by exhibiting 2/3 of the following criteria: fever, leukocytosis, and escalation of vasopressors. The patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with documented infections (Group I) and patients with true SIRS (Group TS) without any evidence of infection. Survival and pre-, intra- and post-ECMO risk factors were analyzed. Among 62 ECMO survivors, 37 (60%) patients developed the post-ECMO SIRS phenomenon, including Group I (n = 22) and Group TS (n = 15). The 30-day survival rate of Group I and TS was 77% and 100%, respectively (p = 0.047), although risk factors were identical. SIRS phenomenon after ECMO decannulation commonly occurs. Differentiating between the similar clinical presentations of SIRS and infection is important and will impact clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Mojica, Cynthia M; Chang, L Cindy
Optimizing participant response rates is important for obtaining representative samples and the timely completion of studies. It is a common practice to use participant incentives to boost response rates, but few studies have systematically examined their effectiveness, particularly among minority groups. We experimentally tested three incentive strategies for their effectiveness in improving response rates among colorectal cancer cases (n = 3,816) and their relatives (n = 2,353). A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design compared (a) registered versus first class mail, (b) $5 cash with the initial mailing (yes/no), and (c) $20 promise (yes/no) upon completion of the information form (for cases) or $10 promise (yes/no) upon completion of the baseline survey (for relatives). Outcome measures were provision of contact information on first-degree relatives for cases and completion of the baseline survey for relatives. The response rate among cases was low in all ethnic groups (28-37%) and incentive strategies did not have an effect. Among relatives, the overall baseline survey response rate was 71%, ranging from 66% among Asians to 76% among Whites. Modest absolute increases were observed for payment schedules that included a $5 cash enclosure with the initial mailing in the total sample [odds ratio (OR), 1.65 and 1.47] and among Latinos (OR, 1.94 and 1.74) but not among Asians (OR, 1.61 and 1.55) or African Americans (OR, 1.19 and 1.02). Response rates were not influenced by registered versus first-class mailing. The effects of incentives in this study were modest with some suggestion of differences by ethnic group and type of incentive.
Mica, L; Furrer, E; Keel, M; Trentz, O
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis as causes of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remain challenging to treat in polytrauma patients. In this study, the focus was set on widely used scoring systems to assess their diagnostic quality. A total of 512 patients (mean age: 39.2 ± 16.2, range: 16-88 years) who had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥17 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were subdivided into four groups: no SIRS, slight SIRS, severe SIRS, and sepsis. The ISS, New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, and prothrombin time were collected at admission. The Kruskal-Wallis test and χ(2)-test, multinomial regression analysis, and kernel density estimates were performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is reported as the area under the curve (AUC). Data were considered as significant if p < 0.05. All variables were significantly different in all groups (p < 0.001). The odds ratio increased with increasing SIRS severity for NISS (slight vs. no SIRS, 1.06, p = 0.07; severe vs. no SIRS, 1.07, p = 0.04; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, 1.11, p = 0.0028) and APACHE II score (slight vs. no SIRS, 0.97, p = 0.44; severe vs. no SIRS, 1.08, p = 0.02; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, 1.12, p = 0.0028). ROC analysis revealed that the NISS (slight vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.61; severe vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.67; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.77) and APACHE II score (slight vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.60; severe vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.74; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.82) had the best predictive ability for SIRS and sepsis. Quick assessment with the NISS or APACHE II score could preselect possible candidates for sepsis following polytrauma and provide guidance in trauma surgeons' decision-making.
Santosa, Katherine B; Fattah, Adel; Gavilán, Javier; Hadlock, Tessa A; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K
There is no widely accepted assessment tool or common language used by clinicians caring for patients with facial palsy, making exchange of information challenging. Standardized photography may represent such a language and is imperative for precise exchange of information and comparison of outcomes in this special patient population. To review the literature to evaluate the use of facial photography in the management of patients with facial palsy and to examine the use of photography in documenting facial nerve function among members of the Sir Charles Bell Society-a group of medical professionals dedicated to care of patients with facial palsy. A literature search was performed to review photographic standards in patients with facial palsy. In addition, a cross-sectional survey of members of the Sir Charles Bell Society was conducted to examine use of medical photography in documenting facial nerve function. The literature search and analysis was performed in August and September 2015, and the survey was conducted in August and September 2013. The literature review searched EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases from inception of each database through September 2015. Additional studies were identified by scanning references from relevant studies. Only English-language articles were eligible for inclusion. Articles that discussed patients with facial palsy and outlined photographic guidelines for this patient population were included in the study. The survey was disseminated to the Sir Charles Bell Society members in electronic form. It consisted of 10 questions related to facial grading scales, patient-reported outcome measures, other psychological assessment tools, and photographic and videographic recordings. In total, 393 articles were identified in the literature search, 7 of which fit the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 articles discussed or proposed views specific to patients with facial palsy. However, none of the articles specifically focused on
Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Sanguankeo, Anawin; Upala, Sikarin
Sepsis is frequently observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and is an important mortality predictor. Several studies have also identified systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a significant prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantify the effect of SIRS and sepsis on mortality in patients with AH. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from its inception till January 2016. Participants in the included studies were adults with AH and those with developed SIRS or sepsis during hospitalization. We estimated the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of mortality by comparing participants with SIRS vs. non-SIRS and sepsis vs. non-sepsis. Data were extracted from six studies involving 1,264 patients (of whom 507 had SIRS) and four studies involving 57,529 patients (of whom 1,449 had sepsis). SIRS and sepsis were both significantly associated with mortality with RRs of 2.7 (95% CI 1.74-4.14, I2=50%) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.58-4.93, I2=94%), respectively. Not only is sepsis associated with mortality but also SIRS. SIRS may be the initial trigger of cascade events leading to mortality in patients with AH. Identification of the key element of SIRS may thus provide a potential therapeutic target.
Anel Gómez García
Full Text Available BackgroundFamily history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of risk factors for that in future a subject can develop diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR is important in the pathogenesis of T2DM. There is evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and/or progression of diabetes. Myeloperoxidase (MPO participates in developing of inflammation. The objective was to investigate if MPO is associated with IR and inflammation in individuals with first-degree relatives of T2DM.MethodsCross-sectional study in 84 overweight individuals with family history of T2DM divided in two groups according to IR, group with IR (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] ≥2.5; n=43 and control group (CG; HOMA <2.5; n=41. Complete clinical history and a venous blood sample were collected for measuring glucose and lipids profile, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, MPO, glutathione reductase (GRd, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase.ResultsMPO, TNF-α, and IL-6 were higher in patients with IR than in CG (MPO: 308.35 [190.85 to 445.42] vs. 177.35 [104.50 to 279.85], P=0.0001; TNF-α: 13.46 [10.58 to 18.88] vs. 9.39 [7.53 to 11.25], P=0.0001; IL-6: 32.93 [24.93 to 38.27] vs. 15.60 [12.93 to 26.27]; P=0.0001, respectively. MPO was associated with IR (rho de Spearman=0.362, P=0.001. In the analysis of lineal regression, MPO predicts IR (β, 0.263; t, 2.520; P=0.014. In the univariate analysis, MPO had an odds ratio of 9.880 for risk of IR (95% confidence interval, 2.647 to 36.879.ConclusionMPO had relation with IR and inflammation parameters in overweight subjects with first-degree relatives of T2DM. We need studies on a casual relationship and molecular mechanisms among the increased serum MPO levels, inflammation markers, and IR.
Verrel, Julius; Pologe, Steven; Manselle, Wayne; Lindenberger, Ulman; Woollacott, Marjorie
Stringed instrument bowing is a complex sensorimotor skill, involving fine regulation of bow orientation and motion relative to the string. In this study, we characterize this skill in terms of stabilization of specific bow parameters as well as the underlying use and coordination of the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the right bowing arm. Age-matched samples of 10 advanced cellists and 10 cello novices took part in the study. Kinematic bow movement data were analyzed with respect to task variables suggested by the cello teaching literature: position and orientation of the bow relative to the string, bow velocity, and timing. Joint motion of the bowing arm was analyzed in terms of movement amplitude and inter-joint coordination (principal component analysis). As expected, novices showed poorer control of bowing parameters. In addition, novices differed markedly from advanced players in the use and coordination of the DOF of the bowing arm, with the elbow and wrist showing less overall movement and a reduced proportion of variance explained by the first principal component (PC1). In contrast, larger amounts of shoulder variance were explained by PC1 in novices compared to experts. Our findings support Bernstein's theory of graded skill acquisition, according to which early stages of motor skill learning are characterized by a "freezing" of movement DOF, while later learning stages exploit the DOF, possibly following a proximal-to-distal sequence, for improved task performance.
Prediction of Neurocognitive Deficits by Parkinsonian Motor Impairment in Schizophrenia: A Study in Neuroleptic-Naïve Subjects, Unaffected First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls From an Indigenous Population.
Molina, Juan L; González Alemán, Gabriela; Florenzano, Néstor; Padilla, Eduardo; Calvó, María; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Toranzo, Juan; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Hernández Cuervo, Helena; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Sedó, Manuel; Strejilevich, Sergio; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Escobar, Javier I; de Erausquin, Gabriel A
Neurocognitive deficits are among the most debilitating and pervasive symptoms of schizophrenia, and are present also in unaffected first-degree relatives. Also, multiple reports reveal parkisonian motor deficits in untreated subjects with schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of affected subjects. Yet, the relation between motor and cognitive impairment and its value as a classifier of endophenotypes has not been studied. To test the efficacy of midbrain hyperechogenicity (MHE) and parkinsonian motor impairment (PKM) as predictors of neurocognitive impairment in subjects with or at risk for schizophrenia, that could be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Seventy-six subjects with chronic schizophrenia never exposed to antipsychotic medication, 106 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 62 healthy controls were blindly assessed for cognitive and motor function, and transcranial ultrasound. Executive function, fluid intelligence, motor planning, and hand coordination showed group differences. PKM and MHE were significantly higher in untreated schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Unaffected relatives showed milder impairment, but were different from controls. PKM and MHE predict cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives and may be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Finkelsztein, Eli J; Jones, Daniel S; Ma, Kevin C; Pabón, Maria A; Delgado, Tatiana; Nakahira, Kiichi; Arbo, John E; Berlin, David A; Schenck, Edward J; Choi, Augustine M K; Siempos, Ilias I
The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) Task Force recently introduced a new clinical score termed quick Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) for identification of patients at risk of sepsis outside the intensive care unit (ICU). We attempted to compare the discriminatory capacity of the qSOFA versus the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score for predicting mortality, ICU-free days, and organ dysfunction-free days in patients with suspicion of infection outside the ICU. The Weill Cornell Medicine Registry and Biobank of Critically Ill Patients is an ongoing cohort of critically ill patients, for whom biological samples and clinical information (including vital signs before and during ICU hospitalization) are prospectively collected. Using such information, qSOFA and SIRS scores outside the ICU (specifically, within 8 hours before ICU admission) were calculated. This study population was therefore comprised of patients in the emergency department or the hospital wards who had suspected infection, were subsequently admitted to the medical ICU and were included in the Registry and Biobank. One hundred fifty-two patients (67% from the emergency department) were included in this study. Sixty-seven percent had positive cultures and 19% died in the hospital. Discrimination of in-hospital mortality using qSOFA [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), 0.74; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.66-0.81] was significantly greater compared with SIRS criteria (AUC, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.51-0.67; p = 0.03). The qSOFA performed better than SIRS regarding discrimination for ICU-free days (p = 0.04), but not for ventilator-free days (p = 0.19), any organ dysfunction-free days (p = 0.13), or renal dysfunction-free days (p = 0.17). In patients with suspected infection who eventually required admission to the ICU, qSOFA calculated before their ICU admission had greater
Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Pan, Xiaoping; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping
Accumulating evidence supported an association between diabetes and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The goal of the present study was to explore alteration in serum FGF23 levels and to assess its value for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree family history of diabetes (FHD). The study enrolled 312 subjects with a first-degree FHD and 1407 subjects without an FHD. Serum FGF23 levels were detected by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum FGF23 levels were much higher in subjects with a first-degree FHD than in those without an FHD (P = 0.006). A first-degree FHD was positively associated with serum FGF23 levels, independent of C-IMT and cardiovascular factors (both P < 0.05). In subjects with a first-degree FHD, only those with serum FGF23 levels in the upper quartile were more likely to have an increased C-IMT (odds ratio = 2.263, P < 0.05). As conclusions, a first-degree FHD contributes to the increased serum FGF23 levels independently. Subjects with a first-degree FHD need higher serum FGF23 levels to indicate subclinical atherosclerosis. The influence of a first-degree FHD on serum FGF23 levels should be considered to avoid overestimating the risk of cardiovascular disease in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree FHD. PMID:27698482
Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. 21 Patients scheduled for planned cardiovascular surgery were recruited in the study, monitored for signs of SIRS and blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers at pre-assigned time points: day of admission, start of surgery, end of surgery, days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 post surgery. Stored plasma and cryopreserved blood samples were analyzed for cytokine expression (IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, other pro-inflammatory markers (sCD163, sTREM-1, ESM-1 and response to endotoxin. Acute phase proteins CRP, PCT and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 were significantly increased (p<0.001 at the end of surgery in all patients but could not distinguish between groups. Normalization of samples revealed significant increases in IL1β changes (p<0.05 and decreased responses to endotoxin (p<0.01 in the SIRS group at the end of surgery. Soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly increased in patients with SIRS (p<0.01. This small scale patient study could show that common sepsis markers PCT, CRP, IL6 and TNFα had low predictive value for early diagnosis of SIRS after cardiovascular surgery. A combination of normalized IL1β plasma levels, responses to endotoxin and soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations at the end of surgery are predictive markers of SIRS development in this small scale study and could act as an indicator for starting early therapeutic interventions.
Ahmer, B M; van Reeuwijk, J; Watson, P R; Wallis, T S; Heffron, F
SirA of Salmonella typhimurium is known to regulate the hilA and prgH genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1). To identify more members of the SirA regulon, we screened 10,000 random lacZY fusions (chromosomal MudJ insertions) for regulation by SirA and identified 10 positively regulated fusions. Three fusions were within the SPI1 genes hilA (an SPI1 transcriptional regulator), spaS (a component of the SPI1 type III export apparatus) and sipB (a substrate of the SPI1 export apparatus). Two fusions were within the sopB gene (also known as sigD). sopB is located within SPI5, but encodes a protein that is exported via the SPI1 export apparatus. In addition, five fusions were within genes of unknown function that are located in SPI4. As spaS and sipB were likely to be hilA dependent, we tested all of the fusions (except hilA) for hilA dependence. Surprisingly, we found that all of the fusions require hilA for expression and that plasmid-encoded SirA cannot bypass this requirement. Therefore, SirA regulates hilA, the product of which regulates genes within SPI1, SPI4 and SPI5. Both sirA and hilA mutants are dramatically attenuated in a bovine model of gastroenteritis, but have little or no effect in the mouse model of typhoid fever. This study establishes the SirA/HilA regulatory cascade as the primary regulon controlling enteropathogenic virulence functions in S. typhimurium. Because S. typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in both cattle and humans, we believe that this information may be directly applicable to the human disease.
Hummel, Herman; Frost, Matt; Juanes, Jose A.; Kochmann, Judith; Bolde, Carlos F. Castellanos Perez; Aneiros, Fernando; Vandenbosch, Francois; Franco, Joao N.; Echavarri, Beatriz; Guinda, Xabier; Puente, Araceli; Fernandez, Camino; Galvan, Cristina; Merino, Maria; Ramos, Elvira; Fernandez, Paloma; Pitacco, Valentina; Alberte, Madara; Wojcik, Dagmara; Grabowska, Monika; Jahnke, Marlene; Crocetta, Fabio; Carugati, Laura; Scorrano, Simonetta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Perez Garcia, Patricia; Fernandez, Jose Antonio Sanabria; Poromov, Artem; Iurchenko, Anna; Isachenko, Artem; Chava, Alexandra; Pavloudi, Christina; Bordeyne, Francois; Andersen, Simone Fie; Eronat, Elizabeth Grace Tunka; Cakmak, Taylan; Louizidou, Paraskevi; Rico, Jose; Ruci, Stela; Diego, David Corta; Mendez, Sara; Rousou, Maria; De Clippele, Laurence; Eriksson, Annukka; Van Zanten, Winnie; Diamant, Anna; De Matos, Valentina Kirienko Fernandes
The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was
Hummel, Herman; Frost, Matt; Juanes, José A.
The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries w...
Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim
with placebo, did not reduce the risk of death at 30 days (154 [4%] vs 177 [5%] patients; relative risk [RR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·70-1·07, p=0·19) or the risk of death or major morbidity (909 [24%] vs 885 [24%]; RR 1·03, 95% CI 0·95-1·11, p=0·52). The most common safety outcomes in the methylprednisolone and placebo group were infection (465 [12%] vs 493 [13%]), surgical site infection (151 [4%] vs 151 [4%]), and delirium (295 [8%] vs 289 [8%]). Methylprednisolone did not have a significant effect on mortality or major morbidity after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The SIRS trial does not support the routine use of methylprednisolone for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente
Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level and peripherally in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue as well as insulin-secretory capacity in seven FDR and eight control (CON) subjects before and after 12 wk of endurance training. Training improved physical fitness. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake (GU) increased (whole body and leg; P training in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P abdominal than in femoral adipose tissue and quadriceps muscle with no difference between FDR and CON. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was lower in FDR compared with CON, but no effect of training was seen. Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulated insulin secretion five- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.
Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.
Pal, Gopal Krushna; Adithan, Chandrasekaran; Ananthanarayanan, Palghat Hariharan; Pal, Pravati; Nanda, Nivedita; Durgadevi, Thiyagarajan; Lalitha, Venugopal; Syamsunder, Avupati Naga; Dutta, Tarun Kumar
Though cardiovascular (CV) risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR) of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) with CV risks in these subjects. Body mass index (BMI), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), rate-pressure product (RPP), spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS) marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72) and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104). BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI) were significantly increased (pcaused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.
Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kessing, Lars Vedel
The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80 healthy first-degree relatives to patients with depression were randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10mg or placebo for 4 weeks. The area under the curve (AUC) for awakening and all day salivary cortisol was analysed in samples taken immediately after awakening and at 15-min intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically significant decreases were found in awakening salivary cortisol (P=0.04) and in all day salivary cortisol (P=0.02) in the escitalopram group compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant differences in perceived stress between the intervention groups. These findings from a randomised clinical trial suggest that a long-term escitalopram administration to healthy participants results in a decrease in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity measured by salivary cortisol compared with inert placebo. However, change in salivary cortisol was one out of multiple outcome measures. The results of the present trial do not refute salivary cortisol as a potential endophenotype for depression.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.
G, Rajesh Kumar; K, Mrudula Spurthi; G, Kishore Kumar; Kurapati, Mohanalatha; M, Saraswati; T, Mohini Aiyengar; P, Chiranjeevi; G, Srilatha Reddy; S, Nivas; P, Kaushik; K, Sanjib Sahu; H, Surekha Rani
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS) with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP) is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C) by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C) polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants. Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C) polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.
Rajesh Kumar G
Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade.Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants.Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.
Kim, Seong-Kyu; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Hwajeong; Kim, Ji Hun; Park, Sung-Hoon; Choe, Jung-Yoon
This study determined the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 337 subjects (135 with RA and 202 FDRs) were enrolled in this case-control study. Serum RF, anti-CCP antibody, and anti-MCV antibody were assayed. Subjects in multicase families (≥ 2 affected FDRs within the same family) were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with RA-related autoantibodies. Seropositivity for RF, anti-CCP antibody, or anti-MCV antibody was detected in 14.4%, 5.0%, or 13.4% of unaffected FDRs, respectively. Anti-CCP antibody seropositivity was more prevalent in FDRs in multicase families (17.8%) than in those not in multicase families (1.3%, p autoantibodies were detected in the FDR group (between RF and anti-CCP antibody: r = 0.366, p < 0.0001; between RF and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.343, p < 0.0001; and between anti-CCP antibody and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.849, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and sex, anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in FDRs was significantly associated with being in a multicase family (odds ratio, 49.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 441.6). The association between anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in unaffected FDRs and being in a multicase family suggests that genetic and/or environmental factors may increase the risk for RA development in unaffected FDRs.
Waltmunson, Jeremy C.
This study has investigated the L2 acquisition of Spanish word-medial /d, t, r, (fish hook)/, word-initial /r/, and onset cluster /(fish hook)/. Two similar experiments were designed to address the relative degree of difficulty of the word-medial contrasts, as well as the effect of word-position on /r/ and /(fish hook)/ accuracy scores. In addition, the effect of vowel height on the production of [r] and the L2 emergence of the svarabhakti vowel in onset cluster /(fish hook)/ were investigated. Participants included 34 Ll English speakers from a range of L2 Spanish levels who were recorded in multiple sessions across a 6-month or 2-month period. The criteria for assessing segment accuracy was based on auditory and acoustic features found in productions by native Spanish speakers. In order to be scored as accurate, the L2 productions had to evidence both the auditory and acoustic features found in native speaker productions. L2 participant scores for each target were normalized in order to account for the variation of features found across native speaker productions. The results showed that word-medial accuracy scores followed two significant rankings (from lowest to highest): /r <= d <= (fish hook) <= t/ and /r <= (fish hook) <= d <= t/; however, when scores for /t/ included a voice onset time criterion, only the ranking /r <= (fish hook) <= d <= t/ was significant. These results suggest that /r/ is most difficult for learners while /t/ is least difficult, although individual variation was found. Regarding /r/, there was a strong effect of word position and vowel height on accuracy scores. For productions of /(fish hook)/, there was a strong effect of syllable position on accuracy scores. Acoustic analyses of taps in onset cluster revealed that only the experienced L2 Spanish participants demonstrated svarabhakti vowel emergence with native-like performance, suggesting that its emergence occurs relatively late in L2 acquisition.
Meng, Linghui; Luo, Na; Mi, Jie
To explore the impacts of types and degree of obesity on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and related lipids disturbance in Chinese school-age children. A total of 1 452 school-age Children of 7 to 17 years were recruited in Beijing with representative cluster sampling method. Data of anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist circumference were collected from March to May of 2007. Body mass index(BMI)was calculated. Blood samples were obtained and lipid profiles including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured, while glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (AST) were determined to evaluate liver function. The liver was also scanned by sonography, and abnormal hepatic sonograms were documented. NAFLD was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the Fatty Liver and Alcoholic Liver Disease Study Group under the Chinese Liver Disease Association. Analysis of covariance (ANOVA), Chi-square test for trend and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. The dyslipidemia and ultrasonographic fatty liver deteriorated with the degree of obesity defined either by BMI or waist circumference. Compared with BMI, waist circumference contributed more to the development of dyslipidemia, fatty liver and NAFLD. The highest levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and lowest level of HDL-C were seen in the mixed obese group followed by abdominal obese, peripheral obese and non-obese ones. Adjusted for gender and age, the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals of peripheral obesity, abdominal obesity and mixed obesity were 0, 10.93 (0.98-121.96) and 79.16 (10.95-572.44) for predicting NAFLD; 12.61 (1.24-127.78), 19.39 (5.23-71.85), and 93.21 (29.56-293.90) for predicting ultrasonographic fatty liver; 1.78 (0.59-5.44), 3.01 (1.91-4.77), and 4.64 (3.52-6.12) for predicting dyslipidemia, respectively
Full Text Available Retinal stem cells bear potency of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into many retinal cells. Utilizing appropriate sensors one can effectively detect the self-renewal and aging process abilities. Silencing information regulator (SirT1, a member of the sirtuin family, is a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase and an essential mediator for longevity in normal cells by calorie restriction. We firstly investigate the SirT1 mRNA expression in retinal stem cells from rats and 19 human eyes of different ages. Results revealed that SirT1 expression was significantly decreased in in vivo aged eyes, associated with poor self-renewal abilities. Additionally, SirT1 mRNA levels were dose-dependently increased in resveratrol- treated retinal stem cells. The expression of SirT1 on oxidative stress-induced damage was significantly decreased, negatively correlated with the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with resveratrol could effectively further reduce oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment in retinal stem cells. Importantly, the anti-oxidant effects of resveratrol in H2O2-treated retinal stem cells were significantly abolished by knockdown of SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1. SirT1 expression provides a feasible sensor in assessing self-renewal and aging process in retinal stem cells. Resveratrol can prevent reactive oxygen species-induced damages via increased retinal SirT1 expression.
Full Text Available Cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL implantation has become the most common and most successful of all operations in medicine. Sir Harold Ridley′s first cataract extraction with implantation of an IOL marked the beginning of a major change in the practice of ophthalmology. Millions of patients worldwide have benefited from Sir Ridley′s invention, and are likely to continue to derive benefit from this device. However, the development of the IOL was not without its share of ups and downs. Sir Harold Ridley, the inventor of IOL, died at the age of 94, on 25 May 2001, and ophthalmology lost one of its greatest and most influential practitioners. We are happy that he lived to enjoy the fruits of his labour - to see the amazing improvements and the expansive growth that evolved in the cataract-IOL technique, from early and unsatisfactory operations in previous decades, to the superb results attainable today. The invention of the IOL has not been just the addition of one new form of treatment, but rather, Sir Harold′s tiny disc-shaped sliver of plastic has changed the world so that our patients may better see it . This article presents a brief biographical sketch of Sir Harold and lists his major inventions and contributions to ophthalmology.
Full Text Available Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR, procalcitonin (PCT, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98% and negative predictive value (98.6% and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI. On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.
Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.
Gregoric, Pavle; Pavle, Gregoric; Sijacki, Ana; Ana, Sijacki; Stankovic, Sanja; Sanja, Stankovic; Radenkovic, Dejan; Dejan, Radenkovic; Ivancevic, Nenad; Nenad, Ivancevic; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Aleksandar, Karamarkovic; Popovic, Nada; Nada, Popovic; Karadzic, Borivoje; Borivoje, Karadzic; Stijak, Lazar; Stefanovic, Branislav; Branislav, Stefanovic; Milosevic, Zoran; Zoran, Milosević; Bajec, Djordje; Djordje, Bajec
Early recognition of severe form of acute pancreatitis is important because these patients need more agressive diagnostic and therapeutical approach an can develope systemic complications such as: sepsis, coagulopathy, Acute Lung Injury (ALI), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS), Multiple Organ Failure (MOF). To determine role of the combination of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score and serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) level on admission as predictor of illness severity and outcome of Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). We evaluated 234 patients with first onset of SAP appears in last twenty four hours. A total of 77 (33%) patients died. SIRS score and serum IL-6 concentration were measured in first hour after admission. In 105 patients with SIRS score 3 and higher, initial measured IL-6 levels were significantly higher than in the group of remaining 129 patients (72 +/- 67 pg/mL, vs 18 +/- 15 pg/mL). All nonsurvivals were in the first group, with SIRS score 3 and 4 and initial IL-6 concentration 113 +/- 27 pg/mL. The values of C-reactive Protein (CRP) measured after 48h, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score on admission and Ranson score showed the similar correlation, but serum amylase level did not correlate significantly with Ranson score, IL-6 concentration and APACHE II score. The combination of SIRS score on admission and IL-6 serum concentration can be early, predictor of illness severity and outcome in SAP.
Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Babazadeh, Shahin; Barati, Mitra; Latifnia, Maryam
Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC) count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98%) and negative predictive value (98.6%) and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI). On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.
Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.
Gopal Krushna Pal
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular (CV risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI with CV risks in these subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate-pressure product (RPP, spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72 and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104. RESULTS: BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in study group compared to the control group. SVI in study group was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was significant correlation and independent contribution of markers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and OS to LF-HF ratio. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated an independent contribution of LF-HF ratio to prehypertension status (standardized beta 0.415, p<0.001 and bivariate logistic-regression showed significant prediction (OR 2.40, CI 1.128-5.326, p = 0.002 of LF-HF ratio of HRV to increased RPP, the marker of CV risk, in study group. CONCLUSION: SVI in FDR of type 2 diabetics occurs due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. The SVI contributes to prehypertension status and CV risks caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.
Anti-carbamylated protein antibodies in unaffected first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis patients: lack of correlation with anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies and rheumatoid factor.
Alessandri, C; Bartosiewicz, I; Pendolino, M; Mancini, R; Colasanti, T; Pecani, A; Morello, F; Mastrangelo, A; Sabatinelli, D; Riccieri, V; Di Franco, M; Ceccarelli, F; Perricone, C; Conti, F; Valesini, G
To investigate the prevalence of anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) in the healthy first-degree relatives (HFDRs) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We enrolled 141 HFDRs of 63 patients with RA diagnosed accordingly to the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria. Fifty-six normal healthy subjects (NHS), sex- and age-matched, served as controls. Anti-CarP IgG, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) IgG and rheumatoid factors (RF) isotypes (IgG, IgA, IgM) were assessed by solid-phase ELISA. Anti-CarP were detectable in 13 HFDRs (9.2%), anti-CCP in 9 (6.3%), IgG-RF in 10 (7%), IgA-RF in 17 (12%), and IgM-RF in 13 (9.2%) HFDRs. Twenty-nine (46%) RA patients were positive for anti-CarP, 31 (49.2%) for anti-CCP, and 34 (53.9%) for RF. One NHS (1.7%) resulted positive for anti-CarP, none for anti-CCP and RF. Anti-CarP showed significantly higher serum levels in RA and HFDRs than in NHS (pautoantibodies tested in the HFDRs. Anti-CarP can be found in the sera of HFDRs of RA patients and their prevalence is significantly higher than in NHS. No correlation of anti-CarP with anti-CCP and RF antibodies in RA HFDRs was found.
Introduction Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an auto-inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. Limited data suggest that the prevalence of sacroiliitis is increased in patients with FMF. In our present study, we assessed the prevalence of spondyloarthritis (SpA), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS), among a cohort of FMF patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs). Methods The current study cohort comprised a consecutive group of 201 unrelated patients with FMF and 319 FDRs (≥ 16 years old). These subjects were examined according to a standard protocol. Results A total of 157 FMF patients (78.1%) and 233 (73%) unaffected FDRs reported back pain. Fifteen FMF patients (7.5%) and nine unaffected FDRs fulfilled the modified New York (mNY) criteria for AS. One additional FDR with AS was identified after review of the medical records. None of the FMF patients with AS was HLA-B27 positive. The allele frequency of M694V among the FMF patients with radiographic sacroiliitis was significantly higher in comparison with those without sacroiliitis (OR 4.3). When compared with the general population, the risk ratios for SpA and AS among the FDRs of our FMF patients were 3.3 (95% CI; 2.0 to 5.5) and for AS 2.9 (95% CI; 1.3 to 6.4), respectively. Conclusions Our study suggests that a) factors other than HLA-B27 play a role in the association of FMF and SpA/AS; b) MEFV gene variations may be one of the geographic/region-specific potential pathogenetic links between these two disorders in the Turkish population. PMID:23356447
孙钦云; 王祖和; 李海霞; 邵钰
The objectives system of PPP project was built by combining with the characteristics of public‐private part‐nership (PPP) project .Then the gray correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between the PPP project . Firstly ,the PPP project target system includes quality schedule ,cost ,risk sharing and other eight objectives system .Second‐ly ,the basic principle and the calculation steps of the gray relational analysis method of the gray correlation degree analysis were introduced and then used in the analysis of the PPP project objectives .Finally the specific case was selected to analyze the relationship between the PPP project objectives .%结合公私合营（public‐private partnership ，PPP）项目特点构建PPP项目特有的目标体系，运用灰色关联度分析方法分析PPP项目目标之间的关联度。首先，经过分析研究得出PPP项目目标体系包括质量、进度、成本、风险合理分担等八大目标体系。其次，运用灰色关联分析方法分析 PPP项目目标关联度，具体介绍了灰色关联度分析法的基本原理以及计算步骤。最后结合具体案例分析PPP项目目标之间的关联度。
The superiority and inferiority ranking (SIR) method is a generation of the well-known PROMETHEE method, which can be more efficient to deal with multi-criterion decision making (MCDM) problem. Intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs), as an important extension of fuzzy sets (IFs), include both membership functions and non-membership functions and can be used to, more precisely describe uncertain information. In real world, decision situations are usually under uncertain environment and involve multiple individuals who have their own points of view on handing of decision problems. In order to solve uncertainty group MCDM problem, we propose a novel intuitionistic fuzzy SIR method in this paper. This approach uses intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operators and SIR ranking methods to handle uncertain information; integrate individual opinions into group opinions; make decisions on multiple-criterion; and finally structure a specific decision map. The proposed approach is illustrated in a simulation of group decision ma...
Flood, Derek; Caffery, Fergal Mc
Spreadsheets are a ubiquitous software tool, used for a wide variety of tasks such as financial modelling, statistical analysis and inventory management. Extracting meaningful information from such data can be a difficult task, especially for novice users unfamiliar with the advanced data processing features of many spreadsheet applications. We believe that through the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques this task can be made considerably easier. This paper introduces NLP-SIR, a Natural language interface for spreadsheet information retrieval. The results of a recent evaluation which compared NLP-SIR with existing Information retrieval tools are also outlined. This evaluation has shown that NLP-SIR is a more effective method of spreadsheet information retrieval.
Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin
Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. PMID:25286044
Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon
As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Neugebauer, Ute; Trenkmann, Sabine; Bocklitz, Thomas; Schmerler, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael; Popp, Jürgen
Currently, there is no biomarker that can reliable distinguish between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, such a biomarker would be of utmost importance for early identification and stratification of patients at risk to initiate timely and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Within this proof of principle study, the high potential of Raman spectroscopy for the fast differentiation of non-infectious SIRS and sepsis is demonstrated. Blood plasma collected from 70 patients from the intensive care unit (31 patients with sepsis and 39 patients classified with SIRS without infection) was analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. A PCA-LDA based classification model was trained with Raman spectra from test samples and yielded for sepsis a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.82. These results have been confirmed with an independent dataset (prediction accuracy 80%). Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Li, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Chiung-Chiou; Yang, Suh-Yuh
In this paper, we study the spreading of infections in complex heterogeneous networks based on an SIRS epidemic model with birth and death rates. We find that the dynamics of the network-based SIRS model is completely determined by a threshold value. If the value is less than or equal to one, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally attractive and the disease dies out. Otherwise, the disease-free equilibrium becomes unstable and in the meantime there exists uniquely an endemic equilibrium which is globally asymptotically stable. A series of numerical experiments are given to illustrate the theoretical results. We also consider the SIRS model in the clustered scale-free networks to examine the effect of network community structure on the epidemic dynamics.
Grigg, Jason C; Cheung, Johnson; Heinrichs, David E; Murphy, Michael E P
Many organisms use sophisticated systems to acquire growth-limiting iron. Iron limitation is especially apparent in bacterial pathogens of mammalian hosts where free iron concentrations are physiologically negligible. A common strategy is to secrete low molecular weight iron chelators, termed siderophores, and express high affinity receptors for the siderophore-iron complex. Staphylococcus aureus, a widespread pathogen, produces two siderophores, staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB). We have determined the crystal structure of the staphyloferrin B receptor, SirA, at high resolution in both the apo and Fe(III)-SB (FeSB)-bound forms. SirA, a member of the class III binding protein family of metal receptors, has N- and C-terminal domains, each composed of mainly a β-stranded core and α-helical periphery. The domains are bridged by a single α-helix and together form the FeSB binding site. SB coordinates Fe(III) through five oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom in distorted octahedral geometry. SirA undergoes conformational change upon siderophore binding, largely securing two loops from the C-terminal domain to enclose FeSB with a low nanomolar dissociation constant. The staphyloferrin A receptor, HtsA, homologous to SirA, also encloses its cognate siderophore (FeSA); however, the largest conformational rearrangements involve a different region of the C-terminal domain. FeSB is uniquely situated in the binding pocket of SirA with few of the contacting residues being conserved with those of HtsA interacting with FeSA. Although both SirA and HtsA bind siderophores from the same α-hydroxycarboxylate class, the unique structural features of each receptor provides an explanation for their distinct specificity.
McBride, Graham; Slaney, David; Tait, Andrew
The New Zealand health system has defined as 'notifiable' over 50 diseases. Of these campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported comprising 41% of all notifications in 2011 (presently about 150 illness cases per 100,000 population per annum). Furthermore, the incidence of this mild illness, which is potentially waterborne, is under-reported by at least an order-of-magnitude. Increased downstream pathogen loads and/or disease incidence have been found to be associated with increased rainfall, particularly in agricultural landscapes. Therefore, given the predominance of agricultural land uses in New Zealand, transmission and exposure to its agent (thermotolerant Campylobacter bacteria) may be affected by changing rainfall and temperature patterns associated with climate change. Reporting rates for other potentially water-borne zoonoses are also noticeable (for example, the reported rate for cryptosporidiosis for 2011 was 14 per 100,000 population). The distribution of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment may be influenced by climate change because it has often been implicated in drinking-water contamination, and heavy rainfall events have been found to be associated with increased pathogen loads in rivers and disease incidence. Given this background, which may also be applicable to other countries with agriculturally-dominated landscapes, a New Zealand study was initiated to develop a decision-support system for the projected effects of climate change on a selected suite of environmentally-transmitted pathogens, including Campylobacter and Cryptosporodium oocysts. Herein we report on the manner in which a linear SIR (Susceptible-Ill-Recovered) model previously developed for campylobacteriosis can be extended to cryptosporidiosis, applied to changes in pathogen contact rate and hence reported illness, and coupled to climate change projections associated with different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The resulting SIR model outputs provided projected
This paper give a brief description of the composition, principle and operation method of Model SIR-10H underground detection radar as well as its application in detection of building engineering, such as the detection of floor slabs, concrete thickness of girders, steel pipes and air-raid shelters.%对 SIR-10H型探地雷达系统的组成、原理及工作方法作了简要介绍，通过实例阐述了该系统在建筑工程中探测楼板及大梁混凝土厚度、钢管、防空洞中的应用。
Wilson, Joel; Baskerville, Jerry; Zarabi, Sahar
A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether serum procalcitonin levels can be used to identify serious bacterial infection in ED patients with undifferentiated SIRS. 14 papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The review concludes that raised procalcitonin levels are associated with bacteraemia; however, there are no clinical management studies addressing this question in ED patients with SIRS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Chen, Lijuan; Sun, Jitao
In this paper, we consider an SIRS epidemic model with vaccination on heterogeneous networks. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functions, global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium of the model is investigated. Also we firstly study an optimally controlled SIRS epidemic model on complex networks. We show that an optimal control exists for the control problem. Finally some examples are presented to show the global stability and the efficiency of this optimal control. These results can help in adopting pragmatic treatment upon diseases in structured populations.
Greenhalgh, D.; Liang, Y.; Mao, X.
We discuss the effect of introducing telegraph noise, which is an example of an environmental noise, into the susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model by examining the model using a finite-state Markov Chain (MC). First we start with a two-state MC and show that there exists a unique nonnegative solution and establish the conditions for extinction and persistence. We then explain how the results can be generalised to a finite-state MC. The results for the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) model with Markovian Switching (MS) are a special case. Numerical simulations are produced to confirm our theoretical results.
Full Text Available Objectives: Lactate is one of the prognostic factor for evaluation of clinical severe head injury patients outcome. Lactate is also known as a factor to support diagnostic and prognosis of SIRS cases. Severe head injury is a head traumatic case frequently found in Emergency Units, where some cases result in mortality. Based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, severe head injury is define as a head injury with GCSscore between 3 and 8. This study aims to determine whether high arterial blood lactate can be used as predictor that causes the occurrence of SIRS.Method: A Cohort prospective study applied in thisresearch to determine arterial blood lactate as a predictor that causes the occurrence of SIRS. This study was conducted at Sanglah General Hospital Bali-Indonesia from May 2013 to July 2013 with 40 patients who fulfilled the inclusive criteria. Data were presented in tables and analyzed by applying Chi Square Test with CI 95% and p <0.05 was considered significant.Results: From 40 samples, 27 were male (62.5% and 17 female (37.5% at the age of 0-10, 2 people (5%, 10-20 years 7 people (17.5%, 20-40 years 14 people (35%, 40-60 years 12 people (30% and over 60 years 5 people (12.5%. On the first day, patients with normal level blood arterial lactate 2 (5%, and high 38 (95% causing SIRS (+ 39 (97.5% and SIRS (- 1 (2.5% samples to occur. Using bivariate analysis between arterial blood lactate level and the amount occurrence of SIRS, we obtain p < 0.05 and variable control using multivariate analysis we obtained variable of liver dysfunction that give significant value with level arterial blood lactate with p < 0.05.Conclusion: From 40 samples of Severe head injury, there were 38 (95% whose blood arterial lactate level increased on the first day, 2 (5% in normal limit and 39 (97.5% with SIRS on the third day when p < 0.05 so that high level arterial blood lactate can be used as predictor that causes SIRS to occur.
Teplitski, Max; Goodier, Robert I.; Ahmer, Brian M. M.
The barA and sirA genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encode a two-component sensor kinase and a response regulator, respectively. This system increases the expression of virulence genes and decreases the expression of motility genes. In this study, we examined the pathways by which SirA affects these genes. We found that the master regulator of flagellar genes, flhDC, had a positive regulatory effect on the primary regulator of intestinal virulence determinants, hilA, but that h...
Objective: To assess the sero-positivity rate of HIV infection among clinically suspected subjects of reproductive age group (15-49 years), biological and behavioral characteristics of the subjects gender specific variation of sero-positivity rate, and the differentials of the sero-positivity rate for the history of blood transfusion or blood products or other organs, history of needle exposure and symptoms of morbidity. Methods: Study is based on the retrospective data of the calendar year 2005 obtained from Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC) (now renamed as ICTC), Department of Microbiology, I.M.S., B.H.U., Varanasi. These cases were either referred by the consultants of different OPD'S of Sir Sunderlal Hospital or came voluntarily for knowing their HIV status. About 2-3 mL of blood samples were collected in a plain vial and tested for HIV status by strategy II/III as per WHO/NACO guidelines. Results: Overall sero-positivity of HIV was 15.3% (18.1% in males and 12.2% in females) which increased 6-7 folds in the age group 35-49 years as compared to 15-24 years in both the sexes. Sero-positivity rate in male migrants was 43.1%, while in female migrants it was 18.7%. The history of multiple sexual contacts was about 3 times higher in males as compared to females; predominantly it was very high in male migrants (67.7%) as compared to male non-migrants (15.8%). History of multiple sexual contacts was not uncommon in females and it was 25.0% in female migrants and 9.7% in non-migrant females. The sero-positivity rate with the history of multiple sexual contacts was 45.4% in males and 60.3% in females, while without history of multiple sexual contacts these were only 2.8% and 5.3% respectively. Sero-positive cases had on an average 3.6±1.7 various morbidity symptoms as compared to 0.7±1.1 in sero-negatives. It is to be noted that sero-positivity rate was more in those females who seemed apparently healthy compared to those presenting with some of the
Lewis, Matthew; Ginns, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Marlon
Systemic right ventricular dysfunction and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) are frequently encountered in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA). Studies using echocardiography have suggested a relationship between the degree of TR and systemic right ventricular dysfunction; however, assessment of systemic right ventricular function by echocardiography is limited. Cardiac MRI (CMR) is the gold standard for volumetric assessment of the systemic right ventricle. We performed a retrospective cohort study at our center evaluating all adult patients with CCTGA who underwent a CMR between 1/1999 and 1/2013 to determine the relationship between the degree of TR and systemic right ventricular function. Of the 33 patients identified, 12 had ≤ mild TR (37%), 13 had moderate TR (40%), and 8 had severe TR (24%). Mean age at CMR was 38 years (23-64). Mean right ventricular ejection fraction (45% vs. 41% vs. 42%, p=0.68) and mean indexed right ventricular end diastolic volume (122 ml/m(2) vs. 136 ml/m(2) vs. 138 ml/m(2)p=0.36) were not significantly different for patients with ≤ mild TR, moderate TR or severe TR. The degree of TR was not associated with additional congenital lesions, prior procedures, presence of an intraventricular conduction delay, or decreased left ventricular function. No association between the degree of TR and right ventricular volume or ejection fraction by CMR was identified. Failure to show worsening function or increased volume with greater degrees of TR suggests that the degree of regurgitation alone may not fully explain the heterogeneity in right ventricular size and function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turina, Maureen C; de Winter, Janneke J; Paramarta, Jacky E; Gamala, Mihaela; Yeremenko, Nataliya; Nabibux, Marita N; Landewé, Robert; Baeten, Dominique L
To investigate whether seemingly healthy first-degree relatives of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have clinical, laboratory, or imaging features of spondyloarthritis (SpA). First-degree relatives (ages 18-40 years) of HLA-B27-positive AS patients were included in the pre-spondyloarthritis (Pre-SpA) cohort, a prospective inception cohort study. Clinical, biologic, and imaging features were recorded. First-degree relatives were classified according to several sets of SpA classification criteria. We report baseline features of 51 first-degree relatives included in this study. Twenty-nine (57%) had back pain, 2 (4%) had psoriasis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, and 1 (2%) had uveitis. Three (6%) had low-grade sacroiliitis, 1 (2%) had cervical syndesmophytes on radiography, and 10 (20%) had bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliiac joints. Seventeen of 51 first-degree relatives (33%) fulfilled SpA classification criteria: 7 (14%) fulfilled both Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) axial SpA and European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) classification criteria, 6 (12%) fulfilled only ASAS axial SpA classification criteria, and 4 (8%) fulfilled only ESSG classification criteria; 3 (6%) also fulfilled the Amor criteria. None fulfilled other SpA classification criteria. First-degree relatives fulfilling the ASAS axial SpA and/or ESSG classification criteria had more frequent inflammatory back pain, had a higher level of disease activity, and had more psoriasis. No differences were found in parameters of inflammation, peripheral and extraarticular disease other than psoriasis, and HLA-B27 positivity between those who did and those who did not fulfill the ASAS axial SpA and/or ESSG classification criteria. Four first-degree relatives (12%) who did not fulfill the ASAS axial SpA and/or ESSG classification criteria had imaging abnormalities suggestive of SpA. A substantial proportion of seemingly healthy
Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.
Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, <150 mg/dL, or TG+, ≥150 mg/dL). β-cell function, IR, and IS were determined by the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indices, respectively. Results: The obese subjects with elevated TGs levels had 21%–60% increased β-cell function when compared to all groups (P<0.05). In addition, this group had insulin levels, IS, and IR similar to PT2DM. Furthermore, only in obese subjects did TGs correlate with β-cell function (ρ=0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion: We characterized FDR-T2DM subjects from central Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015
Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Kuprina, T A
The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32.7%) ones for the degree in two disciplines, the second being either "pathological anatomy" (n=6) or "stomatology" (n=4). Despite the great variety of the problems resolved in the studies conducted during the five year period, the subject matter of most research was on the whole consistent with the main lines of activities of the institutions with which the degree-seeking workers were affiliated. The same refers to the choice of the tutors and scientific advisers. the authors emphasize the necessity of centralized planning of research in compliance with the list of priority investigations having practical significance and coordination of cooperative studies carried out based on the state bureau of forensic medical expertise (SBFME) and departments of forensic medical expertise of medical universities.
Wagner, Jennifer K; Marquis, Kathleen A; Rudner, David Z
How cells maintain their ploidy is relevant to cellular development and disease. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which the bacterium Bacillus subtilis enforces diploidy as it differentiates into a dormant spore. We demonstrate that a sporulation-induced protein SirA (originally annotated YneE) blocks new rounds of replication by targeting the highly conserved replication initiation factor DnaA. We show that SirA interacts with DnaA and displaces it from the replication origin. As a result, expression of SirA during growth rapidly blocks replication and causes cell death in a DnaA-dependent manner. Finally, cells lacking SirA over-replicate during sporulation. These results support a model in which induction of SirA enforces diploidy by inhibiting replication initiation as B. subtilis cells develop into spores.
Full Text Available The conserved DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors and SIR-2.1/SIRT1 deacetylases are critical for diverse biological processes, particularly longevity and stress response; and complex regulation of DAF-16/FOXO by SIR-2.1/SIRT1 is central to appropriate biological outcomes. Caenorhabditis elegans Host Cell Factor 1 (HCF-1 is a longevity determinant previously shown to act as a co-repressor of DAF-16. We report here that HCF-1 represents an integral player in the regulatory loop linking SIR-2.1/SIRT1 and DAF-16/FOXO in both worms and mammals. Genetic analyses showed that hcf-1 acts downstream of sir-2.1 to influence lifespan and oxidative stress response in C. elegans. Gene expression profiling revealed a striking 80% overlap between the DAF-16 target genes responsive to hcf-1 mutation and sir-2.1 overexpression. Subsequent GO-term analyses of HCF-1 and SIR-2.1-coregulated DAF-16 targets suggested that HCF-1 and SIR-2.1 together regulate specific aspects of DAF-16-mediated transcription particularly important for aging and stress responses. Analogous to its role in regulating DAF-16/SIR-2.1 target genes in C. elegans, the mammalian HCF-1 also repressed the expression of several FOXO/SIRT1 target genes. Protein-protein association studies demonstrated that SIR-2.1/SIRT1 and HCF-1 form protein complexes in worms and mammalian cells, highlighting the conservation of their regulatory relationship. Our findings uncover a conserved interaction between the key longevity determinants SIR-2.1/SIRT1 and HCF-1, and they provide new insights into the complex regulation of FOXO proteins.
Liang, Zhongjie; Shi, Ting; Ouyang, Sisheng; Li, Honglin; Yu, Kunqian; Zhu, Weiliang; Luo, Cheng; Jiang, Hualiang
Sir2, the histone deacetylase III family, has been subjected to a wide range of studies because of their crucial roles in DNA repair, longevity, transcriptional silencing, genome stability, apoptosis, and fat mobilization. The enzyme binds NAD(+) and acetyllysine as substrates and generates lysine, 2'-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, and nicotinamide as products. However, the mechanism of the first step in Sir2 deacetylation reaction from various studies is controversial. To characterize this catalytic mechanism of acetyllysine deacetylation by Sir2, we employed a combined computational approach to carry out molecular modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations on catalysis by both yeast Hst2 (homologue of SIR two 2) and bacterial Sir2TM (Sir2 homologue from Thermatoga maritima). Our three-dimensional (3D) model of the complex is composed of Sir2 protein, NAD(+), and acetyllysine (ALY) substrate. A 15-ns MD simulation of the complex revealed that Gln115 and His135 play a determining role in deacetylation. These two residues can act as bases to facilitate the deprotonation of 2'-OH from N-ribose. The result is in great agreement with previous mutagenesis analysis data. QM/MM calculations were further performed to study the mechanism of the first step in deacetylation in the two systems. The predicted potential energy barriers for yHst2 and Sir2TM are 12.0 and 15.7 kcal/mol, respectively. The characteristics of the potential energy surface indicated this reaction belongs to a SN2-like mechanism. These results provide insights into the Sir2 mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and have important implications for the discovery of effectors against Sir2 enzymes.
Giannoudis, Peter V; Harwood, Paul John; Loughenbury, Peter; Van Griensven, Martijn; Krettek, Christian; Pape, Hans-Christoph
Recently, increasing emphasis is being placed upon assessment of the inflammatory status of the patient. Serum inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6, have been used as an adjunct to this assessment. Another method uses a combination of simple laboratory and clinical data to provide an assessment of the patient's current level of systemic inflammation, the SIRS. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a group of adult trauma patients, the relationship between the interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration, the systemic inflammatory response score (SIRS) and outcome. In patients with femoral shaft fracture, serum IL-6 levels and clinical parameters were recorded prospectively on admission and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Clinical course, the SIRS score and complications were documented. Nonparametric tests were used to assess relationships between variables and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine their predictive values. Significance was assumed at the p SIRS state" detected early (day 1 and 3) positively correlated with the IL-6 measurement from the same period (p SIRS state (p SIRS state with an 83% sensitivity and a 75% specificity (area under ROC curve 0.76, p SIRS state and an IL-6 > 300 pg/mL was associated with a significantly increased risk of complication (pneumonia, MOF, death). Both systems were found to be significantly diagnostic of these complications using ROC curve analysis. The IL-6 concentration and SIRS score are useful adjuncts to clinical evaluation of the injured patient. In the early phase, they are closely correlated with the NISS and each other. A cutoff value of 200 pg/dL was shown to be significantly diagnostic of a SIRS state. Significant correlations between adverse events and both the IL-6 level and SIRS state are demonstrated.
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe
Fodbold og (offentlig) ledelse har umiddelbart ikke mange fællestræk, men der er måske inspiration at hente fra en af de mest anerkendte fodboldmanagers gennem tiden. I hvert fald er Sir Alex Fergusons ledelsesformular blevet en del af pensum på Harvard Business School. Men giver det virkelig god...
Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.
Sir Richard Bowlby, son of John Bowlby, has carried on his father's work by lecturing and writing on the topic of attachment theory. He has initiated and maintained international connections with researchers, practitioners and agencies in the field of child development, and has produced training videos to more widely disseminate information about…
Punyadeera, C.; Schneider, E. M.; Schaffer, D.; Hsu, H-Y.; Joos, T.O.; Kriebel, F; Weiss, M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.
In this study we report on initial efforts to discover putative biomarkers for differential diagnosis of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) vs. sepsis; and different stages of sepsis. In addition, we also investigated whether there are proteins that can discriminate between patients wh
Punyadeera, C.; Schneider, E. M.; Schaffer, D.; Hsu, H-Y.; Joos, T.O.; Kriebel, F; Weiss, M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.
In this study we report on initial efforts to discover putative biomarkers for differential diagnosis of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) vs. sepsis; and different stages of sepsis. In addition, we also investigated whether there are proteins that can discriminate between patients
Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.
Sir Richard Bowlby, son of John Bowlby, has carried on his father's work by lecturing and writing on the topic of attachment theory. He has initiated and maintained international connections with researchers, practitioners and agencies in the field of child development, and has produced training videos to more widely disseminate information about…
Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K
Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.
We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.
Broek, A.C. van den; Groot, J.S.
In dit rapport wordt de analyse van SIR-C/X-SAR gegevens met betrekking tot Flevoland beschreven. Deze zijn verzameld tijdens twee missies van de space shuttle Endeavour in april en oktober 1994. We evalueren de calibratie nauwkeurigheid. Verder zijn de data bekeken met betrekking tot landbouwvelden
Full Text Available A delayed SIRS infectious disease model with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear incidence is investigated. By constructing a pair of upper-lower solutions and using Schauder's fixed point theorem, we derive the existence of a traveling wave solution connecting the disease-free steady state and the endemic steady state.
Mark A. McCormick
Full Text Available We have analyzed the yeast replicative lifespan of a large number of open reading frame (ORF deletions. Here, we report that strains lacking genes SGF73, SGF11, and UBP8 encoding SAGA/SLIK complex histone deubiquitinase module (DUBm components are exceptionally long lived. Strains lacking other SAGA/SALSA components, including the acetyltransferase encoded by GCN5, are not long lived; however, these genes are required for the lifespan extension observed in DUBm deletions. Moreover, the SIR2-encoded histone deacetylase is required, and we document both a genetic and physical interaction between DUBm and Sir2. A series of studies assessing Sir2-dependent functions lead us to propose that DUBm strains are exceptionally long lived because they promote multiple prolongevity events, including reduced rDNA recombination and altered silencing of telomere-proximal genes. Given that ataxin-7, the human Sgf73 ortholog, causes the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 7, our findings indicate that the genetic and epigenetic interactions between DUBm and SIR2 will be relevant to neurodegeneration and aging.
Melnik, Andrey V; Korobeinikov, Andrei
We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.
Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed
In this paper, we consider a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with standard incidence. By constructing suitable stochastic Lyapunov function, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence of ergodic stationary distribution of the model. Moreover, we also establish sufficient conditions for extinction of the disease.
Shaw, Andrew D; Raghunathan, Karthik; Peyerl, Fred W; Munson, Sibyl H; Paluszkiewicz, Scott M; Schermer, Carol R
Recent data suggest that both elevated serum chloride levels and volume overload may be harmful during fluid resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intravenous chloride load and in-hospital mortality among patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), with and without adjustment for the crystalloid volume administered. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 109,836 patients ≥ 18 years old that met criteria for SIRS and received fluid resuscitation with crystalloids. We examined the association between changes in serum chloride concentration, the administered chloride load and fluid volume, and the 'volume-adjusted chloride load' and in-hospital mortality. In general, increases in the serum chloride concentration were associated with increased mortality. Mortality was lowest (3.7%) among patients with minimal increases in serum chloride concentration (0-10 mmol/L) and when the total administered chloride load was low (3.5% among patients receiving 100-200 mmol; P SIRS, a fluid resuscitation strategy employing lower chloride loads was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. This association was independent of the total fluid volume administered and remained significant after adjustment for severity of illness, supporting the hypothesis that crystalloids with lower chloride content may be preferable for managing patients with SIRS.
de Souza, David R.; Tomé, Tânia
We study a stochastic process describing the onset of spreading dynamics of an epidemic in a population composed of individuals of three classes: susceptible (S), infected (I), and recovered (R). The stochastic process is defined by local rules and involves the following cyclic process: S → I → R → S (SIRS). The open process S → I → R (SIR) is studied as a particular case of the SIRS process. The epidemic process is analyzed at different levels of description: by a stochastic lattice gas model and by a birth and death process. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and dynamical mean-field approximations we show that the SIRS stochastic lattice gas model exhibit a line of critical points separating the two phases: an absorbing phase where the lattice is completely full of S individuals and an active phase where S, I and R individuals coexist, which may or may not present population cycles. The critical line, that corresponds to the onset of epidemic spreading, is shown to belong in the directed percolation universality class. By considering the birth and death process we analyze the role of noise in stabilizing the oscillations.
Anel Gómez García; Mireya Rivera Rodríguez; Carlos Gómez Alonso; Daysi Yazmin Rodríguez Ochoa; Cleto Alvarez Aguilar
Background Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of risk factors for that in future a subject can develop diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) is important in the pathogenesis of T2DM. There is evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and/or progression of diabetes. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) participates in developing of inflammation. The objective was to investigate if MPO is associated with IR and inflammation in individuals with first-degree relati...
Sir Robin Knox Johnston，英国航海家，出生于1939年3月17日，全名为“Sir William Robert Patrick‘Robin’Knox—Johnston”，有时人们也简称其为“Sir RKJ”，享有CBE勋衔。
One of the experiences that children seem to find most exciting in the school science laboratory is the hair raising one of being charged up using a van de Graaf generator and receiving small electric shocks. Children are quite rightly concerned about when electricity might hurt them and what its effects are. They are motivated by science directly concerned with the human body, with obvious impact on their lives. This is particularly important for girls, who often seem to find other aspects of electricity amongst the least interesting topics in science. Here is an opportunity for the teacher to build on immediate and genuine curiosity. Pupils are already well aware that mains electricity at 240 V can be lethal, yet the teacher seems strangely happy to expose them here to what he claims is tens of thousands of volts! They ask questions such as 'Is it amps of volts that kill you?' with a genuine desire to try and resolve the paradox. When young pupils see an oscilloscope for the first time, they often immediately associate it with the heart monitor seen on a TV hospital drama. ('He's dead sir!' they say, as you show them the timebase operating in the absence of an input signal). They use a microphone to try and detect an ECG signal without success. The real heart monitor works in a totally different way, and that it is in fact quite closely related to the action of electric shocks. The article is a summary of the reading the author undertook to try and cure his ignorance of the interaction between electricity and the human body, so that he could make something of this spontaneous interest on the part of the pupils. It also provides background material for A-level potential medical students, who often study physics without seeing its direct relevance to medicine.
Full Text Available SIRS Digues is a computing tool that makes informations on levees more durable and accessible in order to enhance their management. The first version of the software, which was IRSTEA’s initiative, was deployed in 2004. The second version was released in 2015. This article aims at pointing out the innovative aspects of this last version. They concern thematic and functionalities, computing technics and architecture, and last but not least, the business model chosen in order to build a long lasting software. The software’s kernel is sketched to propose a general description of levees: it focuses on description of the levees and linked objects, on disorders that affects them, on works... Most of these topics were already broached by the first version. The kernel of the version 2 may be extended using optional thematic modules. These modules concern: vegetation monitoring, reporting (in coherence with current French regulatory requirements, riverbanks, riverbed... Main functionnalities perfomed by SIRS Digues V1 and V2 are : data structuring and centralisation, quick access to relevant data, reporting and mapping, etc. SIRS Digues 2.0 updates and improves already existing functionalities of the first version. SIRS Digues V2 relies on an documentoriented NoSQL database, CouchDB, and on geospatial libraries, Geotoolkit and Apache-SIS. SIRS Digues V2 was released with a copyleft license. Copyrights belong to the French levees managers’ society, “France Digues”, which acts as a cooperative. Members put their heads together in order to gather their financial capacities and fund software development. France Digues has got the technical and thematic expertise and supply various services to the members. This business model aims to ensure accessibility, durability and adaptability of the software.
Webb, David R
A previously studied immunosuppressive cytokine, Soluble Immune Response Suppressor (SIRS), may have relevance to current studies of immune suppression in a variety of human disease states. Despite extensive efforts using experimental models, mainly in mice, much remains to be discovered as to how autoimmune cells in mice and humans escape normal regulation and, conversely, how tumor cells evade evoking an immune response. It is the contention of this commentary that the literature pre-2000 contain results that might inform current studies. The broadly immunosuppressive protein, SIRS, was studied extensively from the 1970s to 1990s and culminated in the determination of the n-terminal 21mer sequence of this 15kDa protein which had high homology to the short neurotoxins from sea snakes, that are canonical members of the three finger neurotoxin superfamily (3FTx). It was not until 2007 that the prophylactic administration of the synthetic N-terminal peptide of the SIRS 21mer, identical to the published sequence, was reported to inhibit or delay the development of two autoimmune diseases in mice: experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and type I diabetes (T1D). These findings were consistent with other studies of the 3FTx superfamily as important probes in the study of mammalian pharmacology. It is the perspective of this commentary that SIRS, SIRS peptide and the anti-peptide mAb, represent useful, pharmacologically-active probes for the study of the immune response as well as in the potential treatment of autoimmune, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hirt, Christian; Rexer, Moritz; Claessens, Sten; Rummel, Reiner
Comparisons between high-degree models of the Earth's topographic and gravitational potential may give insight into the quality and resolution of the source data sets, provide feedback on the modelling techniques and help to better understand the gravity field composition. Degree correlations (cross-correlation coefficients) or reduction rates (quantifying the amount of topographic signal contained in the gravitational potential) are indicators used in a number of contemporary studies. However, depending on the modelling techniques and underlying levels of approximation, the correlation at high degrees may vary significantly, as do the conclusions drawn. The present paper addresses this problem by attempting to provide a guide on global correlation measures with particular emphasis on approximation effects and variants of topographic potential modelling. We investigate and discuss the impact of different effects (e.g., truncation of series expansions of the topographic potential, mass compression, ellipsoidal versus spherical approximation, ellipsoidal harmonic coefficient versus spherical harmonic coefficient (SHC) representation) on correlation measures. Our study demonstrates that the correlation coefficients are realistic only when the model's harmonic coefficients of a given degree are largely independent of the coefficients of other degrees, permitting degree-wise evaluations. This is the case, e.g., when both models are represented in terms of SHCs and spherical approximation (i.e. spherical arrangement of field-generating masses). Alternatively, a representation in ellipsoidal harmonics can be combined with ellipsoidal approximation. The usual ellipsoidal approximation level (i.e. ellipsoidal mass arrangement) is shown to bias correlation coefficients when SHCs are used. Importantly, gravity models from the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) are inherently based on this approximation level. A transformation is presented that enables a
The N1 auditory evoked potential component as an endophenotype for schizophrenia: high-density electrical mapping in clinically unaffected first-degree relatives, first-episode, and chronic schizophrenia patients.
Foxe, John J; Yeap, Sherlyn; Snyder, Adam C; Kelly, Simon P; Thakore, Jogin H; Molholm, Sophie
The N1 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a robust and easily recorded metric of auditory sensory-perceptual processing. In patients with schizophrenia, a diminution in the amplitude of this component is a near-ubiquitous finding. A pair of recent studies has also shown this N1 deficit in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands, suggesting that the deficit may be linked to the underlying genetic risk of the disease rather than to the disease state itself. However, in both these studies, a significant proportion of the relatives had other psychiatric conditions. As such, although the N1 deficit represents an intriguing candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia, it remains to be shown whether it is present in a group of clinically unaffected first-degree relatives. In addition to testing first-degree relatives, we also sought to replicate the N1 deficit in a group of first-episode patients and in a group of chronic schizophrenia probands. Subject groups consisted of 35 patients with schizophrenia, 30 unaffected first-degree relatives, 13 first-episode patients, and 22 healthy controls. Subjects sat in a dimly lit room and listened to a series of simple 1,000-Hz tones, indicating with a button press whenever they heard a deviant tone (1,500 Hz; 17% probability), while the AEP was recorded from 72 scalp electrodes. Both chronic and first-episode patients showed clear N1 amplitude decrements relative to healthy control subjects. Crucially, unaffected first-degree relatives also showed a clear N1 deficit. This study provides further support for the proposal that the auditory N1 deficit in schizophrenia is linked to the underlying genetic risk of developing this disorder. In light of recent studies, these results point to the N1 deficit as an endophenotypic marker for schizophrenia. The potential future utility of this metric as one element of a multivariate endophenotype is discussed.
Raith, Eamon P; Udy, Andrew A; Bailey, Michael; McGloughlin, Steven; MacIsaac, Christopher; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Pilcher, David V
The Sepsis-3 Criteria emphasized the value of a change of 2 or more points in the Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, introduced quick SOFA (qSOFA), and removed the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria from the sepsis definition. Externally validate and assess the discriminatory capacities of an increase in SOFA score by 2 or more points, 2 or more SIRS criteria, or a qSOFA score of 2 or more points for outcomes among patients who are critically ill with suspected infection. Retrospective cohort analysis of 184 875 patients with an infection-related primary admission diagnosis in 182 Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) from 2000 through 2015. SOFA, qSOFA, and SIRS criteria applied to data collected within 24 hours of ICU admission. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality or ICU length of stay (LOS) of 3 days or more was a composite secondary outcome. Discrimination was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Adjusted analyses were performed using a model of baseline risk determined using variables independent of the scoring systems. Among 184 875 patients (mean age, 62.9 years [SD, 17.4]; women, 82 540 [44.6%]; most common diagnosis bacterial pneumonia, 32 634 [17.7%]), a total of 34 578 patients (18.7%) died in the hospital, and 102 976 patients (55.7%) died or experienced an ICU LOS of 3 days or more. SOFA score increased by 2 or more points in 90.1%; 86.7% manifested 2 or more SIRS criteria, and 54.4% had a qSOFA score of 2 or more points. SOFA demonstrated significantly greater discrimination for in-hospital mortality (crude AUROC, 0.753 [99% CI, 0.750-0.757]) than SIRS criteria (crude AUROC, 0.589 [99% CI, 0.585-0.593]) or qSOFA (crude AUROC, 0.607 [99% CI, 0.603-0.611]). Incremental improvements were 0.164 (99% CI, 0.159-0.169) for SOFA vs SIRS criteria and 0.146 (99% CI, 0.142-0.151) for SOFA vs qSOFA (P
Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Martinez, Conception; Pazienza, Valerio; Claycomb, William C; Giuliani, Alessandro; Rosenthal, Nadia
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of aging-associated heart failure. Among various signaling pathways mediating oxidative stress, the NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylase SirT1 has been implicated in the protection of heart muscle. Expression of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) propeptide (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from infarct and enhances SirT1 expression in cardiomyocytes (CM) in vitro, exerting protection from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses. To study the role of mIGF-1/SirT1 signaling in vivo, we generated cardiac-specific mIGF-1 transgenic mice in which SirT1 was depleted from adult CM in a tamoxifen-inducible and conditional fashion. Analysis of these mice confirmed that mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity is necessary to protect the heart from paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress and lethality. In cultured CM, mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression through a c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1)-dependent signaling mechanism. Thus, mIGF-1 protects the heart from oxidative stress via SirT1/JNK1 activity, suggesting new avenues for cardiac therapy during aging and heart failure.
Hassen, T A; Pearson, S; Cowled, P A; Fitridge, R A
This study examined the relationship between pre-operative nutritional status and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis following major vascular surgery. Subjects undergoing open AAA repair, EVAR or lower limb revascularisation were studied prospectively. Pre-operative nutrition was assessed clinically using Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning. SIRS severity was assessed for 5 post-operative days and sepsis noted within 30 days of surgery. Using MNA, neither SIRS severity nor sepsis occurrence differed significantly between 'well-nourished' subjects and those 'at risk of malnutrition'. Using DEXA, negative associations existed between body mass index and both SIRS score and SIRS duration. Fat free mass (FFM) was negatively associated with SIRS score and duration. Negative associations also existed between skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and SIRS score and duration. SMM was also negatively correlated with post-operative length of stay in hospital. There were no significant correlations between sepsis and any nutritional indices. Lower pre-operative nutritional indices, indicating protein energy malnutrition, were associated with more severe systemic inflammatory responses following major vascular surgery.
裴渝; 柳春旺; 周亮
Objective: To assess the difference between the degree of involvement of anxiety disorder patients and normal con-trois , and to evaluate the relationship between the degree of involvement and the personality, type A behavior, and clinical sympomsof the patients. Methods:76 patients who met one of the diagnostic criteria of general anxiety disorder , panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder ,or phobic disorder in CCMD were chosed - 3 were enrolled in this study and were required to complet in-volvement - detachment scale, type A behavior scale , EPQ , and SCL - 90.78 normal controls, who matched with the patient group in age , sex , and education, were derived from a community sample and completed involvement- detachhment scale, Results:The degree and the unbalance of involvement were higher in the patient group than those in the control group, The degree of detachment of patients was positively related to the type A behavior and the scores of SCL- 90( r = - 0.312, - 0.306, P < 0.05) .And the unbalance of involvment was positively related to the scores of SCL - 90 and N score of EPQ and negatively related to the P score of EPQ( r = 0.373,0.424, - 0.339, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Cognitive characteristics including over involvement and unbalance of involvement that were found in anxity disorder patients were related to the clinical symptoms and warranted clinical psychological intervention.
Full Text Available The Forkhead box family of transcription factors is evolutionary conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes and its members are involved in many physiological processes including metabolism, DNA repair, cell cycle, stress resistance, apoptosis and aging. In budding yeast, four Forkhead transcription factors were identified, namely Fkh1, Fkh2, Fhl1, and Hcm1, which are implicated in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation and stress response. These factors impinge transcriptional regulation during cell cycle progression, and histone deacetylases play an essential role in this process, e.g. the nuclear localisation of Hcm1 depends on Sir2 activity, whereas Sin3/Rpd3 silence cell cycle specific gene transcription in G2/M phase. However, a direct involvement of Sir2 in Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent regulation of target genes is at present unknown. Here, we show that Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 in G1 and M phase, and that Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated activation of reporter genes is antagonized by Sir2. We further report that Sir2 overexpression strongly affects cell growth in an Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent manner. In addition, Sir2 regulates the expression of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 through Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated binding to the CLB2 promoter in G1 and M phase. We finally demonstrate that Sir2 is also enriched at the CLB2 promoter under stress conditions, and that the nuclear localization of Sir2 is dependent on Fkh1 and Fkh2. Taken together, our results show a functional interplay between Fkh1/Fkh2 and Sir2 suggesting a novel mechanism of cell cycle repression. Thus, in budding yeast, not only the regulation of G2/M gene expression but also the protective response against stress could be directly coordinated by Fkh1 and Fkh2.
Kamisoglu, Kubra; Haimovich, Beatrice; Calvano, Steve E; Coyle, Susette M; Corbett, Siobhan A; Langley, Raymond J; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Androulakis, Ioannis P
Two recent, independent, studies conducted novel metabolomics analyses relevant to human sepsis progression; one was a human model of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) challenge (experimental endotoxemia) and the other was community acquired pneumonia and sepsis outcome diagnostic study (CAPSOD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the concordance of metabolic responses to LPS and community-acquired sepsis. We tested the hypothesis that the patterns of metabolic response elicited by endotoxin would agree with those in clinical sepsis. Alterations in the plasma metabolome of the subjects challenged with LPS were compared with those of sepsis patients who had been stratified into two groups: sepsis patients with confirmed infection and non-infected patients who exhibited systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Common metabolites between endotoxemia and both these groups were individually identified, together with their direction of change and functional classifications. Response to endotoxemia at the metabolome level elicited characteristics that agree well with those observed in sepsis patients despite the high degree of variability in the response of these patients. Moreover, some distinct features of SIRS have been identified. Upon stratification of sepsis patients based on 28-day survival, the direction of change in 21 of 23 metabolites was the same in endotoxemia and sepsis survival groups. The observed concordance in plasma metabolomes of LPS-treated subjects and sepsis survivors strengthens the relevance of endotoxemia to clinical research as a physiological model of community-acquired sepsis, and gives valuable insights into the metabolic changes that constitute a homeostatic response. Furthermore, recapitulation of metabolic differences between sepsis non-survivors and survivors in LPS-treated subjects can enable further research on the development and assessment of rational clinical therapies to prevent sepsis mortality
De la Marche, Wouter; Noens, Ilse; Luts, Jan; Scholte, Evert; Van Huffel, Sabine; Steyaert, Jean
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are present in unaffected relatives and individuals from the general population. Results are inconclusive, however, on whether unaffected relatives have higher levels of quantitative autism traits (QAT) or not. This might be due to differences in research populations, because behavioral data and molecular…