WorldWideScience

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  1. The mitochondrial SIR2 related protein 2 (SIR2RP2 impacts Leishmania donovani growth and infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Mittal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite is the major causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Increased toxicity and resistance to the existing repertoire of drugs has been reported. Hence, an urgent need exists for identifying newer drugs and drug targets. Previous reports have shown sirtuins (Silent Information Regulator from kinetoplastids as promising drug targets. Leishmania species code for three SIR2 (Silent Information Regulator related proteins. Here, we for the first time report the functional characterization of SIR2 related protein 2 (SIR2RP2 of L. donovani.Recombinant L. donovani SIR2RP2 was expressed in E. coli and purified. The enzymatic functions of SIR2RP2 were determined. The subcellular localization of LdSIR2RP2 was done by constructing C-terminal GFP-tagged full-length LdSIR2RP2. Deletion mutants of LdSIR2RP2 were generated in Leishmania by double targeted gene replacement methodology. These null mutants were tested for their proliferation, virulence, cell cycle defects, mitochondrial functioning and sensitivity to known SIR2 inhibitors.Our data suggests that LdSIR2RP2 possesses NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. However, NAD+-dependent deacetylase and desuccinylase activities were not detected. The protein localises to the mitochondrion of the promastigotes. Gene deletion studies showed that ΔLdSIR2RP2 null mutants had restrictive growth phenotype associated with accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase and compromised mitochondrial functioning. The null mutants had attenuated infectivity. Deletion of LdSIR2RP2 resulted in increased sensitivity of the parasites to the known SIR2 inhibitors. The sirtuin inhibitors inhibited the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of recombinant LdSIR2RP2. In conclusion, sirtuins could be used as potential new drug targets for visceral leishmaniasis.

  2. A mixed SIR-SIS model to contain a virus spreading through networks with two degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essouifi, Mohamed; Achahbar, Abdelfattah

    Due to the fact that the “nodes” and “links” of real networks are heterogeneous, to model computer viruses prevalence throughout the Internet, we borrow the idea of the reduced scale free network which was introduced recently. The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous deterministic two subchains of Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model into a mixed Susceptible-Infected-Recovered and Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIR-SIS) model to contain the computer virus spreading over networks with two degrees. Moreover, we develop its stochastic counterpart. Due to the high protection and security taken for hubs class, we suggest to treat it by using SIR epidemic model rather than the SIS one. The analytical study reveals that the proposed model admits a stable viral equilibrium. Thus, it is shown numerically that the mean dynamic behavior of the stochastic model is in agreement with the deterministic one. Unlike the infection densities i2 and i which both tend to a viral equilibrium for both approaches as in the previous study, i1 tends to the virus-free equilibrium. Furthermore, since a proportion of infectives are recovered, the global infection density i is minimized. Therefore, the permanent presence of viruses in the network due to the lower-degree nodes class. Many suggestions are put forward for containing viruses propagation and minimizing their damages.

  3. Constitutive Relation of Engineering Material Based on SIR Model and HAM

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    Haoxiang He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an epidemic mathematical model, the SIR model represents the transition of the Susceptible, Infected, and Recovered. The profound implication of the SIR model is viewed as the propagation and dynamic evolutionary process of the different internal components and the characteristics in a complex system subject to external effect. The uniaxial stress-strain curve of engineering material represents the basic constitutive relation, which also represents the damage propagation in the units of the damaged member. Hence, a novel dynamic stress-strain model is established based on the SIR model. The analytical solution and the approximate solution for the proposed model are represented according to the homotopy analysis method (HAM, and the relationship of the solution and the size effect and the strain rate is discussed. In addition, an experiment on the size effect of confined concrete is carried out and the solution of SIR model is suitable for simulation. The results show that the mechanical mechanism of the parameters of the uniaxial stress-strain model proposed in this paper reflects the actual characteristics of the materials. The solution of the SIR model can fully and accurately show the change of the mechanical performance and the influence of the size effect and the strain rate.

  4. Familial Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in First-Degree Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    the rate of the disease, and whether this rate is affected by the type of family relationship (that is, parent or sibling) or by how the relative acquired the infection. DESIGN: Register-based nationwide cohort study (1992 to 2011). SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: First-degree relatives (children...... or siblings) of patients previously hospitalized with S aureus bacteremia. MEASUREMENTS: Poisson regression models were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of S aureus bacteremia, with the incidence rate in the population as a reference. RESULTS: 34 774 individuals (the exposed cohort...... in the background population. The estimate was significantly higher if the index case patient was a sibling (SIR, 5.01 [CI, 3.30 to 7.62]) than a parent (SIR, 1.96 [CI, 1.45 to 2.67]; interaction P

  5. Different strategies of osmoadaptation in the closely related marine myxobacteria Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Moghaddam, Jamshid; Boehringer, Nils; Burdziak, Amal; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Galinski, Erwin A; Schäberle, Till F

    2016-02-03

    Only a few myxobacteria are known to date which are classified as marine due to their salt-dependency. In this study, the salt tolerance mechanism of these bacteria was investigated. Therefore, a growth medium was designed, in which the mutated Escherichia coli strain BKA13 served as sole food source for the predatory, heterotrophic myxobacteria. This enabled measurement of the osmolytes without any background and revealed that the closely related strains Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 developed different strategies to handle salt stress. P. pacifica SIR-1, which was grown between 1-4 % NaCl, relies solely on the accumulation of amino acids, while E. salina SWB007, which was grown between 0.5-3 % NaCl, employs, beside betaine, hydroxyectoine as the major compatible solute. In accordance with this analysis, only in the latter strain a gene locus was identified which codes for genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of betaine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine.

  6. The Human Relations Class at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Katherine J.

    Human Relations was a program offered to Grade 10 students at Churchill Secondary School during the 1971-72 school year in lieu of four courses. The emphasis of the program was on the development of students as people who were more aware of themselves, of other people, and of the environment. The class took part in a variety of activities during…

  7. Shuttle Experimental Radar for Geological Exploration (SERGE) project: Field work relating to the Shuttle Experimental Radar A (SIR-A) in Brazil (phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balieiro, M. G.; Martini, P. R.; Dossantos, J. R.; Demattos, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    The ground observations undertaken over the northern position of Minas Gerais State, and part of Distrito Federal from 7 to 12 December 1982, along the Space Shuttle 2 flying orbit 22 of November 1981 are described. Field data related mostly with lithology, geological structures and forest cover, and specific geomorphological and pedological aspects were collected. Ground data are applied to evaluate the SIR-A Experiment, developed in the Space Shuttle-2 mission for natural resources mapping and prospecting.

  8. Increased extracellular heat shock protein 90α in severe sepsis and SIRS associated with multiple organ failure and related to acute inflammatory-metabolic stress response in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Dimitriou, Helen; Venihaki, Maria; Katrinaki, Marianna; Ilia, Stavroula; Briassoulis, George

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian heat-shock-protein (HSP) 90α rapidly responses to environmental insults. We examined the hypothesis that not only serum HSP72 but also HSP90α is increased in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), severe-sepsis (SS), and/or sepsis (S) compared to healthy children (H); we assessed HSP90α relation to (a) multiple organ system failure (MOSF) and (b) inflammatory-metabolic response and severity of illness.A total of 65 children with S, SS, or SIRS and 25 H were included. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSP90α and HSP72, chemiluminescence interleukins (ILs), flow-cytometry neutrophil-CD64 (nCD64)-expression.HSP90α, along with HSP72, were dramatically increased among MOSF patients. Patients in septic groups and SIRS had elevated HSP90α compared to H (P stress, fever, outcome endpoints, and predicted mortality and inversely related to the low-LDL/low-HDL stress metabolic pattern.

  9. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines rise rapidly during ECMO-related SIRS due to the release of preformed stores in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McILwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Holt, David W; Kelly, David R; Hartman, Yolanda E; Neel, Mary Lauren; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Schelonka, Robert L; Anantharamaiah, G M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving support system used in neonates and young children with severe cardiorespiratory failure. Although ECMO has reduced mortality in these critically ill patients, almost all patients treated with ECMO develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) characterized by a 'cytokine storm', leukocyte activation, and multisystem organ dysfunction. We used a neonatal porcine model of ECMO to investigate whether rising plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO reflect de novo synthesis of these mediators in inflamed tissues, and therefore, can be used to assess the severity of ECMO-related SIRS. Previously healthy piglets (3-week-old) were subjected to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h. SIRS was assessed by histopathological analysis, measurement of neutrophil activation (flow cytometry), plasma cytokine concentrations (enzyme immunoassays), and tissue expression of inflammatory genes (PCR/western blots). Mast cell degranulation was investigated by measurement of plasma tryptase activity. Porcine neonatal ECMO was associated with systemic inflammatory changes similar to those seen in human neonates. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations rose rapidly during the first 2 h of ECMO, faster than the tissue expression of these cytokines. ECMO was associated with increased plasma mast cell tryptase activity, indicating that increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO may result from mast cell degranulation and associated release of preformed cytokines stored in mast cells. TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations rose faster in plasma than in the peripheral tissues during ECMO, indicating that rising plasma levels of these cytokines immediately after the initiation of ECMO may not reflect increasing tissue synthesis of these cytokines. Mobilization of preformed cellular stores of inflammatory cytokines such as in mucosal mast cells may have

  10. Probabilistic relation between In-Degree and PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic model that explains the relation between power laws of In-Degree and PageRank. PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. We model the relation between PageRank and In-Degree through a stochastic equation, which is inspired by the

  11. Sir John Meurig Thomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2013-10-11

    "My greatest achievement has been to combine being a teacher, a researcher, and a popularizer of science for over 50 years. My worst nightmare is to find myself dumbstruck when I am about to give a lecture …︁" This and more about Sir John Meurig Thomas can be found on page 10938. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Whither Sir William?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Greenberg, MSLS, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are times when something is simply so familiar that we can no longer see it at all. It can be a story, or a concept, or even a flesh-and-blood person. Familiarity breeds not only contempt, but a kind of invisibility as well. For too many of us, such is the case with Sir William Osler. In his time (1849–1919, many considered him to be one of the greatest practitioners, teachers, and writers ever in the field of medicine. He was instrumental in the founding of the Medical Library Association (MLA and was elected its second president.

  13. Physical properties of peats as related to degree of decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1969-01-01

    Important physical characteristics, such as water retention, water yield coefficient, and hydraulic conductivity, vary greatly for representative northern Minnesota peat materials. The differences are related to the degree of decomposition, which largely determines the porosity and pore size distribution. Fiber content (> 0.1 mm) and bulk density are properties...

  14. Sir Isaac Newton

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    E. A. Venter

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Die geweldige oplewing van die Christelike wetenskaps- gedagte in ons geeslose tyd, is ongetwyfeld ’n haas onverklaar- bare verskynsel. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening. In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e.a. steeds met eer vermeld word. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Die intieme verband tussen religie, wysbegeerte en wetenskaps­ beoefening is toe egter nog nie suiwer ingesien nie. Uit hier­ die tydperk dateer die arbeid van sir Isaac Newton.

  15. Familial clustering of myocardial infarction in first-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mia; Andersson, Charlotte; Gerds, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    showed an RR of 4.30 (95% confidence interval 3.53–5.23) for siblings of a patient with MI. Children of parents with MI also showed high risk: for children of a maternal case RR 2.40 (2.20–2.60), and of a paternal case RR 1.98 (1.98–2.09), respectively; P value for gender interaction paternal...... case with MI at an age 50 years was associated with a risk of 1.83 (1.73–1.93). For maternal cases below and above 50 years of age the risks were 3.23 (2.56–4.10) and 2.31 (2.11–2.52), respectively. Conclusion First-degree relatives...

  16. Measurement-induced localization of relative degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, Hugo; Knight, Peter L.; Rudolph, Terry

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study, using both analytical and numerical methods, of measurement-induced localization of relational degrees of freedom. Looking first at the interference of two optical modes, we find that the localization of the relative phase can be as good for mixed states--in particular, for two initially Poissonian or thermal states--as for the well-known case of two Fock states. In a realistic setup the localization for mixed states is robust and experimentally accessible, and we discuss applications to superselection rules. For an ideal setup we show how a relational Schroedinger cat state emerges and investigate circumstances under which such a state is destroyed. In our second example we consider the localization of relative atomic phase between two Bose Einstein condensates, looking particularly at the build up of spatial interference patterns, an area which has attracted much attention since the work of Javanainen and Yoo. We show that the relative phase localizes much faster than was intimated in previous studies focusing on the emerging interference pattern itself. Finally, we explore the localization of relative spatial parameters discussed in recent work by Rau, Dunningham, and Burnett. We retain their models of indistinguishable scattering but make different assumptions. In particular we consider the case of a real distant observer monitoring light scattering off two particles, who records events only from a narrow field of view. The localization is only partial regardless of the number of observations. This paper contributes to the wider debate on relationism in quantum mechanics, which treats fundamental concepts - reference frames and conservation laws - from a fully quantum and operational perspective

  17. [Actigraphy in Bipolar Disorder and First Degree Relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Carrillo, Rommel; Gómez Cano, Sujey; Palacio Ortiz, Juan David; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a disabling disease that involves a significant economic costs to the health system, making it is essential to investigate possible early predictors such as changes in sleep-wake cycle in high-risk populations. To review the available literature on alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder and their first degree relatives. A literature search was performed in the data bases, Access Medicine, ClinicalKey, EMBASE, JAMA, Lilacs, OVID, Oxford Journals, ScienceDirect, SciELO, APA y PsycNET. Articles in both English and Spanish were reviewed, without limits by study type. Actigraphy is a non-invasive, useful method for assessing sleep-wake cycle disturbances in the active phases of bipolar disorder, and during euthymia periods. Actigraphy showed good sensitivity to predict true sleep, but low specificity, compared with polysomnography. Although studies in bipolar offspring and relatives are scarce, they show sleep changes similar to bipolar patients. Actigraphy may be a good screening tool of sleep/wake cycle in patients with bipolar disorders, because it is economic, non-invasive and sensitive. Longitudinal studies are required to evaluate its potential use as a risk marker. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. The Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS in acutely hospitalised medical patients: a cohort study

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    Storgaard Merete

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In 437 consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with 28-day mortality. Results A hundred and fifty-four patients (35% had SIRS on admission, 211 patients (48% had no SIRS, and 72 patients (16% had insufficient data to evaluate their SIRS status. SIRS patients were 2.2 times more frequently infected, with 66/154 SIRS patients versus 41/211 non-SIRS patients: p Conclusion We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to 28-day mortality.

  19. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  20. Geim, Prof. Sir Andre Konstantin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2015 Honorary. Geim, Prof. Sir Andre Konstantin FRS. Date of birth: 21 October 1958. Address: Royal Society Research Professor, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK Contact: Office: (+44-161) 275 4120. Email: geim@manchester.ac.uk. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  1. Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig FRS. Date of birth: 15 December 1932. Address: Department of Materials Science and, Metallurgy, New Museums Site, 27, Babbage ... Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more.

  2. {sup 252}Cf spontaneous prompt fission neutron spectrum measured at 0 degree and 180 degree relative to the fragment motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanglian, Bao; Jinquan, Liu [Beijing Univ., BJ (China); Batenkov, O I; Blinov, M V; Smirnov, S N [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, ST. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-01

    The {sup 252}Cf spontaneous prompt fission neutron spectrum at 0 degree and 180 degree relative to the motion direction of corresponding fission fragments was measured. High angular resolution for fragment measurements and high energy resolution for neutron measurements were obtained using multi-parameter TOF spectrometer. The results showed that there is a symmetric distribution of `forward` and `backward` for low energy in C.M.S. neutrons, which was an evidence of nonequilibrium neutrons existed in fission process.

  3. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, D S; Monaghan, S F; Ayala, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories. T-Lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood collected from ICU patients exhibiting SIRS or sepsis. Samples were analyzed for CD18 (β2) and CD29 (β1) on CD3 + T cells through flow cytometry. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. CD18 was almost ubiquitously expressed on CD3 + T cells irrespective of clinical condition. However, CD29 (β1 integrin) was lowest in SIRS patients (20.4% of CD3 + T cells) when compared with either septic patients (35.5%) or healthy volunteers (54.1%). Furthermore, there was evidence of compartmentalization in septic patients, where abdominal sources had a greater percentage of CD3 + CD29 + T cells (41.7%) when compared with those with non-abdominal sources (29.5%). Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.

  4. King, Prof. Sir David Anthony

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1998 Honorary. King, Prof. Sir David Anthony Sc.D., FRS. Date of birth: 12 August 1939. Address: Chief Scientific Adivser & Head, Office of Science and Innovation, London SW1H 0ET, U.K.. Contact: Office: (+44-020) 7215 3821. Fax: (+44-020) 7215 0314. Email: mpst.king@dti.gsi.gov.uk, dak10@cus.cam.ac.uk.

  5. Xerostomia relates to the degree of asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar Navarrete, Bernardino; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Romero Palacios, Pedro José

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationships between xerostomia and the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia in a respiratory outpatient clinic and its relationship with bronchial asthma and ICS use. A cross-sectional observational study of patients recruited in an outpatient setting divided them according to previous diagnoses of bronchial asthma. Data about pulmonary function, concomitant medication, medical comorbidities, Xerostomia Inventory test (XI test), and the degree of asthma control by ACT (asthma control test) were collected for each patient. A linear regression model was applied, using the XI score as dependent variable and the ACT score as independent variable. The 57 patients were divided into asthmatics (40 patients, 70.2%) and control group without asthma (17, 29.8%). The prevalence of xerostomia was 87.7% (50 patients), with no differences between the study groups or current dose of ICS. In the asthmatic group, patients with uncontrolled asthma had worse XI scores than those with partially or totally controlled asthma (30.43 ± 8.71 vs. 24.92 ± 8.08; P Xerostomia is a common symptom in the ambulatory setting. There is a moderate relationship between the degree of asthma control and the severity of xerostomia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sir Hermann Bondi KCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Ian W.

    2007-12-01

    Hermann Bondi was an Applied Mathematician of distinction who will be remembered by fellow scientists for his outstanding contributions to astronomy, cosmology and General Relativity, and particularly for his pioneering contributions to our understanding of gravitational waves, his foundational work on accretion, and as co-creator with Tommy Gold and Fred Hoyle of the steady state theory of cosmology. But Hermann had an equally important second career in scientific administration: advising the UK Government on the Thames Barrier, as Director General of the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO; now the European Space Agency (ESA)), as Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK Government on Defence and then on Energy, as Chairman of the Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC), and finally as Master of Churchill College, Cambridge. He was knighted in 1973. He continued his research on gravitational radiation throughout his administrative career and published his 16th paper in the series on gravitational waves in 2004. Hermann will be remembered not only for his contributions to science and administration, but for his outstanding communication skills and as a charismatic, warm, and stimulating person.

  7. Cancer Risks for Relatives of Children with Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J. A.; Smibert, E.; Algar, E. M.; Heath, J. A.; Dite, G. S.; Hopper, J. L.; Algar, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the extent and distribution of cancers in relatives of 379 children newly diagnosed with cancer. Family history was collected from 1,337 first-degree and 3,399 second-degree relatives and incidence compared with national age- and gender-specific rates. Overall, 14 children (3.7%) had a relative with a history of childhood cancer and 26 children (6.9%) had a first-degree relative with a history of cancer, with only one of these having an identifiable familial cancer syndrome. There was a higher than expected incidence of childhood cancer among first-degree relatives (parents and siblings) (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.43; 95% CI 0.54-5.08). There was also a higher than expected incidence of adult cancers among first-degree relatives (SIR 1.45; 95% CI 0.93-2.21), particularly in females (SIR 1.82; 95% CI 1.26-3.39). The increased family cancer history in first-degree females was largely attributable to an effect in mothers (SIR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27-3.33). The gender-specific association was reflected in higher than expected incidence rates of breast cancer in both mothers (SIR 1.92; 95% CI 0.72-6.83) and aunts (SIR 1.64; 95% CI 0.98-2.94). These findings support the hypothesis that previously undetected familial cancer syndromes contribute to childhood cancer.

  8. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  9. 12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

  10. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  11. Autoimmune Disease in First-Degree Relatives and Spouses of Individuals With Celiac Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac

  12. Prevalence of celiac disease among first-degree relatives of Indian celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asha; Prakash, Shyam; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Ahuja, Vineet; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Makharia, Govind K

    2016-03-01

    Celiac disease, once thought to be uncommon in Asia, is now recognized in Asian nations as well. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease in first-degree relatives of celiac disease patients followed in our centre. First-degree relatives were screened prospectively for celiac disease using questionnaire-based interview and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody. Serology positive first-degree relatives underwent duodenal biopsies. Diagnosis of celiac disease was made based on positive serology and villous abnormality Marsh grade 2 or higher. Human leucocyte antigen DQ2/-DQ8 was also assessed in 127 first-degree relatives. 434 first-degree relatives of 176 celiac disease patients were prospectively recruited; 282 were symptomatic (64.9%), 58 were positive for serology (13.3%). Seroprevalence was higher in female than in males (19% vs 8.5%; p=0.001) and highest in siblings (16.9%) than parents (13.6%) and children (5.9%) of celiac patients (p=0.055); 87.4% first-degree relatives were human leucocyte antigen-DQ2/-DQ8 positive. Overall prevalence of celiac disease was 10.9% amongst first-degree relatives. The prevalence of celiac disease in first-degree relatives of celiac disease patients was 10.9% in our cohort, and 87% had human leucocyte antigen-DQ2 or -DQ8 haplotype. All first-degree relatives of celiac disease patients should be screen for celiac disease even if asymptomatic or with atypical manifestations. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary habits of colorectal neoplasia patients in comparison to their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzrlikova, Ivana Mikoviny; Vitek, Petr; Chalupa, Josef; Dite, Petr

    2014-05-07

    To compare the dietary habits between colorectal neoplasia patients, their first-degree relatives, and unrelated controls. From July 2008 to April 2011, we collected epidemiological data relevant to colorectal cancer from patients with colorectal neoplasias, their first-degree relatives, and also from a control group consisting of people referred for colonoscopy with a negative family history of colorectal cancer and without evidence of neoplasia after colonoscopic examination. The first-degree relatives were divided into two groups following the colonoscopic examination: (1) patients with neoplasia or (2) patients without neoplasia. Dietary habits of all groups were compared. A χ (2) test was used to assess the association between two dichotomous categorical variables. The study groups consisted of 242 patients with colorectal neoplasias (143 men, 99 women; mean age: 64 ± 12 years) and 160 first-degree relatives (66 men, 94 women; mean age: 48 ± 11 years). Fifty-five of the first-degree relatives were found to have a neoplastic lesion upon colonoscopy, while the remaining 105 were without neoplasia. The control group contained 123 individuals with a negative family history for neoplastic lesions (66 men, 57 women; mean age: 54 ± 12 years). Two hypotheses were tested. In the first, the dietary habits of first-degree relatives with neoplasia were more similar to those of patients with neoplasia, while the dietary habits of first-degree relatives without neoplasia were similar to those of the control group. In the second, no sex-related differences in dietary habits were expected between the particular groups. Indeed, no significant differences were observed in the dietary habits between the groups of patients, controls and first-degree relatives with/without neoplastic lesions. Nevertheless, statistically significant sex-related differences were observed in all groups, wherein women had healthier dietary habits than men. In all groups examined, women had

  14. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p type 2 diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  15. SIR-A views our environment An Experiment in the Batu Angkal Area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    Factors affecting the ease of identification are. mainly tonal contrast, shape, size, surface roughness, direction in relation to the illumination, and dielectric constant. Due to the future availability of SIR-B image of Kalimantan, further study is recommended.

  16. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto, Agus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart

  17. Running in the family? : structural brain abnormalities in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, H.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The studies conducted in this thesis explored brain structures in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analysis that Boos and colleagues performed showed that relatives of patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampal volumes, smaller gray matter volumes and larger

  18. Risk of Seizures in First Degree Relatives of Probands with Epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the risk of seizures in first degree relatives of epileptic patients. To relate the risk to several clinical characteristics in the probands. Such information is useful for genetic counselling. Methods: A prospective case-control study of 648 FDR of 88 probands attending the neurology out-patient clinic of a ...

  19. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    John Pendry John Inglesfield and Pedro Echenique write: John Pendry's 65th birthday is on 4 July 2008, and this issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to him, with articles by friends, colleagues, and former students. By any standards, John Pendry is a great scientist, who has made—and continues to make—an enormous contribution to physics; the wide range of his interests is reflected in the scope of these articles. Not many scientists can establish a completely new and unexpected area of research, but this has been John's achievement in the last few years in the field of metamaterials, materials whose electromagnetic properties depend on their structure rather than the materials of which the structure is built. In this way, structures with effectively negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability can be constructed, demonstrating negative refraction; through metamaterials scientists now have access to properties not found in nature, and never previously explored experimentally. Never a week goes by without a potential new application of metamaterials, whether it is perfect lensing, or the cloak of invisibility. This has certainly led to tremendous visibility for John himself, with guest lectures all over the world, and radio and television appearances. John Pendry's first paper was published exactly 40 years ago, 'Analytic properties of pseudopotentials' [1], and since then he has published 310 articles at the latest count. But this first paper already reflected something of the way John works. His PhD project, with Volker Heine at the Cavendish Laboratory, was to interpret the scattering of low energy electrons from surfaces, the technique of LEED which was to become the method of choice for determining surface structure. Although the energy of the electrons in LEED is relatively low—say 50 eV—it is much higher than the energy of the conduction electrons, for which pseudopotentials had been devised, and John

  20. Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, D; Vaeth, M; Tsiropoulos, I

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN: Population based cohort study using data from the Danish National Discharge Registry and the Central Person Registry......, standardised for age, sex, and calendar period. This process was repeated for patients discharged from neurosurgery units, as diagnoses from these wards had high validity (93%). RESULTS: 18 patients had a total of 19 first degree relatives with subarachnoid haemorrhage during the study period, corresponding...... to a standardised incidence ratio of 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.6). Patients discharged from neurosurgery wards had a higher standardised incidence ratio (4.5, 2.7 to 7.3). CONCLUSIONS: First degree relatives of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage have a threefold to fivefold increased risk...

  1. Neurocognition in Unaffected First-Degree Relatives of Patients With Bipolar Disorder Type I From India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Deep Pattanayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the neuropsychological functions of unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder Type I (BD-I in comparison with healthy controls. The method was a cross-sectional assessment of 20 first-degree relatives of patients with BD-I and 20 healthy controls. Inclusion criteria for all participants included age between 18 and 55 years, ≥5 years of formal education, right-handedness as per Edinburgh handedness inventory, absence of color blindness as per Ishihara’s isochromatic charts, and a score of >24 on Hindi mental state examination. None of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of a mental disorder on Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Clinician Version. Neuropsychological assessment was conducted with Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop color and word test, N-Back Verbal Memory Test, and Post Graduate Institute (PGI Memory Scale. Both the groups were comparable in age, gender distribution, and education. The unaffected first-degree relatives performed poorly on Trail Making Test B and (B-A, indicating a poor cognitive flexibility and set-shifting. The relative group also performed poorly on Mental Balance subtest of PGI Memory Scale. The unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with BD display certain impairments in dorsal prefrontal executive functions which can serve as vulnerability markers for BD.

  2. Tensions related to implementation of postgraduate degree projects in specialist nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Millberg, Lena; Berg, Linda; Lindström, Irma; Petzäll, Kerstin; Öhlén, Joakim

    2011-04-01

    In conjunction with the introduction of the Bologna process in Sweden, specialist nursing education programmes were moved up to the second cycle of higher education with the opportunity to take a one-year master's degree, which also meant that students would undertake a degree project carrying 15 ECTS. The purpose of this study was to examine the introduction of postgraduate degree projects on the second-cycle level into Swedish specialist nursing programmes in accordance with the Bologna process. Five universities were involved and the study design took the form of action research. Problem formulation, planning, evaluation and follow-up with reflection led to new actions over a period of 2 1/2 years. Through a review of local curriculum documents, the implementation of a postgraduate degree project was monitored and these reviews, together with field notes, were analysed by means of constant comparative analysis. The results revealed a variety of tensions that arose when postgraduate degree projects were introduced, taking the form of differing views on the relationship between research, clinical development, specific professional objectives and academic objectives. These tensions were reflected in six areas of change. In summary, it can be noted that implementation of the postgraduate degree projects highlighted tensions related to basic views of learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tectonic geomorphology of the Andes with SIR-A and SIR-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fielding, Eric J.

    1986-01-01

    Data takes from SIR-A and SIR-B (Shuttle Imaging Radar) crossed all of the principal geomorphic provinces of the central Andes between 17 and 34 S latitude. In conjunction with Thematic Mapping images and photographs from hand-held cameras as well as from the Large Format Camera that was flown with SIR-B, the radar images give an excellent sampling of Andean geomorphology. In particular, the radar images show new details of volcanic rocks and landforms of late Cenozoic age in the Puna, and the exhumed surfaces of tilted blocks of Precambrian crystalline basement in the Sierras Pampeanas.

  4. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K. S.; Reitsma, J. B.; Lemmens, V.; van Os, T. A. M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Koornstra, J. J.; Nagengast, F. M.; van Hest, L. P.; Keller, J. J.; Dekker, E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  5. Risk of ovarian cancer in women with first-degree relatives with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Marie; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Jensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of ovarian cancer in women with first-degree relatives with cancer at one of the four most frequent hereditary sites based on validated cancer diagnoses and to examine the association according to age at diagnosis of ovarian cancer and histology. DESIGN: Case......-control study. SETTING AND POPULATION: First-degree relatives of 554 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,564 controls were included. METHODS: Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative was significantly associated...... with increased risk of ovarian cancer (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.1 (mother or sister)). Ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative appeared to be a stronger risk factor for early-onset (cancer than late-onset (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.0-14.1 vs. OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4). The positive association...

  6. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K.S.; Reitsma, J.B.; Lemmens, V.; Os, T.A. van; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Koornstra, J.J.; Nagengast, F.M.; Hest, L.P. van; Keller, J.J.; Dekker, E. den

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  7. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K. S.; Lemmens, V.; van Os, T. A. M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Koornstra, J. J.; Nagengast, F. M.; van Hest, L. P.; Keller, J. J.; Dekker, E.; Reitsma, J.

    Introduction Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  8. Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twentieth century bore witness to remarkable scientists whohave advanced our understanding of the brain. Among them,Sir Charles Scott Sherrington's ideas about the way in whichthe central nervous system operates has continuing relevanceeven today. He received honorary doctorates from twentytwouniversities and ...

  9. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-08-20

    Aug 20, 1997 ... In 1857, a General in the Indian Army, Sir C C G Ross and his wife Matilda .... generally low-caste Indians who required a fee before drinking the water and ... nary demand being made upon their systems, as by fatigue, chill,.

  10. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite - Discovery of its Route - From Man to Mosquito and Back. Shobhona Sharma. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 4-13 ...

  11. Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Twentieth century bore witness to remarkable scientists whohave advanced our understanding of the brain. Among them,Sir Charles Scott Sherrington's ideas about the way in whichthe central nervous system operates has continuing relevanceeven today. He received honorary doctorates from ...

  12. Risk of leukemia in first degree relatives of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo GONÇALVES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of leukemia in parents of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCL/P. This case-control study evaluated first-degree family members of 358 patients with NSCL/P and 1,432 subjects without craniofacial alterations or syndromes. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher’s test. From the 358 subjects with NSCL/P, 3 first-degree parents had history of leukemia, while 2 out of 1,432 subjects from the unaffected group had a family history of leukemia. The frequency of positive family history of leukemia was not significantly increased in first-degree relatives of patients with NSCL/P.

  13. Nuclear-related training and education offered by academic institutions (less than baccalaureate degree) (preliminary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, L.

    1981-11-01

    This study presents the results of a survey of academic institutions offering nuclear-related training and education at the less than baccalaureate degree level. The scope of the survey includes only those programs which have a nuclear power industry application, and excludes all programs which are affiliated with nuclear medicine. The survey instrument was distributed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations to 262 academic institutions. The survey universe was compiled from a number of publications that listed nuclear-related academic programs. Since the initial mailing in May 1981, ten of the institutions have been determined to no longer exist and eight other listings have been identified as duplications, thus reducing the universe to 244 institutions. Fifty-five percent of the survey population (134 institutions) responded to the questionnaire, of which 45 percent (109) were out of the survey scope and 10 percent (25) indicated they offered less than baccalaureate degree, nuclear-related programs

  14. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  15. Frontal alpha asymmetry in OCD patients and unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Rosa; Riesel, Anja; Klawohn, Julia; Heinzel, Stephan; Kaufmann, Christian; Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Kathmann, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    Frontal electroencephalographic alpha asymmetry as an indicator of trait approach and trait inhibition systems has previously been studied in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with mixed results. We explored frontal alpha asymmetry as a possible risk factor in OCD by investigating a large sample of OCD patients (n = 113), healthy control participants (n = 113), and unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 37). Additionally, the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and frontal alpha asymmetry was explored. OCD patients and healthy control participants did not differ in alpha asymmetry scores. Hence, the current results do not support the notion that OCD as a diagnostic entity is associated with a shift in frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, alpha asymmetry scores were not statistically related to specific OCD symptom dimensions. Reasons for inconsistent results in OCD are discussed and should be explored in future studies. Compared to OCD patients and healthy control participants, unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients showed increased left frontal activity. Such asymmetry has previously been found to be associated with positive affect and adaptive emotion regulation under stress. Because stressful life events play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of OCD, increased left frontal activity might serve as a resilience factor in unaffected 1st-degree relatives. Future studies should follow up on these results with longitudinal risk studies and pre- and posttherapy assessments to further explore causality of this putative factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Celiac disease in children from Madeira island and its prevalence in first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana Raquel Henriques; Cabral, António Jorge; Ferreira, Elena; Capelinha, Filipa; Spínola, Hélder; Gonçalves, Rute

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that celiac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder highly prevalent among relatives of celiac patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of celiac children, and to access the frequency of human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 in celiac disease patients and their affected relatives. A survey was conducted of 39 children with celiac disease with follow-up in the Pediatric outpatient's clinic of Dr. Nélio Mendonça Hospital, in Madeira Island, Portugal. Were invited 110 first degree relatives to undergo serological screen for celiac disease with IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TGG) quantification. In all seropositive relatives, small intestinal biopsy and HLA typing was recommended. HLA- typing was performed in 38 celiac patients, 28/74% DQ2 positive, 1/2% DQ8 positive and 9/24% incomplete DQ2. Positive IgA-TGG was found in five out of the 95 relatives, and CD was diagnosed in three of them. Three relatives had the presence of HLA-DQ2, two were DQ2 incomplete (DQB1*02). The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree celiac patients´ relatives was 3.1%, 4.5 times higher than the general Portuguese population (0,7%) witch reinforces the need of extensive diagnostic screening in this specific group. HLA-DQ2 typing may be a tool in the diagnostic approach.

  17. Emotional intelligence in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Auria; Bosque, Clara; Custal, Nuria; Crespo, José M; Gilabert, Ester; Albiach, Angela; Menchón, José M; Contreras, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Subtle social cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients have received increasing attention over the last few years, supporting their potential endophenotypic role for this disorder. The current study assessed non-psychotic first-degree relatives' performance on a multidimensional measure of emotional intelligence (EI): the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test 2.0 (MSCEIT). Endorsed by the National Institute of Mental Health, the MSCEIT is a valid and reliable instrument for detecting emotion-processing deficits among schizophrenia patients and people high in schizotypy. Thirty-seven first-degree relatives, 37 schizophrenia outpatients and 37 healthy controls completed the MSCEIT, which comprises eight subscales aimed to assess the four branches of EI: Identifying, Facilitating, Understanding and Managing Emotions. Potential associations with cognitive function and schizotypy levels, measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief, were further evaluated. Relatives had significantly lower MSCEIT total scores than controls and also significantly lower scores on the Identifying emotions branch. Nevertheless, schizophrenia patients still had the poorest global EI performance. The strongest positive correlations were found in relatives and controls with measures of executive function, processing speed and general intelligence. A higher level of schizotypy correlated significantly with lower MSCEIT scores among controls, but not among relatives. Contrary to expectations in the general population, the current study observed subtle EI impairment in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. These findings support the hypothesis that these EI deficiencies may be potential endophenotypes located between the clinical phenotype and the genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Customization of flexographic printing plates related to uvc-induced changes in the crosslinking degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tomašegović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the swelling properties of photopolymer flexographic printing plates related to the variations of UVC post-treatment have been analysed. The aim of the research was to interconnect the changes in the crosslinking degree of the photopolymer material occurring due to the modified UVC radiation of the printing plate and the changes of its surface free energy crucial in the graphic reproduction process. Changes in the crosslinking degree in the photopolymer materials have been analysed by the swelling experiments. Results have proven that the partial dissolution of the photopolymer material caused by the immersion of the printing plates in various solvents is in the direct relation with the changes of the dispersive surface free energy. UVC post-treatment, used for the crosslinking termination and the definition of the surface properties of printing plates, is therefore directly affecting the resistivity of the printing plate in the solvent environment. By calculating the correlation coefficients for the weight loss of the photopolymer material in solvents and the dispersive surface free energy, the relation between the crosslinking degree and the UVC post-treatment has been established.

  19. Identification of vulnerability among first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, R K; Swami, M K; Singh, P; Gupta, S

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the status of schizotypy, neurological soft signs, and cognitive functions as vulnerability markers for schizophrenia and to investigate the potential value of their combination for early identification of people at high risk for schizophrenia. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Subjects were drawn from first-degree relatives of inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 50). Controls (n = 30) were recruited by word-of-mouth from hospital staff and attendants of hospitalised patients. Subjects who met inclusion criteria on screening were subjected to selected measures for assessment, including Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version, the Cambridge Neurological Inventory, digit span test, paired associate learning test, and visuospatial working memory matrix. Statistical analysis was completed using the independent t test and significance (p value), as well as calculation of effect size (Cohen's d). Discriminant function analysis was used to determine the effect of combining assessment measures. First-degree relatives showed higher schizotypy scores (Cohen's d = 0.88) and neurological soft signs (Cohen's d = 1.55). They scored significantly worse on all neurocognitive measures (Cohen's d = -1.27). Discriminant function analysis showed that Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version, neurological soft signs, and total cognitive index (the sum of weighted scores on individual cognitive scales) in combination better discriminated between the first-degree relative and control groups (Wilks' λ = 0.54). Use of multiple vulnerability markers could enhance the specificity of measures used to determine risk for schizophrenia.

  20. Sumoylation of Sir2 differentially regulates transcriptional silencing in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Abdul; Abraham, Neethu Maria; Goyal, Siddharth; Jamir, Imlitoshi; Priyakumar, U Deva; Mishra, Krishnaveni

    2015-12-02

    Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the conserved sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, regulates several physiological processes including genome stability, gene silencing, metabolism and life span in yeast. Within the nucleus, Sir2 is associated with telomere clusters in the nuclear periphery and rDNA in the nucleolus and regulates gene silencing at these genomic sites. How distribution of Sir2 between telomere and rDNA is regulated is not known. Here we show that Sir2 is sumoylated and this modification modulates the intra-nuclear distribution of Sir2. We identify Siz2 as the key SUMO ligase and show that multiple lysines in Sir2 are subject to this sumoylation activity. Mutating K215 alone counteracts the inhibitory effect of Siz2 on telomeric silencing. SUMO modification of Sir2 impairs interaction with Sir4 but not Net1 and, furthermore, SUMO modified Sir2 shows predominant nucleolar localization. Our findings demonstrate that sumoylation of Sir2 modulates distribution between telomeres and rDNA and this is likely to have implications for Sir2 function in other loci as well. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. SIR - small is safe [in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint USA-UK venture has been initiated to design a small nuclear reactor which offers low capital cost, greater flexibility and a potentially lower environmental impact. Called Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), the lead unit could be built in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA's) Winfrith site if the design is accepted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). This article describes the 320 MWe reactor unit that is the basis of the design being developed. (author)

  2. Gamma power and cognition in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Álvaro; Suazo, Vanessa; Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Molina, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Gamma oscillations are essential for functional neural assembly formation underlying higher cerebral functions. Previous studies concerning gamma band power in schizophrenia have yielded diverse results. In this study, we assessed gamma band power in minimally treated patients with schizophrenia, their first-degree relatives and healthy controls during an oddball paradigm performance, as well as the relation between gamma power and cognitive performance. We found a higher gamma power in the patient group than in the healthy controls at the P3, P4, Fz, Pz and T5 sites. Compared with their relatives, gamma power in the patients was only marginally higher over P3 and P4. We found a nearly significant inverse association between gamma power at F4 and Tower of London performance in the patients, as well as a significant inverse association between gamma power at T5 and verbal memory and working memory scores in the relatives. These results support higher total gamma power in association with schizophrenia and its inverse association with cognitive performance in patients and their first-degree relatives.

  3. Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auria eAlbacete

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking (CFT is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia. At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N=43, in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N=54 and healthy controls (N=44. A series of tests that assessed the causal order effect in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgements of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Because of the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies.

  4. Adherence to colonoscopy recommendations for first-degree relatives of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme H. Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The American College of Gastroenterology recommends screening for first-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer before the age of 50. A colonoscopy is one of the most commonly recommended exams due to its specificity and the possibility to resect pre-malignant lesions. Nevertheless, the rate of physician adherence to this recommendation is unknown.METHODS:This transversal study was performed at a major cancer center in Brazil with 62 patients, aged 18 to 50, who completed a questionnaire on information received from their physicians regarding screening their first-degree relatives. We used the answers from patients who provided explicit consent.RESULTS:Two hundred and three patients were eligible to participate and 93 (45.8% agreed to complete the questionnaire. Twenty-three questionnaires (24.73% were returned and 39 were completed by telephone. Of the patients who answered the questionnaire, 39 (62.9% had received a colonoscopy recommendation for their first-degree relatives and 23 (37.1% were not informed of the recommendation. Among the patients who received the recommendations, 20.51% affirmed that all relatives completed the exam and 51.28% stated that no relatives completed the exam.DISCUSSION:The adherence rate of our physicians to the ACG guideline recommendations was 62.9%. Considering that our study was performed at a leading center for cancer treatment in Latin America, we had expected better adherence. The results show that adherence to the colorectal cancer screening recommendations for high-risk patients must be improved.

  5. Phase relations in the metal-rich portions of the phase system Pt-Ir-Fe-S at 1000 degrees C and 1100 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, E.; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2000-01-01

    Phase relations in the S-poor portions of the dry condensed Pt-Ir-Fe-S system were determined at 1000 degrees and 1100 degreesC with a particular emphasis on delineation of the solid solubility fields of the Pt-Ir-Fe alloys. At both temperatures, a broad field of gamma (Ir,Fe,Pt) alloy coexists...... with gamma-(Pt,Fe), Pt3Fe and PtFe which dissolve respectively at least 5.1, 29.3 and 24.0 at.% Ir at 1100 degreesC (2.2, 23.6 and less than or equal to 17.2 at.% Ir at 1000 degreesC). Gaps between the nearly Ir-free Pt-Fe alloys gamma (Pt,Fe), Pt3Fe s.s., PtFe s.s. and gamma (Fe,Pt) were estimated as 20......-23 at.%, 40-42 at.% and 54.2-similar to 57 at.% Fe at 1100 degreesC (18-23, 39.5-42.5 and 59-62 at.% Fe at 1000 degreesC). The first gap agrees with data from natural phases by Cabri et ni. (1996). The Fe-rich sulphide melt dissolves only traces of Pt and Ir; Fe1-xS dissolves up to 5.8 at.% Ir at 1100...

  6. Levels-of-processing effects in first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M

    2007-05-15

    First-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia show cognitive impairments that are similar to but less severe than their ill relatives. We have shown that memory impairments can be improved and prefrontal cortical (PFC) activity increased in individuals with schizophrenia by providing beneficial encoding strategies. The current study used a similar paradigm to determine whether siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (SIBs) also show increases in brain activity when presented with beneficial encoding strategies. Twenty-one SIBs and 38 siblings of healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while engaged in deep (abstract/concrete judgments) and shallow (orthographic judgments) encoding. Subjects were then given a recognition memory test. The groups did not differ on encoding or recognition accuracy, and the SIBs benefited from deep encoding to a similar degree as control subjects. The SIBs showed deep encoding-related activity in a number of PFC regions typically activated during semantic processing. However, SIBs showed more activity than control subjects in three subregions of PFC (left BA 44 & BA 47 bilaterally). Siblings of individuals with schizophrenia benefit from supportive verbal encoding conditions. Like individuals with schizophrenia, SIBs also show increased task-related activity in a larger number of PFC subregions than control subjects during deep verbal encoding.

  7. Bora Bora, Tahaa, and Raiatea, French Polynesia, Landsat and SIR-C Images Compared to SRTM Shaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    actually measure topographic height. They therefore have not fully characterized the three-dimensional shape of landforms. The shape and height of Earth's landforms affects nearly every natural process and human activity that occurs at Earth's surface, including vegetative growth, water supply, transportation, and radio communication. Thus, the new information provided by SRTM is highly valuable in understanding and interacting with our environment. The Landsat image is an enhanced display of natural visible color (Landsat bands 1,2,3 in blue, green, red). As is evident from the cloud shadows, the morning sun shines from the northeast (upper right). The SIR-C image displays the L-band radar data (23.5 centimeter wavelength, vertical transmit and receive) in red, C-band radar data (5.8 centimeter wavelength, vertical transmit and receive) in green, and a difference of the two (L minus C) in blue. Cosmetic color adjustments were used to enhance the green and blue display of land and water. The 'side-looking' transmitted radar illumination was from the northeast as the Space Shuttle Endeavour passed from northwest to southeast on a descending orbit. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the SRTM image: color coding of topographic height plus shading of the topographic model. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Shading was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark, generally consistent with the Landsat and SIR-C illumination directions. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  8. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. 6594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyse whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio (RR) for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41–8.87) when a father, 8.30(95% CI: 3.81–18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35–20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared with no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and oesophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  9. A method for estimating the relative degree of saponification of xanthophyll sources and feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D L

    2006-05-01

    Saponification of xanthophyll esters in various feed sources has been shown to improve pigmentation efficiency in broiler skin and egg yolks. Three trials were conducted to evaluate a rapid liquid chromatography procedure for estimating the relative degree of xanthophyll saponification using samples of yellow corn, corn gluten meal, alfalfa, and 6 commercially available marigold meal concentrates. In each trial, samples were extracted using a modification of the 1984 Association of Official Analytical Chemists hot saponification procedure with and without the addition of KOH. A comparison of the chromatography results was used to estimate percent saponification of the original sample by dividing the nonsaponified extraction values by the saponified extraction values. A comparison of the percent saponified xanthophylls for each product (mg/kg) was: yellow corn, 101; corn gluten meal, 78; alfalfa, 97.9; and marigold concentrates A through F, 99.8, 4.6, 99.0, 95.6, 96.8, and 6.6, respectively. These results indicate that a modification of the 1984 Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedure and liquid column chromatography can be used to quickly verify saponification and can be used to estimate the relative degree of saponification of an unknown xanthophyll source.

  10. Thyroid abnormalities among first-degree relatives of children with congenital hypothyroidism: an ultrasound survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Haghighi, Mahshid; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Amini, Massoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2008-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is caused by thyroid dysgenesis and dyshormonogenesis. Evidence suggests the presence of genetic factors in both types of pathogenesis. We investigated whether an increased incidence of thyroid abnormalities could be shown by ultrasonography among first-degree relatives of children with CH. In this case-control study the presence of both developmental and non-developmental thyroid abnormalities was studied among first-degree relatives of CH patients and healthy children. Assessments included neck ultrasonography and thyroid function tests. The data obtained from parents, siblings and children were compared in the case and control groups. In the case group, 92 patients, 172 parents and 57 siblings, and in the control group, 82 healthy children, 160 parents and 39 siblings were studied. Thyroid developmental abnormalities were more prevalent among parents (3.5 vs. 0%, p = 0.03) and siblings (10.5 vs. 0, p = 0.01) of CH patients than the control group. Non-developmental abnormalities were not significantly different between the case and control groups (17 vs. 13%, p = 0.3). Thyroid developmental abnormalities were more prevalent among parents and siblings of CH patients than the control group, confirming the familial component of this entity. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Screening colonoscopy participation in Turkish colorectal cancer patients and their first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Arslan, Cagatay; Rama, Dorina; Yalcin, Suayib

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to research the awareness of screening colonoscopy (SC) among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and their relatives. A questionnaire form including information and behavior about colonoscopic screening for CRCs of patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRs) was prepared. A total of 406 CRC patients were enrolled into the study, with 1534 FDRs (siblings n: 1381 and parents n: 153) . Positive family history for CRC was found in 12% of the study population. Previous SC was performed in 11% of patients with CRC. Mean age of the patients whose FDRs underwent SC was lower than the patients whose FDRs did not (52 vs 57 years; peducational level and income had SC more frequently. When screening for CRC is planned, elderly subjects, those with family history for CRC, and those with low educational and lower income should be given especial attention in order that they be convinced to undergo screening for CRC.

  12. Risk. Impact of having a first-degree relative with affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    boundaries in order to have an impact on prevention. Furthermore, there is a need to move beyond the notion of ''magic bullets'', instead developing an integrated paradigm encompassing clusters of biomarkers related to behavioural measures of developmental psychopathology. Finally, as most psychiatric...... enhanced risk and thus accelerate the onset of illness. Low-risk individuals seem to experience fewer life events and may exhibit resilience to their adverse psychological effects. Overall, having a 1st-degree relative with affective disorder matters. This thesis demonstrates that high-risk studies...... are informative, allowing observation and investigation of the pathological processes that occur prior to the onset of illness. There is a lack of prospective intervention studies assessing psychopathology in well-defined, high-risk samples and it is obvious that future research must transcend diagnostic...

  13. A fast high-precision six-degree-of-freedom relative position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Macasaet, Van P.; Griswold, Janelle; Sison, Claudia A.; Lubin, Philip; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Brashears, Travis; Zhang, Qicheng; Madajian, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Lasers are commonly used in high-precision measurement and profiling systems. Some laser measurement systems are based on interferometry principles, and others are based on active triangulation, depending on requirements of the application. This paper describes an active triangulation laser measurement system for a specific application wherein the relative position of two fixed, rigid mechanical components is to be measured dynamically with high precision in six degrees of freedom (DOF). Potential applications include optical systems with feedback to control for mechanical vibration, such as target acquisition devices with multiple focal planes. The method uses an array of several laser emitters mounted on one component. The lasers are directed at a reflective surface on the second component. The reflective surface consists of a piecewise-planar pattern such as a pyramid, or more generally a curved reflective surface such as a hyperbolic paraboloid. The reflected spots are sensed at 2-dimensional photodiode arrays on the emitter component. Changes in the relative position of the emitter component and reflective surface will shift the location of the reflected spots within photodiode arrays. Relative motion in any degree of freedom produces independent shifts in the reflected spot locations, allowing full six-DOF relative position determination between the two component positions. Response time of the sensor is limited by the read-out rate of the photodiode arrays. Algorithms are given for position determination with limits on uncertainty and sensitivity, based on laser and spot-sensor characteristics, and assuming regular surfaces. Additional uncertainty analysis is achievable for surface irregularities based on calibration data.

  14. Comparison of QSOFA score and SIRS criteria as screening mechanisms for emergency department sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, Samir; Spanier, Matthew; Weems, Patricia; Wood, Samantha; Strout, Tania

    2017-11-01

    The Quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score has been shown to accurately predict mortality in septic patients and is part of recently proposed diagnostic criteria for sepsis. We sought to ascertain the sensitive of the score in diagnosing sepsis, as well as the diagnostic timeliness of the score when compared to traditional systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria in a population of emergency department (ED) patients treated in the ED, admitted, and subsequently discharged with a diagnosis of sepsis. Electronic health records of 200 patients who were treated for suspected sepsis in our ED and ultimately discharged from our hospital with a diagnosis of sepsis were randomly selected for review from a population of adult ED patients (N=1880). Data extracted included the presence of SIRS criteria and the qSOFA score as well as time required to meet said criteria. In this cohort, 94.5% met SIRS criteria while in the ED whereas only 58.3% met qSOFA. The mean time from arrival to SIRS documentation was 47.1min (95% CI: 36.5-57.8) compared to 84.0min (95% CI: 62.2-105.8) for qSOFA. The median ED "door" to positive SIRS criteria was 12min and 29min for qSOFA. Although qSOFA may be valuable in predicting sepsis-related mortality, it performed poorly as a screening tool for identifying sepsis in the ED. As the time to meet qSOFA criteria was significantly longer than for SIRS, relying on qSOFA alone may delay initiation of evidence-based interventions known to improve sepsis-related outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation of the Vector Force Needed to Lift the Upper Eyelids and the Degree of Exophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho; Kim, Hun; Hwang, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation of the vector force needed to lift the upper eyelids and the degree of exophthalmos (EX). In the 109 magnetic resonance imaging films, the degree of EX (the shortest distance from the cornea to the line connecting both lateral orbital rims), the anterior angle (θ, an angle formed from the lower margin of the upper eyelid-superior transverse ligament (STL)--with a parallel line connecting the supraorbital rim and the infraorbital rim in the sagittal film), the length from the STL to the upper eyelid margin (levator length [LL]), the thickness of the STL (WT), and the thickness the of levator palpebrae (LT) were measured.The average EX was 14.5 ± 2.35  mm. The average θ was 33.84 ± 2.15 degrees. The vector force needed to lift the upper eyelids (cos θ) was 0.83. The average LL was 21.0 ± 1.54  mm. The average WT was 1.07 ± 0.22  mm. The average LT was 1.69 ± 0.30  mm. There was a significant positive relationship between the EX and age (P = 0.022). The EX in those younger than 20 years (12.8 ± 2.06) was significantly lesser than that of the other age groups. There was no significant relationship between the EX and cos θ. However, there was a significant positive relationship between the EX and the LL. There was a significant positive relationship between LL and LT, and between LL and WT.The farther the eyeball protrudes, the longer the LL is needed. The longer the LL is, the thicker the levator muscle and STL.

  16. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  17. Attentional network task in schizophrenic patients and theirs unaffected first degree relatives: a potential endofenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S Guerra; Fuster, J Iglesias; Reyes, M Martín; Collazo, T M Bravo; Quiñones, R Mendoza; Berazain, A Reyes; Rodríguez, M A Pedroso; Días de Villarvilla, T; Bobés, M Antonieta; Valdés-Sosa, M

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reports of attentional deficits in schizophrenic patients and in their biological relatives have rapidly increased, including an important effort to search for the endophenotypes in order to link specific genes to this illness. Posner et al. developed a test, the Attention Network Test (ANT), to study the neural networks. This test provides a separate measure for each one of the three anatomically-defined attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive control). In this paper, we investigate the attentional performance in 32 schizophrenic patients, 29 unaffected first degree relatives and 29 healthy controls using the ANT through a study of family association. We have studied the efficiency of the segregated executive control, alerting and orienting networks by measuring how response latencies (reaction time) were modified by the cue position and the flanking stimuli. We also studied the familial association of these attentional alterations. The ANOVA revealed main effects of flanker and cue condition and a significant interaction effect between flanker and groups studied. The schizophrenic patients and their relatives had a longer median reaction time than the control group. The probands and their relatives significantly differed from the healthy controls in terms of their conflict resolution; however, the alerting network appeared to be conserved. Our results support the thesis of a specific attentional deficit in schizophrenia and show the segregation of the three attentional networks. The family association of these reported alterations supports the idea of a potential endophenotype in schizophrenia.

  18. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M; van Noort, Arthur; Ritt, Marco J P F; van Royen, Barend J; van der Sluijs, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

     Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture.  Clinical assessment was performed in 34 children (mean 10.0 years) with unilateral OBPL and Narakas classes I-III. External and internal rotation strengths were measured with the shoulder in neutral position using a handheld dynamometer. Strength on the affected side was given as percentage of the normal side. Contracture was assessed by passive internal and external rotations in degrees (in 0° abduction). Mallet classification was used for active shoulder function.  External and internal rotation strengths on the affected side were approximately 50% of the normal side and on average both equally affected: 56% (SD 18%) respectively 51% (SD 27%); r  = 0.600, p  = 0.000. Residual strengths were not related to passive internal or external rotation ( p  > 0.200). Internal rotation strength ( r  =  - 0.425, p muscle strength influence contracture formation cannot be confirmed in this study. Our results are of interest for the understanding of contracture formation in OBPL.

  19. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure

    2001-01-01

    no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl- beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta -alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial......beta -Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamy-beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta -alanine synthase...... N- carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta -alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N...

  20. Facial emotion perception in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Chan, Raymond C K; Zhao, Qing; Hong, Xiaohong; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2010-03-17

    Although there is a consensus that patients with schizophrenia have certain deficits in perceiving and expressing facial emotions, previous studies of facial emotion perception in schizophrenia do not present consistent results. The objective of this study was to explore facial emotion perception deficits in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and their non-psychotic first-degree relatives. Sixty-nine patients with schizophrenia, 56 of their first-degree relatives (33 parents and 23 siblings), and 92 healthy controls (67 younger healthy controls matched to the patients and siblings, and 25 older healthy controls matched to the parents) completed a set of facial emotion perception tasks, including facial emotion discrimination, identification, intensity, valence, and corresponding face identification tasks. The results demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than their siblings and younger healthy controls in accuracy in a variety of facial emotion perception tasks, whereas the siblings of the patients performed as well as the corresponding younger healthy controls in all of the facial emotion perception tasks. Patients with schizophrenia also showed significantly reduced speed than younger healthy controls, while siblings of patients did not demonstrate significant differences with both patients and younger healthy controls in speed. Meanwhile, we also found that parents of the schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse than the corresponding older healthy controls in accuracy in terms of facial emotion identification, valence, and the composite index of the facial discrimination, identification, intensity and valence tasks. Moreover, no significant differences were found between the parents of patients and older healthy controls in speed after controlling the years of education and IQ. Taken together, the results suggest that facial emotion perception deficits may serve as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia

  1. Helicobacter pylori genotypes and types of gastritis in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavoshi, F; Asgharzadeh, A; Ghadiri, H; Massarrat, S; Latifi-Navid, S; Zamani, M

    2011-08-01

    The frequency of Helicobacter pylori vacA alleles, cagA, and jhp0947 and their association with types and advanced forms of gastritis in 143 first-degree relatives of gastric cancer (GC) patients was assessed. The subjects included 64/143 with antral-predominant gastritis, 68/143 with pangastritis, and 11/143 with corpus-predominant gastritis, with or without atrophy or intestinal metaplasia (IM). Further classification included the severity of atrophy or IM. Group I (40/143) included the subjects with moderate-marked atrophy or IM, group II (58/143) those with no atrophy or IM, and group III (45/143) with mild atrophy or IM. The frequency of vacA s1 was 79.7%, vacA s2 20.3%, m1 49.7%, m2 50.3%, cagA 76.2%, and jhp0947 58%. The most prevalent combination was vacAs1 cagA (+) (65.7%) (P=0.001). Of the 143 subjects, 85 (59.4%) showed atrophy or IM, and 40/85 (47%) developed the moderate-marked atrophy or IM. No significant correlation was found between genotypes and the types of gastritis, non-atrophy, atrophy, or IM and severe forms of atrophy or IM (P>0.05). It is proposed that H. pylori genotype status might not be considered as an important determinant of the types and advanced forms of gastritis in the first-degree relatives of GC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. "Cet obscur objet du Désir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Melchior

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bunuel’s last film is based on Pierre Louÿs’ La Femme et le Pantin. This now forgotten bestseller, published in 1898, is drawn from Goya s painting El Pelele, in which four women are playing with a male puppet. In Pierre Louÿs’ novel this scene is inverted so that one woman with two faces plays with four men. In Cet Obscur Objet du Désir this “femme fatale” is interpreted by two actresses. The concentric structure of the film puts focus on a scene of being excluded from knowing. The technique of continually interrupting the flash-back sequences frustrates the audience because of its exclusion from the “real” course of events and gives rise to doubts whether the male protagonist tells the truth about his love-affair or whether he satisfies the curiosity of the audience by telling them Pierre Louÿs’ novel as his own story. This ambiguous art of narration mirrors Bunuel’s claim that the main topic of Cet Obscur Objet du Désir is frustration.

  3. Duration and setting of rural immersion during the medical degree relates to rural work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda; McGrail, Matthew; Russell, Deborah; Walker, Judi; Chambers, Helen; Major, Laura; Langham, Robyn

    2018-04-19

    Providing year-long rural immersion as part of the medical degree is commonly used to increase the number of doctors with an interest in rural practice. However, the optimal duration and setting of immersion has not been fully established. This paper explores associations between various durations and settings of rural immersion during the medical degree and whether doctors work in rural areas after graduation. Eligible participants were medical graduates of Monash University between 2008 and 2016 in postgraduate years 1-9, whose characteristics, rural immersion information and work location had been prospectively collected. Separate multiple logistic regression and multinomial logit regression models tested associations between the duration and setting of any rural immersion they did during the medical degree and (i) working in a rural area and (ii) working in large or smaller rural towns, in 2017. The adjusted odds of working in a rural area were significantly increased if students were immersed for one full year (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.79), for between 1 and 2 years (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.54-3.32) and for 2 or more years (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 3.03-6.47) relative to no rural immersion. The strongest association was for immersion in a mix of both regional hospitals and rural general practice (OR, 3.26; 95% CI, 2.31-4.61), followed by immersion in regional hospitals only (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.39-2.70) and rural general practice only (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.06-3.45). More than 1 year's immersion in a mix of regional hospitals and rural general practices was associated with working in smaller regional or rural towns (immersion programmes. Longer rural immersion and immersion in both regional hospitals and rural general practices are likely to increase rural work and rural distribution of early career doctors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  4. Serum Calcium is Related to the Degree of Artery Stenosis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayan Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute ischemic stroke is caused by stenosis of artery supplying to brain. We aimed to detect some metabolites in the serum that would be related to the degree of artery stenosis and to analyze potential mechanisms. Methods: Patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were divided into two groups according to their degree of artery stenosis (which was determined by computed tomographic angiography: a mild group (stenosis ≤ 30% and a severe group (stenosis > 30%. Serum from these patients was collected, and we focused on the differences in the concentrations of calcium, uric acid, low density lipoprotein and homocysteine. The dataset GSE11583 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was analyzed to find the potential mechanism using bioinformatics methods. Results: Among the four metabolites, the only difference that reached significance between the two groups was in the concentration of calcium in serum (2.27±0.08 mmol/L vs 2.21±0.08 mmol/L. By comparing the gene expression levels between normal endothelial cells and adaptive remodeling endothelial cells in GSE11583, we identified 51 upregulated and 40 downregulated genes in adaptive remodeling endothelial cells. The gene set enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated genes were enriched in a phosphatidylinositol signaling system, which is closely involved in the calcium signaling pathway. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the concentration of serum calcium is higher in patients with more severe artery stenosis lesions and that the phosphatidylinositol signaling system is a key biological pathway involved in this process.

  5. Serum Calcium is Related to the Degree of Artery Stenosis in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayan; Xie, Junchao; Zhao, Yanxin; Gong, Li; Liu, Xueyuan; Liu, Wangmi

    2018-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is caused by stenosis of artery supplying to brain. We aimed to detect some metabolites in the serum that would be related to the degree of artery stenosis and to analyze potential mechanisms. Patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were divided into two groups according to their degree of artery stenosis (which was determined by computed tomographic angiography): a mild group (stenosis ≤ 30%) and a severe group (stenosis > 30%). Serum from these patients was collected, and we focused on the differences in the concentrations of calcium, uric acid, low density lipoprotein and homocysteine. The dataset GSE11583 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was analyzed to find the potential mechanism using bioinformatics methods. Among the four metabolites, the only difference that reached significance between the two groups was in the concentration of calcium in serum (2.27±0.08 mmol/L vs 2.21±0.08 mmol/L). By comparing the gene expression levels between normal endothelial cells and adaptive remodeling endothelial cells in GSE11583, we identified 51 upregulated and 40 downregulated genes in adaptive remodeling endothelial cells. The gene set enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated genes were enriched in a phosphatidylinositol signaling system, which is closely involved in the calcium signaling pathway. Our results suggest that the concentration of serum calcium is higher in patients with more severe artery stenosis lesions and that the phosphatidylinositol signaling system is a key biological pathway involved in this process. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Differences in gluten metabolism among healthy volunteers, coeliac disease patients and first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Ferrero, Miguel A; Vaquero Ayala, Luis; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José M G; Albillos, Silvia M; Casqueiro, Francisco Javier

    2015-10-28

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten proteins are partially digested by human proteases generating immunogenic peptides that cause inflammation in patients carrying HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genes. Although intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with patients with CD, bacterial metabolism of gluten has not been studied in depth thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse the metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria associated with gluten intake in healthy individuals, CD patients and first-degree relatives of CD patients. Faecal samples belonging to twenty-two untreated CD patients, twenty treated CD patients, sixteen healthy volunteers on normal diet, eleven healthy volunteers on gluten-free diet (GFD), seventy-one relatives of CD patients on normal diet and sixty-nine relatives on GFD were tested for several proteolytic activities, cultivable bacteria involved in gluten metabolism, SCFA and the amount of gluten in faeces. We detected faecal peptidasic activity against the gluten-derived peptide 33-mer. CD patients showed differences in faecal glutenasic activity (FGA), faecal tryptic activity (FTA), SCFA and faecal gluten content with respect to healthy volunteers. Alterations in specific bacterial groups metabolising gluten such as Clostridium or Lactobacillus were reported in CD patients. Relatives showed similar parameters to CD patients (SCFA) and healthy volunteers (FTA and FGA). Our data support the fact that commensal microbial activity is an important factor in the metabolism of gluten proteins and that this activity is altered in CD patients.

  7. Steeper discounting of delayed rewards in schizophrenia but not first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linda Q; Lee, Sangil; Katchmar, Natalie; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Kable, Joseph W; Wolf, Daniel H

    2017-06-01

    Excessive discounting of future rewards has been related to a variety of risky behaviors and adverse clinical conditions. Prior work examining delay discounting in schizophrenia suggests an elevated discount rate. However, it remains uncertain whether this reflects the disease process itself or an underlying genetic vulnerability, whether it is selective for delay discounting or reflects pervasive changes in decision-making, and whether it is driven by specific clinical dimensions such as cognitive impairment. Here we investigated delay discounting, as well as loss aversion and risk aversion, in three groups: schizophrenia (SZ), unaffected first-degree family members (FM), and controls without a family history of psychosis (NC). SZ had elevated discounting, without changes in loss aversion or risk aversion. Contrary to expectations, the FM group did not show an intermediate phenotype in discounting. Higher discount rates correlated with lower cognitive performance on verbal reasoning, but this did not explain elevated discount rates in SZ. Group differences were driven primarily by the non-smoking majority of the sample. This study provides further evidence for elevated discounting in schizophrenia, and demonstrates that steeper discounting is not necessarily associated with familial risk, cannot be wholly accounted for by cognitive deficits, and is not attributable to smoking-related impulsivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies of Filipino patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: autoantibody profile of first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, S V; Ishimori, M I; Uy, E A; Hamijoyo, L; Sama, J; James, J A; Holers, V M; Weisman, M H

    2011-04-01

    This study surveyed the frequency of autoantibodies among un-affected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Filipino systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy un-related Filipino controls. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the autoantibodies for SLE diagnosis were also assessed in this Filipino cohort. Filipino patients included in the University of Santo Tomas (UST) Lupus Database and un-affected FDRs were recruited. Healthy controls included those with no known personal or family history of autoimmune disease. The following autoantibodies were tested in all subjects: anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, anti-Ro/SSA, anti-chromatin, anti-thyroid microsome, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Participants included 232 SLE patients, 546 FDRs, and 221 healthy controls. Median age of patients was 27 (range 8-66) years with median disease duration of 27.5 (range 1-292) months. Median age of FDRs was 42.0 (range 5-87) years. Compared with healthy controls, there were significantly more FDRs with positive ANA at titers 1 : 40 to 1 : 160 (p Filipinos, with a significant proportion of un-affected FDRs of SLE patients testing positive for autoantibodies compared with healthy Filipino controls. A longitudinal observational study in this same cohort will determine which proportion of these un-affected FDRs will evolve into clinical SLE disease in the future.

  9. Real-time sun protection decisions in first-degree relatives of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Shuk, Elyse; Schofield, Elizabeth; Loeb, Rebecca; Holland, Susan; Burkhalter, Jack; Li, Yuelin

    2017-09-01

    Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer, and consistent use of sun protection is recommended to reduce risk. Yet sun protection use is generally inconsistent. Understanding the decisional factors driving sun protection choices could aid in intervention development to promote sun protection maintenance. In 59 first-degree relatives of melanoma patients, an interactive voice response system (IVRS) on participants' cell phones was used to assess twice daily (morning, afternoon) real-time sun protection usage (sunscreen, shade, hats, protective clothing) and decision factors (weather, type of activity, convenience, social support) over a 14-day summer interval where morning and afternoon outdoor exposures were anticipated. Generalized estimating equations and hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effect of demographics and decisional factors on sun protection choices over time. Sun protection use was inconsistent (e.g., 61% used sunscreen inconsistently). Most strategies were used independently, with the exception of moderate overlap of sunscreen and hat usage. Decision factors were highly relevant for sun protection. For instance, sunscreen use was related to the perception of having adequate time to apply it, whereas shade and hat usage were each related to convenience. Few findings emerged by gender, age, time of day, or year. Significant within-subject variation remained, however. The findings support continued examination of decision factors in understanding sun protection consistency in real time. Interventions where cues to action and environmental supports work together in varied settings can be developed to improve sun protection maintenance in populations at risk for this common disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives and metachronous colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Gupta, Samir; Baron, John A; Cross, Amanda J; Lieberman, David A; Murphy, Gwen; Martínez, María Elena

    2018-02-20

    Little is known about the relationship between having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) and risk for metachronous colorectal adenoma (CRA) following polypectomy. We pooled data from seven prospective studies of 7697 patients with previously resected CRAs to quantify the relationship between having a FDR with CRC and risk for metachronous adenoma. Compared with having no family history of CRC, a positive family history in any FDR was significantly associated with increased odds of developing any metachronous CRA (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.01-1.29). Higher odds of CRA were observed among individuals with an affected mother (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.05-1.53) or sibling (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.11-1.62) as compared with those without, whereas no association was shown for individuals with an affected father. Odds of having a metachronous CRA increased with number of affected FDRs, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.07 (0.93-1.23) for one relative and 1.39 (1.02-1.91) for two or more. Younger age of diagnosis of a sibling was associated with higher odds of metachronous CRA, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for diagnosis at 65 years (p-trend = 0.008). Although limited by sample size, results for advanced metachronous CRA were similar to those for any metachronous CRA. A family history of CRC is related to a modestly increased odds of metachronous CRA. Future research should explore whether having a FDR with CRC, particularly at a young age, should have a role in risk stratification for surveillance colonoscopy.

  11. Hoarding symptoms among psychiatric outpatients: confirmatory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Saving Inventory – Revised (SI-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siau Pheng Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in problematic hoarding as an independent clinical condition has led to the development of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R to assess hoarding phenomenology. The SI-R is one of the most widely used instruments to measure hoarding symptoms; however, it lacks validation in non-Western samples. Methods The current study examined the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the SI-R among 500 outpatients at a psychiatric hospital in Singapore. The three-factor structure solution of the SI-R was fitted in a confirmatory factor analysis. Results The final model achieved mediocre fit (χ2 = 1026.02, df = 186; RMSEA = 0.095, SRMR = 0.06; CFI = 0.86; NNFI = 0.85. Two reverse-coded items (items 2 and 4 were removed due to insufficient factor loadings, resulting in the modified 21-item SI-R (SIR-21. Our findings indicate the need to further examine the construct validity of the SI-R, particularly in non-Western samples. Nonetheless, correlations with other hoarding-related constructs, such as anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the SIR-21 in our sample. Conclusions Findings in our current majority Chinese sample were consistent with previous observations from other Chinese samples. Implications were discussed from a cross-cultural perspective, such as cultural emphasis on saving for future use and overlap between the concepts of discarding and acquiring in Chinese samples. Future studies should also examine differences among other ethnic groups (e.g., Malay, Indian.

  12. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

  13. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, J. L.; Baguer, C.; Li, Y.; Orlow, I.; Berwick, M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening) in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs) after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic) and risk level (positive versus negative findings) were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required.

  14. Causes of Cancer Death Among First-Degree Relatives in Japanese Families with Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanakaya, Kohji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Ishikawa, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Furukawa, Yoichi; Hirata, Keiji; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Arai, Masami; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Sugano, Kokichi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Ishida, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2016-04-01

    To elucidate the causes of cancer death in Japanese families with Lynch syndrome (LS). The distributions of cancer deaths in 485 individuals from 67 families with LS (35, 30, and two families with MutL homologue 1 (MLH1), MSH2, and MSH6 gene mutations, respectively), obtained from the Registry of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum were analyzed. Among 98 cancer deaths of first-degree relatives of unknown mutation status, 53%, 19%, 13% (among females), 7% (among females) and 5% were due to colorectal, gastric, uterine, ovarian, and hepatobiliary cancer, respectively. The proportion of deaths from extra-colonic cancer was significantly higher in families with MSH2 mutation than in those with MLH1 mutation (p=0.003). In addition to colonic and uterine cancer, management and surveillance targeting gastric, ovarian and hepatobiliary cancer are considered important for Japanese families with LS. Extra-colonic cancer in families with MSH2 mutation might require for more intensive surveillance. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Electrocardiographic alteration among first degree relatives with serologic evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a sibship study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Morini

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available To analyze whether electrocardiographic alterations (ECGA in patients with antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi showed a patttern of familial aggregation, a sample of 379 young adults (166 men and 213 women distributed in sibships, were assessed for the presence of anti-T.cruzi antibodies, and subjected to a complete clinical examination and a standard resting electrocardiogram (ECG. Positive T. cruzi serology was detected in 165 individuals, 48 of them showing an abnormal ECG (overall prevalence 29 por cento. One hundred and eleven seropositive individuals were distributed in 45 sibships, each of them constituted by more than one seropositive sib, with ECGA being present in 34 out of these patients. Seropositive subjects with ECGA were detected in 27 sibships. Since the index case within each sibship is counted exactly once, affected individuals selected at random as propositi were extracted to calculate the prevalence of ECGA among first degree relatives of probands. Abnormal ECGs were recorded in 7 out of 45 sibs yielding a prevalence that did not differ from estimations registered in the general population or seropositive sibs. Data from the present sample show no familial aggregation for the occurrence of ECGA in patients with T.cruzi infection.

  16. Hearing aid-related satisfaction based on type and degree of hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad FarajiKhiavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the elderly; using a hearing aid to alleviate auditory impairment can positively affect their quality of life. This research aimed to determine the level of satisfaction concerning hearing aids in elderly people with hearing impairment based on the type and degree of hearing loss.Methods: An analytic cross-sectional research design was used ; the sample included 40 elderly people who used hearing aids. According to the World Health Organization (WHO age classification, participants were divided into two age groups: 65-74 years (n=20 and 75-90 years (n=20. Satisfaction levels were assessed using a standard satisfaction with amplification in daily life (SADL questionnaire.Results: Satisfaction levels in the 65-74 age group were significantly higher than that in the 75-90 age group (p=0.02. Participants with mixed hearing loss revealed higher satisfaction levels than participants with sensorineural hearing loss (p=0.02. On the negative effects dimension, participants with severe hearing loss exhibited significantly higher satisfaction levels than participants with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss (p=0.01.Conclusion: Total satisfaction mean scores were relatively high in the elderly participants . Negative features could be reduced via careful consultation regarding the aids’ amplifying capabilities and limitations in groups with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss.

  17. Vasovagal syncope in medical students and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, Anna; Rose, Sarah; Sheldon, Aaron G; Sheldon, Robert S

    2006-08-01

    To determine the effect of family history on the likelihood of vasovagal syncope. Sixty-two medical students and 228 first-degree relatives were studied. Vasovagal syncope was ascertained with the Calgary syncope symptom score. The effects of the sex of the subject and parental syncope history on the likelihood of offspring fainting were described using Kaplan-Meier estimates and analysed using proportional hazards regression. The prevalence of vasovagal syncope was 32% and the median age of first faint in those who fainted was 14 years. More females than males fainted [42 vs. 31%; P=0.02; hazard ratio (HR) 1.34 (95% CI 1.07-1.68)]. An individual with two fainting parents was more likely to faint than one with no fainting parents [P<0.0001; HR 3.4 (95% CI 1.7-7.03)]. In the proportional hazards model, offspring of either sex whose mother faints are more likely to faint than those whose mother does not faint [HR 2.86 (95% CI 1.54-5.31)]. Having a father who faints significantly increases the risk of syncope in sons [HR 4.12 (95%CI 1.39-12.31)], but not in daughters [HR 1.18 (95% CI 0.56-3.34)]. Family history and sex of subject are important predictors of vasovagal syncope in offspring.

  18. Topography of gastritis and its severity in 864 first degree relatives of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Nasrin; Massarrat, Sadegh; Sheykholeslami, Arghavan; Rakhshani, Naser; Saeidi, Sandra; Rafiee, Reza; Nobakht, Hosein; Tabib, Seyed Masoud; Saliminejhad, Mehrdad; Dooghaie Moghadam, Masoud; Nasiri, Jafar; Azimi, Kourosh; Fakhar, Reza; Babaei, Mehdi; Didehvar, Reza; Mohammadi, Nosratollah; Tavazoee, Mehdi; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2010-11-01

    Studies on gastric mucosal histological findings among first degree relatives (FDR) of gastric cancer (GC) patients are scarce. The aim is to evaluate the topography and the severity of gastritis among FDR of GC patients. A total of 989 subjects who were FDR of GC patients, ages 40-65 years underwent gastroscopies. When no gross lesion was found, five specimens were evaluated according to the Sydney Classification and one for urease testing in order to determine the type of gastritis and its severity. Of the 989 subjects, 107 had significant lesions, including two with GC and one with esophageal cancer. The 864 subjects who had complete morphological data taken from five gastric areas (two from the antrum and three from the corpus) comprised 419 males (mean age 48.5±7 years) and 445 females (mean age 47±6.4 years). The H. pylori rate was 76.6%. Normal mucosa was seen in 6.9%, antrum-restricted gastritis in 7.4%, antrum-predominant gastritis in 63.5% and corpus-predominant gastritis in 20% (both had >80% H. pylori infection) and corpus-restricted gastritis in 2%. More atrophy was seen in the antrum and corpus of FDR females than males. The severity did not differ between those with one or more GC patients' relatives. Forty-nine percent of FDR had atrophy and 9.4% intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the corpus. After the age of 40, there was progression of intestinal metaplasia from 12.2 to 27.3% in the antrum and from 6.7% to 26.2% in the corpus during two decades. No high grade dysplasia was found in this mid-age population. Only one-fifth of FDR have H. pylori-induced corpus-predominant gastritis who are at risk for cancer and suitable for eradication. Corpus-restricted gastritis is a rare disease in this area.

  19. The Relation between Degree and Strength in the Complex Network Derived from an Individual Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method based on coarse-graining to construct a directed weighted complex network which models the transformation of the trading data of an individual stock is introduced. The degree (strength distribution of derived network follows a power-law. A moderated regression equation with interaction effects of average return and out-degree (in-degree on out-strength (in-strength is established. Moreover, we found that the differences of nodes affect the network’s structure and average return level impacts nodes’ eigenvector centrality and pagerank, significantly.

  20. A novel selection method of seismic attributes based on gray relational degree and support vector machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Huang

    Full Text Available The selection of seismic attributes is a key process in reservoir prediction because the prediction accuracy relies on the reliability and credibility of the seismic attributes. However, effective selection method for useful seismic attributes is still a challenge. This paper presents a novel selection method of seismic attributes for reservoir prediction based on the gray relational degree (GRD and support vector machine (SVM. The proposed method has a two-hierarchical structure. In the first hierarchy, the primary selection of seismic attributes is achieved by calculating the GRD between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters, and the GRD between the seismic attributes. The principle of the primary selection is that these seismic attributes with higher GRD to the reservoir parameters will have smaller GRD between themselves as compared to those with lower GRD to the reservoir parameters. Then the SVM is employed in the second hierarchy to perform an interactive error verification using training samples for the purpose of determining the final seismic attributes. A real-world case study was conducted to evaluate the proposed GRD-SVM method. Reliable seismic attributes were selected to predict the coalbed methane (CBM content in southern Qinshui basin, China. In the analysis, the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous bandwidth, instantaneous frequency, and minimum negative curvature were selected, and the predicted CBM content was fundamentally consistent with the measured CBM content. This real-world case study demonstrates that the proposed method is able to effectively select seismic attributes, and improve the prediction accuracy. Thus, the proposed GRD-SVM method can be used for the selection of seismic attributes in practice.

  1. Coeliac disease and gastrointestinal symptom screening in adult first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Alvarez-Cuenllas, Begoña; Hernando, Mercedes; Iglesias-Blazquez, Cristina; Menéndez-Arias, Cristina; Vivas, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    The first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with coeliac disease are the main risk group for disease development. The study aims to evaluate the screening strategy in FDRs with negative coeliac serology based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping, followed by duodenal biopsy, and to analyze the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the influence of gluten intake. Adult FDRs with negative coeliac serology were invited to participate (n = 205), and a total of 139 completed the study protocol. HLA genotyping, transglutaminase antibody assessment, and duodenal biopsy were performed. Symptomatology was assessed using questionnaires during the various phases of dietary modification (baseline diet, gluten-free diet, and gluten overload). The study included 139 participants (mean age, 42 years; 53.2% women). HLA-DQ2/8 was positive in 78.4% of the participants (homozygous, 15.1%; heterozygous, 63.3%). Histopathological alterations were noted in 37.1% of participants who underwent duodenal biopsy (Marsh I, 32.7%; Marsh IIIa, 4.4%). At baseline, symptoms were observed in 45.7% of the participants, and the proportion decreased to 24.5% after the gluten-free diet (P < 0.001). Symptoms were not associated with the presence of histological alterations or genetic risk. However, younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91), female sex (OR = 2.9), and the presence of autoimmune disorders (OR = 2.8) were independently associated with a significant symptom response to the gluten-free diet. Duodenal lymphocytosis and atrophy are frequently noted in FDRs, despite negative serological markers. In addition, gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly present and associated with gluten intake regardless of the histological pathology. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Exploring the Relation between the Degree of Novelty of Innovations and User-producer Interaction across Different Income Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harirchi, Gouya; Chaminade, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    User–producer interactions have been recognized as important for innovation. With the rapid growth of emerging economies’ markets, and an increasing degree of technological sophistication of both users and producers in those markets, user–producer interaction is becoming global. Using original firm......-level data, this paper explores how collaboration with users in different income regions affects the degree of innovations’ novelty. We find that collaborating with international users is positively related to higher degrees of novelty. Furthermore, firms in low- and middle income countries will benefit more...... from south–south user collaboration than a south–north one....

  3. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  4. Women Engineers: Factors and Obstacles Related to the Pursuit of a Degree in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Camacho, Cristina

    Research on women in engineering confirms the presence of gender barriers that affect the recruitment and retention of women in engineering. These barriers stop some women from choosing engineering as a field of study, and impede some women from completing a degree in engineering. However, there are some young female students who complete their engineering education despite the presence of obstacles throughout their college years. This study addressed the factors that have hindered, motivated, and assisted women who graduated with a degree in engineering. By studying and understanding the barriers that hinder women in deciding to pursue and in completing a degree in engineering, as well as the factors that assist and encourage them, we can learn how to break down the barriers and how to facilitate the educational journey of female engineering students. This study provides valuable insights and created a framework from which high schools, universities, researchers, and female students can directly benefit.

  5. First measurement of 153Sm in the SIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Lucas, L.

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, the NIST sent to the International Reference System (SIR) a solution of 153 Sm standardized in a 4π ionization chamber. As this radionuclide had not previously been measured in the SIR, the resulting equivalent activity A e,NIST is compared with the value calculated from the efficiency curve of the SIR. However, problems occurred owing to the presence of 154 Eu and 156 Eu impurities in the solution. The manner in which the final equivalent activity value for this solution of 153 Sm has been deduced is described in this report. (authors)

  6. Reducing health risk in family members of patients with type 2 diabetes: views of first degree relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Bernadette

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients. Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. Results Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires. The majority (94% of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48% of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. Conclusions A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Reducing health risk in family members of patients with type 2 diabetes: views of first degree relatives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitford, David L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child) mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients). Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate) with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires). The majority (94%) of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48%) of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. CONCLUSIONS: A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Factors Related to Educators' Pursuit of Doctoral Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Reid, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors for professional doctoral degree attainment among educators. The researcher examined the following intrinsic motivating factors: personal attainment, skill and ability enhancement, and goals. The researcher also included the following extrinsic factors:…

  9. Sir William Mitchell (1925-2002)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Sir William (Bill) Mitchell, former President of the CERN Council, died on 30th October 2002 at the age of 77. Mitchell was professor of Physics at Oxford University from 1978 to 1989, having previously been Professor of Physics, Dean of Science and Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Reading University. From 1985 to 1990 he was Chairman of the UK's Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), which at the time was the funding agency for the UK's participation in the CERN programme. As Chairman, Mitchell was one of the UK representatives on the CERN Council, and in 1991 he was elected President, a position he held for three years. This was a difficult period for CERN. Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification. This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes. On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary...

  10. One day, Sir, you may tax it

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    “One day, Sir, you may tax it”… Those are the words I used to get the audience's attention during my talk at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos, where I was invited to speak about the science agenda in 2011. For those of you who don’t know the quote, it was Michael Faraday’s response to William Gladstone when asked to comment on the utility of his blue-sky research into the newfangled phenomenon of electricity.   So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today? A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable – as it turned out, electric light. Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of ...

  11. Relations between CT perfusion parameters and degree of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chengwei; Shen Sandi; Yi Xianlin; Zhang Zhonglin; Liu Zaiyi; Liang Changhong

    2011-01-01

    group [(24.1±7.5)%] (F=43.664, P<0.01). But, the perfusion parameters in the relatively normal area of IRI groups showed decline compared with sham group. The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in IRI groups were significantly higher than those in the sham group (P<0.05). In poorly enhancing tissues, TLP and HPP of IRI groups were inversely correlated with AST and ALP respectively (P<0.01), and HPI was closely related to the increase of AST (r=0.751, P<0.01). Conclusion: These results demonstrate CT perfusion is sensitive to detect the hemodynamic changes. Perfusion parameters are closely correlated to the degree of liver injury in the rabbit IRI model. (authors)

  12. Sir Robert Sidney’s Poems Revisited: the alternative sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Relvas, Maria de Jesus C.

    1997-01-01

    The essay approaches the lyric sequence written by Sir Robert Sidney (1563-1626) in the Elizabethan age, by mainly exploring its unique formal structure, which encloses an alternative sequence formed by a re-numbering of several poems.

  13. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  14. Glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Murat; Bukan, Neslihan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Karakoç, Ayhan; Yetkin, Ilhan; Ayvaz, Göksun; Cakir, Nuri; Arslan, Metin

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate insulin resistance (IR), glucose tolerance status and cardiovascular risk factors in first degree relatives of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 120 family members [Mothers(PCOS) (n = 40), Fathers(PCOS) (n = 38), Sisters(PCOS) (n = 25) and Brothers(PCOS) (n = 17)] of 55 patients with PCOS and 75 unrelated healthy control subjects without a family history of diabetes or PCOS (four age- and weight-matched subgroups, i.e. Control(Mothers), Control(Fathers), Control(Sisters) and Control(Brothers)) were studied. IR was assessed by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA IR), log HOMA, insulin sensivity index (ISI), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and area under the curve for insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test (AUCI, AUCG) in with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and controls. Serum adiponectin, resistin, homocysteine and lipid levels were measured. The prevalence of any degree of glucose intolerance was 40% in Mothers(PCOS) and 52% in Fathers(PCOS). In total, six (15%) glucose tolerance disorders were identified in the Control(Mothers) and Control(Fathers) in first degree relatives of control subjects. The first degree relatives of PCOS patients had significantly higher serum fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, Log HOMA and AUCI levels in all subgroups than the control subjects. The control subjects had significantly elevated QUCKI, ISI levels and serum adiponectin levels compared to the first degree relatives of PCOS subjects in all subgroups. The serum Hcy and resistin levels increased significantly in both Fathers(PCOS) and Mothers(PCOS) groups but not Brothers(PCOS) and Sister(PCOS). The results of the present study support the finding that the first degree relatives of PCOS patients carry an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as do PCOS patients.

  15. Development of Immunopathobiogenesis on SIRS-Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guntur Hermawan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in 1991 as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. In addition to the previous criteria, the 2001 conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. The primary recommendation of the panel was the implementation of the Predisposition, insult Infection, Response, and Organ dysfunction (PIRO.The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents. Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses. The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex. This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines. Proinflammatory cytokines especially IFN-γ and TNF-α, the key cytokines causing toxic shock syndrome. KEYWORDS: sepsis, innate immunity, adaptive.

  16. Characterization of the Degree of Food Processing in Relation With Its Health Potential and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Up today technological processes are intended to produce safe and palatable food products. Yet, it is also expected that processing produces healthy and sustainable foods. However, due to the dramatic increase of chronic diseases prevalence worldwide, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers, ultraprocessing has been pointed out as producing unhealthy foods, rich in energy and poor in protective micronutrients and fiber, i.e., "empty" calories. Indeed the 1980s saw massive arrivals of ultraprocessed foods in supermarkets, i.e., fractionated-recombined foods with added ingredients and/or additives. Epidemiological studies clearly emphasized that populations adhering the most to ultraprocessed foods, e.g., processed meat, refined grains, ultraprocessed plant-based foods, and/or sweetened beverages, exhibited the higher prevalence of chronic diseases. This prompted researchers to classify foods according to their degree of processing as with the international NOVA classification (i.e., un/minimally processed, processed, and ultraprocessed foods). More and more studies showed that such a classification makes sense for health. Overall one distinguishes three categories of processes: mechanical, thermal, and fermentative treatments, this latter being the more favorable to food health potential. This chapter has therefore several ambitions: (1) to review association between degree of food processing and chronic disease risk prevalence; (2) to explore the impact of technological processes on food health potential considering both matrix and compositional effects; (3) to discuss the need for classifying food according to their degree of processing in future epidemiological studies; and (4) to analyze consequences of adhering to a more holistic paradigm in both food processing and nutrition. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  18. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases

  19. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  20. Coronary risk factors and metabolic disorders in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Christiane Anneliese; Halkes, C.J.M.; de Jaegere, P.P.T.; Plokker, H.W.M.; Cabezas, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims. Despite agreement on the need for screening for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in first-degree family members of patients with pre-mature coronary artery disease (CAD), this is not routinely carried out in relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients. We evaluated cardiovascular

  1. Prevalence of brain arteriovenous malformations in first-degree relatives of patients with a brain arteriovenous malformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijnum, Janneke; van der Worp, H. Bart; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W. Peter; van den Berg, René; Brouwer, Patrick A.; van der Sprenkel, Jan Willem Berkelbach; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Rinkel, Gabriël J. E.; Klijn, Catharina J. M.

    2014-01-01

    It is uncertain whether familial occurrence of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) represents coincidental aggregation or a shared familial risk factor. We aimed to compare the prevalence of BAVMs in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with BAVM and the prevalence in the general

  2. Antisaccade performance in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree biological relatives, and community comparison subjects: data from the COGS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radant, Allen D; Dobie, Dorcas J; Calkins, Monica E; Olincy, Ann; Braff, David L; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Light, Gregory A; Meichle, Sean P; Millard, Steve P; Mintz, Jim; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Schork, Nicholas J; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Tsuang, Debby W

    2010-09-01

    The antisaccade task is a widely used technique to measure failure of inhibition, an important cause of cognitive and clinical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Although antisaccade performance, which reflects the ability to inhibit prepotent responses, is a putative schizophrenia endophenotype, researchers have not consistently reported the expected differences between first-degree relatives and comparison groups. Schizophrenia participants (n=219) from the large Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) sample (n=1078) demonstrated significant deficits on an overlap version of the antisaccade task compared to their first-degree relatives (n=443) and community comparison subjects (CCS; n=416). Although mean antisaccade performance of first-degree relatives was intermediate between schizophrenia participants and CCS, a linear mixed-effects model adjusting for group, site, age, and gender found no significant performance differences between the first-degree relatives and CCS. However, admixture analyses showed that two components best explained the distributions in all three groups, suggesting two distinct doses of an etiological factor. Given the significant heritability of antisaccade performance, the effects of a genetic polymorphism is one possible explanation of our results.

  3. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelein Vitringa, V. M.; van Noort, A.; Ritt, M.J.P.F.; van Royen, B.J.; van der Sluijs, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of

  4. Risk of osteoporosis in first degree relatives of patients with diabetes mellitus: a study of bone mineral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, G.E.; Malik, A.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes may influence the bone in multiple pathways, some with contradictory effects. These mechanisms include changes in insulin and hypercalciuria, phophatemia, hypomagnesaemia associated with glycosuria. We tried to find out level of minerals in first degree relatives of patients with diabetes mellitus as there is relationship between bone minerals and glycemic controls. Methods: Fifty local subjects age range 40 -50 years with family history of diabetes (first degree relatives) were included in the study. Duration of study was 6 months. Levels of blood sugar, serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were estimated by standard Randox kits. 10 males and 10 female subjects with no history of diabetes were considered as normal controls. Results: The level of blood glucose in both sexes was increased as compared to their controls but this showed no significant difference. Level of serum calcium and magnesium were significantly decreased (p<0.05, 0.001) in both males and females when compared with the values of their controls. Level of phosphorous was significantly increased ( p<0.05) in both first degree relatives of ma le and females as compared to level of phosphorous of their controls. Conclusion: Pre-diabetes and undiagnosed T2DM are conditions for which screening can be helpful to find out that first degree relatives not only at risk to develop diabetes but they also likely to develop osteoporosis in a sizable portion of the population. However there is a need for further research including the incidence and risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in first degree relatives of diabetics. (author)

  5. Relation between the degree of lung pollution by air pollution and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, H; Endo, R; Takemoto, K

    1975-04-01

    Human and dog lungs were analyzed for 13 kinds of heavy metals. The human lungs (all of Tokyo citizens) showed a broad range of dust sedimentation, some correlation between the degree of pollution and the amount of cadmium, nickel, and chromium only, and conspicuous individual differences seemingly due to occupation. No correlation was found between the amount of pulmonary metals, and age, or sex. In dog lungs there was no correlation between the local pollution and the amount of iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, and cadmium. Cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium showed a correlation between local air pollution in human lungs. In dogs obtained in Korea, Ni and Cr were higher than in dog lungs obtained in Jinsen.

  6. Do 360-degree feedback survey results relate to patient satisfaction measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David C; Gregory, Paul J; Rubash, Harry E; Harmon, Larry

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence that feedback from 360-degree surveys-combined with coaching-can improve physician team performance and quality of patient care. The Physicians Universal Leadership-Teamwork Skills Education (PULSE) 360 is one such survey tool that is used to assess work colleagues' and coworkers' perceptions of a physician's leadership, teamwork, and clinical practice style. The Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System (CG-CAHPS), developed by the US Department of Health and Human Services to serve as the benchmark for quality health care, is a survey tool for patients to provide feedback that is based on their recent experiences with staff and clinicians and soon will be tied to Medicare-based compensation of participating physicians. Prior research has indicated that patients and coworkers often agree in their assessment of physicians' behavioral patterns. The goal of the current study was to determine whether 360-degree, also called multisource, feedback provided by coworkers could predict patient satisfaction/experience ratings. A significant relationship between these two forms of feedback could enable physicians to take a more proactive approach to reinforce their strengths and identify any improvement opportunities in their patient interactions by reviewing feedback from team members. An automated 360-degree software process may be a faster, simpler, and less resource-intensive approach than telephoning and interviewing patients for survey responses, and it potentially could facilitate a more rapid credentialing or quality improvement process leading to greater fiscal and professional development gains for physicians. Our primary research question was to determine if PULSE 360 coworkers' ratings correlate with CG-CAHPS patients' ratings of overall satisfaction, recommendation of the physician, surgeon respect, and clarity of the surgeon's explanation. Our secondary research questions were to determine whether CG-CAHPS scores

  7. The discontent degree in relations with the proximal social environment and adolescent personality features in Timis County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Cristina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2015-01-01

    In our study we investigated whether there is a relation between the degree of discontent in relations with the proximal social environment (family and peer groups) and adolescent personality features. The study was conducted on a statistical representative and homogenous sample consisting of 2908 teenagers (51.5% girls and 48.5 % boys, aged between 15 and 19 years). It was an observational (case) study and it consisted in 2 questionnaires applying: Freiburg Personality Inventory (212 items) and CORT 2004 questionnaire (116 items, 6 referring to the discontent levels created by proximal social environment). Cronbach's alpha index was 0.802 for FPI and 0,910 for CORT 2004. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 program applying Chi square (χ2) and gamma (γ) correlation. Depression and Emotional lability correlated positively and powerfully with q15 (discontent degree of relations with present friend-peers) (γ = 0.471, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.383, Sig. 0.000, respectively) and q5 (discontent degree of the relation with parents) (γ = 0.380, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.337, Sig. 0.000, respectively). Sociability and calm correlated negative with q5 (γ = -0.14, Sig. 0.000, and γ = -0.35, Sig. 0.000, respectively), q15 (γ = -0.33, Sig. 000 and γ = -0.18, Sig. 000, respectively). In conclusion, there is direct proportional relation between the discontent degree of relations with friend-peers and parents and depression and emotional lability, and inverse proportional relation of friend-peers and parents with sociability and calm.

  8. A quantitative measure for degree of automation and its relation to system performance and mental load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z G; Macwan, A P; Wieringa, P A

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we quantitatively model degree of automation (DofA) in supervisory control as a function of the number and nature of tasks to be performed by the operator and automation. This model uses a task weighting scheme in which weighting factors are obtained from task demand load, task mental load, and task effect on system performance. The computation of DofA is demonstrated using an experimental system. Based on controlled experiments using operators, analyses of the task effect on system performance, the prediction and assessment of task demand load, and the prediction of mental load were performed. Each experiment had a different DofA. The effect of a change in DofA on system performance and mental load was investigated. It was found that system performance became less sensitive to changes in DofA at higher levels of DofA. The experimental data showed that when the operator controlled a partly automated system, perceived mental load could be predicted from the task mental load for each task component, as calculated by analyzing a situation in which all tasks were manually controlled. Actual or potential applications of this research include a methodology to balance and optimize the automation of complex industrial systems.

  9. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.

  10. Familial clustering and subsequent incidence of atrial fibrillation among first-degree relatives in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Christiansen, Mia N.; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Determination and quantification of familial risk may help identify high-risk patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Danish nationwide registry data (1978-2012), we identified all first-time AF patients (probands......) in Denmark. Relatives to these probands were grouped according to proband-relation: offspring from either maternal or paternal proband, and siblings to proband. Age-specific incidence of AF for these three groups of relatives and for the general Danish population was estimated. Using the general population...... as reference, we calculated adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of AF in the three groups of relatives. We identified 67 310, 103 822, and 11 800 AF probands who were mothers (median age 74 years, IQR 66-81), fathers (70 years, IQR 62-78), and siblings (46 years, IQR 38-52), respectively. Among those, 133 516, 221 774...

  11. Increased UV-induced sister-chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of first-degree relatives of melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knees-Matzen, S.; Roser, M.; Reimers, U.; Ehlert, U.; Weichenthal, M.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts of 17 first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients and six first-degree relatives of cutaneous melanoma (CMM) patients with multiple CMM primaries were tested for in vitro sensitivity to UV light. Fibroblasts of nine familial CMM patients with a known UV-sensitivity and 19 healthy probands served as a control. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was used as a parameter to detect UV-induced genotoxic damage. The authors found significantly (p less than 0.001) increased UV-induced SCE levels in familial melanoma patients, as well as in first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients (p less than 0.001) after UV-A,B irradiation (375 J/m2), compared to the healthy probands without a family history of CMM. A significant (p less than 0.001) increase of UV-induced SCE was also observed in the relatives of CMM patients with multiple CMM primaries. In addition, the spontaneous SCE were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) in familial CMM patients. This study shows that increased UV sensitivity is a familial phenomenon. It is consistent with the concept of a genetic predisposition to CMM, which is based on increased UV sensitivity and may help to define groups with an elevated risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma

  12. The influence of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on human systemic stress response, SIRS and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pengfei; Wei, Wuran; Yang, Xiaochun; Zeng, Hao; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jie; Wang, Jia; Huang, Jiaoti

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and open surgery nephrolithotomy on the systemic stress response, SIRS and renal function. Forty patients with kidney calculi were enrolled in the study. Twenty cases were randomized to the PNL group and the other twenty cases to the open surgery group. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6(IL-6), β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)-MG), respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature and white blood cell counts were examined. CRP and IL-6 were measured in all patients pre-operatively and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 6, respectively. There was significant difference in their pre- and post-operation levels (P PNL group and 12 cases in open surgery group; there was significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05). Urine β(2)-MG levels were also measured. There was significant difference between pre- and the first day post-PNL (P PNL (P > 0.05). There was significant difference between pre- and first and third day post-open surgery (P 0.05). There was significant difference between two groups at the first, third and sixth days (P PNL group and open surgery group to some extent. The degree of stress response of PNL is lower than that of open surgery, proving the advantages of PNL with reference to serum immunology. There were cases in both the groups with SIRS, but the degree of SIRS in PNL group was lesser than the other group. Both the groups have no obvious effect on glomerular filtration function after operation and have effect on renal tubular reabsorption in the early stage after operation; but the recovery of the PNL group is faster than the open surgery group. It is thus shown that PNL is much safer and more feasible and has lesser effect on renal function.

  13. Altered reward processing in the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two...... intervention compared to placebo. Conversely, for positive outcomes, the left hippocampus showed attenuated response to high wins in the rMD+ compared to the rMD- group. The SSRI intervention reinforced the hippocampal response to large wins. A subsequent structural analysis revealed that the abnormal neural...... responses were not accounted for by changes in gray matter density in rMD+ individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study in first-degree relatives of depressive patients showed abnormal brain responses to aversive and rewarding outcomes in regions known to be dysfunctional in depression. We further confirmed...

  14. Risk of infectious diseases among first-degree relatives of transplant recipients who develop CMV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekenberg, C; Lodding, I P; Wareham, N E

    2017-01-01

    Transplant recipients are at high risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Mechanisms explaining the variation in risk of infections are far from fully elucidated. We hypothesised that host genetics explains part of the variation in risk of infection and examined if relatives of recipients with C...

  15. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  16. Subjective Cognitive Complaints and Functional Disability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder and Their Nonaffected First-Degree Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Lam, Jaeger; McMain, Shelley F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the contributions of subjective cognitive complaints to functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their nonaffected relatives. Method: Patients with BPD (n = 26), their first-degree biological relatives (n = 17), and nonpsychiatric control subjects (n = 31) completed a self-report measure of cognitive difficulties and rated the severity of their functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Results: After accounting for group differences in age and severity of depressive symptoms, patients and relatives endorsed more inattention and memory problems than control subjects. Whereas probands reported greater disability than relatives and control subjects across all functional domains, relatives described more difficulties than control subjects in managing multiple life activities, including domestic activities and occupational and academic functioning, and participating in society. For both probands and relatives, inattention and memory problems were linked primarily to difficulties with life activities, independent of depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Problems with inattention and forgetfulness may lead to difficulties carrying out activities of daily living and occupational or academic problems in patients with BPD, as well as their nonaffected first-degree relatives. PMID:25007408

  17. PALEODRAINAGES OF THE EASTERN SAHARA - THE RADAR RIVERS REVISITED (SIR - A/B IMPLICATIONS FOR A MID - TERTIARY TRANS - AFRICAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali

    1986-01-01

    A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.

  18. Milestones in plant sulfur research on sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eBloem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1970´s of the last century sulfur (S was mainly regarded as a pollutant being the main contributor of acid rain, causing forest dieback in central Europe. When Clean Air Acts came into force at the start of the 1980´s SO2 contaminations in the air were consequently reduced within the next years. S changed from an unwanted pollutant into a lacking plant nutrient in agriculture since agricultural fields were no longer fertilized indirectly by industrial pollution. S deficiency was first noticed in Brassica crops that display an especially high S demand because of its content of S-containing secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates. In Scotland, where S depositions decreased even faster than in continental Europe, an increasing disease incidence with Pyrenopeziza brassicae was observed in oilseed rape in the beginning 1990´s and the concept of sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR was developed after a relationship between the S status and the disease incidence was uncovered. Since then a lot of research was carried out to unravel the background of SIR in the metabolism of agricultural crops and to identify metabolites, enzymes and reactions, which are potentially activated by the S metabolism to combat fungal pathogens. The S status of the crop is affecting many different plant features such as color and scent of flowers, pigments in leaves, metabolite concentrations and the release of gaseous S compounds which are directly influencing the desirability of a crop for a variety of different organisms from microorganisms, over insects and slugs to the point of grazing animals.The present paper is an attempt to sum up the knowledge about the effect of the S nutritional status of agricultural crops on parameters that are directly related to their health status and by this to SIR. Milestones in SIR research are compiled, open questions are addressed and future projections were developed.

  19. SIR-2 Data Normalization and Integration with M3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumpe, A.; Felder, M. P.; Wöhler, C.; Mall, U.

    2013-09-01

    The point spectrometer SIR-2 on Chandrayaan-1 provided radiance spectra integrated over circular footprints of 200 m diameter in the wavelength range 934-2410.8 nm in 256 channels [1]. To analyze SIR-2 reflectance spectra in their spatial context, a coregistration to Chandrayaan-1 M³ hyperspectral images [2] as well as a correction for topography and thermal emission are inevitable. The thermal and topographic correction procedure is based on the surface temperature and a digital elevation model (DEM) inferred from M³ data. The corrected reflectance spectra are then normalized to a standard illumination and viewing geometry.

  20. Relationship between degree of dyspnoea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Branislav S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dyspnoea is a characteristic symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, which impairs everyday functioning of patients. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the degree of dyspnoea of COPD patients and their health-related quality of life. Method We measured the degree of dyspnoea and health-related quality of life in 85 COPD outpatients (46 male; mean age was 58 ± 12 years; mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 was 47.9±18.6% predicted. The degree of dyspnoea was assessed by Baseline Dyspnoea Index (BDI, List of Daily Activities (DAL, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Modified MRC Dyspnoea Scale, and Borg Category Scale (BCS. The patients filled two standardized questionnaires for measuring health-related quality of life: the generic one - 15D, and the respiratory specific one - the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. Total 15D and SGRQ scores, as well as the scores for individual domains of SGRQ (symptoms, activity and impact scores for each patient were calculated. In 40 out of 85 patients, the same procedure was repeated at the follow-up, with a mean 4-week interval between the visits. Results There were statistically highly significant correlations (p<0.01 between values of all dyspnoea scale scores evaluated and all the health-related quality of life scores. The highest degree of correlation of both total SGRQ and 15D scores was found for the values of BCS (r=0.731 and -0.776, respectively. A statistically significant correlation between the changes of all SGRQ (but not 15D scores and all dyspnoea score changes (except for MRC were also recorded. Conclusion The degree of dyspnoea of COPD outpatients that could be well-determined by the scales used in our study clearly reflects the impairment of their health-related quality of life as assessed by the instruments used. All of the questionnaires we used in this study have good measurement properties for their

  1. Spontaneous Transient Lateral Thoracic Lung Herniation Resulting in Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS and Subsequent Contralateral Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Kaliyadan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung herniation is a relatively rare clinical entity that is most commonly either congenital or acquired traumatically. We describe a case of spontaneous lung herniation secondary to acute cough in an obese male smoker complicated by contralateral acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. Mechanisms of lung herniation, classification, diagnosis, and management will be discussed.

  2. Basic life support skills: assessment and education of spouse and first degree relatives of patients with coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Javaid Arif; Shafquat, Azam; Kundi, Asadullah

    2010-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of basic cardiac life support (BCLS) before and after the institution of training among first degree relatives and spouses of patients with coronary disease. Quasi-experimental study. National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from April 2007 to May 2008. A total of 300 relatives of patients with coronary heart disease undertook a one day CPR course. Questionnaire assessing knowledge of CPR was administered before and after the course. Patients were studied in groups of 10-20 at a time. Proportion of correct knowledge was compared using chi-square test with significance at p educational levels (p educational groups showed equal learning abilities.

  3. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners’ degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners’ attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The “Pet Bonding Scale” (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents’ degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals’ primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people’s awareness of animal welfare. PMID:29304166

  4. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bingtao; Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  5. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtao Su

    Full Text Available Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS, which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546 distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively, which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10 to companion animals (all p < 0.05. This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  6. Risk. Impact of having a first-degree relative with affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    -risk twins and 5 low-risk twins) developed a psychiatric disorder during the 7-year follow-up period: 24 developed mood disorder (67%), 7 anxiety disorder (19%) and 5 (14%) substance abuse, schizophrenia or personality disorder. The results showed that familial risk, impaired stress tolerance and discrete......: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected). At baseline 234 participants were divided...... boundaries in order to have an impact on prevention. Furthermore, there is a need to move beyond the notion of ''magic bullets'', instead developing an integrated paradigm encompassing clusters of biomarkers related to behavioural measures of developmental psychopathology. Finally, as most psychiatric...

  7. Nuclear-related training and education offered by academic institutions (less-than-baccalaureate degree)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, L.

    1982-01-01

    Current projections indicate that in addition to the 10,100 technician positions and 6100 existing operator positions in the nuclear power industry, another 9100 technicians and 9700 operators will be required over the next decade. With 56 nuclear plants currently in operation and an additional 35 plants under construction, it is essential that trained technical personnel be available for employment in the nuclear utilities. Because of the growing demand for technicians in the nuclear utility industry, this report has been prepared to identify the nuclear-related, less-than-baccalaureate, technical educational programs provided by academic institutions and to ascertain both the current number of students and the maximum number that could be trained, given present staff and facilities. The data serve as a gauge for the proportion of technician training required by the nuclear industry that can be provided by academic institutions

  8. Relative Intensity Influences the Degree of Correspondence of Jump Squats and Push Jerks to Countermovement Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Emily J; Goodwin, Jon E; Cleather, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical similarity between push jerk (PJ) and jump squat (JS) to countermovement jump (CMJ) and further understand the effect increasing external load may have on this relationship. Eight physically trained men (age 22 ± 3; height 176 ± 7 kg; weight 83 ± 8 kg) performed an unloaded CMJ followed by JS under a range of loads (10, 25, 35, and 50% 1RM back squat) and PJ (30, 50, 65, and 75% 1RM push jerk). A portable force platform and high-speed camera both collecting at 250 Hz were used to establish joint moments and impulse during the propulsive phase of the movements. A standard inverse dynamics model was used to determine joint moment and impulse at the hip, knee, and ankle. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) were shown between CMJ knee joint moment and JS knee joint moment at 25% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 50% load. Significant correlations were also observed between CMJ knee joint impulse and JS knee joint impulse at 10% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 65% load. Significant correlation was also observed between CMJ hip joint impulse and PJ hip joint impulse at 30% load. No significant joint × load interaction was shown as load increased for either PJ or JS. Results from the study suggest partial correspondence between PJ and JS to CMJ, where a greater mechanical similarity was observed between the PJ and CMJ. This interaction is load and joint dependent where lower relative loads showed greatest mechanical similarity. Therefore using lower relative loads when programming may provide a greater transfer of training effect.

  9. Autobiography of Sir George Biddell Airy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airy, George Biddell; Airy, Wilfred

    2010-06-01

    Preface; 1. Personal sketch of George Biddell Airy; 2. From his birth to his taking his B.A. degree; 3. At Trinity College, Cambridge; 4. At Cambridge Observatory; 5. At Greenwich Observatory, 1836-1846; 6. At Greenwich Observatory, 1846-1856; 7. At Greenwich Observatory, 1856-1866; 8. At Greenwich Observatory, 1866-1876; 9. At Greenwich Observatory to his resignation in 1881; 10. At the White House, Greewich, to his death; Appendix: List of printed papers; Index.

  10. On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…

  11. Sir William Jenner (1815-1898) and Queen Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, David; Queen Victoria

    2004-08-01

    This biographical note outlines the work of Sir William Jenner (1815-1898), court physician 1861-93 and President of the Royal College of Physicians 1881-8. He was the first to distinguish between typhoid and typhus both clinically and pathologically.

  12. Buffels (Wes), Elsies, Sir Lowry's pass, Steenbras and Buffels (Oos)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heinecken, TJE

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume. The rivers dealt with are the Buffels (Wes), Elsies, Sir Lowry' Pass, Steenbras and Buffels (Oos). False...

  13. Sir John and Lady Rita Cornforth: a distinguished chemical partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert; Hanson, James R

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the life of Sir John Cornforth AC CBE FRS, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1975. It covers his early life in Australia, his work in Oxford, the National Institute for Medical Research, the Milstead Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology and the University of Sussex, together with the contributions made by his wife, Lady Rita Cornforth.

  14. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A

    2008-01-01

    Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life

  15. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Knorr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUC(total for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Change in CorAUC(total showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUC(total, rho = -0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUC(total. CONCLUSION: The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00386841.

  16. Avoidant Personality Disorder Symptoms in First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients Predict Performance on Neurocognitive Measures: The UCLA Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Asarnow, R. A.; Sugar, C. A.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.; Kuppinger, H.; Nuechterlein, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia.

  17. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....

  18. [Degree of dry mouth and factors influencing oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Sook; Ryu, Se Ang

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the degree of dry mouth and oral health-related quality of life and to identify factors contributing to oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling elders. A descriptive correlational study design was used. Participants were 156 older adults from two senior welfare centers. Data were collected on February 21, 22 and 29, 30, 2009 using structured questionnaires. Enter type multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing oral health-related quality of life according to general and oral health characteristics. There were significant differences in oral health-related quality of life according to living arrangement, insurance, smoking, number of natural teeth, and denture type. The oral health-related quality of life had significant correlations with the number of chronic disease, number of medications, and dry mouth. Factors influencing oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling older adults were dry mouth, number of chronic disease, and medical aid, which explained about 47.9% of total variance. These results indicate that in order to promote oral health-related quality of life for older adults, prevention or management of chronic diseases as well as oral health and dry mouth are needed for this population, and especially economically poor elders.

  19. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  20. Occupational exposure following Yttrium-90 microspheres SIR therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, P.; Boirie, G.; Dieudonne, A.; Leguludec, D.; Lebtahi, R.; Ben Reguiga, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a promising technique for solid hepatic neoplasms treatment. SIRT consists in implanting radioactive microspheres (RMS) in targeted hepatic lesions via femoral artery. Two RMS-Therapsheres [glass-microspheres/TSR] and Sir-Spheres [resin-spheres/SSR]- are marketed in the European market, both radiolabeled with Yttrium-90. The objective of this study is to assess occupational exposure for nuclear medicine, radiology and clinical staff involved in Y 90 -RMS preparation and implantation. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 20 patients treated for Hepato-Cellular Carcinoma: 10 treated with TSR and 10 with SSR. Dose rate (DR, mSv/h) or absorbed doses (mSv) measurements were made during all steps of TSR and SSR handling: sources receipt and unpacking, preparation, transport to radiology, implantation, and patient care. Measurements were made with portable ionization chamber(Babyline/Nardeux), spectrometer(FieldSpect/Aries), digital dosimeter (NED/Unfors) and operational dosimeter (Mk2/Siemens). Values were expressed as mean±SD. Results: patients received of 1.8 GBq to 3.1 GBq of TSR and 0.55 GBq to 2.4 GBq of SSR. TSR were delivered ready-to-use with the prescribed activity. For SSR only one activity was commercially available and shipped (3 GBq at calibration-time)requiring a preparation step to adjust needed activity. DR measured during RMS was 1723 ± 157 μSv/h SSR and 1189 ± 92 μSv/h for TSR. When preparing spheres in radiopharmacy, fingers and whole body doses were respectively 8326 ± 2360 μSv and 12.3 ± 5,2 μSv for Sir-Spheres vs. 33.5 ± 7.8 μSv and 1.1 ± 0.3 μSv for TSR. DR in contact with carrying case during RMS transfer to radiology were 299 ± 102 μSv/h for SSR and 5.3 ± 1.2 μSv/h for TSR. During RMS infusion, radiologist's finger doses were limited to 3.6 ± 1 μSv for SSR and 0.7± 0.3 μSv for TSR. Finally, following RMS

  1. A study on the degree of deliberation and meditation of cyber poll respondents for nuclear-related decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Joo Hyun; Kang, Chang Sun

    2006-01-01

    Public participation is essential in each step of the nuclear-related decision-making process. Recently, the electronic systems using the Internet have become quite popular, and have emerged as a good medium for communicating with the public. In this study, a comprehensive utilization of electronic public participation was used to analyze public opinion on a given nuclear-related decision-making process. The degree of deliberation and meditation of the public participating in an electronic poll survey was evaluated, and the decision-making factors representing the personal characteristics of the poll respondents such as age, income, education, residence, degree of knowledge and concern were carefully incorporated when preparing the poll-survey questionnaire for its evaluation. Fuzzy analysis was used to assess and aggregate the responses to each decision-making factor. As a case study, this procedure was used to analyzing public opinion on the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility on the campus of Seoul National University. The results show that there is a tendency of respondents who are on the negative side of the argument to be more deliberate and meditative in their decision-making process than those on the positive side. Knowledge and residence were found to be important decision-making factors

  2. A study on the degree of deliberation and meditation of cyber poll respondents for nuclear-related decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Soo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: insrec1@freechal.com; Moon, Joo Hyun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    Public participation is essential in each step of the nuclear-related decision-making process. Recently, the electronic systems using the Internet have become quite popular, and have emerged as a good medium for communicating with the public. In this study, a comprehensive utilization of electronic public participation was used to analyze public opinion on a given nuclear-related decision-making process. The degree of deliberation and meditation of the public participating in an electronic poll survey was evaluated, and the decision-making factors representing the personal characteristics of the poll respondents such as age, income, education, residence, degree of knowledge and concern were carefully incorporated when preparing the poll-survey questionnaire for its evaluation. Fuzzy analysis was used to assess and aggregate the responses to each decision-making factor. As a case study, this procedure was used to analyzing public opinion on the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility on the campus of Seoul National University. The results show that there is a tendency of respondents who are on the negative side of the argument to be more deliberate and meditative in their decision-making process than those on the positive side. Knowledge and residence were found to be important decision-making factors.

  3. Altered brain processing of decision-making in healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y; Pereira, F; Hoehne, A; Beaulieu, M-M; Lepage, M; Turecki, G; Jollant, F

    2017-08-01

    Suicidal behavior is heritable, with the transmission of risk being related to the transmission of vulnerability traits. Previous studies suggest that risky decision-making may be an endophenotype of suicide. Here, we aimed at investigating brain processing of decision-making in relatives of suicide completers in order to shed light on heritable mechanisms of suicidal vulnerability. Seventeen healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers with no personal history of suicidal behavior, 16 relatives of depressed patients without any personal or family history of suicidal behavior, and 19 healthy controls were recruited. Functional 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired while participants underwent the Iowa Gambling Task, an economic decision-making test. Whole-brain analyses contrasting activations during risky vs safe choices were conducted with AFNI and FSL. Individuals with a family history of suicide in comparison to control groups showed altered contrasts in left medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern was different from the neural basis of familial depression. Moreover, controls in comparison to relatives showed increased contrast in several regions including the post-central gyrus, posterior cingulate and parietal cortices, and cerebellum (culmen) in familial suicide; and inferior parietal, temporal, occipital, anteromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and cerebellum (vermis) in familial depression. These findings most likely represent a complex combination of vulnerability and protective mechanisms in relatives. They also support a significant role for deficient risk processing, and ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex functioning in the suicidal diathesis.

  4. Does DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A Influence Insulin Action in First Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    and in muscle from individuals at risk of T2D. This study aimed to investigate DNA promoter methylation and gene expression of PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle from first degree relatives (FDR) of T2D patients, and to determine the association with insulin action as well as the influence of family relation. We...... genetic regulation to play a role. No significant effect of familiality on DNA methylation was found. Taken together, increased DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter is unlikely to play a major causal role for the development of insulin resistance in FDR of patients with T2D....... included 124 Danish FDR of T2D patients from 46 different families. Skeletal muscle biopsies were excised from vastus lateralis and insulin action was assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels were measured using bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR...

  5. The use of multifrequency and polarimetric SIR-C/X-SAR data in geologic studies of Bir Safsaf, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; McCauley, J.F.; Breed, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Bir Safsaf, within the hyperarid 'core' of the Sahara in the Western Desert of Egypt, was recognized following the SIR-A and SIR-B missions in the 1980s as one of the key localities in northeast Africa, where penetration of dry sand by radar signals delineates previously unknown, sand-buried paleodrainage valleys ('radar-rivers') of middle Tertiary to Quaternary age. The Bir Safsaf area was targeted as a focal point for further research in sand penetration and geologic mapping using the multifrequency and polarimetric SIR-C/X-SAR sensors. Analysis of the SIR-C/X-SAR data from Bir Safsaf provides important new information on the roles of multiple SAR frequency and polarimetry in portraying specific types of geologic units, materials, and structures mostly hidden from view on the ground and on Landsat TM images by a relatively thin, but extensive blanket of blow sand. Basement rock units (granitoids and gneisses) and the fractures associated with them at Bir Safsaf are shown here for the first time to be clearly delineated using C- and L-band SAR images. The detectability of most geologic features is dependent primarily on radar frequency, as shown for wind erosion patterns in bedrock at X-band (3 cm wavelength), and for geologic units and sand and clay-filled fractures in weathered crystal-line basement rocks at C-band (6 cm) and L-band (24 cm). By contrast, Quaternary paleodrainage channels are detectable at all three radar frequencies owing, among other things, to an usually thin cover of blow sand. The SIR-C/X-SAR data investigated to date enable us to make specific recommendations about the utility of certain radar sensor configurations for geologic and paleoenvironmental reconnaissance in desert regions.Analysis of the shuttle imaging radar-C/X-synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) data from Bir Safsaf provides important new information on the roles of multiple SAR frequency and polarimetry in portraying specific types of geologic units, materials, and

  6. Regulating repression: roles for the sir4 N-terminus in linker DNA protection and stabilization of epigenetic states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kueng

    Full Text Available Silent information regulator proteins Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4 form a heterotrimeric complex that represses transcription at subtelomeric regions and homothallic mating type (HM loci in budding yeast. We have performed a detailed biochemical and genetic analysis of the largest Sir protein, Sir4. The N-terminal half of Sir4 is dispensable for SIR-mediated repression of HM loci in vivo, except in strains that lack Yku70 or have weak silencer elements. For HM silencing in these cells, the C-terminal domain (Sir4C, residues 747-1,358 must be complemented with an N-terminal domain (Sir4N; residues 1-270, expressed either independently or as a fusion with Sir4C. Nonetheless, recombinant Sir4C can form a complex with Sir2 and Sir3 in vitro, is catalytically active, and has sedimentation properties similar to a full-length Sir4-containing SIR complex. Sir4C-containing SIR complexes bind nucleosomal arrays and protect linker DNA from nucleolytic digestion, but less effectively than wild-type SIR complexes. Consistently, full-length Sir4 is required for the complete repression of subtelomeric genes. Supporting the notion that the Sir4 N-terminus is a regulatory domain, we find it extensively phosphorylated on cyclin-dependent kinase consensus sites, some being hyperphosphorylated during mitosis. Mutation of two major phosphoacceptor sites (S63 and S84 derepresses natural subtelomeric genes when combined with a serendipitous mutation (P2A, which alone can enhance the stability of either the repressed or active state. The triple mutation confers resistance to rapamycin-induced stress and a loss of subtelomeric repression. We conclude that the Sir4 N-terminus plays two roles in SIR-mediated silencing: it contributes to epigenetic repression by stabilizing the SIR-mediated protection of linker DNA; and, as a target of phosphorylation, it can destabilize silencing in a regulated manner.

  7. Eye movement dysfunction in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analytic evaluation of candidate endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E; Iacono, William G; Ones, Deniz S

    2008-12-01

    Several forms of eye movement dysfunction (EMD) are regarded as promising candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Discrepancies in individual study results have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding particular aspects of EMD in relatives of schizophrenia patients. To quantitatively evaluate and compare the candidacy of smooth pursuit, saccade and fixation deficits in first-degree biological relatives, we conducted a set of meta-analytic investigations. Among 18 measures of EMD, memory-guided saccade accuracy and error rate, global smooth pursuit dysfunction, intrusive saccades during fixation, antisaccade error rate and smooth pursuit closed-loop gain emerged as best differentiating relatives from controls (standardized mean differences ranged from .46 to .66), with no significant differences among these measures. Anticipatory saccades, but no other smooth pursuit component measures were also increased in relatives. Visually-guided reflexive saccades were largely normal. Moderator analyses examining design characteristics revealed few variables affecting the magnitude of the meta-analytically observed effects. Moderate effect sizes of relatives v. controls in selective aspects of EMD supports their endophenotype potential. Future work should focus on facilitating endophenotype utility through attention to heterogeneity of EMD performance, relationships among forms of EMD, and application in molecular genetics studies.

  8. Harm avoidance and childhood adversities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, K; Lennertz, L; Riesel, A; Klawohn, J; Kaufmann, C; Heinzel, S; Grützmann, R; Kathmann, N; Wagner, M

    2017-04-01

    The etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is assumed to involve interactions between genetically determined vulnerability factors and significant environmental features. Here, we aim to investigate how the personality trait harm avoidance and the experience of childhood adversities contribute to OCD. A total of 169 patients with OCD, 157 healthy comparison subjects, and 57 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with OCD participated in the study. Harm avoidance was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the severity of childhood adversities was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Both patients with OCD and relatives showed elevated levels of harm avoidance compared to controls. Furthermore, patients exhibited significantly higher scores than relatives. This linear pattern was observed throughout all subscales of harm avoidance, and remained stable after controlling for the severity of depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. With regard to childhood adversities, patients with OCD reported higher levels than relatives and controls. Our results provide further evidence for a diathesis-stress model of OCD. While patients and unaffected relatives share elevated levels of harm avoidance, supporting the role of harm avoidance as an endophenotype of OCD, a heightened severity of childhood adversity was only observed in patients. The assumed biological underpinnings of these findings are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Serum bilirubin and antioxidant levels in first degree relatives of patients with ischemic heart disease and normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, N.; Naseem, T.; Mukhtar, F.; Basheer, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary diseases appear to result from an overbalance between radical-generating, compared with radical-scavenging systems, a condition called as oxidative stress. Total antioxidant status (TAS) in human plasma reflects the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in each system. Bilirubin has been considered an antioxidant, with capacity to remove reactive species of oxygen. Present study tried to measure the total antioxidant status of first degree relatives of patients with IHD. Study also tried to evaluate the prognostic role of serum bilirubin in disease prevention or progression. Methods: Seventy five apparently healthy subjects in age group 20-50 years, comprising equal number of males and females, who were first degree relatives of ischemic heart disease patients, were included in the study. Family members were divided on the bases of their numbers, i.e., one family member (Group-A), 2 family members (Group-B) and more than 3 family members (Group-C). Study was cross sectional and carried out in a period of 6 months (Jun 2008-Jan 2009). Subjects with letter of consent were taken from general population. Seventy five healthy age matched people with no history of ischemic heart disease in family were taken as control. An overnight fasting blood sample was taken. Total antioxidant status was determined using a commercially available kit. Serum bilirubin was estimated by auto analyzer. Results: Family history of ischemic heart disease with serum bilirubin showed a significant negative correlation (p<0.05). But the values of TAS failed to show any significant correlation with the family history. It was observed that the value of serum bilirubin was decreased significantly (p<0.05) with an increased number of family members. Total antioxidant status failed to show any significant difference among all the three groups. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that reduced serum levels of bilirubin were seen in people with a higher prevalence of coronary

  10. Associations between olfactory identification and verbal memory in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives, and non-psychiatric controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; McKenzie Mack, LaTasha; Esterberg, Michelle L; Bercu, Zachary; Kryda, Aimee D; Quintero, Luis; Weiss, Paul S; Walker, Elaine F

    2006-09-01

    Olfactory identification deficits and verbal memory impairments may represent trait markers for schizophrenia. The aims of this study were to: (1) assess olfactory identification in patients, first-degree relatives, and non-psychiatric controls, (2) determine differences in verbal memory functioning in these three groups, and (3) study correlations between olfactory identification and three specific verbal memory domains. A total of 106 participants-41 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders, 27 relatives, and 38 controls-were assessed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. Linear mixed models, accounting for clustering within families and relevant covariates, were used to compare scores across groups and to examine associations between olfactory identification ability and the three verbal memory domains. A group effect was apparent for all four measures, and relatives scored midway between patients and controls on all three memory domains. UPSIT scores were significantly correlated with all three forms of verbal memory. Age, verbal working memory, and auditory recognition delayed memory were independently predictive of UPSIT scores. Impairments in olfactory identification and verbal memory appear to represent two correlated risk markers for schizophrenia, and frontal-temporal deficits likely account for both impairments.

  11. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    1991-12-01

    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  12. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  13. Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. SirT1 regulates energy metabolism and response to caloric restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Boily

    Full Text Available The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction.

  15. Stability and bifurcation analysis in a delayed SIR model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhichao; Wei Junjie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a time-delayed SIR model with a nonlinear incidence rate is considered. The existence of Hopf bifurcations at the endemic equilibrium is established by analyzing the distribution of the characteristic values. A explicit algorithm for determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by using the normal form and the center manifold theory. Numerical simulations to support the analytical conclusions are carried out

  16. [Sir Harold Ridley--the creator of modern cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    In February 2000, the worldwide ophthalmology community celebrated the 50th anniversary of one of the twentieth century's most important innovations in eye care--the implantation of the first intraocular lens after cataract extraction by Sir Harold Ridley. It was the initiation of a golden age for the development of ophthalmology, especially cataract surgery. In our paper we would like to remember this outstanding English ophthalmologist and his great invention.

  17. Development of SIR-C Ground Calibration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.; Azeem, M.; Haub, D.; Sarabandi, K.

    1993-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR is currently scheduled for launch in April 1994. SIR-C is an L-Band and C-Band, multi-polarization spaceborne SAR system developed by NASA/JPL. X- SAR is an X-Band SAR system developed by DARA/ASI. One of the problems involved in calibrating the SIR-C instrument is to make sure that the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarized beams are aligned in the azimuth direction, i.e.. that they are pointing in the same direction. This is important if the polarimetric performance specifications for the system are to be met. To solve this problem, we have designed and built a prototype of a low-cost ground receiver capable of recording received power from two antennas, one H-polarized, the other V-polarized. The two signals are mixed to audio then recorded on the left and right stereo channels of a standard audio cassette player. The audio cassette recording can then be played back directly into a Macintosh computer, where it is digitized. Analysis of.

  18. Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Participation in Colonoscopy Screening Program in First Degree Relatives of Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhdari, Arezoo; Yavari, Parvin; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 15% to 25% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have positive family history for disease. Colonoscopy screening test is the best way for prevention and early diagnosis. Studies have found that first degree relatives (FDRs) with low socioeconomic status are less likely to participate in colonoscopy screening program. The aim of this study is to determine the association between socioeconomic status and participation in colonoscopy screening program in FDRs. This descriptive cross-sectional, study has been conducted on 200 FDRs who were consulted for undergoing colonoscopy screening program between 2007 and 2013 in research institute for gastroenterology and liver disease of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. They were interviewed via phone by a valid questionnaire about socioeconomic status. For data analysis, chi-square, exact fisher and multiple logistic regression were executed by SPSS 19. The results indicated 58.5% participants underwent colonoscopy screening test at least once to the time of the interview. There was not an association between participation in colonoscopy screening program and socioeconomic status to the time of the interview in binomial analysis. But statistical significance between intention to participate and educational and income level were found. We found, in logistic regression analysis, that high educational level (Diploma and University degree in this survey) was a predictor to participate in colonoscopy screening program in FDRs. According to this survey low socioeconomic status is an important factor to hinder participation of FDRs in colonoscopy screening program. Therefore, planned interventions for elevation knowledge and attitude in FDRs with low educational level are necessary. Also, reducing colonoscopy test costs should be a major priority for policy makers.

  19. PYRN-Bib: The Permafrost Young Researchers Network Bibliography of Permafrost-Related Degree-Earning Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Lantuit, Hugues; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    PYRN-Bib is an international bibliographical database aiming at collecting and distributing information on all theses submitted for earning a scientific degree in permafrost-related research. PYRN-Bib is hosted by the Permafrost Young Researchers Network (PYRN, http://pyrn.ways.org), an international network of early career students and young scientists in permafrost related research with currently more than 750 members. The fully educational, non-profit project PYRN-Bib is published under the patronage of the International Permafrost Association (IPA). The bibliography covers all theses as long as they clearly treat aspects of permafrost research from such diverse fields as: Geophysics, Geology, Cryolithology, Biology, Biogeochemistry, Microbiology, Astrobiology, Chemistry, Engineering, Geomorphology, Remote Sensing, Modeling, Mineral and Hydrocarbon Exploration, and Science History and Education. The specific goals of PYRN-Bib are (1) to generate a comprehensive database that includes all degree-earning theses (e.g. Diploma, Ph.D., Master, etc.), coming from any country and any scientific field, under the single condition that the thesis is strongly related to research on permafrost and/or periglacial processes; (2) to reference unique but buried sources of information including theses published in languages other than English; (3) to make the database widely available to the scientific community and the general public; (4) to solicit PYRN membership; and (5) to provide a mean to map the evolution of permafrost research over the last decades, including regional trends, shifts in research direction, and/or the place of permafrost research in society. PYRN-Bib is available online and maintained by PYRN. The complete bibliography can be downloaded at no cost and is offered in different file formats: tagged Endnote library, XML, BibTex, and PDF. New entries are continuously provided by PYRN members and the scientific community. PYRN-Bib currently contains more than

  20. Genetic testing for colorectal carcinoma susceptibility: focus group responses of individuals with colorectal carcinoma and first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, A Y; DeVellis, B M; Skrzynia, C; Millikan, R

    2001-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) may be the most frequent form of hereditary cancer. Genetic counseling and testing for heritable CRC is a promising approach for reducing the high incidence and mortality rates associated with the disease. Patients with CRC or those with at least one family member with the disease are the most likely persons to request or be offered genetic testing in the clinical or research setting. Currently, however, little is known about the behavioral, psychosocial, ethical, legal, and economic outcomes of CRC genetic counseling and testing. Eight focus group interviews, four for CRC patients (n = 28) and four for first-degree relatives (n = 33), were conducted to obtain insights into attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about genetic testing for hereditary CRC. Focus group interviews revealed a general lack of knowledge about cancer genetics and genetic testing; worry about confidentiality issues; strong concern for family members, particularly children; and a need for primary care providers to be informed about these issues. Major perceived advantages of genetic testing included improving health-related decisions, guiding physicians in making recommendations for surveillance, and informing relatives about risk potential. Disadvantages included potential discrimination, adverse psychologic effects, and financial costs associated with testing. As knowledge and media coverage of genetics continue to expand, it becomes increasingly important to continue efforts on behalf of, and in partnership with, those individuals most affected by genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes. These findings provide data needed to develop and implement informational, educational, counseling, and research-oriented programs that are sensitive to individuals' concerns and preferences. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  1. Health-related quality of life deficits associated with varying degrees of disease severity in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Sumit R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a chronic medical condition accompanied by a considerable health-related quality of life (HRQL burden. The purpose of this analysis was to use generic measures of HRQL to describe HRQL deficits associated with varying degrees of severity of type 2 diabetes. Methods The RAND-12 physical and mental health composites (PHC and MHC, respectively and Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 were self-completed by 372 subjects enrolled in a prospective, controlled study of an intervention to improve care for individuals with type 2 diabetes in rural communities. Analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in HRQL according to disease severity and control of blood glucose. Disease severity was defined in terms of treatment intensity, emergency room visits and absenteeism from work specifically attributable to diabetes. To control for potential confounding, the analysis was adjusted for important sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results The PHC and MHC were significantly lower for individuals treated with insulin as compared to diet alone (PHC: 41.01 vs 45.11, MHC: 43.23 vs 47.00, p Conclusions We concluded that generic measures of HRQL captured deficits associated with more severe disease in type 2 diabetes.

  2. Relations Between Positive Impacts Of CSR, External Support, CSR Knowledge And The Degree Of CSR Practices In Thai Small And Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpimon Eua-anant; Dusadee Ayuwat; Buapun Promphakping

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the relations between positive impacts from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), external support, knowledge about CSR and the degree of CSR practices according to international standards in the viewpoint of small and medium enterprises in Thailand. The survey among 262 small and medium enterprises in five sections in the northeastern region of Thailand reveals that positive impacts of CSR on internal issues have shown to be positively related to the degree of CSR ...

  3. Relation of expansion due to alkali silica reaction to the degree of reaction measured by SEM image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haha, M. Ben; Gallucci, E.; Guidoum, A.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy Image Analysis (SEM-IA) was used to quantify the degree of alkali silica reaction in affected microbars, mortar and concrete prisms. It was found that the degree of reaction gave a unique correlation with the macroscopic expansion for three different aggregates, stored at three temperatures and with two levels of alkali. The relationships found for the concretes and the mortars overlap when normalised by the aggregate content. This relationship seems to be linear up to a critical reaction degree which coincides with crack initiation within the reactive aggregates

  4. HRD Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the growing movement toward accreditation for human resources development professionals. She covers the issue of diversity, undergraduate versus graduate degrees, and future trends. (CH)

  5. An SIRS model with a nonlinear incidence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yu; Wang, Wendi; Xiao Shiwu

    2007-01-01

    The global dynamics of an SIRS model with a nonlinear incidence rate is investigated. We establish a threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic, analyze the existence and asymptotic stability of equilibria, and verify the existence of bistable states, i.e., a stable disease free equilibrium and a stable endemic equilibrium or a stable limit cycle. In particular, we find that the model admits stability switches as a parameter changes. We also investigate the backward bifurcation, the Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation and obtain the Hopf bifurcation criteria and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation curves, which are important for making strategies for controlling a disease

  6. Sir Winston Churchill: treatment for pneumonia in 1943 and 1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, J A; Scadding, J W

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews Churchill's illnesses in February 1943 and August/September 1944 when he developed pneumonia; on the first occasion this followed a cold and sore throat. Churchill was managed at home by Sir Charles Wilson (later Lord Moran) with the assistance of two nurses and the expert advice of Dr Geoffrey Marshall, Brigadier Lionel Whitby and Colonel Robert Drew. A sulphonamide (sulphathiazole on the first occasion) was prescribed for both illnesses. Churchill recovered, and despite his illnesses continued to direct the affairs of State from his bed. On the second occasion, Churchill's illness was not made public.

  7. Sir Rudolf Peierls Selected private and scientific correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike. As an effecti

  8. Sir Ronald A. Fisher and the International Biometric Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the death of Sir Ronald A. Fisher, one of the two Fathers of Statistics and a Founder of the International Biometric Society (the "Society"). To celebrate the extraordinary genius of Fisher and the far-sighted vision of Fisher and Chester Bliss in organizing and promoting the formation of the Society, this article looks at the origins and growth of the Society, some of the key players and events, and especially the roles played by Fisher himself as the First President. A fresh look at Fisher, the man rather than the scientific genius is also presented. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  9. An examination of the factors related to women's degree attainment and career goals in science, technology, and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitopi, Marie

    During the last 30 years, women have made tremendous advances in educational attainment especially in post-secondary education. Despite these advances, recent researchers have revealed that women continue to remain underrepresented in attainment of graduate degrees in the sciences. The researcher's purpose in this study was to extend previous research and to develop a model of variables that significantly contribute to persistence in and attainment of a graduate degree and an eventual career in the science, mathematics, or technology professions. Data were collected from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03). Variables in the categories of demographics, academics, finances, values and attitudes toward educational experiences, and future employment were analyzed by t tests and logistic regressions to determine gender differences in graduate degree attainment and career goals by male and female who majored in science, technology and mathematics. Findings supported significant gender differences in expectations for a graduate degree, age at baccalaureate degree attainment, number of science and engineering credits taken, and the value of faculty interactions. Father's education had a significant effect on degree attainment. Women and men had similar expectations at the beginning of their educational career, but women tended to fall short of their degree expectations ten years later. A large proportion of women dropped out of the science pipeline by choosing different occupations after degree completion. Additionally, women earned fewer science and math credits than men. The professions of science and technology are crucial for the nation's economic growth and competitiveness; therefore, additional researchers should focus on retaining both men and women in the STEM professions.

  10. Prevalence of celiac disease in first-degree relative of children in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Touran; Hill, Ivor

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of elevated antibodies and histological changes of celiac disease (CD) on intestinal biopsies among first-degree relatives (FDR) of Iranian children with known CD and to describe the characteristics of the affected FDR. The FDR of 119 patients with CD in Iran were tested for tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. Upper endoscopy and duodenal biopsy were recommended to those with elevated TTG-IgA antibodies. The characteristics and clinical features of all CD patients were recorded. Altogether 480 FDR (52.7% females) participated in the study, of whom 63 had an elevated TTG-IgA and 44 consented to undergo endoscopy with biopsies. Histology revealed Marsh 0 in six, Marsh I in seven, Marsh II in four and Marsh III in 27. Most of those with Marsh II or III changes were siblings (26/31). The prevalence of TTG-IgA positivity among FDR was 13.1% and for biopsy-confirmed CD (Marsh II and III) it was 6.5%. Most FDR with CD had symptoms, with the most common being abdominal pain (45.0%), followed by musculoskeletal pain (35.5%) and constipation (25.8%). FDR with Marsh III changes had significantly higher levels of TTG-IgA. The prevalence of CD in FDR in Iran is much higher compared with the general population (6.5% vs 0.5-0.6%). Testing should be considered for all FDR of Iranian patients with known CD and in particular in symptomatic cases. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Tuberculosis case finding in first-degree relative contacts not living with index tuberculosis cases in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chheng P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phalkun Chheng,1,2 Mary Nsereko,2 LaShaunda L Malone,2 Brenda Okware,2 Sarah Zalwango,2 Moses Joloba,2,3 W Henry Boom,2 Ezekiel Mupere,1,2,4 Catherine M Stein1,2 On behalf of the Tuberculosis Research Unit 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Purpose: To assess the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among first-degree relative (FDR contacts not living with tuberculosis (TB cases. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of household contacts living with an index TB case and FDR contacts living outside of households in Kampala, Uganda, is presented. Results: A total of 177 contacts (52 FDRs and 125 index household contacts of 31 TB cases were examined. Compared with index household contacts, FDR contacts were older, more likely to be TB symptomatic (50% vs 33%, had a higher percentage of abnormal chest X-rays (19% vs 11%, sputum smear positive (15% vs 5%, and many similar epidemiologic risk factors, including HIV infection (13% vs 10%. Contact groups had similar pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence: 9.6% in FDR vs 10.4% in index household contacts and similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: 62% in FDR vs 61% in index households. Conclusion: TB is common among FDR contacts. High TB prevalence justifies targeting FDRs during household contact investigations. Combining TB active-case finding among FDR contacts with household contact investigation in low-income setting is feasible. This should be part of national TB control program strategies for increasing TB case-detection rates and reducing community TB transmission and death. Keywords: prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis, limited resource setting, contact tracing

  12. SIR-ZEE: plataforma tecnológica para el desarrollo local SIR-ZEE: technology platform for local development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Treviño Villalobos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Información Regional de la Zona Económica Especial (SIR-ZEE nació en Costa Rica aproximadamente en 1998, cuando se concibió la idea de crear un sistema informático para recopilar, gestionar y ofrecer temáticas generadas en forma digital por diferentes entidades públicas y privadas. En el 2008, con los fondos del Programa de Regionalización Interuniversitaria del Consejo Nacional de Rectores, se aprobó la iniciativa SIR-ZEE, Plataforma Tecnológica para el Desarrollo Local, que buscó fortalecer las capacidades productivas y las capacidades de gobernabilidad en la Región Huetar Norte mediante el acceso a la información oportuna y relevante para el desarrollo económico local. Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar no solo la relevancia de un sistema de información en la planificación del desarrollo local, sino también que, en la actualidad, el SIR-ZEE se está convirtiendo en una ventaja competitiva para la Región Huetar Norte, ya que facilita el proceso de toma decisiones. Los principales resultados obtenidos al final de la iniciativa fueron una propuesta metodológica para la elaboración de planes estratégicos de desarrollo local en la Región Huetar Norte, la sensibilización de los actores locales sobre la participación ciudadana en las diferentes fases de la planificación, un diagnóstico territorial con el valor agregado de contar con la información georreferenciada y disponible en un sitio web, y avances en la elaboración del Plan estratégico de desarrollo local.The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone (SIR-ZEE was born about the year 1998 as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities. In 2008, with the funds of Interuniversity Regionalization Program the National Council of Rectors approved the initiative SIR- ZEE: Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive

  13. A Novel Method of SIR Measurement for Power Control in CDMA Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J; Wu, S B; He, J Z

    2006-01-01

    CDMA is interference limited multiple access system. Power control is an effective way to reduce co-channel interference and solve the near-far problem. Consequently, it can improve the system capacity, and make higher data rate possible. CDMA2000 employs fast closed-loop power control in reverse link to combat channel fading, and the estimation of signal to interference ratio (SIR) is required for closed-loop power control. Transmitting power is adjusted by comparing the SIR estimation with SIR target. So, it is crucial to measure the SIR of received signal accurately. Traditional measurement methods mostly depend on pilot signal strongly, when the pilots are few, there is a greater error brought to the measurement of SIR. In this paper, we discuss the SIR measurement of the received signal under the fewer pilots condition (especially only one pilot symbol) and present a novel SIR measurement method. According to the simulation, the numerical results indicate that the SIR measured by the proposed method is more accurate than the SIR measured by conventional method under fewer pilots condition

  14. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery."

  15. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.

  16. Phase relations in the Cu-Te-S system at temperatures between 350 and 900 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven

    1994-01-01

    data and optical data on phases A and B are listed. At 350 degree C there exist two liquid fields which at 450 degree C have become one continuous field stretching from Cu45Te55 with low S content to the tellurium corner of the phase diagram and from there to the sulphur corner. With increasing S......, the Cu content of the liquid rapidly decreases to trace amonts. With increasing temperature the field extends into the ternary from the tellurium corner towards the Cu-S join. The boundary of the liquid field in the central portion of the phae diagram towards the sulphur corner does not change position...

  17. Aggregation of deaths from ischaemic heart disease among first and second degree relatives of 108 males and 42 females with myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thordarson, O; Fridriksson, S

    1979-01-01

    The occurrence of deaths due to ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among first and second degree relatives of coronary patients and among relatives of an equal number of matched controls was studied on the basis of death certificates. The propositi were 108 males and 42 females, who had developed myocardial infarction (MI), males before 65 years of age and females before 70. When compared with controls, a 1-1/2-fold higher death rate was found among first degree relatives of the propositi and a lower average age at death. The difference in death rate between second degree relatives was not significant, except for maternal brothers. When compared with the death rate due to IHD in the general population, the increase in risk to first degree relatives of propositi was nearly 3-fold over the expected value, and 1-1/2-fold to second degree relatives. The age of the propositi at onset of MI did not affect the risk to relatives, whereas sex-related influence was significant. To first degree relatives of male propositi the risk increase was up to 5-fold over the expected value. The risk increase was found to be greatest to first degree male relatives of female propositi, or over 7-fold to fathers and brothers. Mothers and sisters of both male and female propositi showed a 4 to 5 fold risk increase over the expected value. The risk increase to second degree relatives was 2-1/2-fold over the expected value to maternal brothers of male propositi and 4-fold to such brothers of female propositi. The relatives of controls showed a coronary mortality close to that of the general population. Familial clustering of coronary deaths was found in 8.7% of the families of the propositi and in 4.7% of the families of the controls. The findings of the present study indicate a substantial genetic component in the overall aetiology of IHD, which is more prominent in families of female propositi but hardly of a magnitude to warrant genetic counseling.

  18. Granular statistical mechanics - Building on the legacy of Sir Sam Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    When Sir Sam Edwards laid down the foundations for the statistical mechanics of jammed granular materials he opened a new field in soft condensed matter and many followed. In this presentation we review briefly the Edwards formalism and some of its less discussed consequences. We point out that the formalism is useful for other classes of systems - cellular and porous materials. A certain shortcoming of the original formalism is then discussed and a modification to overcome it is proposed. Finally, a derivation of an equation of state with the new formalism is presented; the equation of state is analogous to the PVT relation for thermal gases, relating the volume, the boundary stress and measures of the structural and stress fluctuations. NUDT, Changsha, China, Imperial College London, UK, Cambridge University, UK.

  19. Investigating Relationships between and within Entry Pathways on a Sport Related Programme and the Degree Outcome Obtained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Tabo; Whitehead, Amy; Cullinane, Danny; Nixon, Sarah; Huntley, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Research within Higher Education in the United Kingdom has reported conflicting findings when investigating the relationship between undergraduate entry routes and gender, with successful performances across the degree cycle. This paper adds to this body of knowledge and examines the relationship between entry routes and gender on student outcomes…

  20. Dependency and Self-Esteem in Relation to the Degree of Religiosity in Three Religious Groups in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A. P.; Prakash, Jai

    Religion has played a dominant role in the lives of people all over the world. It is a widespread and significant social force in human societies. This study examined the degree of religiosity among Muslims, Christians, and Hindus and its effects on dependency and self-esteem. Subjects (N=300) were college students divided evenly among each of the…

  1. Distance costs and the degree of inter-partner involvement in international relational-based technology alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.L.; Hagedoorn, J.; Lorenz-Orlean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the effect of specific institutional and distance cost issues, in particular the protection of intellectual property rights and geographic distance, on the preference of companies for different governance modalities in terms of the degree of their involvement in international

  2. RELATION OF INBREEDING OF HORSES OF THOROUGHBRED BREED WITH DEGREE OF HOMOZYGOSITY OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI OF DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk О.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of homozygosity of some 39 Thoroughbred horses was estimated from microsatellite analysis data. The power of inbreeding was detected towards horse pedigree. We suggested the use of genetic analysis of microsatellite loci of DNA for the determination of actual level of inbreeding.

  3. Altered Neural Activity during Irony Comprehension in Unaffected First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients—An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Herold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Irony is a type of figurative language in which the literal meaning of the expression is the opposite of what the speaker intends to communicate. Even though schizophrenic patients are known as typically impaired in irony comprehension and in the underlying neural functions, to date no one has explored the neural correlates of figurative language comprehension in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of irony understanding in schizophrenic patients and in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients compared to healthy adults with functional MRI. Our aim was to investigate if possible alterations of the neural circuits supporting irony comprehension in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia would fulfill the familiality criterion of an endophenotype. We examined 12 schizophrenic patients, 12 first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 12 healthy controls with functional MRI while they were performing irony and control tasks. Different phases of irony processing were examined, such as context processing and ironic statement comprehension. Patients had significantly more difficulty understanding irony than controls or relatives. Patients also showed markedly different neural activation pattern compared to controls in both stages of irony processing. Although no significant differences were found in the performance of the irony tasks between the control group and the relative group, during the fMRI analysis, the relatives showed stronger brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the context processing phase of irony tasks than the control group. However, the controls demonstrated higher activations in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the right inferior frontal gyrus during the ironic statement phase of the irony tasks than the relative group. Our results show that despite good task performance, first-degree relatives of

  4. Permanence for a Delayed Nonautonomous SIR Epidemic Model with Density-Dependent Birth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yingke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on some well-known SIR models, a revised nonautonomous SIR epidemic model with distributed delay and density-dependent birth rate was considered. Applying some classical analysis techniques for ordinary differential equations and the method proposed by Wang (2002, the threshold value for the permanence and extinction of the model was obtained.

  5. Importance of small-degree nodes in assortative networks with degree-weight correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sijuan; Feng, Ling; Monterola, Christopher Pineda; Lai, Choy Heng

    2017-10-01

    It has been known that assortative network structure plays an important role in spreading dynamics for unweighted networks. Yet its influence on weighted networks is not clear, in particular when weight is strongly correlated with the degrees of the nodes as we empirically observed in Twitter. Here we use the self-consistent probability method and revised nonperturbative heterogenous mean-field theory method to investigate this influence on both susceptible-infective-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) spreading dynamics. Both our simulation and theoretical results show that while the critical threshold is not significantly influenced by the assortativity, the prevalence in the supercritical regime shows a crossover under different degree-weight correlations. In particular, unlike the case of random mixing networks, in assortative networks, the negative degree-weight correlation leads to higher prevalence in their spreading beyond the critical transmissivity than that of the positively correlated. In addition, the previously observed inhibition effect on spreading velocity by assortative structure is not apparent in negatively degree-weight correlated networks, while it is enhanced for that of the positively correlated. Detailed investigation into the degree distribution of the infected nodes reveals that small-degree nodes play essential roles in the supercritical phase of both SIR and SIS spreadings. Our results have direct implications in understanding viral information spreading over online social networks and epidemic spreading over contact networks.

  6. Dynamical Analysis of SIR Epidemic Models with Distributed Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SIR epidemic models with distributed delay are proposed. Firstly, the dynamical behaviors of the model without vaccination are studied. Using the Jacobian matrix, the stability of the equilibrium points of the system without vaccination is analyzed. The basic reproduction number R is got. In order to study the important role of vaccination to prevent diseases, the model with distributed delay under impulsive vaccination is formulated. And the sufficient conditions of globally asymptotic stability of “infection-free” periodic solution and the permanence of the model are obtained by using Floquet’s theorem, small-amplitude perturbation skills, and comparison theorem. Lastly, numerical simulation is presented to illustrate our main conclusions that vaccination has significant effects on the dynamical behaviors of the model. The results can provide effective tactic basis for the practical infectious disease prevention.

  7. Sir Robert Ball: Victorian Astronomer and Lecturer par excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. I. G.

    2005-12-01

    Between 1875 and 1910 Sir Robert Stawell Ball gave an estimated 2,500 lectures in towns and cities all over the British Isles and abroad. This paper traces his lecturing career from its beginnings in Ireland to the triumphs of the Royal Institution, and on lecture tours in the United States of America. After a period in mathematics and mechanics, he became a populariser of science, especially astronomy, and found fame and fortune among the working classes and the aristocracy. What motivated him to tireless travels is uncertain, but it might have been that it was rewarding, financially and to his reputation. Whatever his motives, contemporary accounts are clear that BallÕs lectures were extremely popular and well-received.

  8. Microstrip Cross-coupled Interdigital SIR Based Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maharjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and compact 4.9 GHz bandpass filter for C-band applications is proposed. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator (SIR based bandpass filter (BPF.The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer (VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss (S21 and return loss (S11 were 0.3 dB and 28 dB, respectively, at resonance frequency which were almost close to the simulation results.

  9. Vaccination strategies for SIR vector-transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Pacheco, Gustavo; Esteva, Lourdes; Vargas, Cristobal

    2014-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems in the world with the fastest spreading rate. Control measures have been focused on vector control, with poor results in most cases. Vaccines should help to reduce the diseases incidence, but vaccination strategies should also be defined. In this work, we propose a vector-transmitted SIR disease model with age-structured population subject to a vaccination program. We find an expression for the age-dependent basic reproductive number R(0), and we show that the disease-free equilibrium is locally stable for R(0) ≤ 1, and a unique endemic equilibrium exists for R(0) > 1. We apply the theoretical results to public data to evaluate vaccination strategies, immunization levels, and optimal age of vaccination for dengue disease.

  10. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  11. MR image assessment of disc configuration and degree of anterior disc displacement in internal derangement related to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Chinami; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Imanaka, Masahiro; Yuasa, Masao; Yamamoto, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the configuration of the articular disc and degree of anterior disc displacement on magnetic resonance (MR) imagings in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) with internal derangement. A total of 363 joints diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADD w R) and 523 joints diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADD wo R) by MR imaging were examined. These joints did not show severe osseous changes on the condylar head or glenoid fossa. We assessed the configuration of the articular disc and degree of anterior disc displacement. In the ADD w R group, 82.6% of the articular discs showed biconcave configuration; enlargement of the posterior band in 4.6%, biconvex configuration in 0.5%, and others in 10.7%. Moreover 62.5% of the discs showed a slight degree of anterior disc displacement; were 27.2% moderately displaced and were 10.2% severe displaced. The prevalence of slightly displaced discs was higher in the TMJs of cases over 50 years of age than in cases under 30 years in the ADD w R group. On the other hand, in the ADD wo R group 35.9% of the articular discs showed biconcave configuration; enlargement of the posterior band in 12.6%, biconvex configuration in 25.4%, and others in 22.3%. Furthermore, 4.4% of the discs were slightly displaced; 43.9% moderately displaced and 51.6% were severely displaced. The prevalence of severely displaced and deformed discs in joints of cases over 40 years of age was high in the ADD wo R group. The prevalence of slightly displaced biconcave discs was higher in the ADD w R group. The other hand, the prevalence of severely displaced deformed discs was higher in the ADD wo R group. MR findings of internal derangement of the TMJ were found to be significantly correlated with age. (author)

  12. An Examination of How Academic Advancement of U.S. Journalism Students Relates to Their Degree Motivations, Values, and Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Serena; Hoag, Anne; Grant, August E.; Bowe, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The newsroom is a powerful influence in a journalist's identity formation. Research has yet to verify the socializing impact of academia. This research utilized the quantitative survey method applying it to undergraduate journalism students (n = 798) to assess how academic status relates to students' degree motivations, life values, and technology…

  13. Excess breast cancer risk in first degree relatives of CHEK2∗1100delC positive familial breast cancer cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, Muriel A.; Verhoef, Senno; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Broeks, Annegien; Rookus, Matti; Waisfisz, Quinten; Witte, Birgit I.; Jonker, Marianne A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The CHEK2∗1100delC mutation confers a relative risk of two for breast cancer (BC) in the general population. This study aims to explore the excess cancer risk due to the CHEK2∗1100delC mutation within a familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer setting. Cancer incidences were compared between first degree

  14. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  15. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vardas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  16. Nicotinamide clearance by Pnc1 directly regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher M; Smith, Daniel L; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2004-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein is an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) that functions in transcriptional silencing and longevity. The NAD(+) salvage pathway protein, Npt1, regulates Sir2-mediated processes by maintaining a sufficiently high intracellular NAD(+) concentration. However, another NAD(+) salvage pathway component, Pnc1, modulates silencing independently of the NAD(+) concentration. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a by-product of the Sir2 deacetylase reaction and is a natural Sir2 inhibitor. Pnc1 is a nicotinamidase that converts NAM to nicotinic acid. Here we show that recombinant Pnc1 stimulates Sir2 HDAC activity in vitro by preventing the accumulation of NAM produced by Sir2. In vivo, telomeric, rDNA, and HM silencing are differentially sensitive to inhibition by NAM. Furthermore, PNC1 overexpression suppresses the inhibitory effect of exogenously added NAM on silencing, life span, and Hst1-mediated transcriptional repression. Finally, we show that stress suppresses the inhibitory effect of NAM through the induction of PNC1 expression. Pnc1, therefore, positively regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity by preventing the accumulation of intracellular NAM during times of stress.

  17. A Study on the Priority Selection of Sediment-related Desaster Evacuation Using Debris Flow Combination Degree of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C.; Kang, M.; Seo, J.; Kim, D.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    As the mountainous urbanization has increased the concern about landslides in the living area, it is essential to develop the technology to minimize the damage through quick identification and sharing of the disaster occurrence information. In this study, to establish an effective system of alert evacuation that has influence on the residents, we used the debris flow combination degree of risk to predict the risk of the disaster and the level of damage and to select evacuation priorities. Based on the GIS information, the physical strength and social vulnerability were determined by following the debris flow combination of the risk formula. The results classify the physical strength hazard rating of the debris flow combination of the through the normalization process. Debris flow the estimated residential population included in the damage range of the damage prediction map is based on the area and the unit size data. Prediction of occupant formula was calculated by applying different weighting to the resident population and users, and the result was classified into 5 classes as the debris flow physical strength. The debris flow occurrence physical strength and social and psychological vulnerability were classified into the classifications to be reflected in the debris flow integrated risk map using the matrix technique. In addition, to supplement the risk of incorporation of debris flow, we added weight to disaster vulnerable facilities that require a lot of time and manpower to evacuate. The basic model of welfare facilities was supplemented by using basic data, population density, employment density and GDP. First, evacuate areas with high integrated degree of risk level, and evacuate with consideration of physical class differences if classification difficult because of the same or similar grade among the management areas. When the physical hazard class difference is similar, the population difference of the area including the welfare facility is considered

  18. SirR, a Novel Iron-Dependent Repressor in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philip J.; Cockayne, Alan; Landers, Patrick; Morrissey, Julie A.; Sims, Catriona M.; Williams, Paul

    1998-01-01

    In Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, a number of cell wall- and cytoplasmic membrane-associated lipoproteins are induced in response to iron starvation. To gain insights into the molecular basis of iron-dependent gene regulation in the staphylococci, we sequenced the DNA upstream of the 3-kb S. epidermidis sitABC operon, which Northern blot analysis indicates is transcriptionally regulated by the growth medium iron content. We identified two DNA sequences which are homologous to elements of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR regulon, which controls, in response to iron stress, for example, production of diphtheria toxin, siderophore, and a heme oxygenase. Upstream of the sitABC operon and divergently transcribed lies a 645-bp open reading frame (ORF), which codes for a polypeptide of approximately 25 kDa with homology to the DtxR family of metal-dependent repressor proteins. This ORF has been designated SirR (staphylococcal iron regulator repressor). Within the sitABC promoter/operator region, we also located a region of dyad symmetry overlapping the transcriptional start of sitABC which shows high homology to the DtxR operator consensus sequence, suggesting that this region, termed the Sir box, is the SirR-binding site. The SirR protein was overexpressed, purified, and used in DNA mobility shift assays; SirR retarded the migration of a synthetic oligonucleotide based on the Sir box in a metal (Fe2+ or Mn2+)-dependent manner, providing confirmatory evidence that this motif is the SirR-binding site. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis of staphylococcal chromosomal DNA with the synthetic Sir box as a probe confirmed that there are at least five Sir boxes in the S. epidermidis genome and at least three in the genome of S. aureus, suggesting that SirR controls the expression of multiple target genes. Using a monospecific polyclonal antibody raised against SirR to probe Western blots of whole-cell lysates of S. aureus, S. carnosus, S. epidermidis

  19. Comparative analysis on arthroscopic sutures of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries in relation to the degree of osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries, according to the patient's degree of osteopenia.METHOD: 138 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. Those operated from October 2008 onwards formed a prospective cohort, while the remainder formed a retrospective cohort. Also from October 2008 onwards, bone densitometry evaluation was requested at the time of the surgical treatment. For the patients operated before this date, densitometry examinations performed up to two years before or after the surgical treatment were investigated. The patients were divided into three groups. Those with osteoporosis formed group 1 (n = 16; those with osteopenia, group 2 (n = 33; and normal individuals, group 3 (n = 55.RESULTS: In analyzing the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA scores of group 3 and comparing them with group 2, no statistically significant difference was seen (p = 0.070. Analysis on group 3 in comparison with group 1 showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.027.CONCLUSION: The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries seem to be influenced by the patient's bone mineral density, as assessed using bone densitometry.

  20. A Survey of Final-year Undergraduate Laboratory Projects in Biochemistry and Related Degrees in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Caroline A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes undergraduate research projects in biochemistry and related subjects at British universities. Discusses the trend toward students doing less research as part of their undergraduate study. Reasons cited for this trend include increased student numbers and costs. (DDR)

  1. Cognition following acute tryptophan depletion : Difference between first-degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients and matched healthy control volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobczak, S; Riedel, W J; Booij, I; Aan Het Rot, M; Deutz, N E P; Honig, A

    BACKGROUND: Serotonergic circuits have been proposed to mediate cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory. Cognitive impairment is often seen in bipolar disorders in relation to a possible lowered serotonergic turnover. METHODS: We investigated the effects of acute tryptophan depletion

  2. Autoimmune Conditions in 235 Hemochromatosis Probands with HFE C282Y Homozygosity and Their First-Degree Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study of autoimmune conditions (ACs in 235 hemochromatosis probands at diagnosis by analyzing age, sex, ACs, history of first-degree family members with ACs (FH, diabetes, heavy ethanol consumption, elevated serum ALT/AST, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, iron removed to achieve iron depletion (QFe, and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA haplotypes A∗01, B∗08; A∗02, B∗44; A∗03, B∗07; A∗03, B∗14; and A∗29, B∗44. There were 138 men (58.7%. Median followup was 19.6 y. One or more of 19 ACs were diagnosed in each of 35 probands (14.9%. Prevalences of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis were 8.1% (95% CI: [5.1, 12.5], 1.7% [0.6, 4.6], and 0.0085 [0.0015, 0.0337], respectively. Eighteen probands (7.7% had a FH. Eight probands with ACs had 9 family members with ACs. In a logistic regression, ACs were less likely in men (odds ratio (OR 0.3 [0.1, 0.6] and more likely in probands with a FH (OR 4.1 [1.4, 11.8]. Overall ACs risk was not significantly associated with QFe or HLA haplotypes. Estimated survival of probands with and without ACs did not differ significantly. We conclude that ACs are common in hemochromatosis probands, especially women and probands with a FH.

  3. Ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries relate to degree of reproductive and metabolic disturbance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Jacob P; Vanden Brink, Heidi; Brooks, Eric D; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Lujan, Marla E

    2015-03-01

    To reexamine associations between polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) and degree of symptomatology in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using a well-defined PCOS population, newer ultrasound technology, and reliable offline assessments of sonographic parameters. Cross-sectional observational study. Academic hospital and clinical research unit. Forty-nine women with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and oligoamenorrhea. None. Number of follicles per follicle size category, antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), follicle distribution pattern, stromal area, ovarian area, stromal to ovarian area ratio (S/A) and stromal echogenicity index (SI), total (TT), androstenedione, LH, FSH, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1C, menstrual cycle length, hirsutism score, body mass index (BMI), waist:hip ratio, and blood pressure. AFC, but not OV, was positively associated with TT (ρ = .610), androstenedione (ρ = .490), and LH:FSH (ρ = .402). SI was positively associated with androgen markers and LH:FSH, while S/A was negatively associated with these variables. Follicles ≤4 mm were negatively associated with various metabolic markers, whereas larger follicles (5-8 mm) showed positive associations. Stromal markers were not associated with cardiometabolic measures. LH:FSH best predicted follicles ≤4 mm, and BMI predicted 5- to 9-mm follicles. Dominant follicles ≥10 mm were best predicted by age. AFC, and not OV, reflected the severity of reproductive dysfunction in PCOS. Associations among different sized follicles were consistent with recruitable sized follicles, which reflects the severity of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  5. Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR recommendations for performing arthrocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spadaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint fluid aspiration, or arthrocentesis, is one of the most useful and commonly performed procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases, but to date no definite guidelines have been published. For this reason, a group of experts of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR produced evidence based recommendations for performing arthrocentesis. Among them, the most relevant are: a arthrocentesis is necessary when synovial effusion of unknown origin is present, especially if septic or crystal arthritis is suspected; b the patient should be clearly informed of the benefits and risks of the procedure in order to give an informed consent; c ultrasonography should be used to facilitate arthrocentesis in difficult joints; d fluid evacuation often has a therapeutic effect and facilitates the success of the following intraarticular injection; e careful skin disinfection and the use of sterile, disposable material is mandatory for avoiding septic complications. Disposable, non sterile gloves should always be used by the operator, mainly for his own protection; f contraindications are the presence of skin lesions or infections in the area of the puncture; g the patient’s anticoagulant treatment is not a contraindication, providing the therapeutic range is not exceeded; h joint rest after arthrocentesis is not indicated. Several of these recommendations were based on experts’ opinion rather than on published evidence which is scanty.

  6. Avoidant personality disorder symptoms in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients predict performance on neurocognitive measures: the UCLA family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, D L; Asarnow, R A; Sugar, C A; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S; Kuppinger, H; Nuechterlein, K H

    2010-07-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia. 367 first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia and 245 relatives of community controls were interviewed for the presence of avoidant personality symptoms and symptoms of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders and administered neurocognitive measures. Relationships between neurocognitive measures and avoidant symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed models. Avoidant dimensional scores predicted performance on the span of apprehension (SPAN), 3-7 Continuous Performance Test (3-7 CPT), and Trail Making Test (TMT-B) in schizophrenia relatives. These relationships remained significant on the SPAN even after adjustment for paranoid or schizotypal dimensional scores and on the TMT-B after adjustment for paranoid dimensional scores. Moreover, in a second set of analyses comparing schizophrenia relatives to controls there were significant or trending differences in the degree of the relationship between avoidant symptoms and each of these neurocognitive measures even after adjustments for paranoid and schizotypal dimensional scores. The substantial correlation between avoidant and schizotypal symptoms suggests that these personality disorders are not independent. Avoidant and in some cases schizotypal dimensional scores are significant predictors of variability in these neurocognitive measures. In all analyses, higher levels of avoidant symptoms were associated with worse performance on the neurocognitive measures in relatives of schizophrenia probands. These results support the hypothesis that avoidant personality disorder may be a schizophrenia spectrum phenotype. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  8. Sir James Paget: Paget's disease of the nipple, Paget's disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-04-01

    Sir James Paget was one of the 'great' Victorians. Eminent as a surgeon, pathologist and teacher, his nobility of character and application to his work made him a leader in his profession in that age of great men.

  9. Identifying settlements on the SIR-B images of Rimbobujang and the surrounding areas, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    SIR-B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses. Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended.

  10. Autism spectrum disorder in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their first- and second-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne V; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Mouridsen, Svend E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical and population-based studies report increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their relatives. No nationwide study has yet been published on co-occurrence of these disorders. AIMS: To investigate comorbidity of ASD...... in individuals with anorexia nervosa, and aggregation of ASD and anorexia nervosa in their relatives. METHOD: In Danish registers we identified all individuals born in 1981-2008, their parents, and full and half siblings, and linked them to data on hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Risk...... of comorbidity of ASD in probands with anorexia nervosa and aggregation of ASD in families of anorexia nervosa probands were increased. However, the risk of comorbid and familial ASD did not differ significantly from comorbid and familial major depression or any psychiatric disorder in anorexia nervosa probands...

  11. Six-degree-of-freedom near-source seismic motions I: rotation-to-translation relations and synthetic examples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2015), s. 491-509 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0925; GA MŠk LM2010008; GA ČR GA15-02363S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : seismic rotation * near-source region * rotation-to-translation relations * numerical simulations * S-wave velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  12. SIR JOHN CRAWFORD MEMORIAL ADDRESS: Agriculture: The challenges of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Beddington, Sir John

    2012-01-01

    The Sir John Crawford Memorial Address has been presented since 1985, in honour of the distinguished Australian civil servant, educator and agriculturalist in whose name the Crawford Fund was established. Sir John Crawford was a remarkable Australian who contributed at the highest levels, and was a passionate supporter of international agricultural research for development. This talk draws attention to four current and interrelated trends that suggest the world will be rather different by 202...

  13. The Role of GAD65 Autoantibody in Diabetes Mellitus and their First-Degree Relatives and Comparison with Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nakhjavani

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The diabetes is an autoimmune disease, in which the role of autoantibodies is of a specific importance. The appearance of these autoantibodies can be the first symptom in the serum of type I diabetic patients, which may appear ten years before onset of the disease. The most important autoantibodies include Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GAD65-Ab. This can be used as a good tool for prediction in screening tests in type I diabetic patients. In the present study with prosedure RIA, we investigated the level of GAD65-Ab in patients with diabetes type I and their close relatives, and compared them with healthy persons. From the type I diabetic patients who have been suffering from the disease for periods of one week to twenty years, 63.3% of them had positive Anti-GAD65. This ratio was 8% in their close trelatives, and 0% in healthy persons. The difference in Anti-GAD65 between the healthy persons and close relative of patients was significant. This test may be employed in diabetes type I, as a screening test, and confirms the results of studies which have been conducted so far outside this country.

  14. Scientific objectives and selection of targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Hiesinger, H.; Rosiek, M.

    2004-12-01

    The European SMART-1 mission to the Moon, primarily a testbed for innovative technologies, was launched in September 2003 and will reach the Moon in 2005. On board are several scientific instruments, including the point-spectrometer SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR). Taking into account the capabilities of the SMART-1 mission and the SIR instrument in particular, as well as the open questions in lunar science, a selection of targets for SIR observations has been compiled. SIR can address at least five topics: (1) Surface/regolith processes; (2) Lunar volcanism; (3) Lunar crust structure; (4) Search for spectral signatures of ices at the lunar poles; and (5) Ground truth and study of geometric effects on the spectral shape. For each topic we will discuss specific observation modes, necessary to achieve our scientific goals. The majority of SIR targets will be observed in the nadir-tracking mode. More than 100 targets, which require off-nadir pointing and off-nadir tracking, are planned. It is expected that results of SIR observations will significantly increase our understanding of the Moon. Since the exact arrival date and the orbital parameters of the SMART-1 spacecraft are not known yet, a more detailed planning of the scientific observations will follow in the near future.

  15. Uncooked rice of relatively low gelatinization degree resulted in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo; Hong, Wan Soo; Kim, Dong Geon; Hong, Yang Hee; Hong, In Sun; Chang, Un Jae

    2009-07-01

    Cooking processes that gelatinize granules or disrupt structure might increase the glucose and insulin responses because a disruption of the structure of starch by gelatinization increases its availability for digestion and absorption in the small intestine. We hypothesized that the uncooked form of rice, which has a relatively low degree of gelatinization even though in powder form, would result in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice (CR). To assess the effects of the gelatinization of rice on metabolic response of glucose and insulin, we investigated the glucose and insulin responses to 3 rice meals of different gelatinization degree in female college students (n = 12): CR (76.9% gelatinized), uncooked rice powder (UP; 3.5% gelatinized), and uncooked freeze-dried rice powder (UFP; 5.4% gelatinized). Uncooked rice powders (UP and UFP) induced lower glucose and insulin responses compared with CR. The relatively low gelatinization degree of UPs resulted in low metabolic responses in terms of the glycemic index (CR: 72.4% vs UP: 49.7%, UFP: 59.8%) and insulin index (CR: 94.8% vs UP: 74.4%, UFP: 68.0%). In summary, UPs that were less gelatinized than CR induced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses.

  16. Working memory impairment in probands with schizoaffective disorder and first degree relatives of schizophrenia probands extend beyond deficits predicted by generalized neuropsychological impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian Hill, S; Buchholz, Alison; Amsbaugh, Hayley; Reilly, James L; Rubin, Leah H; Gold, James M; Keefe, Richard S E; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A

    2015-08-01

    Working memory impairment is well established in psychotic disorders. However, the relative magnitude, diagnostic specificity, familiality pattern, and degree of independence from generalized cognitive deficits across psychotic disorders remain unclear. Participants from the Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study included probands with schizophrenia (N=289), psychotic bipolar disorder (N=227), schizoaffective disorder (N=165), their first-degree relatives (N=315, N=259, N=193, respectively), and healthy controls (N=289). All were administered the WMS-III Spatial Span working memory test and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) battery. All proband groups displayed significant deficits for both forward and backward span compared to controls. However, after covarying for generalized cognitive impairments (BACS composite), all proband groups showed a 74% or greater effect size reduction with only schizoaffective probands showing residual backward span deficits compared to controls. Significant familiality was seen in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees. In relatives, both forward and backward span deficits were again attenuated after covarying BACS scores and residual backward span deficits were seen in relatives of schizophrenia patients. Overall, both probands and relatives showed a similar pattern of robust working memory deficits that were largely attenuated when controlling for generalized cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photographic Standards for Patients With Facial Palsy and Recommendations by Members of the Sir Charles Bell Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Katherine B; Fattah, Adel; Gavilán, Javier; Hadlock, Tessa A; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2017-07-01

    There is no widely accepted assessment tool or common language used by clinicians caring for patients with facial palsy, making exchange of information challenging. Standardized photography may represent such a language and is imperative for precise exchange of information and comparison of outcomes in this special patient population. To review the literature to evaluate the use of facial photography in the management of patients with facial palsy and to examine the use of photography in documenting facial nerve function among members of the Sir Charles Bell Society-a group of medical professionals dedicated to care of patients with facial palsy. A literature search was performed to review photographic standards in patients with facial palsy. In addition, a cross-sectional survey of members of the Sir Charles Bell Society was conducted to examine use of medical photography in documenting facial nerve function. The literature search and analysis was performed in August and September 2015, and the survey was conducted in August and September 2013. The literature review searched EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases from inception of each database through September 2015. Additional studies were identified by scanning references from relevant studies. Only English-language articles were eligible for inclusion. Articles that discussed patients with facial palsy and outlined photographic guidelines for this patient population were included in the study. The survey was disseminated to the Sir Charles Bell Society members in electronic form. It consisted of 10 questions related to facial grading scales, patient-reported outcome measures, other psychological assessment tools, and photographic and videographic recordings. In total, 393 articles were identified in the literature search, 7 of which fit the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 articles discussed or proposed views specific to patients with facial palsy. However, none of the articles specifically focused on

  18. Sir William Petty: modern epidemiologist (1623-1687).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J E

    1987-01-01

    William Petty, physician, epidemiologist, political economist, demographer, cartographer, and administrator was an intellectual product of the seventeenth century. Petty was born in the year 1623 in Romsey, England of lower middle class parents; however, by the time of his death in 1687 he had become a knight of the realm, founder of the Royal Society, and friend of kings. Petty's life reflected the northern renaissance which induced such dramatic changes in science, technology, politics, and entrepreneurship. His education was eclectic, nonetheless he took his Doctor of Physic degree from Oxford in 1649 and became an Oxford don, where he spent the next few years as an academic before undertaking a definitive survey of Ireland on behalf of the Cromwell government. Ireland changed Petty's destiny and he became a man of the world and entrepreneur which stimulated his interest in public policy formulation and economics. It was Petty's peculiar genius to be innovative in the application of measurement, statistics, and mathematics to socioeconomic and demographic phenomena. As a physician he related his knowledge of health and disease to these phenomena in what in the modern context would be called human ecology or social epidemiology. These relationships and their measurement were employed to establish an objective set of data which could be analyzed for the purpose of rational public policy planning by the state. This scientific approach to public policy places Petty squarely in the context of modern epidemiologic and public health practice and marks the initiation of a major use of the epidemiologic method.

  19. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrovola, J.B.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Makou, M.; Perrea, D.; Dontas, I.; Vlachos, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-(KB) ligand (RANKL) in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption. (author)

  20. Task-related changes in degree centrality and local coherence of the posterior cingulate cortex after major cardiac surgery in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browndyke, Jeffrey N; Berger, Miles; Smith, Patrick J; Harshbarger, Todd B; Monge, Zachary A; Panchal, Viral; Bisanar, Tiffany L; Glower, Donald D; Alexander, John H; Cabeza, Roberto; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen; Newman, Mark F; Mathew, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Older adults often display postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) after surgery, yet it is unclear to what extent functional connectivity (FC) alterations may underlie these deficits. We examined for postoperative voxel-wise FC changes in response to increased working memory load demands in cardiac surgery patients and nonsurgical controls. Older cardiac surgery patients (n = 25) completed a verbal N-back working memory task during MRI scanning and cognitive testing before and 6 weeks after surgery; nonsurgical controls with cardiac disease (n = 26) underwent these assessments at identical time intervals. We measured postoperative changes in degree centrality, the number of edges attached to a brain node, and local coherence, the temporal homogeneity of regional functional correlations, using voxel-wise graph theory-based FC metrics. Group × time differences were evaluated in these FC metrics associated with increased N-back working memory load (2-back > 1-back), using a two-stage partitioned variance, mixed ANCOVA. Cardiac surgery patients demonstrated postoperative working memory load-related degree centrality increases in the left dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC; p < .001, cluster p-FWE < .05). The dPCC also showed a postoperative increase in working memory load-associated local coherence (p < .001, cluster p-FWE < .05). dPCC degree centrality and local coherence increases were inversely associated with global cognitive change in surgery patients (p < .01), but not in controls. Cardiac surgery patients showed postoperative increases in working memory load-associated degree centrality and local coherence of the dPCC that were inversely associated with postoperative global cognitive outcomes and independent of perioperative cerebrovascular damage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. New Processing of Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Gracheva, V.; Arko, S. A.; Labelle-Hamer, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was a radar system, which successfully operated on two separate shuttle missions in April and October 1994. During these two missions, a total of 143 hours of radar data were recorded. SIR-C was the first multifrequency and polarimetric spaceborne radar system, operating in dual frequency (L- and C- band) and with quad-polarization. SIR-C had a variety of different operating modes, which are innovative even from today's point of view. Depending on the mode, it was possible to acquire data with different polarizations and carrier frequency combinations. Additionally, different swaths and bandwidths could be used during the data collection and it was possible to receive data with two antennas in the along-track direction.The United States Geological Survey (USGS) distributes the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images as single-look complex (SLC) and multi-look complex (MLC) products. Unfortunately, since June 2005 the SIR-C processor has been inoperable and not repairable. All acquired SLC and MLC images were processed with a course resolution of 100 m with the goal of generating a quick look. These images are however not well suited for scientific analysis. Only a small percentage of the acquired data has been processed as full resolution SAR images and the unprocessed high resolution data cannot be processed any more at the moment.At the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) a new processor was developed to process binary SIR-C data to full resolution SAR images. ASF is planning to process the entire recoverable SIR-C archive to full resolution SLCs, MLCs and high resolution geocoded image products. ASF will make these products available to the science community through their existing data archiving and distribution system.The final paper will describe the new processor and analyze the challenges of reprocessing the SIR-C data.

  2. Acute effects of monounsaturated fat on postprandial lipemia and gene expression in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietraszek, A; Gregersen, S; Pedersen, S B

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their nondiabetic first-degree relatives (REL) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial triglyceridemia (PPL), influenced by diet, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Dietary fat elicits increased PPL in T2D...... compared with nondiabetic controls, but our knowledge of PPL responses to fat in REL is sparse. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that REL respond to a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) challenge with a higher PPL response compared with controls who have no family history of T2D (CON) and that MUFAs exert...

  3. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man. © 2011 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  5. Social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected first degree relatives and healthy controls. Comparison between groups and analysis of associated clinical and sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sosa, Juana Teresa; Gil Santiago, Hiurma; Trujillo Cubas, Angel; Winter Navarro, Marta; León Pérez, Petra; Guerra Cazorla, Luz Marina; Martín Jiménez, José María

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, healthy first-degree relatives and controls, by studying the relationship between social cognition and nonsocial cognition, psychopathology, and other clinical and sociodemographic variables. The total sample was comprised of patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (N = 29), healthy first-degree relatives (N = 21) and controls (N = 28). All groups were assessed with an ad hoc questionnaire and a Social Cognition Scale, which assessed the domains: emotional processing, social perception and attributional style in a Spanish population. The patient group was also assessed with the Scale for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Mini-mental state examination. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 15.0. Patients scored significantly worse in all domains of social cognition assessed, compared with controls, and mastery attributional style, compared with relatives. The type of psychopathology correlated negatively and statistically significantly with different domains of social cognition: negative symptoms with emotional processing and attributional style, and positive symptoms with social perception. Basic cognition scores correlated positively and statistically significantly with the domains social perception and attributional style. Social cognition has become an interesting object of study, especially in how it relates to non-social cognition, psychopathology and global functioning of patients, bringing new elements to be considered in the early detection, comprehensive treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of patients. Its conceptualization as trait variable, the consideration of the existence of a continuum between patients and relatives are plausible hypotheses that require further research. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Verification of the linearity of the new SIR using sources of 64Cu and 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michotte, Carine

    2012-02-01

    The linearity of the new SIR electronics has been verified by looking for deviations from the exponential decay for several 64 Cu and 99m Tc sources. Data analyses are compared with the half-life used as a fixed or free parameter. It is concluded that no significant non-linearity is observed in the new SIR. For comparison, the same method has been applied to analyse existing data from the original SIR. (author)

  7. Secretion of incretin hormones (GIP and GLP-1) and incretin effect after oral glucose in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Gabrys, Bartholomäus

    2004-01-01

    ) and an "isoglycaemic" intravenous glucose infusion. Blood was drawn over 240 min for plasma glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1; specific immunoassays). RESULTS: The pattern of glucose concentrations could precisely be copied by the intravenous glucose infusion (p=0......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Since insulin secretion in response to exogenous gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished not only in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also in their normal glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives, it was the aim to investigate the integrity of the entero-insular axis...... in such subjects. METHODS: Sixteen first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (4 male, 12 female, age 50+/-12 years, BMI 26.1+/-3.8 kg/m(2)) and 10 matched healthy controls (negative family history, 6 male, 4 female, 45+/-13 years, 26.1+/-4.2 kg/m(2)) were examined with an oral glucose load (75 g...

  8. Family history of cancer other than breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives is associated with poor breast cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Long; Chen, Chuang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Li, Juan-Juan; Sun, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    Whether a first-degree family history of others cancers (FHOC) than breast or ovarian cancer (BOC) is associated with breast cancer prognosis remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify this issue. Women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2010 to 2013 were included in the study. The demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were extracted. FHOC was considered positive for any patient who had a relative who had been diagnosed with cancer other than BOC. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated based on the date of diagnosis. DFS was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 434 breast cancer patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 61 (14.06%) had a positive FHOC in first-degree relatives. Patients with a positive FHOC tended to have HER2-positive breast cancer (p = 0.03). In the survival analysis, FHOC was associated with poor DFS in both univariate (HR = 2.21 (1.28-3.83), 95% CI: 1.28-3.83, p breast cancer patients with FHOC, especially in patients with luminal A subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum inflammatory markers in the elderly: are they useful in differentiating sepsis from SIRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Talebi-Taher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR, procalcitonin (PCT, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98% and negative predictive value (98.6% and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI. On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.

  10. SIRS score on admission and initial concentration of IL-6 as severe acute pancreatitis outcome predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Pavle; Pavle, Gregoric; Sijacki, Ana; Ana, Sijacki; Stankovic, Sanja; Sanja, Stankovic; Radenkovic, Dejan; Dejan, Radenkovic; Ivancevic, Nenad; Nenad, Ivancevic; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Aleksandar, Karamarkovic; Popovic, Nada; Nada, Popovic; Karadzic, Borivoje; Borivoje, Karadzic; Stijak, Lazar; Stefanovic, Branislav; Branislav, Stefanovic; Milosevic, Zoran; Zoran, Milosević; Bajec, Djordje; Djordje, Bajec

    2010-01-01

    Early recognition of severe form of acute pancreatitis is important because these patients need more agressive diagnostic and therapeutical approach an can develope systemic complications such as: sepsis, coagulopathy, Acute Lung Injury (ALI), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS), Multiple Organ Failure (MOF). To determine role of the combination of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score and serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) level on admission as predictor of illness severity and outcome of Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). We evaluated 234 patients with first onset of SAP appears in last twenty four hours. A total of 77 (33%) patients died. SIRS score and serum IL-6 concentration were measured in first hour after admission. In 105 patients with SIRS score 3 and higher, initial measured IL-6 levels were significantly higher than in the group of remaining 129 patients (72 +/- 67 pg/mL, vs 18 +/- 15 pg/mL). All nonsurvivals were in the first group, with SIRS score 3 and 4 and initial IL-6 concentration 113 +/- 27 pg/mL. The values of C-reactive Protein (CRP) measured after 48h, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score on admission and Ranson score showed the similar correlation, but serum amylase level did not correlate significantly with Ranson score, IL-6 concentration and APACHE II score. The combination of SIRS score on admission and IL-6 serum concentration can be early, predictor of illness severity and outcome in SAP.

  11. Sir William Osler's perceptions of urolithiasis and the case of the indigo calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E; Das, Sakti; Rosenberg, Stuart A

    2005-12-01

    Sir William Osler published his textbook, The Principles and Practice of Medicine, in 1892. It became the definitive treatise on a wide variety of diseases. The section on nephrolithiasis clearly presents the etiology, pathology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments. What remains a mystery is the mention, under rare forms of human stones, of a type called "indigo." A search of Index Medicus starting from 1909 backward to its inception in 1879 was performed for key words "indigo," "calculus," "renal" or "bladder stones" and "indicanuria." Twelve textbooks of urology published before 1940 were scrutinized for references to indigo calculi. Only two references to indigo were found, both related to its use for treating constipation (1887 and 1891). Of the 12 textbooks, only 4 make passing reference to "indigo stones." They all mention that such calculi are very rare, but direct references to cases are lacking. One textbook references a study of blue stones from Egyptian mummies. It is unlikely that Osler's reference to an indigo calculus was taken lightly during his writing of The Principles and Practice of Medicine. The case of the indigo calculus is fascinating and perhaps enlightening if only for the source of Osler's intrigue.

  12. SirT1—A Sensor for Monitoring Self-Renewal and Aging Process in Retinal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Peng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinal stem cells bear potency of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into many retinal cells. Utilizing appropriate sensors one can effectively detect the self-renewal and aging process abilities. Silencing information regulator (SirT1, a member of the sirtuin family, is a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase and an essential mediator for longevity in normal cells by calorie restriction. We firstly investigate the SirT1 mRNA expression in retinal stem cells from rats and 19 human eyes of different ages. Results revealed that SirT1 expression was significantly decreased in in vivo aged eyes, associated with poor self-renewal abilities. Additionally, SirT1 mRNA levels were dose-dependently increased in resveratrol- treated retinal stem cells. The expression of SirT1 on oxidative stress-induced damage was significantly decreased, negatively correlated with the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with resveratrol could effectively further reduce oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment in retinal stem cells. Importantly, the anti-oxidant effects of resveratrol in H2O2-treated retinal stem cells were significantly abolished by knockdown of SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1. SirT1 expression provides a feasible sensor in assessing self-renewal and aging process in retinal stem cells. Resveratrol can prevent reactive oxygen species-induced damages via increased retinal SirT1 expression.

  13. Prefrontal cortex connectivity dysfunction in performing the Fist–Edge–Palm task in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and non-psychotic first-degree relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C.K. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological soft signs have been considered one of the promising neurological endophenotypes for schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have employed clinical rating data only. The present study aimed to examine the neurobiological basis of one of the typical motor coordination signs, the Fist–Edge–Palm (FEP task, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their non-psychotic first degree relatives. Thirteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 14 non-psychotic first-degree relatives and 14 healthy controls were recruited. All of them were instructed to perform the FEP task in a 3 T GE Machine. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis was used to evaluate the functional connectivity between the sensorimotor cortex and frontal regions when participants performed the FEP task compared to simple motor tasks. In the contrast of palm-tapping (PT vs. rest, activation of the left frontal–parietal region was lowest in the schizophrenia group, intermediate in the relative group and highest in the healthy control group. In the contrast of FEP vs. PT, patients with schizophrenia did not show areas of significant activation, while relatives and healthy controls showed significant activation of the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, with the increase in task complexity, significant functional connectivity was observed between the sensorimotor cortex and the right frontal gyrus in healthy controls but not in patients with first episode schizophrenia. These findings suggest that activity of the left frontal–parietal and frontal regions may be neurofunctional correlates of neurological soft signs, which in turn may be a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. Moreover, the right frontal gyrus may play a specific role in the execution of the FEP task in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  14. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: Effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods: Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert

  15. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: Effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert

  16. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Wieke H.; de Wit, Maartje; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Nierkens, Vera; Stronks, Karien; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.; Snoek, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert intervention (N=45) or

  17. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. Predicting changes in reported notifiable disease rates for New Zealand using a SIR modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Graham; Slaney, David; Tait, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The New Zealand health system has defined as 'notifiable' over 50 diseases. Of these campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported comprising 41% of all notifications in 2011 (presently about 150 illness cases per 100,000 population per annum). Furthermore, the incidence of this mild illness, which is potentially waterborne, is under-reported by at least an order-of-magnitude. Increased downstream pathogen loads and/or disease incidence have been found to be associated with increased rainfall, particularly in agricultural landscapes. Therefore, given the predominance of agricultural land uses in New Zealand, transmission and exposure to its agent (thermotolerant Campylobacter bacteria) may be affected by changing rainfall and temperature patterns associated with climate change. Reporting rates for other potentially water-borne zoonoses are also noticeable (for example, the reported rate for cryptosporidiosis for 2011 was 14 per 100,000 population). The distribution of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment may be influenced by climate change because it has often been implicated in drinking-water contamination, and heavy rainfall events have been found to be associated with increased pathogen loads in rivers and disease incidence. Given this background, which may also be applicable to other countries with agriculturally-dominated landscapes, a New Zealand study was initiated to develop a decision-support system for the projected effects of climate change on a selected suite of environmentally-transmitted pathogens, including Campylobacter and Cryptosporodium oocysts. Herein we report on the manner in which a linear SIR (Susceptible-Ill-Recovered) model previously developed for campylobacteriosis can be extended to cryptosporidiosis, applied to changes in pathogen contact rate and hence reported illness, and coupled to climate change projections associated with different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The resulting SIR model outputs provided projected

  19. Sex and laterality differences in parkinsonian impairment and transcranial ultrasound in never-treated schizophrenics and their first degree relatives in an Andean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Transcranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Delineation of major geologic structures in Turkey using SIR-B data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P.; Gulen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images of well mapped segments of major faults, such as the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF) will be studied to identify the prominent signatures that characterize the fault zones for those specific regions. The information will be used to delineate the unmapped fault zones in areas with similar geological and geomorphological properties. The data obtained from SIR-B images will be compared and correlated with the LANDSAT thematic mapper and seismicity alignments based on well constrained earthquake epicenters.

  1. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P groups. Adipose tissue GU was not affected by training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P ...- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.......Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...

  2. A randomized trial of the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gade, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The effect of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) on healthy individuals remains unclear. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (FDRs). A total of 80...... was the standardized mean of 13 test measures. Mean change in the general cognition score was not significantly increased with escitalopram compared with placebo (p = 0.37) or for any of the specific tests. In univariate analyses no statistically significant correlations were found between change in the general...... cognitive score and the variables age, sex, Hamilton depression score 17 items, Danish Adult Reading Test-45, and plasma escitalopram levels, respectively. These results suggest that treatment with escitalopram does not improve or impair cognitive function in FDRs. Improvement in cognitive function...

  3. To determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Vimplis, S; Sharma, A; Eid, N; Atiomo, W

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (type II DM). In a cross-sectional study, 60 women with PCOS and 112 controls were given a questionnaire. The prevalence of heart disease, stroke, diabetes and associated risk factors among fathers and brothers of women with PCOS and controls, were measured. The percentage of women with PCOS with at least one brother with a risk factor for CVD was 47.5%, around twice that seen in control women (24.71%). The prevalence of heart disease, stroke and diabetes were similar in brothers of women with PCOS and controls. In conclusion, brothers of women with PCOS may be at increased risk of CVD. They form an easily identified group, which can be targeted for primary prevention.

  4. DiAlert: a prevention program for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: results of a pilot study to test feasibility and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Wieke H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing due to lifestyle changes, particularly affecting those genetically at risk. We developed DiAlert as a targeted group-based intervention aimed to promote intrinsic motivation and action planning for lifestyle changes and weight loss in first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The main objective of the pilot of the DiAlert intervention was to assess fidelity, feasibility and acceptability prior to starting the randomized controlled trial. Methods Individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus were self-identified and screened for eligibility. DiAlert consists of two group sessions. Feasibility, fidelity, acceptability and self-reported perceptions and behavioral determinants were evaluated in a pre-post study using questionnaires and observations. Determinants of behavior change were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results DiAlert was delivered to two groups of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 9 and N = 12. Feasibility and fidelity were confirmed. Overall, the DiAlert group sessions were positively evaluated (8.0 on a scale of 1 to 10 by participants. The intervention did not impact perceived susceptibility or worry about personal diabetes risk. Action planning with regard to changing diet and physical activity increased. Conclusions DiAlert proved feasible and was well-accepted by participants. Positive trends in action planning indicate increased likelihood of actual behavior change following DiAlert. Testing the effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial is imperative. Trial registration Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR: NTR2036

  5. Effect of Chronic Escitalopram versus Placebo on Personality Traits in Healthy First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Depression: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gether, Ulrik; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD). Methods The trial used a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group design. We examined the effect of four weeks escitalopram 10 mg daily versus matching placebo on personality in 80 people who had a biological parent or sibling with a history of MD. The outcome measure on personality traits was change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ) from entry until end of four weeks of intervention. Results When compared with placebo, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported NEO-PI-R and EPQ neuroticism and extroversion, EPQ psychoticism, NEO-PI-R openness, or NEO-PI-R conscientiousness (p all above 0.05). However, escitalopram increased NEO-PI-R agreeableness scores significantly compared with placebo (mean; SD) (2.38; 8.09) versus (−1.32; 7.94), p = 0.046), but not following correction for multiplicity. A trend was shown for increased conscientiousness (p = 0.07). There was no significant effect on subclinical depressive symptoms (p = 0.6). Conclusion In healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MD, there is no effect of escitalopram on neuroticism, but it is possible that escitalopram may increase the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00386841

  6. Towards personalized screening: Cumulative risk of breast cancer screening outcomes in women with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora Maria; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Otten, Johannes D M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2016-04-01

    Several reviews have estimated the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic screening in the general population. The balance may, however, differ between individuals with and without family history. Therefore, our aim is to assess the cumulative risk of screening outcomes; screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer, and false-positive results, in women screenees aged 50-75 and 40-75, with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer at the start of screening. Data on screening attendance, recall and breast cancer detection were collected for each woman living in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) since 1975. We used a discrete time survival model to calculate the cumulative probability of each major screening outcome over 19 screening rounds. Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher risk of all screening outcomes. For women screened from age 50-75, the cumulative risk of screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer and false-positive results were 9.0, 4.4 and 11.1% for women with a family history and 6.3, 2.7 and 7.3% for women without a family history, respectively. The results for women 40-75 followed the same pattern for women screened 50-75 for cancer outcomes, but were almost doubled for false-positive results. To conclude, women with a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer are more likely to experience benefits and harms of screening than women without a family history. To complete the balance and provide risk-based screening recommendations, the breast cancer mortality reduction and overdiagnosis should be estimated for family history subgroups. © 2015 UICC.

  7. SIR dynamics in structured populations with heterogeneous connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Volz, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Most epidemic models assume equal mixing among members of a population. An alternative approach is to model a population as random network in which individuals may have heterogeneous connectivity. This paper builds on previous research by describing the exact dynamical behavior of epidemics as they occur in random networks. A system of nonlinear differential equations is presented which describes the behavior of epidemics spreading through random networks with arbitrary degree distributions. ...

  8. Impairment of Working Memory, Decision-making, and Executive Function in the First-Degree Relatives of People with Panic Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPanic disorder (PD patients present impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. However, whether the first-degree relatives (FDRs of people with PD present abnormal characteristics, including clinical and neuropsychological aspects, in comparison to the general population, has not been studied. Investigation and understanding of the abnormal neuropsychological characteristics of the FDRs of people with PD will contribute to the prevention and treatment of PD.ObjectiveThe purpose of this paper is to compare the working memory, decision-making, and executive function among people with PD, their FDRs, and controls.Materials and methodsNeuropsychological functions of 30 people with PD, 30 FDRs of people with PD, and 30 controls were measured with a digit span task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST.ResultsPerseverative errors, failure to maintain set scores, and number of cards chosen from decks A, B, C, and D were higher for People with PD and their FDRs than those of controls. Furthermore, error rates for these tests were higher for people with PD than their FDRs. Forward scores and backward scores, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, choices from advantageous minus disadvantageous decks, and mean amount of money earned of people with PD and their FDRs were all lower than those of controls. Scores for these tests were also lower for people with PD than for their FDRs.ConclusionPeople with PD as well as their FDRs present different degrees of impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. Impaired performance on three tasks appears to be associated with the diathesis for PD and may be a valuable indicator of susceptibility for this disorder.

  9. Cardiac involvement in female Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy carriers in comparison to their first-degree male relatives: a comparative cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Anca; Rösch, Sabine; Bietenbeck, Michael; Engelen, Markus; Stypmann, Jörg; Waltenberger, Johannes; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies are X-linked recessive disorders associated with both skeletal myopathy and progressive cardiomyopathy in males. Female DMD/BMD carriers (DMDc/BMDc) are mostly free of skeletal muscle symptoms, but they are also prone to cardiomyopathy. The aim of the current study was to characterize the frequency, pattern, and extent of cardiomyopathy in female DMD/BMD carriers (DMDc/BMDc) in comparison to their first-degree male MD relatives. Thirty-six (age 44 ± 14 years) female MD carriers (20 DMDc and 16 BMDc) constituted the 'MD carrier group' and were prospectively enrolled. All MD carriers underwent a complete CMR study comprising cine- and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. In 22 of these women ('female MD carrier comparison group', 7 DMD and 15 BMD), at least one first-degree male relative with a previously established diagnosis of MD underwent the same CMR protocol and was assigned to the 'male MD comparison group' (n = 24, 6 DMD and 18 BMD). In the total MD carrier group, 17 (47%) MD carriers had at least one pathological CMR finding [5 (14%) with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) and 16 (44%) with the presence of LGE]. All LGE-positive patients (n = 16) showed non-ischaemic LGE with subepicardial involvement of the LV lateral free wall being the most frequent pattern (13/16, 81%). Compared with BMDc, DMDc demonstrated more frequently a pathological CMR result (65 vs. 19%; P = 0.008)--in spite of being significantly younger (40 ± 11 vs. 50 ± 16 years, P = 0.038). In the male MD comparison group, the same LGE pattern as in female carriers was seen, but with a significantly higher prevalence of cardiac abnormalities compared with their female carrier relatives constituting the female MD comparison group (75 vs. 27%; P = 0.003). Cardiac involvement is a frequent finding in female carriers of DMD, but less frequently observed in carriers of BMD. Those DMDc and BMDc with cardiac involvement

  10. Threshold Dynamics of a Stochastic SIR Model with Vertical Transmission and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Anqi; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tongqian; Pradeep, B. G. Sampath Aruna

    2017-01-01

    A stochastic SIR model with vertical transmission and vaccination is proposed and investigated in this paper. The threshold dynamics are explored when the noise is small. The conditions for the extinction or persistence of infectious diseases are deduced. Our results show that large noise can lead to the extinction of infectious diseases which is conducive to epidemic diseases control.

  11. The Threshold of a Stochastic SIRS Model with Vertical Transmission and Saturated Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The threshold of a stochastic SIRS model with vertical transmission and saturated incidence is investigated. If the noise is small, it is shown that the threshold of the stochastic system determines the extinction and persistence of the epidemic. In addition, we find that if the noise is large, the epidemic still prevails. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the results.

  12. Threshold Dynamics of a Stochastic SIR Model with Vertical Transmission and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anqi Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic SIR model with vertical transmission and vaccination is proposed and investigated in this paper. The threshold dynamics are explored when the noise is small. The conditions for the extinction or persistence of infectious diseases are deduced. Our results show that large noise can lead to the extinction of infectious diseases which is conducive to epidemic diseases control.

  13. Lyapunov functions and global stability for SIR and SEIR models with age-dependent susceptibility

    KAUST Repository

    Korobeinikov, Andrei; Melnik, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.

  14. A Possible Source For Sir Thomas More’s ‘Mountainish Inhumanity’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Shakespeare’s authorship of a scene in Sir Thomas More has been established as highly probable on the basis of an analysis of the handwriting, vocabulary, and collocations stylistics. His addition to the play was long believed to have been written soon after publication of the original play, in

  15. Mammalian Sir2 homolog SIRT3 regulates global mitochondrial lysine acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, David B; Alt, Frederick W; Cheng, Hwei-Ling

    2007-01-01

    Homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein, sirtuins, promote longevity in many organisms. Studies of the sirtuin SIRT3 have so far been limited to cell culture systems. Here, we investigate the localization and function of SIRT3 in vivo. We show that endogenous mouse SIRT3 is a solubl...

  16. Application of Homotopy Perturbation and Variational Iteration Methods to SIR Epidemic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M.

    2011-01-01

    effective strategy against childhood diseases, the development of the framework that would predict the optimal vaccine coverage level needed to prevent the spread of diseases is crucial. The SIR model is a standard compartmental model that has been used to describe many epidemiological diseases...

  17. 90Sr content in 90Y-labeled SIR-spheres and Zevalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metyko, John; Erwin, William; Poston, John; Jimenez, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Three different 90Y internally administered radionuclide therapies are currently used in both standard-of-care and clinical trial procedures atMD Anderson Cancer Center. TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres therapies utilize 90Y-labeled microspheres, while Zevalin is an 90Y-labeled radioimmunotherapeutic agent. Several publications have indicated radionuclidic impurities resulting from 90Y production methods. The 90Y in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin are produced from a 90Sr/90Y generator, which leaves measurable quantities of 90Sr in the final product. TheraSphere 90Y is produced in a nuclear reactor which results in a large number of impurities, most notably 88Y and 91Y. Product information sheets reference these impurities with specific limits given. These limits represent a tiny fraction of the total product activity, and in the case of TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres gamma-emitting impurities, this has been verified in the literature. An analysis of 90Sr impurities in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin is presented in this paper. Impurity quantities were found to be within the vendors’ documented limits.

  18. Prediction of Neurocognitive Deficits by Parkinsonian Motor Impairment in Schizophrenia: A Study in Neuroleptic-Naïve Subjects, Unaffected First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls From an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; González Alemán, Gabriela; Florenzano, Néstor; Padilla, Eduardo; Calvó, María; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Toranzo, Juan; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Hernández Cuervo, Helena; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Sedó, Manuel; Strejilevich, Sergio; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Escobar, Javier I; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2016-11-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are among the most debilitating and pervasive symptoms of schizophrenia, and are present also in unaffected first-degree relatives. Also, multiple reports reveal parkisonian motor deficits in untreated subjects with schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of affected subjects. Yet, the relation between motor and cognitive impairment and its value as a classifier of endophenotypes has not been studied. To test the efficacy of midbrain hyperechogenicity (MHE) and parkinsonian motor impairment (PKM) as predictors of neurocognitive impairment in subjects with or at risk for schizophrenia, that could be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Seventy-six subjects with chronic schizophrenia never exposed to antipsychotic medication, 106 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 62 healthy controls were blindly assessed for cognitive and motor function, and transcranial ultrasound. Executive function, fluid intelligence, motor planning, and hand coordination showed group differences. PKM and MHE were significantly higher in untreated schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Unaffected relatives showed milder impairment, but were different from controls. PKM and MHE predict cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives and may be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Fructose overfeeding in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients impacts energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyssel, Kevin; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Lê, Kim-Anne; Durand, Christine; Disse, Emmanuel; Blond, Emilie; Pays, Laurent; Nataf, Serge; Brozek, John; Vidal, Hubert; Tappy, Luc; Laville, Martine

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a high-fructose diet (HFrD) on skeletal muscle transcriptomic response in healthy offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes, a subgroup of individuals prone to metabolic disorders. Ten healthy normal weight first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients were submitted to a HFrD (+3.5 g fructose/kg fat-free mass per day) during 7 days. A global transcriptomic analysis was performed on skeletal muscle biopsies combined with in vitro experiments using primary myotubes. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted profound effects on fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial pathways supporting the whole-body metabolic shift with the preferential use of carbohydrates instead of lipids. Bioinformatics tools pointed out possible transcription factors orchestrating this genomic regulation, such as PPARα and NR4A2. In vitro experiments in human myotubes suggested an indirect action of fructose in skeletal muscle, which seemed to be independent from lactate, uric acid, or nitric oxide. This study shows therefore that a large cluster of genes related to energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, and lipid oxidation was downregulated after 7 days of HFrD, thus supporting the concept that overconsumption of fructose-containing foods could contribute to metabolic deterioration in humans. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. C. elegans SIRT6/7 homolog SIR-2.4 promotes DAF-16 relocalization and function during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wei-Chung; Tishkoff, Daniel X; Yang, Bo; Wilson-Grady, Joshua; Yu, Xiaokun; Mazer, Travis; Eckersdorff, Mark; Gygi, Steven P; Lombard, David B; Hsu, Ao-Lin

    2012-09-01

    FoxO transcription factors and sirtuin family deacetylases regulate diverse biological processes, including stress responses and longevity. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans sirtuin SIR-2.4--homolog of mammalian SIRT6 and SIRT7 proteins--promotes DAF-16-dependent transcription and stress-induced DAF-16 nuclear localization. SIR-2.4 is required for resistance to multiple stressors: heat shock, oxidative insult, and proteotoxicity. By contrast, SIR-2.4 is largely dispensable for DAF-16 nuclear localization and function in response to reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. Although acetylation is known to regulate localization and activity of mammalian FoxO proteins, this modification has not been previously described on DAF-16. We find that DAF-16 is hyperacetylated in sir-2.4 mutants. Conversely, DAF-16 is acetylated by the acetyltransferase CBP-1, and DAF-16 is hypoacetylated and constitutively nuclear in response to cbp-1 inhibition. Surprisingly, a SIR-2.4 catalytic mutant efficiently rescues the DAF-16 localization defect in sir-2.4 null animals. Acetylation of DAF-16 by CBP-1 in vitro is inhibited by either wild-type or mutant SIR-2.4, suggesting that SIR-2.4 regulates DAF-16 acetylation indirectly, by preventing CBP-1-mediated acetylation under stress conditions. Taken together, our results identify SIR-2.4 as a critical regulator of DAF-16 specifically in the context of stress responses. Furthermore, they reveal a novel role for acetylation, modulated by the antagonistic activities of CBP-1 and SIR-2.4, in modulating DAF-16 localization and function.

  1. SIRS Digues 2.0: A Cooperative Software For Levees Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moins Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SIRS Digues is a computing tool that makes informations on levees more durable and accessible in order to enhance their management. The first version of the software, which was IRSTEA’s initiative, was deployed in 2004. The second version was released in 2015. This article aims at pointing out the innovative aspects of this last version. They concern thematic and functionalities, computing technics and architecture, and last but not least, the business model chosen in order to build a long lasting software. The software’s kernel is sketched to propose a general description of levees: it focuses on description of the levees and linked objects, on disorders that affects them, on works... Most of these topics were already broached by the first version. The kernel of the version 2 may be extended using optional thematic modules. These modules concern: vegetation monitoring, reporting (in coherence with current French regulatory requirements, riverbanks, riverbed... Main functionnalities perfomed by SIRS Digues V1 and V2 are : data structuring and centralisation, quick access to relevant data, reporting and mapping, etc. SIRS Digues 2.0 updates and improves already existing functionalities of the first version. SIRS Digues V2 relies on an documentoriented NoSQL database, CouchDB, and on geospatial libraries, Geotoolkit and Apache-SIS. SIRS Digues V2 was released with a copyleft license. Copyrights belong to the French levees managers’ society, “France Digues”, which acts as a cooperative. Members put their heads together in order to gather their financial capacities and fund software development. France Digues has got the technical and thematic expertise and supply various services to the members. This business model aims to ensure accessibility, durability and adaptability of the software.

  2. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa M; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2012-05-25

    Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995) who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  3. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  4. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar G

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade.Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants.Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  5. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C) promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Rajesh Kumar; K, Mrudula Spurthi; G, Kishore Kumar; Kurapati, Mohanalatha; M, Saraswati; T, Mohini Aiyengar; P, Chiranjeevi; G, Srilatha Reddy; S, Nivas; P, Kaushik; K, Sanjib Sahu; H, Surekha Rani

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS) with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP) is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C) by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C) polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants. Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C) polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  6. Reward anticipation revisited- evidence from an fMRI study in euthymic bipolar I patients and healthy first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Bianca; Scholz, Vanessa; Linke, Julia; Kirsch, Peter; Wessa, Michèle

    2017-09-01

    Symptomatic phases in bipolar disorder (BD) are hypothesized to result from a hypersensitive behavioral activation system (BAS) being sensitive to potential rewards. However, studies on the neuronal underpinnings of reward anticipation in BD are scarce with contradictory findings and possibly confounded by effects of dopaminergic medication, necessitating further research on dysfunctional motivation in BD. Moreover, its role as vulnerability marker for BD is unclear. Functional imaging was conducted in 16 euthymic BD-I patients free from dopaminergic medication and 19 healthy first-degree relatives using a monetary incentive delay task and compared to parallelized control groups. Further, reward proneness, using the BIS/BAS questionnaire, and its relationship to neural reward anticipation was investigated. BD-I patients displayed greater anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity during reward anticipation and higher BIS total scores compared to controls, with a positive relationship between the two measures. There were no neural or self-report group differences between relatives and controls. Due to the experimental design, the role of the ACC during receipt of reward remains unknown, sample sizes were rather small, and patients were not naïve to dopaminergic drugs, making an exclusion of medication effects on findings impossible. Our findings give new insights on reward anticipation in BD. BD-I patients rated themselves as more risk avoidant and showed larger recruitment of the ACC rather than ventral striatum compared to controls during reward anticipation, possibly to down-regulate hyperactive limbic reward regions. This activation seems to be a consequence of rather than a vulnerability marker for the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-aggregation of major psychiatric disorders in individuals with first-degree relatives with schizophrenia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-M; Chang, W-H; Chen, M-H; Tsai, C-F; Su, T-P; Li, C-T; Tsai, S-J; Hsu, J-W; Huang, K-L; Lin, W-C; Chen, T-J; Bai, Y-M

    2017-11-07

    A previous genetic study has suggested that schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common disease-associated genes. However, whether individuals with first-degree relatives (FDRs) with schizophrenia have a higher risk of these major psychiatric disorders requires further investigation. This study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and identified 151 650 patients with schizophrenia and 227 967 individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia. The relative risks (RRs) of schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders were assessed in individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia. The individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia exhibited higher RRs (95% confidence interval) of major psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia (4.76, 4.65-4.88), bipolar disorder (3.23, 3.12-3.35), major depressive disorder (2.05, 2.00-2.10), ASD (2.55, 2.35-2.77) and ADHD (1.31, 1.25-1.37) than were found in the total population. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm these results. A dose-dependent relationship was observed between the risks of major psychiatric disorders and the numbers of FDRs with schizophrenia. The increased risks of major psychiatric disorders were consistent in different family relationships, namely among parents, offspring, siblings and twins. Our study supports the familial dose-dependent co-aggregation of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, ASD and ADHD, and our results may prompt governmental public health departments and psychiatrists to focus on the mental health of individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 7 November 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.217.

  8. SirT1 confers hypoxia-induced radioresistance via the modulation of c-Myc stabilization on hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yuexia; Zhang Jianghong; Shao Chunlin; Xu Yanwu

    2012-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is an important contributory factor to tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy. SirT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has been linked to the decrease of radiation-induced DNA damage and seems to be critical for cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of SirT1 in hypoxia-induced radiation response on hepatoma cells. It was found that the administration with resveratrol, a putative SirT1 activator, enhanced the resistance of HepG2 cells against radiation-induced DNA damage of MN formation under hypoxia condition; while nicotinamide, a well-known SirT1 inhibitor, sensitized this radiation damage. Nevertheless, pretreatment of cells with 10058-F4, a specific inhibitor of c-Myc, almost eliminated the nicotinamide-induced radiosensitive effect. Further studies revealed that resveratrol inhibited c-Myc protein accumulation via up-regulation of SirT1 expression and deacetylase activity, and this loss of c-Myc protein was abolished by inhibiting its degradation in the presence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteasome. In contrast, nicotinamide attenuated c-Myc protein degradation induced by radiation under hypoxia through inhibition of SirT1 deacetylase activity. Our findings suggest that SirT1 could serve as a novel potent target of radiation-induced DNA damage and thus as a potential strategy to advance the efficiency of radiation therapy in hepatoma entities. (author)

  9. Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 to control CLB2 transcription under normal and oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLinke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Forkhead box family of transcription factors is evolutionary conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes and its members are involved in many physiological processes including metabolism, DNA repair, cell cycle, stress resistance, apoptosis and aging. In budding yeast, four Forkhead transcription factors were identified, namely Fkh1, Fkh2, Fhl1, and Hcm1, which are implicated in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation and stress response. These factors impinge transcriptional regulation during cell cycle progression, and histone deacetylases play an essential role in this process, e.g. the nuclear localisation of Hcm1 depends on Sir2 activity, whereas Sin3/Rpd3 silence cell cycle specific gene transcription in G2/M phase. However, a direct involvement of Sir2 in Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent regulation of target genes is at present unknown. Here, we show that Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 in G1 and M phase, and that Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated activation of reporter genes is antagonized by Sir2. We further report that Sir2 overexpression strongly affects cell growth in an Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent manner. In addition, Sir2 regulates the expression of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 through Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated binding to the CLB2 promoter in G1 and M phase. We finally demonstrate that Sir2 is also enriched at the CLB2 promoter under stress conditions, and that the nuclear localization of Sir2 is dependent on Fkh1 and Fkh2. Taken together, our results show a functional interplay between Fkh1/Fkh2 and Sir2 suggesting a novel mechanism of cell cycle repression. Thus, in budding yeast, not only the regulation of G2/M gene expression but also the protective response against stress could be directly coordinated by Fkh1 and Fkh2.

  10. Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, G M; Trude, A C B; Kharmats, A Y; Martins, P A

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08-5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88). The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Risk First Degree Relatives of Type 1 Diabetics: An Association with Increases in CXCR3+ T Memory Cells Reflecting an Enhanced Activity of Th1 Autoimmune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Milicic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the level of (a CXCR3+ (Th1 and CCR4+ (Th2 T memory cells (b interferon-γ inducible chemokine (IP-10(Th1 and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC(Th2, in 51 first degree relatives (FDRs of type 1 diabetics (T1D (17 high risk FDRs (GADA+, IA-2+ and 34 low risk FDRs (GADA−, IA-2−, 24 recent-onset T1D (R-T1D, and 18 healthy subjects. T memory subsets were analyzed by using four-color immunofluorescence staining and flowcytometry. IP-10 and TARC were determined by ELISA. High risk FDRs showed higher levels of CXCR3+ and lower level of CCR4+ T memory cells compared to low risk FDRs (64.98 ± 5.19 versus 42.13 ± 11.11; 29.46 ± 2.83 versus 41.90 ± 8.58%, resp., P<0.001. Simultaneously, both IP-10 and TARC levels were increased in high risk versus low risk FDRs (160.12 ± 73.40 versus 105.39 ± 71.30; 438.83 ± 120.62 versus 312.04 ± 151.14 pg/mL, P<0.05. Binary logistic regression analysis identified the level of CXCR3+ T memory cells as predictors for high risk FDRs, together with high levels of IP-10. The results imply that, in FDRs, the risk for T1D might be strongly influenced by enhanced activity of Th1 and diminished activity of Th2 autoimmune response.

  12. Structural and Functional Changes in the Tight Junctions of Asymptomatic and Serology-negative First-degree Relatives of Patients With Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asha; Prakash, Shyam; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Das, Taposh K; Ahuja, Vineet; Gupta, Siddhartha D; Makharia, Govind K

    2016-08-01

    Ten to 15% of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of celiac disease (CeD) patients develop CeD. Although intestinal barrier functions (intestinal permeability) are abnormal in the subset of serology-negative FDRs, what leads to the abnormal barrier function is not known. To study the ultrastructure and functions of tight junctions in serology-negative FDRs of CeD patients. The intestinal permeability was measured in 97 asymptomatic and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG Ab)-negative FDRs (using the lactulose mannitol ratio) and in 75 controls. The ultrastructure of tight junctions using transmission electron microscopy, and the expression of key tight junction proteins (claudin-2, claudin-3, occludin, JAM-A, and ZO-1) and zonulin using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were assessed in anti-tTG Ab-negative, HLA-DQ2/-DQ8-positive FDRs having normal villi and in disease controls. In addition, the serum zonulin level was measured in 172 anti-tTG Ab-negative FDRs and 198 controls. The intestinal permeability was significantly increased in FDRs than in controls. Ultrastructural abnormalities such as dilatation of the tight junction (P=0.004) and loss of the pentalaminar structure (P=0.001) were more common in FDRs than in disease controls. There was significant underexpression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 (P=0.040) and occludin (P=0.041) in FDRs. There was no significant difference in the serum zonulin level between FDRs and controls (P=0.154). Even asymptomatic, anti-tTG-Ab-negative FDRs with a normal villous histology have both ultrastructural and functional abnormalities in tight junctions. These findings are indirect evidence of the presence of tight junction abnormalities before the onset of the disease and may have therapeutic implications.

  13. Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krushna Pal

    Full Text Available Though cardiovascular (CV risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI with CV risks in these subjects.Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate-pressure product (RPP, spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72 and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104.BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in study group compared to the control group. SVI in study group was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was significant correlation and independent contribution of markers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and OS to LF-HF ratio. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated an independent contribution of LF-HF ratio to prehypertension status (standardized beta 0.415, p<0.001 and bivariate logistic-regression showed significant prediction (OR 2.40, CI 1.128-5.326, p = 0.002 of LF-HF ratio of HRV to increased RPP, the marker of CV risk, in study group.SVI in FDR of type 2 diabetics occurs due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. The SVI contributes to prehypertension status and CV risks caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.

  14. Le continent noir du désir masculin : Colet et Flaubert, encore

    OpenAIRE

    Vinken, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Il y a peu d’échanges de lettres qui surprennent le lecteur aussi douloureusement que celui entre Louise Colet et Gustave Flaubert. Rarement, l’espoir qui sommeille au fond de tout lecteur d’une histoire d’amour heureux fut à ce point frustré.Les études de Freud – un des plus grands sceptiques en matière d’amour – sur la vie sexuelle éclairent les vicissitudes du désir amoureux masculin. Les Lettres de Flaubert à Colet sont la mise en scène dramatique d’un désir qui suit les complications du ...

  15. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  16. Mutations that Allow SIR2 Orthologs to Function in a NAD+-Depleted Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracek, Caitlin R; Frappier, Vincent; Ringel, Alison E; Wolberger, Cynthia; Guarente, Leonard

    2017-03-07

    Sirtuin enzymes depend on NAD + to catalyze protein deacetylation. Therefore, the lowering of NAD + during aging leads to decreased sirtuin activity and may speed up aging processes in laboratory animals and humans. In this study, we used a genetic screen to identify two mutations in the catalytic domain of yeast Sir2 that allow the enzyme to function in an NAD + -depleted environment. These mutant enzymes give rise to a significant increase of yeast replicative lifespan and increase deacetylation by the Sir2 ortholog, SIRT1, in mammalian cells. Our data suggest that these mutations increase the stability of the conserved catalytic sirtuin domain, thereby increasing the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes. Our approach to identifying sirtuin mutants that permit function in NAD + -limited environments may inform the design of small molecules that can maintain sirtuin activity in aging organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  18. Heuristic Relative Entropy Principles with Complex Measures: Large-Degree Asymptotics of a Family of Multi-variate Normal Random Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Michael Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-01

    Let z\\in C, let σ ^2>0 be a variance, and for N\\in N define the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) := {1/σ } \\int _R\\ (x^2+z^2) e^{-{1/2σ^2 x^2}}{√{2π }}/dx \\quad if N=1, {1/σ } \\int _{R^N} \\prod \\prod \\limits _{1≤ k1. These are expected values of the polynomials P_N^{}(z)=\\prod _{1≤ n≤ N}(X_n^2+z^2) whose 2 N zeros ± i X_k^{}_{k=1,\\ldots ,N} are generated by N identically distributed multi-variate mean-zero normal random variables {X_k}N_{k=1} with co-variance {Cov}_N^{}(X_k,X_l)=(1+σ ^2-1/N)δ _{k,l}+σ ^2-1/N(1-δ _{k,l}). The E_N^{}(z;σ ) are polynomials in z^2, explicitly computable for arbitrary N, yet a list of the first three E_N^{}(z;σ ) shows that the expressions become unwieldy already for moderate N—unless σ = 1, in which case E_N^{}(z;1) = (1+z^2)^N for all z\\in C and N\\in N. (Incidentally, commonly available computer algebra evaluates the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) only for N up to a dozen, due to memory constraints). Asymptotic evaluations are needed for the large- N regime. For general complex z these have traditionally been limited to analytic expansion techniques; several rigorous results are proved for complex z near 0. Yet if z\\in R one can also compute this "infinite-degree" limit with the help of the familiar relative entropy principle for probability measures; a rigorous proof of this fact is supplied. Computer algebra-generated evidence is presented in support of a conjecture that a generalization of the relative entropy principle to signed or complex measures governs the N→ ∞ asymptotics of the regime iz\\in R. Potential generalizations, in particular to point vortex ensembles and the prescribed Gauss curvature problem, and to random matrix ensembles, are emphasized.

  19. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Chen, Qingmei; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the asymptotic properties of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity. Sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic are established. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the epidemic is obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number R0 of the deterministic system.

  20. Traveling waves in a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and nonlinear incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Yang, Yun-Rui; Zhou, Yong-Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with traveling waves of a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and a general nonlinear incidence. The existence and nonexistence of traveling waves of the system are established respectively by Schauder's fixed point theorem and two-sided Laplace transform. It is also shown that the spread speed c is influenced by the dispersal rate of the infected individuals and the delay τ.

  1. Global analysis of multi-strains SIS, SIR and MSIR epidemic models

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We consider SIS, SIR and MSIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maxim...

  2. Competitive exclusion principle for SIS and SIR models with n strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    We consider SIS and SIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maximum of each individual basic re...

  3. Design of power controller in CDMA system with power and SIR error minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan KONG; Huanshui ZHANG; Zhaosheng ZHANG; Hongxia WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an uplink power control problem is considered for code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. A distributed algorithm is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control theory. The proposed scheme minimizes the sum of the power and the error of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR). A power controller is designed by constructing an optimization problem of a stochastic linear quadratic type in Krein space and solving a Kalman filter problem.

  4. Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a volcano.

  5. Dynamic Behavior for an SIRS Model with Nonlinear Incidence Rate and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an SIRS model with nonlinear incidence rate and treatment. It is assumed that susceptible and infectious individuals have constant immigration rates. We investigate the existence of equilibrium and prove the global asymptotical stable results of the endemic equilibrium. We then obtained that the model undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and existences a limit cycle. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results.

  6. Thermal vacuum test of space equipment: tests of SIR-2 instrument Chandrayaan-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.

    2008-11-01

    We describe the reasons of proceeding Thermal-Vacuum tests for space electronic. We will answer on following questions: why teams are doing TV tests, what kind of phases should be simulated, which situations are the most critical during TV tests, what kind of results should be expected, which errors can be detect. As an example, will be shown TV-test of SIR-2 instrument for Chandrayaan-1 moon mission.

  7. Montaigne, Sir Ralph Bankes and other English readers of the Essais.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, John

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with a hitherto unknown and unpublished early modern English manuscript account of Montaigne's Essais by Sir Ralph Bankes (1631?–77) of Kingston Lacy in Dorset. Bankes's account covers a range of features in Montaigne's work: crucial elements of self-portraiture such as judgement, but also his attitude to women and doctors. These characteristics are analysed and compared first with Montaigne's own pronouncements about the aspects Bankes selects and secondly with two other s...

  8. Simulation of emotional contagion using modified SIR model: A cellular automaton approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Lo, Siuming

    2014-07-01

    Emotion plays an important role in the decision-making of individuals in some emergency situations. The contagion of emotion may induce either normal or abnormal consolidated crowd behavior. This paper aims to simulate the dynamics of emotional contagion among crowds by modifying the epidemiological SIR model to a cellular automaton approach. This new cellular automaton model, entitled the “CA-SIRS model”, captures the dynamic process ‘susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible', which is based on SIRS contagion in epidemiological theory. Moreover, in this new model, the process is integrated with individual movement. The simulation results of this model show that multiple waves and dynamical stability around a mean value will appear during emotion spreading. It was found that the proportion of initial infected individuals had little influence on the final stable proportion of infected population in a given system, and that infection frequency increased with an increase in the average crowd density. Our results further suggest that individual movement accelerates the spread speed of emotion and increases the stable proportion of infected population. Furthermore, decreasing the duration of an infection and the probability of reinfection can markedly reduce the number of infected individuals. It is hoped that this study will be helpful in crowd management and evacuation organization.

  9. Nicotinamide supplementation phenocopies SIR2 inactivation by modulating carbon metabolism and respiration during yeast chronological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Ivan; Pellegrino Coppola, Damiano; Strippoli, Maurizio; Ronzulli, Rossella; Vai, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B 3 , is a byproduct and noncompetitive inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction catalyzed by Sirtuins. These represent a family of evolutionarily conserved NAD + -dependent deacetylases that are well-known critical regulators of metabolism and aging and whose founding member is Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effects of NAM supplementation in the context of yeast chronological aging, the established model for studying aging of postmitotic quiescent mammalian cells. Our data show that NAM supplementation at the diauxic shift results in a phenocopy of chronologically aging sir2Δ cells. In fact, NAM-supplemented cells display the same chronological lifespan extension both in expired medium and extreme Calorie Restriction. Furthermore, NAM allows the cells to push their metabolism toward the same outcomes of sir2Δ cells by elevating the level of the acetylated Pck1. Both these cells have the same metabolic changes that concern not only anabolic pathways such as an increased gluconeogenesis but also respiratory activity in terms both of respiratory rate and state of respiration. In particular, they have a higher respiratory reserve capacity and a lower non-phosphorylating respiration that in concert with a low burden of superoxide anions can affect positively chronological aging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of data acquired by Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A and Landsat Thematic Mapper over Baldwin County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.-T.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonally compatible data collected by SIR-A and by Landsat 4 TM over the lower coastal plain in Alabama were coregistered, forming a SIR-A/TM multichannel data set with 30 m x 30 m pixel size. Spectral signature plots and histogram analysis of the data were used to observe data characteristics. Radar returns from pine forest classes correlated highly with the tree ages, suggesting the potential utility of microwave remote sensing for forest biomass estimation. As compared with the TM-only data set, the use of SIR-A/TM data set improved classification accuracy of the seven land cover types studied. In addition, the SIR-A/TM classified data support previous finding by Engheta and Elachi (1982) that microwave data appear to be correlated with differing bottomland hardwood forest vegetation as associated with varying water regimens (i.e., wet versus dry).

  11. Aggregation of polyQ proteins is increased upon yeast aging and affected by Sir2 and Hsf1: novel quantitative biochemical and microscopic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Cohen

    Full Text Available Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, are characterized by accumulation of protein aggregates in distinct neuronal cells that eventually die. In Huntington's disease, the protein huntingtin forms aggregates, and the age of disease onset is inversely correlated to the length of the protein's poly-glutamine tract. Using quantitative assays to estimate microscopically and capture biochemically protein aggregates, here we study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aging-related aggregation of GFP-tagged, huntingtin-derived proteins with different polyQ lengths. We find that the short 25Q protein never aggregates whereas the long 103Q version always aggregates. However, the mid-size 47Q protein is soluble in young logarithmically growing yeast but aggregates as the yeast cells enter the stationary phase and age, allowing us to plot an "aggregation timeline". This aging-dependent aggregation was associated with increased cytotoxicity. We also show that two aging-related genes, SIR2 and HSF1, affect aggregation of the polyQ proteins. In Δsir2 strain the aging-dependent aggregation of the 47Q protein is aggravated, while overexpression of the transcription factor Hsf1 attenuates aggregation. Thus, the mid-size 47Q protein and our quantitative aggregation assays provide valuable tools to unravel the roles of genes and environmental conditions that affect aging-related aggregation.

  12. A comparison of the degree of implementation of marine biodiversity indicators by European countries in relation to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Herman; Frost, Matt; Juanes, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries....... The best scoring EU countries were France, Germany, Greece and Spain, while the worst scoring countries were Italy and Slovenia. No country achieved maximum scores for the implementation of MSFD D1. The non-EU countries Norway and Turkey score as highly as the top-scoring EU countries. On the positive side...

  13. Low degree of formal education and musical experience predict degree of music-induced stress reduction in relatives and friends of patients: a single-center, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilt, Alexandra C; Werner, Paul D; Brown, David F; Alam, Hassan B; Warshaw, Andrew L; Parry, Blair A; Jazbar, Brigita; Booker, Abigail; Stangenberg, Lars; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Lillemoe, Keith D; Conrad, Claudius

    2013-05-01

    To determine the factors that may predict music-induced relaxation in friends and family of patients in the emergency department. It remains unclear to date which demographic and experiential factors predict the effectiveness of music-induced relaxation. Furthermore, in-hospital stressors for friends and family of patients rather than patients themselves are underresearched and deserve in-depth investigation to improve this group's experience in health care environments. A total of 169 relatives and friends of patients in the emergency department-waiting area completed a series of questionnaires, including the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and a demographic survey. They were then randomly assigned to either Case Group (1 hour in the waiting area with classical music in the background) or Control Group (1 hour with no music) before completing a second, identical copy of the STAI to measure change from baseline. Data were analyzed for associations between music intervention, change in STAI scores, MEQ scores, and demographic characteristics. Participants who underwent the music intervention experienced a 9.8% decrease in overall mean State Anxiety, whereas those in the Control Group experienced no change over time (P = 0.001). Higher education significantly inversely correlated with the effectiveness of music intervention: participants with no formal education beyond high school showed a greater overall mean decrease in State Anxiety than those with a college education or beyond in response to classical music (P = 0.006). Furthermore, MEQ scores indicated that the Social Uplift scale (a measure of one's tendency to be uplifted in a group-oriented manner by music) was highly predictive of the effectiveness of music intervention. Music is an effective and inexpensive means of reducing anxiety in friends and family of patients, who are underresearched in medicine. Moreover, low educational attainment and

  14. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  15. [The analysis of the theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" and related medical disciplines defended during the period from 2010 till 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Kuprina, T A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32.7%) ones for the degree in two disciplines, the second being either "pathological anatomy" (n=6) or "stomatology" (n=4). Despite the great variety of the problems resolved in the studies conducted during the five year period, the subject matter of most research was on the whole consistent with the main lines of activities of the institutions with which the degree-seeking workers were affiliated. The same refers to the choice of the tutors and scientific advisers. the authors emphasize the necessity of centralized planning of research in compliance with the list of priority investigations having practical significance and coordination of cooperative studies carried out based on the state bureau of forensic medical expertise (SBFME) and departments of forensic medical expertise of medical universities.

  16. Apostles of Attrition: Sir Douglas Haig, Sir Authur Harris, and Generalship in the Strategy That Dare Not Speak Its Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Savvy in the ways of the media , he cultivated relations with British newspapers to convey his message to the British public for the explicit...inability to obtain ground truth limited the fidelity of targeting. This was especially true for battle damage assessment ( BDA ). As the post-war...maintained his own personal Blue Book on German targets which included pre and post- strike imagery and BDA . He, unfortunately, also tended to use

  17. Sir James Reid and the Death of Queen Victoria: An Early Model for End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    An appraisal of the last ten days of Queen Victoria's life, viewed primarily from the perspective of her personal physician, Sir James Reid, is presented. Sir James' clinical encounters with his patient and the Royal Family are examined to reveal his strategic and medical thinking and gauge his level of success in basic palliative aims. It was found that the lack of effective medical interventions, tensions within the Royal Family, the importance of his post to Sir James' professional career, and the political ramifications unavoidably connected with the illness of a head of state, all presented challenges to Reid's efforts to ease the physical and emotional pain of Queen Victoria's dying. Key features of Sir James' approach included reliance on physician-patient and physician-family relationships, emphasis on emotional support for the patient, and the careful selection of interventions for the family. In the first years of the 20th century, an era when the contemporary concepts of palliative care, hospice, and family dynamics did not exist, Sir James' management of the Queen's final illness suggested an early model for end-of-life care. By the end of Queen Victoria's life, Sir James was seen to have preserved his patient's comfort and dignity, at the same time advancing family and societal acceptance of the death of this matriarchal figure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Comparison of the Adverse Event Profile of TheraSphere® with SIR-Spheres® for the Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallini, Joseph Ralph; Gabr, Ahmed; Thorlund, Kristian; Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Ayres, Dieter; Kanters, Steve; Ebrahim, Shanil; Mills, Edward; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2017-07-01

    To compare the safety profiles of TheraSphere ® (glass) and SIR-Spheres ® (resin) Y90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. A systematic review was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Trials Register to identify all relevant studies. Baseline characteristics and adverse events of all grades related to gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and respiratory systems were collected along with commonly reported outcomes related to post-embolization syndrome. For all outcomes, data from each study were tabulated for each intervention. Adverse events and patients were summed across studies on TheraSphere ® and SIR-Spheres ® , respectively, and the resulting proportion of patients experiencing an outcome for both interventions was calculated. Thirty-one observational studies were included in the review. In the adverse events of all grades, more patients treated with resin microspheres reported gastric ulcers, hepatic encephalopathy, cholecystitis, hepatic failure, and pleural effusion. Patients treated with resin microspheres also had more hepatobiliary adverse events of grade 3 or higher. In the events related to post-embolization syndrome, glass microspheres exhibited a similar safety profile compared to resin microspheres. Ascites and nausea grade 3 or higher were recorded more frequently with glass microsphere treatment. Based on this review of the published literature, glass microspheres exhibit a safety profile with fewer gastrointestinal and pulmonary adverse events compared to resin microspheres in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. The rate of urinary tract abnormalities and the functional state of kidneys in relation to the degree of connective tissue dysplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kryganova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the rate of urinary tract abnormalities and kidney functions in children with mild, moderate, and severe connective tissue dysplasia. Severe connective tissue dysplasia was found to prevail in children with urinary tract abnormalities and to be characterized by a variety of urodynamic urinary tract abnormalities. Urinary system infection occurred equally frequently in both patient groups and its rate did not depend on the degree of the dysplasia. Some children with severe connective dysplasia were noted to have diminished renal filtration function. High-grade vesicoureteral reflux, tubular disorders as nocturias, and lowered urine osmolarity were more common in children with severe dysplasia. Hypertension was seen equally often in both patient groups, no matter what the degree of connective tissue dysplasia.

  20. [Change of the Vα24 NKT cells in peripheral blood of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis and its relation to the degree of hepatic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Li, Gang; Chen, Mao-jian; Nie, Hao; Liao, Guo-xiang; Gong, Quan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the change of Vα24 NKT cells number in peripheral blood and its correlation with the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with advanced schistosomiasis. Thirty-two advanced schistosomiasis patients and 23 healthy persons were included in the study. The percentage of peripheral blood Vα24 NKT cells was determined by flow cytometry. The relevant indicators of liver function were detected by enzyme cycling method. Type-B ultrasound was used to examine the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of Vα24 NKT cells in advanced schistosomiasis patients [(0.23±0.09)%] was significantly lower than that of healthy persons [(1.44±0.62)%] (PNKT cells was positively correlated with y-GT (r=0.365, P0.05). The percentage of Vα24 NKT cells in patients with grades I (5 cases), II (11 cases), and III (16 cases) fibrosis was (0.37±0.02)%, (0.28±0.04)%, (0.15±0.03)%, respectively (PNKT cells showed a significant negative correlation with the degree of liver fibrosis (r=-0.91, PNKT cells in peripheral blood decreases with the aggravation of hepatic fibrosis in patients with advanced schistosomiasis.

  1. Use of Metabolomics as a Complementary Omic Approach to Implement Risk Criteria for First-Degree Relatives of Gastric Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Corona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A positive family history is a strong and consistently reported risk factor for gastric cancer (GC. So far, it has been demonstrated that serum pepsinogens (PGs, and gastrin 17 (G17 are useful for screening individuals at elevated risk to develop atrophic gastritis but they are suboptimal biomarkers to screen individuals for GC. The main purpose of this study was to investigate serum metabolomic profiles to find additional biomarkers that could be integrated with serum PGs and G17 to improve the diagnosis of GC and the selection of first-degree relatives (FDR at higher risk of GC development. Serum metabolomic profiles included 188 serum metabolites, covering amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexoses. Serum metabolomic profiles were performed with tandem mass spectrometry using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. The initial cohort (training set consisted of n = 49 GC patients and n = 37 FDR. Differential metabolomic signatures among the two groups were investigated by univariate and multivariate partial least square differential analysis. The most significant metabolites were further selected and validated in an independent group of n = 22 GC patients and n = 17 FDR (validation set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic power and the optimal cut-off for each of the discriminant markers. Multivariate analysis was applied to associate the selected serum metabolites, PGs, G17 and risk factors such as age, gender and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection with the GC and FDR has been performed and an integrative risk prediction algorithm was developed. In the training set, 40 metabolites mainly belonging to phospholipids and acylcarnitines classes were differentially expressed between GC and FDR. Out of these 40 metabolites, 9 were further confirmed in the validation set. Compared with FDR, GC patients were characterized by lower levels of

  2. The relation between degree-2160 spectral models of Earth's gravitational and topographic potential: a guide on global correlation measures and their dependency on approximation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Christian; Rexer, Moritz; Claessens, Sten; Rummel, Reiner

    2017-10-01

    Comparisons between high-degree models of the Earth's topographic and gravitational potential may give insight into the quality and resolution of the source data sets, provide feedback on the modelling techniques and help to better understand the gravity field composition. Degree correlations (cross-correlation coefficients) or reduction rates (quantifying the amount of topographic signal contained in the gravitational potential) are indicators used in a number of contemporary studies. However, depending on the modelling techniques and underlying levels of approximation, the correlation at high degrees may vary significantly, as do the conclusions drawn. The present paper addresses this problem by attempting to provide a guide on global correlation measures with particular emphasis on approximation effects and variants of topographic potential modelling. We investigate and discuss the impact of different effects (e.g., truncation of series expansions of the topographic potential, mass compression, ellipsoidal versus spherical approximation, ellipsoidal harmonic coefficient versus spherical harmonic coefficient (SHC) representation) on correlation measures. Our study demonstrates that the correlation coefficients are realistic only when the model's harmonic coefficients of a given degree are largely independent of the coefficients of other degrees, permitting degree-wise evaluations. This is the case, e.g., when both models are represented in terms of SHCs and spherical approximation (i.e. spherical arrangement of field-generating masses). Alternatively, a representation in ellipsoidal harmonics can be combined with ellipsoidal approximation. The usual ellipsoidal approximation level (i.e. ellipsoidal mass arrangement) is shown to bias correlation coefficients when SHCs are used. Importantly, gravity models from the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) are inherently based on this approximation level. A transformation is presented that enables a

  3. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    , empirical data relevant to the development of the degree adverb function is presented and possible relevant constructions identified. It is argued that the degree adverb function of that possibly occurs later than the historical dictionaries indicate. The degree adverb function of this is challenging...

  4. The system Cu-Rh-S at 900 degrees, 700 degrees, 540 degrees and 500 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2007-01-01

    Phase relations in the dry condensed system Cu-Rh-S were determined at 900, 700, 540 and 500 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, the system contains digenite, four rhodium sulfides (Rh17S15, Rh3S4, Rh2S3 and RhS similar to 3), three ternary sulfides (CuRh2S4, CuxRhS3+x and a fibrous sulfide in the range...

  5. Changes in zinc status and zinc transporters expression in whole blood of patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Daniela; Molina-López, Jorge; Hogstrand, Christer; Lengyel, Imre; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Planells, Elena

    2018-09-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of many nutrients and especially zinc, depleting their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the zinc status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying the association with expression of zinc transporters. This investigation was a prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. Twelve critically ill patients from different hospitals and 12 healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent were recruited. Data on daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, inflammation, clinical and nutritional parameters, plasma and blood cell zinc concentrations, and levels of transcripts for zinc transporters in whole blood were taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Zinc levels on critical ill patient are diminish comparing with the healthy control (HS: 0.94 ± 0.19; CIPF: 0.67 ± 0.16 mg/dL). The 58% of critical ill patients showed zinc plasma deficiency at beginning of study while 50.0% of critical ill after 7 days of ICU stay. ZnT7, ZIP4 and ZIP9 were the zinc transporters with highest expression in whole blood. In general, all zinc transporters were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the critical ill population at admission in comparison with healthy subjects. Severity scores and inflammation were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with zinc plasma levels, and zinc transporters ZIP3, ZIP4, ZIP8, ZnT6, ZnT7. Expression of 11 out of 24 zinc transporters was analysed, and ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZIP4, which were downregulated by more than 3-fold in whole blood of patients. In summary, in our study an alteration of zinc status was related with the severity-of-illness scores and inflammation in critical ill patients since admission in ICU stay. SIRS

  6. The Effect of non-Newtonian Behavior of Fluid on the Tubular Reactor Performance and Studying Different Variables in Relation to the Degree of Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Shayesteh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In tubular reactors, there are different parameters which can affect the degree of conversion. The type of fluid motion and velocity profile of substances in the reactor are of most central measures. Different rheological models can be employed to study the behavior of fluids; power law model is one of the most commonly used models. In this study, the rheological behaviour of polymerization reaction of methyl methacrylate was examined. Due to the similarity function of tubular and batch reactors, the number of test tubes are used to prepare the solution. After preparation of the reactor solution, the n value of power law model was estimated within the span of 0.3492 to 0.9889 by curve fitting. Employing these rheological data, a reactor has been designed. Moreover, the effects of parameters such as reaction temperature, initiator wt%, the concentration of monomer and reactor’s radius on the degree of conversion have been studied. The obtained results in the research indicate a direct proportionality of conversion with the reaction temperature, initiator wt% and the concentration of monomer and also an inverse proportionality of conversion with reactor’s radius. Finally, the amount of conversion was obtained equal to 56.47% and according to its laboratory proportion which was 55.88% we have reached the conclusion that the modeling duly undertaken is applicable and valid.

  7. A class of stochastic delayed SIR epidemic models with generalized nonlinear incidence rate and temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuangang; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Shujing; Wei, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    A class of SIR epidemic model with generalized nonlinear incidence rate is presented in this paper. Temporary immunity and stochastic perturbation are also considered. The existence and uniqueness of the global positive solution is achieved. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the extinction and persistence of the epidemic disease are established. Moreover, the threshold behavior is discussed, and the threshold value R0 is obtained. We show that if R0 extinct with probability one, whereas if R0 > 1, then the system remains permanent in the mean.

  8. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the threshold dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination. We obtain sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the stochastic system is also obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number Rbar0 of the deterministic system. Results show that time delay has important effects on the persistence and extinction of the epidemic.

  9. Global stability of an SIR model with differential infectivity on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xinpeng; Wang, Fang; Xue, Yakui; Liu, Maoxing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an SIR model with birth and death on complex networks is analyzed, where infected individuals are divided into m groups according to their infection and contact between human is treated as a scale-free social network. We obtain the basic reproduction number R0 as well as the effects of various immunization schemes. The results indicate that the disease-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable in some conditions, otherwise disease-free equilibrium is unstable and exists an unique endemic equilibrium that is globally asymptotically stable. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations and a promising way for infectious diseases control is suggested.

  10. Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and his contributions to early neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Riech, Sheryl; Verma, Ketan; Mortazavi, Martin M; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2012-03-01

    The renowned surgeon, neuroanatomist, and artist Sir Charles Bell not only impacted the lives of his peers through his creative endeavors and passion for art, but also sparked noteworthy breakthroughs in the field of neuroscience. His empathetic nature and zest for life enabled him to develop an early proclivity for patient care. As a result of his innovative findings regarding sensory and motor nerves and the anatomical makeup of the brain, he accepted some of the most prestigious awards and received an honorable reputation in society. Bell is recognized for his diligence, perseverance, and his remarkable contributions to surgery. The present review will explore his contributions to the discipline now known as neurosurgery.

  11. Dynamics analysis of SIR epidemic model with correlation coefficients and clustering coefficient in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juping; Yang, Chan; Jin, Zhen; Li, Jia

    2018-07-14

    In this paper, the correlation coefficients between nodes in states are used as dynamic variables, and we construct SIR epidemic dynamic models with correlation coefficients by using the pair approximation method in static networks and dynamic networks, respectively. Considering the clustering coefficient of the network, we analytically investigate the existence and the local asymptotic stability of each equilibrium of these models and derive threshold values for the prevalence of diseases. Additionally, we obtain two equivalent epidemic thresholds in dynamic networks, which are compared with the results of the mean field equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Activatable Optical Imaging with a Silica-Rhodamine Based Near Infrared (SiR700) Fluorophore: A comparison with cyanine based dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Thomas E.; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Koide, Yuichiro; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Choyke, Peter L.; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging is emerging as an important tool to visualize tumors. However, there are many potential choices among the available fluorophores. Optical imaging probes that emit in the visible range can image superficial tumors with high quantum yields, however, if deeper imaging is needed then near infrared (NIR) fluorophores are necessary. Most commercially available NIR fluorophores are cyanine based and are prone to non-specific binding and relatively limited photostability. Silica-containing rhodamine (SiR) fluorophores represent a new class of NIR fluorophores, which permit photoactivation via H-dimer formation as well as demonstrate improved photostability. This permits higher tumor-to-background ratios (TBRs) to be achieved over longer periods of time. Here, we compared an avidin conjugated with SiR700 (Av-SiR700) to similar compounds based on cyanine dyes (Av-Cy5.5 and Av-Alexa Fluor 680) in a mouse tumor model of ovarian cancer metastasis. We found that the Av-SiR700 probe demonstrated superior quenching enabling activation after binding-internalization to the target cell. As a result, Av-SiR700 had higher TBRs compared to Av-Cy5.5, and better biostability compared to Av-Alexa Fluor 680. PMID:22034863

  13. Analysis of subsequent publication and impact of abstracts presented at the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium: Focus on the Plenary Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Connor, D J; Lowery, A J; Kearney, D; McAnena, O J; Sweeney, K J; Kerin, M J

    2015-09-01

    The quality of abstracts presented at a conference reflects the academic activity and research productivity of the surgical/scientific association concerned. The abstract to publication rate (44.5 % internationally), is an important indicator of the quality of presented research. To evaluate the publication rate and impact of abstracts presented at the plenary session of the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium over a 25-year period (1989-2014), and identify factors influencing publication. Plenary abstracts were identified from abstract books of the Symposium from 1989-2014. The authors, institution, subspecialty and research subject were recorded. A Medline search with name of the first and last author, key words and content of all abstracts was conducted to identify related publications. The impact factor (IF) of the journal and the time to publication was recorded. 298 presented abstracts resulted in 168 publications (publication rate: 56 %). Basic Science research accounted for 80 % (n = 237) of the total number of presentations with the remaining 20 % (n = 61) being categorised as clinical research. Overall, cancer research accounted for 48 % of presented work. The average time to publication was 2 ± 7 years, while 11 % of all published studies achieved publication in the year of the symposium. The median impact factor for published research was 3.558 (IF range 0-39). These results indicate that the quality of papers presented at the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium compares favourably with international equivalents, making this meeting an important forum for Irish Academic Surgery.

  14. Paleodrainages of the Eastern Sahara - The radar rivers revisited (SIR-A/B implications for a mid-tertiary Trans-African drainage system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Schaber, G. G.; Mchugh, W. P.; Haynes, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The images obtained by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR)-A and -B systems over the southwestern Egypt and northwestern Sudan were coregistered with the Landsat images and the existing maps to aid in extrapolations of the buried paleodrainages ('radar rivers'), first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers, RR-1 (broad, aggraded valleys filled with alluvium), RR-2 (braided channels inset in the RR-1 valleys), and RR-3 (narrow, long, bedrock-incised channels). A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows inferred changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the later Paleogene-early Neogene. It is suggested that a former Trans-African master stream system may have flowed from headwaters in the Red Sea Hills southwestward across North Africa, discharging into the Atlantic at the Paleo-Niger delta, prior to the Neogene domal uplifts and building of volcanic edifices across the paths of these ancient watercourses.

  15. [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergljung, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis. He strongly disapproved of the longstanding dogma of so called radical mastectomy in breast cancer, and advocated a more limited surgical approach, followed by radiation therapy. This was done more than fifty years before breastconserving surgery has become the therapy of choice and against considerable opposition from the surgical establishment of his days. He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus. Besides being a busy surgeon Sir Geoffrey was a medical historian, writing the biography of among others William Harvey, a bibliographer with a special interest in the poet and artist William Blake and a bibliophil with a large book collection of great value to medical history.

  16. Investigating Environmentally Sustainable Transport Based on DALY weights and SIR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nezamianpour Jahromi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is one of the main causes of well-being and growth in contemporary societies. Transportation is the backbone of accessibility systems that lead to the growth of economic and social networks and spatial dispersion of activities. Unfortunately, the adverse effects of transportation have a great impact on the natural and human environment. Since transportation is associated with fossil fuel combustion, it results in emissions of pollutants that cause damage to human health. To save the global eco-system, sustainable development has become an international priority. To deal with the sustainability of transportation systems is an important issue as testified by a growing number of initiatives framed to define and measure sustainability in transportation planning and infrastructure planning as well. The capability of environmental assessment as a sustainability instrument is well known. This study proposes a new approach to rank countries based on environmental sustainability development applying disability adjusted life year (DALY weights for transportation sector emissions. DALY weights consider actual impacts of pollutants on human health. By employing SIR method, a superiority and inferiority ranking method is presented for multiple criteria decision making, the sustainability ranking of a number of European countries is presented. Three various ranking methods extracted from SIR ranking method are discussed and the results and the correlation among them are demonstrated.

  17. New approaches to improve a WCDMA SIR estimator by employing different post-processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnart Chaichoet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For effective control of transmission power in WCDMA mobile systems, a good estimate of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is needed. Conventionally, an adaptive SIR estimator employs a moving average (MA filter (Yoon et al., 2002 to encounter fading channel distortion. However, the resulting estimate seems to have high estimation error due to fluctuation in the channel variation. In this paper, an additional post-processing stage is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy by reducing the variation of the estimate. Four variations of post-processing stages, namely 1 a moving average (MA postfilter,2 an exponential moving average (EMA post-filter, 3 an IIR post-filter and 4 least-mean-squared (LMS adaptive post-filter, are proposed and their optimal performance in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE are then compared by simulation. The results show the best comparable performance when the MA and LMS post-filter are used. However, the MA post-filter requires a lookup table of filter order for optimal performance at different channel conditions, while the LMS post-filter can be used conveniently without a lookup table.

  18. Medicinal use of earths and minerals from Hippocrates to Sir Hans Sloane and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsas, Spyros

    2012-12-01

    In 1931 two pharmaceutical drawers containing mineral specimens, belonging to Sir Hans Sloane, the 18th century collector, Royal Physician, President of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians of London, were found in the Department of Botany of the Natural History Museum (NHM) of London. The drawers, each divided into 49 compartments, contained a total of 107 mineral pharmaceutical specimens, some labelled as mercury or white arsenic. Their registration, identification with the Sloane Manuscript Catalogues and subsequent transfer to the Mineralogy department of the NHM where one of these drawers is now on public display, had been documented by 1935. In antiquity therapeutic empiricism attributed medicinal properties to animal products, plants and minerals, including the soil of specific geographic locations. This communication traces the medicinal use of certain earths and minerals, listed in Sir Hans Sloane's manuscript catalogues, to classical antiquity with a reference to Arsenic compounds, which in our time are finding application in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and to Terra Lemnia, a celebrated antidote of repute spanning twenty centuries, also included in the Sloane collections.

  19. Influence of heat conductivity on the performance of RTV SIR coatings with different fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siderakis, K [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, GR-26110 Patras (Greece); Agoris, D [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Greece, GR-26500, Rion, Greece (Greece); Gubanski, S [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2005-10-07

    Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SIR) coatings are employed in order to improve the pollution performance of high voltage ceramic insulators by imparting surface hydrophobicity. In this paper, the performance of three RTV SIR coatings containing different fillers is investigated in a salt-fog test. Alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica are the fillers included in the formulation, aiming to increase the material endurance to the energy supplied by the surface electrical activity during periods of hydrophobicity loss. The primary action of these fillers is to increase the material heat conductivity, i.e. the amount of energy conducted to the substrate. In addition, in the case of ATH relief is also achieved due to particle decomposition. The results indicate that for the compositions commercially available, where low amounts of fillers are used, and under the conditions of the test, ATH filled coatings performed better than the silica filled ones. This is attributed to ATH decomposition which further relieves the material structure and therefore decelerates material aging.

  20. Ut Pictura Poesis : dialéctica entre palabras e imagen en Sir William Sterling Maxwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Macartney

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza la estrecha relación entre la historia del arte de Sir William Stirling Maxwell, su biblioteca y su colección artística. Este vínculo encierra la clave para la comprensión de su excepcional aportación a la historiografía del arte español. Sus diversas actividades, como historiador del arte, coleccionista de libros y cuadros, y director de ediciones privadas de libros raros, fueron todas manifestaciones de su gran fascinación por el paralelo entre la literatura y el arte, la palabra y la imagen. Tal relación se encuentra incluso en el esquema decorativo de su biblioteca.This article examines the remarkable unity between Sir William Stirling Maxwell's art history, his library and his art collection and argües that this relationship is the key to understanding his unique contribution to scholarship of Spanish art. In particular, it will be shown that his actlvities as an art historian, bibliophile, art collector and editor of prívate editions of rare books were all expressions of his fascination with the relationship between literature and art in general, and more specifically between word and image. Even the decorative scheme of his library emphasised this relationship.

  1. Filtering authentic sepsis arising in the ICU using administrative codes coupled to a SIRS screening protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Christopher L; Overton, Elizabeth C; Lyu, Peter F; Rimawi, Ramzy H; Buchman, Timothy G

    2017-06-01

    Using administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory data, we sought a high-specificity identification strategy for patients whose sepsis initially appeared during their ICU stay. We studied all patients discharged from an academic hospital between September 1, 2013 and October 31, 2014. Administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory criteria were used to identify patients at high risk of developing the onset of sepsis in the ICU. Two clinicians then independently reviewed the patient record to verify that the screened-in patients appeared to become septic during their ICU admission. Clinical chart review verified sepsis in 437/466 ICU stays (93.8%). Of these 437 encounters, only 151 (34.6%) were admitted to the ICU with neither SIRS nor evidence of infection and therefore appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Selected administrative codes coupled to SIRS criteria and applied to patients admitted to ICU can yield up to 94% authentic sepsis patients. However, only 1/3 of patients thus identified appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Studies that depend on high-intensity monitoring for description of the time course of sepsis require clinician review and verification that sepsis initially appeared during the monitoring period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The optimal dynamic immunization under a controlled heterogeneous node-based SIRS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Draief, Moez; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic immunizations, under which the state of the propagation network of electronic viruses can be changed by adjusting the control measures, are regarded as an alternative to static immunizations. This paper addresses the optimal dynamical immunization under the widely accepted SIRS assumption. First, based on a controlled heterogeneous node-based SIRS model, an optimal control problem capturing the optimal dynamical immunization is formulated. Second, the existence of an optimal dynamical immunization scheme is shown, and the corresponding optimality system is derived. Next, some numerical examples are given to show that an optimal immunization strategy can be worked out by numerically solving the optimality system, from which it is found that the network topology has a complex impact on the optimal immunization strategy. Finally, the difference between a payoff and the minimum payoff is estimated in terms of the deviation of the corresponding immunization strategy from the optimal immunization strategy. The proposed optimal immunization scheme is justified, because it can achieve a low level of infections at a low cost.

  3. Quantitative Autism Traits in First Degree Relatives: Evidence for the Broader Autism Phenotype in Fathers, but Not in Mothers and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Noens, Ilse; Luts, Jan; Scholte, Evert; Van Huffel, Sabine; Steyaert, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are present in unaffected relatives and individuals from the general population. Results are inconclusive, however, on whether unaffected relatives have higher levels of quantitative autism traits (QAT) or not. This might be due to differences in research populations, because behavioral data and molecular…

  4. Language configurations of degree-related denotations in the spoken production of a group of Colombian EFL university students: A corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder Yesid Escobar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that developing the competences needed to appropriately use linguistic resources according to contextual characteristics (pragmatics is as important as the cultural-imbedded linguistic knowledge itself (semantics and that both are equally essential to form competent speakers of English in foreign language contexts, we feel this research relies on corpus linguistics to analyze both the scope and the limitations of the sociolinguistic knowledge and the communicative skills of English students at the university level. To such end, a linguistic corpus was assembled, compared to an existing corpus of native speakers, and analyzed in terms of the frequency, overuse, underuse, misuse, ambiguity, success, and failure of the linguistic parameters used in speech acts. The findings herein describe the linguistic configurations employed to modify levels and degrees of descriptions (salient sematic theme exhibited in the EFL learners´ corpus appealing to the sociolinguistic principles governing meaning making and language use which are constructed under the social conditions of the environments where the language is naturally spoken for sociocultural exchange.

  5. Quantitative measurement of Y90 brehmmstrahlung images after of Y90 Sir-Spheres implantation to assess lung shunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forwood, Nicholas J.; Pocock, Nicholas; Shin, Jane; Young, Andy M; Szeto, Edwin R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Background: In clinical practice the dose of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres is calculated using a pre injection of Tc 9 9 m MAA. There is however a potential difference due to the different properties of Tc 9 9 m MAA and Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres. We assessed the concordance of lung shunting of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres estimated using Y 9 0 Bremsstrahlung imaging, compared to shunting assessed using Tc 9 9 m MAA. Methods: 15 Patients were evaluated using 150-200 MBq of Tc 9 9 m MAA injected into the hepatic artery under angiographic guidance. Whole body images were acquired using a LEAP collimator (window of 140 kEv+/-10%). The patients were subsequently treated with Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres. After microspheres injection, whole body brehmsstrahlung images were acquired using a medium energy collimator (window settings of 75 kEv +/- 20%). Tc 9 9 m MAA images were paired with their corresponding bremsstrahlung image and lung shunting in the stu ides calculated simultaneously. Each paired dataset was analyzed by 5 operators. Results: The mean lung shunting for Tc 9 9 m MAA acquisition was 3.32% (SD 2.03) which was significantly lower than the lung shunting using the Y 9 0 acquisitions: mean 16.19% (SD of 6.43). The Pearson coefficient was r = 0.62 (p 9 0 Sir-Spheres bremsstrahlung imaging is higher than that calculated by Tc 9 9 m MAA imaging. The relationship is not sufficiently strong to use bremsstahlung imaging to retrospectively quantify the lung-to-liver shunting as indicated using Tc 9 9 M AA. Further studies are underway to assess the reliability of Tc 9 9 m MAA lung uptake calculations in determining the dose of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres.

  6. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide : longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; Kollen, Boudewijn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  7. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide: longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; Kollen, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  8. Impulsive vaccination and dispersal on dynamics of an SIR epidemic model with restricting infected individuals boarding transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jianjun; Cai, Shaohong; Li, Limei

    2016-05-01

    To understand the effect of impulsive vaccination and restricting infected individuals boarding transports on disease spread, we establish an SIR model with impulsive vaccination, impulsive dispersal and restricting infected individuals boarding transports. This SIR epidemic model for two regions, which are connected by transportation of non-infected individuals, portrays the evolvement of diseases. We prove that all solutions of the investigated system are uniformly ultimately bounded. We also prove that there exists globally asymptotically stable infection-free boundary periodic solution. The condition for permanence is discussed. It is concluded that the approach of impulsive vaccination and restricting infected individuals boarding transports provides reliable tactic basis for preventing disease spread.

  9. L’économie politique du désir dans le rituel et le militantisme au SriLanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le désir est au cœur des interactions complexes entre le développement et la religion. Cet article examine ses différentes expressions, comme étant une des préoccupations fondamentales de nombreuses religions, qui motivent à la fois le développement et les alternatives au développement. Au SriLanka, face au changement social, la forme néolibérale et mondialisée du développement est comprise et réinterprétée à travers des idiomes et des formations locales du désir. L’économie néolibérale cultive le désir et mène à un accroissement présumé de la présence des preta (fantômes affamés et avides qui se manifestent parfois au moment de la mort d’une personne. Les fantômes affamés, en tant que formations fétichisées du désir, trouvent un écho chez les consommateurs et les entrepreneurs, qui montrent unappétit insatiable vis-à-vis d’une richesse matérielle en constante croissance. Ainsi, l’apaisement ritualisé des fantômes affamés et le militantisme social de groupes tels que le Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform (MONLAR sont clairement liés par leur préoccupation mutuelle face à l’insécurité existentielle des êtres humains et non humains, causée par un désir excessif et déséquilibré. L’action rituelle et le militantisme social divergent toutefois dans la formulation explicite de leurs préoccupations spécifiques concernant le désir. Le rituel matérialise et condense l’angoisse liée au désir, alors que le militantisme social décrit la fétichisation du désir en termes économiques, politiques et scientifiques plus abstraits.

  10. Using the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for Solving the Large Linear System of Equations Related to Global Gravity Field Recovery up to Degree and Order 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sharifi, M. A.; Amjadiparvar, B.

    2010-05-01

    The GRACE mission has substantiated the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) concept. The LL-SST configuration can be combined with the previously realized high-low SST concept in the CHAMP mission to provide a much higher accuracy. The line of sight (LOS) acceleration difference between the GRACE satellite pair is the mostly used observable for mapping the global gravity field of the Earth in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients. In this paper, mathematical formulae for LOS acceleration difference observations have been derived and the corresponding linear system of equations has been set up for spherical harmonic up to degree and order 120. The total number of unknowns is 14641. Such a linear equation system can be solved with iterative solvers or direct solvers. However, the runtime of direct methods or that of iterative solvers without a suitable preconditioner increases tremendously. This is the reason why we need a more sophisticated method to solve the linear system of problems with a large number of unknowns. Multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm is a domain decomposition method, which allows it to split the normal matrix of the system into several smaller overlaped submatrices. In each iteration step the multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm solves linear systems with the matrices obtained from the splitting successively. It reduces both runtime and memory requirements drastically. In this paper we propose the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for solving the large linear system of gravity field recovery. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the International Association of Geodesy (IAG)-simulated data of the GRACE mission. The achieved results indicate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in solving the linear system of equations from accuracy and runtime points of view. Keywords: Gravity field recovery, Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm, Low

  11. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies...

  12. Morbidity and mortality in first-degree relatives of C282Y homozygous probands with clinically detected haemochromatosis compared with the general population: the HEmochromatosis FAmily Study (HEFAS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, E.M.G.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Marx, J.J.M.; Deursen, C.T. van; Kreeftenberg, H.G.; Vries, R.A. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family screening has been suggested as a sophisticated model for the early detection of HFE-related hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). However, until now, controlled studies on the morbidity and mortality in families with HH are lacking. METHODS: Data on iron parameters, morbidity and

  13. Higher frequency of cagA EPIYA-C Phosphorylation Sites in H. pylori strains from first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Dulciene MM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the prevalence of more virulent H. pylori genotypes in relatives of gastric cancer patients and in patients without family histories of gastric cancer. Methods We evaluated prospectively the prevalence of the infection by more virulent H. pylori strains in 60 relatives of gastric cancer patients comparing the results with those obtained from 49 patients without family histories of gastric cancer. H. pylori status was determined by the urease test, histology and presence of H. pylori ureA. The cytotoxin associated gene (cagA, the cagA-EPIYA and vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA were typed by PCR and the cagA EPIYA typing was confirmed by sequencing. Results The gastric cancer relatives were significant and independently more frequently colonized by H. pylori strains with higher numbers of CagA-EPIYA-C segments (OR = 4.23, 95%CI = 1.53–11.69 and with the most virulent s1m1 vacA genotype (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 1.04–7.51. Higher numbers of EPIYA-C segments were associated with increased gastric corpus inflammation, foveolar hyperplasia and atrophy. Infection by s1m1 vacA genotype was associated with increased antral and corpus gastritis. Conclusions We demonstrated that relatives of gastric cancer patients are more frequently colonized by the most virulent H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes, which may contribute to increase the risk of gastric cancer.

  14. Enhanced radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in glioma CD133-positive cells by knockdown of SirT1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-J.; Hsu, C.-C.; Yung, M.-C.; Chen, K.-Y.; Tzao Ching; Wu, W.-F.; Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Lu, K.-H.; Chiou, S.-H.; Ma, H.-I

    2009-01-01

    CD133-expressing glioma cells play a critical role in tumor recovery after treatment and are resistant to radiotherapy. Herein, we demonstrated that glioblastoma-derived CD133-positive cells (GBM-CD133 + ) are capable of self-renewal and express high levels of embryonic stem cell genes and SirT1 compared to GBM-CD133 - cells. To evaluate the role of SirT1 in GBM-CD133 + , we used a lentiviral vector expressing shRNA to knock-down SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1) in GBM-CD133 + . Silencing of SirT1 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of GBM-CD133 + to radiation and increased the level of radiation-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, knock-down of SirT1 increased the effectiveness of radiotherapy in the inhibition of tumor growth in nude mice transplanted with GBM-CD133 + . Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of GBM-CD133 + mice treated with radiotherapy was significantly improved by Sh-SirT1 as well. In sum, these results suggest that SirT1 is a potential target for increasing the sensitivity of GBM and glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells to radiotherapy.

  15. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  16. Threshold Dynamics in Stochastic SIRS Epidemic Models with Nonlinear Incidence and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamical behaviors for a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with nonlinear incidence and vaccination are investigated. In the models, the disease transmission coefficient and the removal rates are all affected by noise. Some new basic properties of the models are found. Applying these properties, we establish a series of new threshold conditions on the stochastically exponential extinction, stochastic persistence, and permanence in the mean of the disease with probability one for the models. Furthermore, we obtain a sufficient condition on the existence of unique stationary distribution for the model. Finally, a series of numerical examples are introduced to illustrate our main theoretical results and some conjectures are further proposed.

  17. On pulse vaccine strategy in a periodic stochastic SIR epidemic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fengyan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Shuwen; Ding, Changming

    2014-01-01

    A periodic stochastic SIR epidemic model with pulse vaccination is studied. The system has global positive solutions and under some conditions it admits a unique positive periodic disease-free solution, which is globally exponentially stable in mean square. The mathematical expectation and variance of the positive periodic solution are obtained. Two threshold parameters R 1 and R 2 (R 1 >R 2 ) are identified; if R 1 <1, the susceptible will be persistent in the mean and the disease will go to extinction; if R 2 >1, the susceptible and the disease will be weakly persistent in the mean. We show that by repeatedly vaccinating the susceptible population in series of pulses, it is possible to eradicate the infective from the entire model population in the random environment

  18. Sir William Burnett (1779-1861), professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department and entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Sir William Burnett (1779-1861) had an active career as a Royal Navy surgeon in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the battles of St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar. From 1822 to 1855 he was professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department, when he provided effective leadership in a time of great change. Although his official work earned him the reputation of a "hard-working, unimaginative, somewhat harsh man", his correspondence shows a very humane centre under the official carapace. His official performance and reputation were both eroded towards the end of his career by his determined promotion of zinc chloride, for which he held lucrative patents.

  19. Oceanographic data collected from the Sir John Franklin in the Beaufort Sea, September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, R W; Carmack, E C; O' Brien, M C; McLaughlin, F A; Minkley, B G; Berger-North, K

    1989-09-01

    The data reported here were collected from the Canadian Coast Guard ship Sir John Franklin during a cruise to the Canadian Beaufort Sea from August 21 to Sept 5, 1989. The cruise had two broad objectives: to collect chemical and conductivity temperature depth (CTD) data at a deep station in the Canadian Basin, and to survey intensively the shelf break with the Mackenzie Canyon as a focus. Conductivity temperature depth was measured using a CTD guideline system. Water samples consisting of hydrocast for 6 shelf edge stations at 200 m depth and one deep station at 3200 m depth were tested for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and chlorophyll a. In addition, samples were collected for analysis of tritium, C-14, and oxygen isotope composition and acoustic profiles were run. Isotope composition and acoustic profile data are not included in this report.

  20. Sir John Macpherson, the first but sometimes overlooked Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard T

    2014-08-01

    To chronicle the creation of the Chair of Psychiatry at the University of Sydney, and the career and legacy, in New South Wales, of the first incumbent, Professor Sir John Macpherson CB MD FRCPE. The creation of the Chair, Macpherson's appointment, and his contributions to psychiatry in Sydney during the 52 months of his tenure, are well documented in contemporaneous sources and demonstrate that he was a very worthy Foundation Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Sydney. There are several possible reasons why Macpherson has been overlooked, including an erroneous statement in The World History of Psychiatry (1975) that William Siegfried Dawson, his successor from 1927 to 1952, was the first Professor of Psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  1. Threshold dynamics and ergodicity of an SIRS epidemic model with Markovian switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Shengqiang; Cui, Jing'an

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the spread dynamics of a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with nonlinear incidence and varying population size, which is formulated as a piecewise deterministic Markov process. A threshold dynamic determined by the basic reproduction number R0 is established: the disease can be eradicated almost surely if R0 disease persists almost surely if R0 > 1. The existing method for analyzing ergodic behavior of population systems has been generalized. The modified method weakens the required conditions and has no limitations for both the number of environmental regimes and the dimension of the considered system. When R0 > 1, the existence of a stationary probability measure is obtained. Furthermore, with the modified method, the global attractivity of the Ω-limit set of the system and the convergence in total variation to the stationary measure are both demonstrated under a mild extra condition.

  2. Newton's gift how Sir Isaac Newton unlocked the system of the world

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinski, David

    2000-01-01

    Sir Isaac Newton, creator of the first and perhaps most important scientific theory, is a giant of the scientific era. Despite this, he has remained inaccessible to most modern readers, indisputably great but undeniably remote. In this witty, engaging, and often moving examination of Newton's life, David Berlinski recovers the man behind the mathematical breakthroughs. The story carries the reader from Newton's unremarkable childhood to his awkward undergraduate days at Cambridge through the astonishing year in which, working alone, he laid the foundation for his system of the world, his Principia Mathematica, and to the subsequent monumental feuds that poisoned his soul and wearied his supporters. An edifying appreciation of Newton's greatest accomplishment, Newton's Gift is also a touching celebration of a transcendent man.

  3. Optimizing Real-Time Vaccine Allocation in a Stochastic SIR Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Nguyen

    Full Text Available Real-time vaccination following an outbreak can effectively mitigate the damage caused by an infectious disease. However, in many cases, available resources are insufficient to vaccinate the entire at-risk population, logistics result in delayed vaccine deployment, and the interaction between members of different cities facilitates a wide spatial spread of infection. Limited vaccine, time delays, and interaction (or coupling of cities lead to tradeoffs that impact the overall magnitude of the epidemic. These tradeoffs mandate investigation of optimal strategies that minimize the severity of the epidemic by prioritizing allocation of vaccine to specific subpopulations. We use an SIR model to describe the disease dynamics of an epidemic which breaks out in one city and spreads to another. We solve a master equation to determine the resulting probability distribution of the final epidemic size. We then identify tradeoffs between vaccine, time delay, and coupling, and we determine the optimal vaccination protocols resulting from these tradeoffs.

  4. A stochastic SIRS epidemic model with infectious force under intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongli; Kang, Yun; Banerjee, Malay; Wang, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we extend a classical SIRS epidemic model with the infectious forces under intervention strategies from a deterministic framework to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) one through introducing random fluctuations. The value of our study lies in two aspects. Mathematically, by using the Markov semigroups theory, we prove that the reproduction number R0S can be used to govern the stochastic dynamics of SDE model. If R0S 1, under mild extra conditions, it has an endemic stationary distribution which leads to the stochastical persistence of the disease. Epidemiologically, we find that random fluctuations can suppress disease outbreak, which can provide us some useful control strategies to regulate disease dynamics.

  5. The SIR model of Zika virus disease outbreak in Brazil at year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Kiang, Lam Chee; Hong, Tan Wei; Abu, Mohd Syafarudy

    2017-05-01

    This research study demonstrates a numerical model intended for comprehension the spread of the year 2015 Zika virus disease utilizing the standard SIR framework. In modeling virulent disease dynamics, it is important to explore whether the illness spread could accomplish a pandemic level or it could be eradicated. Information from the year 2015 Zika virus disease event is utilized and Brazil where the event began is considered in this research study. A three dimensional nonlinear differential equation is formulated and solved numerically utilizing the Euler's method in MS excel. It is appeared from the research study that, with health intercessions of public, the viable regenerative number can be decreased making it feasible for the event to cease to exist. It is additionally indicated numerically that the pandemic can just cease to exist when there are no new infected people in the populace.

  6. Sir William Turner (1832-1916) - Lancastrian, anatomist and champion of the Victorian era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Correia, Janine Carla; Taylor, Adam M

    2016-11-01

    Sir William Turner, a Lancastrian, was renowned as a scientist, anatomist and a great reformer of medical education. His students became anatomists at various international institutions, which consequently shaped the future of anatomy as a subject matter both in the United Kingdom and in South Africa. Although Turner's accomplishments have been documented, little is known about the details that determined his career path and the individuals that shaped his future. Here the authors aim to highlight some aspects of Turner's academic achievements and his personal life as well as how he crossed paths with other great minds of the Victorian era including Richard Owen, Charles Darwin, James Paget and Joseph Lister. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Sir John Adams: his legacy to the world of particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E J N

    2011-01-01

    John Adams acquired an unrivalled reputation for his leading part in designing and constructing the Proton Synchrotron (PS) in CERN’s early days. In 1968, and after several years heading a fusion laboratory in the UK, he came back to Geneva to pilot the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) project to approval and then to direct its construction. By the time of his early death in 1984 he had built the two flagship proton accelerators at CERN and, during the second of his terms as Director-General, he laid the groundwork for the proton–antiproton collider which led to the discovery of the intermediate vector boson. How did someone without any formal academic qualification achieve this? What was the magic behind his leadership? The speaker, who worked many years alongside him, will discuss these questions and speculate on how Sir John Adams might have viewed today’s CERN.

  8. Stability and bifurcation analysis of an SIR epidemic model with logistic growth and saturated treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinhui; Teng, Zhidong; Wang, Guangqing; Zhang, Long; Hu, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the saturated treatment and logistic growth rate into an SIR epidemic model with bilinear incidence. The treatment function is assumed to be a continuously differential function which describes the effect of delayed treatment when the medical condition is limited and the number of infected individuals is large enough. Sufficient conditions for the existence and local stability of the disease-free and positive equilibria are established. And the existence of the stable limit cycles also is obtained. Moreover, by using the theory of bifurcations, it is shown that the model exhibits backward bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov–Takens bifurcations. Finally, the numerical examples are given to illustrate the theoretical results and obtain some additional interesting phenomena, involving double stable periodic solutions and stable limit cycles.

  9. Maurice Couturier. Nabokov ou la cruauté du désir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Alladaye

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La lecture peut avoir partie liée avec la transgression. Maurice Couturier en apporte la preuve dans son dernier ouvrage, Nabokov ou la cruauté du désir, en enfreignant l’un des plus célèbres interdits nabokoviens, celui de la lecture psychanalytique de son œuvre. On se souvient des préfaces des romans où l’auteur ne se fait jamais faute de décourager la moindre velléité freudienne et d’une réponse des plus tranchantes administrée dans le cadre d’un entretien : « Laissons les crédules et les ...

  10. Yeast Tdh3 (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a Sir2-interacting factor that regulates transcriptional silencing and rDNA recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E Ringel

    Full Text Available Sir2 is an NAD(+-dependent histone deacetylase required to mediate transcriptional silencing and suppress rDNA recombination in budding yeast. We previously identified Tdh3, a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as a high expression suppressor of the lethality caused by Sir2 overexpression in yeast cells. Here we show that Tdh3 interacts with Sir2, localizes to silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent manner, and promotes normal silencing at the telomere and rDNA. Characterization of specific TDH3 alleles suggests that Tdh3's influence on silencing requires nuclear localization but does not correlate with its catalytic activity. Interestingly, a genetic assay suggests that Tdh3, an NAD(+-binding protein, influences nuclear NAD(+ levels; we speculate that Tdh3 links nuclear Sir2 with NAD(+ from the cytoplasm.

  11. An individual-based approach to SIR epidemics in contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mina; Scoglio, Caterina

    2011-08-21

    Many approaches have recently been proposed to model the spread of epidemics on networks. For instance, the Susceptible/Infected/Recovered (SIR) compartmental model has successfully been applied to different types of diseases that spread out among humans and animals. When this model is applied on a contact network, the centrality characteristics of the network plays an important role in the spreading process. However, current approaches only consider an aggregate representation of the network structure, which can result in inaccurate analysis. In this paper, we propose a new individual-based SIR approach, which considers the whole description of the network structure. The individual-based approach is built on a continuous time Markov chain, and it is capable of evaluating the state probability for every individual in the network. Through mathematical analysis, we rigorously confirm the existence of an epidemic threshold below which an epidemic does not propagate in the network. We also show that the epidemic threshold is inversely proportional to the maximum eigenvalue of the network. Additionally, we study the role of the whole spectrum of the network, and determine the relationship between the maximum number of infected individuals and the set of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. To validate our approach, we analytically study the deviation with respect to the continuous time Markov chain model, and we show that the new approach is accurate for a large range of infection strength. Furthermore, we compare the new approach with the well-known heterogeneous mean field approach in the literature. Ultimately, we support our theoretical results through extensive numerical evaluations and Monte Carlo simulations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Astronautics Degrees for Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  13. May thrombopoietin be a useful marker of sepsis severity assessment in patients with SIRS entering the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Elisabetta; Pigozzi, Luca; Lison, Davide; Pivetta, Emanuele; Bosco, Ornella; Vizio, Barbara; Suppo, Umberto; Turvani, Fabrizio; Morello, Fulvio; Battista, Stefania; Moiraghi, Corrado; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Lupia, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO), a growth factor primarily involved in regulating thrombopoiesis, has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis. TPO levels are, indeed, greatly increased in patients with sepsis compared to control subjects, and correlate with sepsis severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate TPO as predictive biomarker of sepsis and of sepsis severity in patients entering the emergency department (ED) with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This was a prospective observational study. Ours is a sub-study of the 'Need-speed trial', a multi-center observational study involving six Italian centers affiliated to the GREAT Italian Network. TPO was measured by ELISA. We enrolled 13 patients with SIRS (6 with acute pancreatitis, 3 with acute heart failure, 1 with pulmonary embolism, and 3 with allergic reactions), and 40 patients with sepsis, eight of whom had severe sepsis and three septic shock. TPO was significantly higher in patients with sepsis than with SIRS. In addition, TPO was higher in patients with severe sepsis than with sepsis, and in patients with septic shock than with severe sepsis, although these differences did not reach the statistical significance. Our preliminary results suggest that TPO may have the potential to be considered a promising early biomarker for both the diagnosis of sepsis and the assessment of sepsis severity in patients with SIRS entering the ED.

  14. Does SOFA predict outcomes better than SIRS in Brazilian ICU patients with suspected infection? A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Goulart Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared the discriminatory capacity of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA versus the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS score for predicting ICU mortality, need for and length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and hospitalization in patients with suspected infection admitted to a mixed Brazilian ICU. We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal ICU database from a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patients were categorized according to whether they met the criteria for sepsis according to SOFA (variation ≥2 points over the baseline clinical condition and SIRS (SIRS score ≥2 points. From January 2008 to December 2014, 1487 patients were admitted to the ICU due to suspected infection. SOFA ≥2 identified more septic patients than SIRS ≥2 (79.0% [n = 1175] vs. 68.5% [n = 1020], p  7 days (AUROC = 0.65 vs. 0.63, p = 0.004, and length of hospitalization >10 days (AUROC = 0.61 vs. 0.59, p 7 days.

  15. Sir Charles Alfred Ballance (1856-1936) and the introduction of facial nerve crossover anastomosis in 1895

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaf, Robert C.; Ijpma, Frank F. A.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.

    Sir Charles Ballance (1856-1936) was the first surgeon in history to perform a facial nerve crossover anastomosis in 1895. Although, recently, several papers on the history of facial nerve surgery have been published, little is known about this historically important operation, the theoretical

  16. Classification of gastritis in first-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer in a high cancer-risk area in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saieva, Calogero; Rubio, Carlos A; Nesi, Gabriella; Zini, Enzo; Filomena, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Screening gastroscopic examinations were performed in a cohort of individuals at high risk for developing gastric carcinoma (GC). Five gastric biopsies were obtained following the Houston schema. Five histological parameters of gastritis were investigated: acute gastritis, chronic gastritis, and its sequelae; mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and pseudopyloric metaplasia. Out of 134 patients, 50% (n=67) had Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The sum of scores for the first four parameters was significantly higher in HP-positive cases than in HP-negative ones (pgastritis explain the high GC risk in this borough of Florence, considering that the incidence rate of GC is higher in Central than in Northern Italy. Similarities in the frequency of chronic gastritis and sequelae in Northern and Central Italy substantiate the conviction that the difference in GC risk in these regions might be the result of local environmental or lifestyle factors, rather than HP infection. This knowledge is crucial, considering that environmentally related diseases are theoretically preventable.

  17. Influence of region and site-specific factors on the degree of general validity of ecological and primary-energy-related assessments of biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    As described in this publication, since the early 1990s numerous studies based on the life cycle assessment methodology have been dedicated to assessments of different kinds of bioenergy in comparison with fossil energy resources in terms of their energy balance and environmental impact. On reviewing the results of these studies one finds a strikingly wide range of variation. One major factor of influence on the results of life cycle assessments, besides methodological factors such as the choice of allocation method, is the representativeness of the data used. Thus, widely varying results are also obtained when balance calculations and assessments are performed on energy crops with due consideration to regional and site-specific factors. To address this problem the present study endeavoured to identify region and site-specific factors and assess them in terms of their influence on the life cycle assessment of the cultivation and conversion to biogas of different kinds of energy crops. For this purpose the following questions were explored: What influence do region, site and equipment-specific factors have on the results of ecological and primary-energy-related assessments; and how large are the differences in results between region and site-specific assessments on the one hand and assessments based on general assumptions on the other? It transpires that the results of region and site-specific assessments differ from one another in terms of both the assessment of energy cropping and the assessment of the entire process chain of biogas production and conversion to electricity.

  18. Insulin resistance and β-cell function in Colombian mestizo and Embera-Chamí populations and their relation with adiposity degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Gomez, María Antonieta; Naranjo-González, Andrés; Parra-Marín, María Victoria; Gallego-Lopera, Natalia; Valencia, Diana María; Rúa-Molina, Diana Carolina; Rosique-Gracia, Javier; García-Pineda, Andres Felipe; Gómez-Isaza, Luis Felipe; Pizano-Ramírez, Norman Diego; Arcos, Edgar Gerardo; Villegas-Perrasse, Alberto; Duque-Botero, Julieta; Bedoya-Berrío, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition favored by metabolic and endocrine changes experienced by adipose tissue in the context of obesity. The prevalence and the presentation of both IR and obesity vary among the populations, and may be affected by ancestral genetic composition among other factors. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of IR and obesity in Amerindians of the Embera-Chamí ethnicity and Colombian mestizo population. A sample of 630 individuals, 471 mestizos and 159 Amerindians of the Embera-Chamí ethnicity, from the general population of Colombia were studied. For each participant, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, as well as blood pressure and the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) of IR and β-cell function (%B) were recorded. These values were compared between the two populations. While prevalence of central obesity was similar in both populations (48.7% and 42.6% in the mestizo and Embera groups respectively; p=0.148), body mass index (BMI) values suggested a higher prevalence of overweight in the Embera than in mestizo population (43.4% Embera, 31.8% mestizo; p=0.027). Despite the similarities in the prevalence of HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B status between both populations, the Embera population had a significantly greater pancreatic β-cell function, higher insulin levels, and better glucose control, across BMI and central obesity categories, than the mestizo population. There are differences in aspects related to energy metabolism between the samples of the mestizo and Amerindian populations analyzed. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The dark knight : Sir Thomas Tait and the rise and fall of New Brunswick's famous coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, G.

    2010-03-15

    Industrial coal mining in New Brunswick began in the early 1900s. In 1913, a former Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) manager, Sir Thomas Tait, learned of underexploited coalfields around Grand Lake and negotiated the best coal assets from locals. He used his CPR connections to secure a large government grant to finish an important 50-kilometre railway link between Minto and Fredericton. He kept the coal assets for himself and formed the Minto Coal Company and landed 2 prime contracts to supply coal to a nearby cotton mill and to CPR. This article highlighted Tait's disreputable approach to labour relations. Despite lucrative contracts to Minto Coal during World War 1, Tait did not share the profits with his miners. This coal mining period in New Brunswick was characterized by union busting, evictions from dire company housing, arbitrary pay cuts, strikes and increasingly unsafe conditions in the mines. Two royal commissions were called to look into matters, but the province had no legislation to enforce their many recommendations. However, the government finally passed legislation when in 1932, 5 people died trying to rescue boys who were poisoned while playing in an abandoned mine shaft. That same year, 14 miners were disabled and 2 men killed in accidents at Minto Coal. Legislation forced mines to reduce work hours and improve safety. Women and children were barred from mining. When Tait refused to reduce work hours the miners went on strike again. After a critical situation in 1937 when 1000 miner and 11 colliers walked out, things gradually improved for both the miners and mine owners. New technology in the 1940s led to greater production, safety and profits. In 1944, Minto Coal donated land and money to build the town's first hospital. Credit for this philanthropy did not go to Thomas Tait, who died in 1940.

  20. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  1. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  2. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4 and Gleason score 7 (4+3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade becomes particularly important in ADCP Gleason score 7. Tumors with worse prognosis considered to be ADCP of higher Gleason score, the advanced clinical stage, androgen independent tumors and tumors that show a higher degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive significance of ADCP Gleason score 7 (3+4 and ADCP Gleason score 7 (4+3 in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7,26 (78.79% ADCP 7 (3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7 (4+3. All tumors are most often diagnosed with stage D2, when there are already distant metastases. ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 were diagnosed more often at this stage, among them there are more androgen independent tumors and they show a greater degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. All the results are in accordance with data from the literature suggesting that ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 have a worse prognosis than ADCP of Gleason score 7 (3 +4.

  3. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  4. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  5. An Overview of Justice in Sir Walter Scott Waverley Novels: The Heart of Mid-Lothian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Sir Walter Scott is a well-known writer most of his readers know that he became an advocate in 1792, when he was admitted to the bar. Since then Scott and other advocates walked the floor at Parliament House (home of the Faculty of Advocates and the Court of Session waiting to be hired. Scott’s own experiences as a fledgling advocate are echoed in those of Alain Fairford in his novel Redgauntlet (Scott 1824, which provides a vivid picture of Parliament House in the eighteenth century. During his life, Scott combined extensive writing and editing issues with his daily work as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. Walter Scott was not unaware of Justice and Law and The Heart of Mid-Lothian is the novel in which he introduces to the reader the Scottish Legal System during the eighteenth century. However, there are few more examples that I will explain. Aunque Sir Walter Scott es un conocido escritor, la mayoría de sus lectores saben que en 1792 se hizo abogado, cuando fue admitido en el colegio de abogados. Desde entonces Scott y otros abogados rondaron el Parlamento con la esperanza de ser contratados. Las propias experiencias de Scott como un abogado novel se reflejan en las de Alain Fairford en su novela Redgauntlet (Scott 1824, lo que ofrece una vívida imagen del Parlamento (sede de la facultad de Derecho y Tribunal Supremo en el siglo XVIII. Durante su vida, Scott compaginó una profusa actividad como escritor y editor con su trabajo diario como juez en Selkirk. Walter Scott conocía la justicia y el derecho y El corazón de Mid-Lothian es la novela en la presenta al lector el régimen jurídico de Escocia durante el siglo XVIII. Sin embargo, se explicarán algunos otros ejemplos. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543538

  6. Genomic Targets and Features of BarA-UvrY (-SirA Signal Transduction Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfalem R Zere

    Full Text Available The two-component signal transduction system BarA-UvrY of Escherichia coli and its orthologs globally regulate metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, stress resistance, virulence of pathogens and quorum sensing by activating the transcription of genes for regulatory sRNAs, e.g. CsrB and CsrC in E. coli. These sRNAs act by sequestering the RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA away from lower affinity mRNA targets. In this study, we used ChIP-exo to identify, at single nucleotide resolution, genomic sites for UvrY (SirA binding in E. coli and Salmonella enterica. The csrB and csrC genes were the strongest targets of crosslinking, which required UvrY phosphorylation by the BarA sensor kinase. Crosslinking occurred at two sites, an inverted repeat sequence far upstream of the promoter and a site near the -35 sequence. DNAse I footprinting revealed specific binding of UvrY in vitro only to the upstream site, indicative of additional binding requirements and/or indirect binding to the downstream site. Additional genes, including cspA, encoding the cold-shock RNA-binding protein CspA, showed weaker crosslinking and modest or negligible regulation by UvrY. We conclude that the global effects of UvrY/SirA on gene expression are primarily mediated by activating csrB and csrC transcription. We also used in vivo crosslinking and other experimental approaches to reveal new features of csrB/csrC regulation by the DeaD and SrmB RNA helicases, IHF, ppGpp and DksA. Finally, the phylogenetic distribution of BarA-UvrY was analyzed and found to be uniquely characteristic of γ-Proteobacteria and strongly anti-correlated with fliW, which encodes a protein that binds to CsrA and antagonizes its activity in Bacillus subtilis. We propose that BarA-UvrY and orthologous TCS transcribe sRNA antagonists of CsrA throughout the γ-Proteobacteria, but rarely or never perform this function in other species.

  7. The Secret Life of Archives: Sally Siddons, Sir Thomas Lawrence, and The Material of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Engel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is in two parts, in the first I attempt to map out strategies for considering archival materials through the lens of performance, and in the second I enact or perform some of those strategies through a close reading of a letter from Sally Siddons, daughter of the famous actress Sarah Siddons, to the renown portrait painter and rakish bad boy, Sir Thomas Lawrence. I present a methodology that considers archival researchers as tourists who approach archival objects and images as material for curating a virtual exhibition. I argue that this strategy allows us to recognize and attempt to envision the interdisciplinary relationship amongst archival materials in order to imagine them in spatial, theatrical, and visual proximity to one another. In this way as researchers we are performing a kind of re-enactment, an animation, of the secret life of archives, which attempts to account the embodied traces of the past by providing an accessible thought provoking map for audiences.

  8. Vital endowments: Sir Charles Bell and the history of some congenital abnormalities of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Alan

    2011-12-01

    Born in Edinburgh in 1774 Sir Charles Bell, as a young man, studied anatomy and surgery in his hometown. There followed a distinguished career that culminated in his becoming the first professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the College of Surgeons in London. Renowned as a brilliant neuroanatomist he was invited, on the advice of His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, to contribute one of eight volumes of a work on the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God as manifested in the Creation - known as the Bridgewater Treatises. 'The Hand its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design' was published in 1833 and it is an account of his considering the hand as a machine that has been engineered to exacting standards to interact with the environment in which we live. In it he expressed a deep understanding of the similarity of the structure of the upper limbs of the higher orders of animals. The similarity of the paddle of a turtle and a human hand with acrosymbrachydactyly is unmistakable. This congenital abnormality, given the eponymous title of Apert's syndrome, is one of a number of congenital abnormalities that have parallels in the animal kingdom. Others who have had similar syndromes named after them include Poland, Marfan, Streeter and a number of others. The life and times of these men and their contributions to medicine will be presented in this paper. © 2011 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Sir Patrick Dun and the Complete School of Physic in eighteenth-century Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, S

    2015-03-01

    2013 is the tercentenary of the death of Sir Patrick Dun. When Dun died in 1713, he left the proceeds of his estate to enhance medical education in Dublin by funding chairs in medicine. He showed remarkable innovation, but it took 95 years, five Acts of Parliament, two House of Commons enquiries and a House of Lords enquiry before Dun's wishes were brought to fruition and systematic clinical education was available for Dublin medical students. The passage of the final School of Physic Act in 1800 insured that a hospital would open in his name and regular clinical education was provided. The physician, Richard Steevens, who died 3 years earlier in 1710, left the proceeds of his estate to found a hospital, which opened, in his name, in 1733. The contemporary primary sources have been analysed and material from relevant secondary sources has been included where appropriate. Dublin was the beneficiary of these bequests and if circumstances had been more favourable, and the proceeds had been used more efficiently at the start of the eighteenth-century, Dublin could well have rivalled Edinburgh as the seat of medical education in the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, it would fulfil that role and equal Edinburgh as one of the primary centres of medical education in Europe.

  10. Sir John Adams - His Legacy to the World of Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    John Adams acquired an unrivalled reputation for his leading part in designing and constructing the PS in CERN’s early days. In 1968, and after several years heading a fusion laboratory in the UK, he came back to Geneva to pilot the SPS project to approval and then to direct its construction. At the time of his untimely death in 1984 he had built Europe’s two largest proton accelerators at CERN. He went on, during the second of his terms as DG, to lay the groundwork for the proton-antiproton collider which led to the discovery of the intermediate vector boson. How did someone without any formal academic qualification achieve this? What was the magic behind his leadership? How did he achieve political success with the Member States of CERN in turning the almost hopeless quest for approval of the SPS to CERN’s advantage? How did he view his US counterpart, R. R. Wilson? The speaker, who worked many years alongside Adams, will discuss these questions and speculate on how Sir John Adams might have viewed t...

  11. A Historical Survey of Sir Karl Popper's Contribution to Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Shields

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was complete (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. Quanta 2012; 1: 1–12.

  12. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy.

  13. Contribuciones de Sir Roland Fisher a la Estadística Genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cuadros

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Ronald Fisher (18901962 fue profesor de genética y muchas de sus innovaciones estadísticas encontraron expresión en el desarrollo de metodología en estadística genética. Sin embargo, mientras sus contribuciones en estadística matemática son fácilmente identificadas, en genética de poblaciones compartió su supremacía con Sewall Wright (1889 1988 y J. S. S. Haldane (1892 1965. Este documento muestra algunas de las mejores contribuciones de Fisher a las bases de la estadística genética, y sus interacciones con Wright y Haldane, los cuales contribuyeron al desarrollo del tema. Con la tecnología moderna, tanto la metodología la estadística como la información genética están cambiando. No obstante, muchos de los trabajos de Fisher permanecen relevantes, y pueden aun servir como una base para investigaciones futuras en el análisis estadístico de datos de DNA. El trabajo de este autor refleja su visión del papel de Ia estadística en Ia inferencia científica expresada en 1949

  14. SIRS Model of Passengers’ Panic Propagation under Self-Organization Circumstance in the Subway Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subway emergency may lead to passengers’ panic, especially under self-organizing circumstance, which will spread rapidly and have an adverse impact on the society. This paper builds an improved SIRS model of passengers’ panic spread in subway emergency with consideration of passengers’ density, the characteristic of subway car with the confined space, and passengers’ psychological factors. The spread of passengers’ panic is simulated by use of Matlab, which draws the rules of how group panic spreads dynamically. The trend of stable point of the infection ratio is analyzed by changing different parameters, which help to draw a conclusion that immunization rate, spontaneous immune loss rate, and passenger number have a great influence on the final infected ratio. Finally, we propose an integrated control strategy and find the peak of passengers’ panic and the final infected ratio is greatly improved through the numerical simulation. The research plays a vital role in helping the government and subway administration to master the panic spread mechanism and reduce the panic spread by improving measures and also provides certain reference significance for rail system construction, emergency contingency plans, and the construction and implementation of emergency response system.

  15. Classification of surface types using SIR-C/X-SAR, Mount Everest Area, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Shi, Jiancheng; Dozier, Jeff; Fielding, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Imaging radar is a promising tool for mapping snow and ice cover in alpine regions. It combines a high-resolution, day or night, all-weather imaging capability with sensitivity to hydrologic and climatic snow and ice parameters. We use the spaceborne imaging radar-C/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) to map snow and glacial ice on the rugged north slope of Mount Everest. From interferometrically derived digital elevation data, we compute the terrain calibration factor and cosine of the local illumination angle. We then process and terrain-correct radar data sets acquired on April 16, 1994. In addition to the spectral data, we include surface slope to improve discrimination among several surface types. These data sets are then used in a decision tree to generate an image classification. This method is successful in identifying and mapping scree/talus, dry snow, dry snow-covered glacier, wet snow-covered glacier, and rock-covered glacier, as corroborated by comparison with existing surface cover maps and other ancillary information. Application of the classification scheme to data acquired on October 7 of the same year yields accurate results for most surface types but underreports the extent of dry snow cover.

  16. Effective degree Markov-chain approach for discrete-time epidemic processes on uncorrelated networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao-Ran; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2014-11-01

    Recently, Gómez et al. proposed a microscopic Markov-chain approach (MMCA) [S. Gómez, J. Gómez-Gardeñes, Y. Moreno, and A. Arenas, Phys. Rev. E 84, 036105 (2011)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.036105] to the discrete-time susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic process and found that the epidemic prevalence obtained by this approach agrees well with that by simulations. However, we found that the approach cannot be straightforwardly extended to a susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic process (due to its irreversible property), and the epidemic prevalences obtained by MMCA and Monte Carlo simulations do not match well when the infection probability is just slightly above the epidemic threshold. In this contribution we extend the effective degree Markov-chain approach, proposed for analyzing continuous-time epidemic processes [J. Lindquist, J. Ma, P. Driessche, and F. Willeboordse, J. Math. Biol. 62, 143 (2011)JMBLAJ0303-681210.1007/s00285-010-0331-2], to address discrete-time binary-state (SIS) or three-state (SIR) epidemic processes on uncorrelated complex networks. It is shown that the final epidemic size as well as the time series of infected individuals obtained from this approach agree very well with those by Monte Carlo simulations. Our results are robust to the change of different parameters, including the total population size, the infection probability, the recovery probability, the average degree, and the degree distribution of the underlying networks.

  17. Positron-emitting resin microspheres as surrogates of 90Y SIR-Spheres: a radiolabeling and stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Selwyn, Reed G.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; DeJesus, Onofre T.; Converse, Alexander K.; Nickles, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Commercially available resin microspheres and SIR-Spheres were labeled with metallic positron emitters and evaluated as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging surrogates of 90 Y SIR-Spheres. Radiolabeling was performed using a batch method, and in vitro stability over 24 h was evaluated in saline at physiological pH at 37 o C. The activity per microsphere distribution, as evaluated by autoradiography, showed the activity per microsphere to be proportional to the square radius of the spheres, suggesting surface binding. The in vivo stability of radiolabeling was evaluated in rats by micro-PET imaging after the intravenous injection of labeled microspheres. The different resin microspheres and radionuclides evaluated in this study all showed good radiolabeling efficiency and in vitro stability. However, only resins labeled with 86 Y and 89 Zr proved to have the in vivo stability required for clinical applications

  18. On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of

  19. Royal Jelly-Mediated Prolongevity and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans Is Possibly Modulated by the Interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cook, Lauren F; Grasso, Lindsay M; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that royal jelly (RJ) and its related substances may have antiaging properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain elusive. We report that the effects of RJ and enzyme-treated RJ (eRJ) on life span and health span in Caenorhabditis elegans (C elegans) are modulated by the sophisticated interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 proteins. Dietary supplementation with RJ or eRJ increased C. elegans life span in a dose-dependent manner. The RJ and eRJ consumption increased the tolerance of C elegans to oxidative stress, ultraviolet irradiation, and heat shock stress. Our genetic analyses showed that RJ/eRJ-mediated life-span extension requires insulin/IGF-1 signaling and the activities of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and FTT-2, a 14-3-3 protein. Earlier studies reported that DAF-16/FOXO, SIR-2.1/SIRT1, FTT-2, and HCF-1 have extensive interplays in worms and mammals. Our present findings suggest that RJ/eRJ-mediated promotion of longevity and stress resistance in C elegans is dependent on these conserved interplays. From an evolutionary point of view, this study not only provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of RJ's action on health span promotion in C elegans, but also has imperative implications in using RJ/eRJ as nutraceuticals to delay aging and age-related disorders. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Deforestation and Secondary Growth in Rondonia, Brazil from SIR-C SAR and Landsat.SPOT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric; Salas, William A.; Skole, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Covers problems with existing data collected with high-resolution optical sensors. They say active microwave sensors could complement other sensors in getting through things like cloud cover. They analyzed SIR-C data in combination with Landsat TM data, a 9-year time series of SPOT XS data, and a preliminary field survey. They report findings and draw conclusions, including that SARs operating at long radar wavelengths, with both like and cross-polarizations, are needed for tropical deforestation studies.

  1. The β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gas1 regulates Sir2-mediated rDNA stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Cheol Woong; Kim, Kwantae; Chang, Yeon Ji; Kim, Bongkeun; Huh, Won-Ki

    2014-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the stability of highly repetitive rDNA array is maintained through transcriptional silencing. Recently, a β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gas1 has been shown to play a significant role in the regulation of transcriptional silencing in S. cerevisiae. Here, we show that the gas1Δ mutation increases rDNA silencing in a Sir2-dependent manner. Remarkably, the gas1Δ mutation induces nuclear localization of Msn2/4 and stimulates the expression of PNC1, a gene encoding a nicotinamidase that functions as a Sir2 activator. The lack of enzymatic activity of Gas1 or treatment with a cell wall-damaging agent, Congo red, exhibits effects similar to those of the gas1Δ mutation. Furthermore, the loss of Gas1 or Congo red treatment lowers the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in a cell wall integrity MAP kinase Slt2-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggest that the dysfunction of Gas1 plays a positive role in the maintenance of rDNA integrity by decreasing PKA activity and inducing the accumulation of Msn2/4 in the nucleus. It seems that nuclear-localized Msn2/4 stimulate the expression of Pnc1, thereby enhancing the association of Sir2 with rDNA and promoting rDNA stability. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora as a quick diagnostic marker in patients with severe SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kentaro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Tomono, Kazunori; Tasaki, Osamu; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Matsushima, Asako; Nakahori, Yasutaka; Yamano, Shuhei; Osuka, Akinori; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2011-06-01

    The gut is an important target organ of injury during critically ill conditions. Although Gram staining is a common and quick method for identifying bacteria, its clinical application has not been fully evaluated in critically ill conditions. This study's aims were to identify patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora and compare them to cultured bacterial counts and to investigate the association between the patterns and septic complications in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Fifty-two patients with SIRS were included whose Gram-stained fecal flora was classified into three patterns. In a diverse pattern, large numbers of multiple kinds of bacteria completely covered the field. In a single pattern, one specific kind of bacteria or fungi predominantly covered the field. In a depleted pattern, most bacteria were diminished in the field. In the analysis of fecal flora, the numbers of total obligate anaerobes in the depleted pattern was significantly lower than those in the diverse pattern and single pattern (p Gram-stained fecal flora can be classified into three patterns and are associated with both cultured bacterial counts and clinical information. Gram-stained fecal bacteria can be used as a quick bedside diagnostic marker for severe SIRS patients.

  3. Agro-transformation and evaluation of resistance to Phytophthora infestansin Solanum tuberosumL. variety Désirée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Orbegozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of the disease known as late blight, is primarily responsible for the decreased in production performance and potato crops worldwide. The integration of the complete Rgenes sequences in the potato genome using Agro-transformation appears an alternative to be considered in the fight against this pathogen. The Rpi-blb2 gene (Rgene from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanumDunal shows a broad resistance to isolates ofP. infestans,making it an important candidate for plant breeding studies. This paper reports the integration of the Rpi-blb2gene into potato var. Désirée genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation system, the molecular characterization of 29 events transformed and whole plant infection with isolate POX67 of P. infestansfrom Peru. Désirée events [Rpi-blb2] 4 and Désirée [Rpi-blb2] 30, showed a substantial resistance to P. infestansinfection confirming complete transfer of the Rpi-blb2gene from a wild species to a cultivated species by genetic transformation.

  4. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and serum lactate dehydrogenase in the diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, SIRS and systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Fabio; Faneschi, Maria Letizia; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Cucurachi, Marco; Portaccio, Gerolamo; Guerra, Francesco; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet count (PLT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as early markers for diagnosis of SIRS, bacterial sepsis and systemic candidiasis in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on blood culture results, the patients were divided into a sepsis group (70 patients), a SIRS group (42 patients) and a systemic candidiasis group (33 patients). PCT, CRP, LDH and PLT levels were measured on day 0 and on day 2 from the sepsis symptom onset. PCT levels were higher in Gram negative sepsis than those in Gram positive sepsis, although the P value between the two subgroups is not significant (P=0.095). Bacterial sepsis group had higher PCT and CRP levels compared with the systemic candidiasis group, whereas PLT and LDH levels showed similar levels in these two subgroups. The AUC for PCT (AUC: 0.892, P candidiasis groups (P=0.093 N.S.). In conclusion, PCT can be used as a preliminary marker in the event of clinical suspicion of systemic candidiasis; however, low PCT levels (candidiasis and SIRS groups.

  5. Biotinylation of lysine method identifies acetylated histone H3 lysine 79 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a substrate for Sir2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheda, Poonam; Swatkoski, Stephen; Fiedler, Katherine L; Boeke, Jef D; Cotter, Robert J; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2012-04-17

    Although the biological roles of many members of the sirtuin family of lysine deacetylases have been well characterized, a broader understanding of their role in biology is limited by the challenges in identifying new substrates. We present here an in vitro method that combines biotinylation and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify substrates deacetylated by sirtuins. The method permits labeling of deacetylated residues with amine-reactive biotin on the ε-nitrogen of lysine. The biotin can be utilized to purify the substrate and identify the deacetylated lysine by MS. The biotinyl-lysine method was used to compare deacetylation of chemically acetylated histones by the yeast sirtuins, Sir2 and Hst2. Intriguingly, Sir2 preferentially deacetylates histone H3 lysine 79 as compared to Hst2. Although acetylation of K79 was not previously reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate that a minor population of this residue is indeed acetylated in vivo and show that Sir2, and not Hst2, regulates the acetylation state of H3 lysine 79. The in vitro biotinyl-lysine method combined with chemical acetylation made it possible to identify this previously unknown, low-abundance histone acetyl modification in vivo. This method has further potential to identify novel sirtuin deacetylation substrates in whole cell extracts, enabling large-scale screens for new deacetylase substrates.

  6. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  7. Sir Francis Joseph Campbell and His Family: The First Family in Professional Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the pivotal roles of Sir Francis Campbell (1832-1914) and members of his family, especially his son Charles Campbell, in the evolution of the blindness field to a professional and reason-based service.

  8. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuexia [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Central Laboratory, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

  9. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved

  10. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  11. Gender differences in health-related quality of life following ST-elevation myocardial infarction: women and men do not benefit from primary percutaneous coronary intervention to the same degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Steen; Bjorner, Jakob B; Newman, Beth

    2007-01-01

    .01), and the mental component summary scale (P=0.01), as well as in the scales for anxiety (P=0.04), depression (P=0.02), and global quality of life (Pmen had better scores after primary-PCI and women had better scores after fibrinolysis. CONCLUSION: Compared to fibrinolysis treatment in patients with ST......BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence whether women benefit to the same degree as men from treatment of myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when compared to fibrinolysis. This study compares health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes for men and women randomized...... to primary PCI and fibrinolysis. DESIGN: A questionnaire-based study in 1351 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), assessed at 1 and 12 months after the infarction. METHODS: HRQoL was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...

  12. Another Look at a Bahamian Mystery: The Murder of Sir Harry Oakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stop me if you've heard this one:The richest man in the Bahamas, no, the richest man in the British empire, is murdered in his bed. He has suffered a fatal head wound caused by a boat's winch lever. Or by bullets from a small-caliber gun. No, by a conch shell. Or by some blunt object close at hand, still unidentified.The rich man's body is set afire in order to burn down his house and conceal the details of the crime. Or as a diversionary tactic, to confuse the authorities. No, in a voodoo ritual.The killer is his son-in-law. Or his houseguest. Or a mafia hitman.The reason for the murder: to eliminate a powerful opponent of casino gambling. Or to prevent this rich man from leaving the Bahamas with his businesses and wealth. Or to avenge the rich man's resentment of his daughter's choice of husband. Or to steal the enormous horde of gold reported to be hidden in his house.The richest man in the Bahamas (if not the whole Empire was Sir Harry Oakes, who earned his fortune from gold prospecting and spent the rest of his life avoiding the tax man. He was found murdered in the morning of 8 July 1943, having been killed sometime after midnight during a summer thunderstorm. His body, bearing four lethal head wounds and burns from the fire, was discovered the next morning by his close friend and houseguest, Harold Christie, an influential Bahamian estate agent.Add to this cast of characters a smooth-operating Mauritian (Alfred de Marigny married to Oakes' young daughter; a former King of England (the Duke of Windsor, now forced to serve this tiny colonial outpost; and the Duke's scandalous wife (the Duchess of Windsor, for whom he renounced his crown.Also, factor in the war raging around the globe. France had recently fallen to the Nazis; German U-boats patrolled the Atlantic; and the shortages and other exigencies of wartime were the rule. The trial of Alfred deMarigny, Oakes' son-in-law, made international news and his eventual acquittal left the case

  13. American views of Sir Victor Horsley in the era of Cushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Kurt R; Schulder, Michael

    2018-03-09

    Sir Victor Horsley was a pioneering British neurosurgeon known for his numerous neurosurgical, scientific, and sociopolitical contributions. Although word of these surgical and scientific achievements quickly spread throughout Europe and North America in the late 19th century, much of modern neurosurgery's view of Horsley has been colored by a single anecdote from John Fulton's biography of Harvey Cushing. In this account, Cushing observes a frenetic Horsley hastily removing a Gasserian ganglion from a patient in the kitchen of a British mansion. Not long after, Cushing left Britain saying that he had little to learn from British neurosurgery. The authors of this paper examined contemporary views of Horsley to assess what his actual reputation was in the US and Canada. The authors conducted a thorough search of references to Horsley using the following sources: American surgical and neurosurgical textbooks; major biographies; diary entries and letters; PubMed; newspaper articles; and surgical and neurosurgical texts. The positive reception of his work is corroborated by invitations for Horsley to speak in America. Research additionally revealed that Horsley had numerous personal and professional relationships with prominent Americans in medicine, including William Osler, John Wheelock Elliot, Ernest Sachs, and (yes) Harvey Cushing. Horsley's contributions to medicine and science were heavily reported in American newspapers; outside of neurosurgery, his strong opposition to the antivivisectionists and his support for alcohol prohibition were widely reported in popular media. Horsley's contributions to neurosurgery in America are undeniable. Writings from and about prominent Americans reveal that he was viewed favorably by those who had met him. Frequent publication of his views in the American media suggests that medical professionals and the public in the US valued his contributions on scientific as well as social issues. Horsley died too young, but not without the

  14. Frequency Analysis Using Bootstrap Method and SIR Algorithm for Prevention of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Kim, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data is one of the most important factors in response to natural disaster damage, and design standards for a disaster prevention facilities. In case of frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data, it assumes that observation data have statistical stationarity, and a parametric method considering the parameter of probability distribution is applied. For a parametric method, it is necessary to sufficiently collect reliable data; however, snowfall observations are needed to compensate for insufficient data in Korea, because of reducing the number of days for snowfall observations and mean maximum daily snowfall depth due to climate change. In this study, we conducted the frequency analysis for snowfall using the Bootstrap method and SIR algorithm which are the resampling methods that can overcome the problems of insufficient data. For the 58 meteorological stations distributed evenly in Korea, the probability of snowfall depth was estimated by non-parametric frequency analysis using the maximum daily snowfall depth data. The results show that probabilistic daily snowfall depth by frequency analysis is decreased at most stations, and most stations representing the rate of change were found to be consistent in both parametric and non-parametric frequency analysis. This study shows that the resampling methods can do the frequency analysis of the snowfall depth that has insufficient observed samples, which can be applied to interpretation of other natural disasters such as summer typhoons with seasonal characteristics. Acknowledgment.This research was supported by a grant(MPSS-NH-2015-79) from Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS).

  15. Degrees of democraticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bergström

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342

  16. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-03-01

    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  17. Bouvard et Pécuchet et le ruban de Möbius. Variation mathématique sur le désir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Pellegrini

    2010-09-01

    quête –, ils puisent, dans l’inassouvissement même de leur passion, une énergie renouvelée et jamais tarie. Déniant le temps qui n’émousse en rien leur vigueur, ces Dom Juan du savoir reconvertis en éternels Chérubin inaugurent, au terme de leur parcours expérimental, le mouvement perpétuel qui maintient intact leur élan.La structure si particulière de Bouvard et Pécuchet, dont la circularité parfaite est susceptible d’efflorescences mitotiques infinies, tient de la curiosité topologique. Véritable ruban de Möbius du désir, le cheminement de Bouvard et Pécuchet, clos sur lui-même et pourtant proliférant, est cette dynamique protéiforme, paradoxale, progression immobile ou piétinement actif, conquérante à force d’insatisfaction.When, on an idle Sunday afternoon, Bouvard and Pécuchet meet on the deserted boulevard Bourdon, it is love at first sight for both of them. Complementary, antithetical but harmonic, the childless widower and the bachelor resolve the solitude of their lives in this providential encounter which mates them for good: a two-headed protagonist, Bouvard and Pécuchet form an inseparable entity that functions with cross-references, connections, inverted symmetry. Much has been said about the characters’ supposed homosexuality. They are always together, up to the most intimate detail, since, although they do not share a room, they have communicating rooms. Opposites attracting each other so much that they merge, the two heroes could lose themselves, so taken up are they in their “conjugal domesticity”. However to each is attributed an autonomous sentimental affair: to Bouvard the jokester, the Bordin widow strapped in her dove-colored silk dress; to the bashful Pécuchet, indecisive and still a virgin, Mélie the maid, who will soon infect him with syphilis. Yet these adventures scarcely count in the novel’s global economy. Or rather, they count to the same degree as the fellows’ countless experiences

  18. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays - leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  19. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.; Litvak, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  20. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  1. A buoyancy-based screen of Drosophila larvae for fat-storage mutants reveals a role for Sir2 in coupling fat storage to nutrient availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Reis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has a strong genetic component, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity are known. Genetic screens in invertebrates have the potential to identify genes and pathways that regulate the levels of stored fat, many of which are likely to be conserved in humans. To facilitate such screens, we have developed a simple buoyancy-based screening method for identifying mutant Drosophila larvae with increased levels of stored fat. Using this approach, we have identified 66 genes that when mutated increase organismal fat levels. Among these was a sirtuin family member, Sir2. Sirtuins regulate the storage and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids by deacetylating key regulatory proteins. However, since mammalian sirtuins function in many tissues in different ways, it has been difficult to define their role in energy homeostasis accurately under normal feeding conditions. We show that knockdown of Sir2 in the larval fat body results in increased fat levels. Moreover, using genetic mosaics, we demonstrate that Sir2 restricts fat accumulation in individual cells of the fat body in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistent with this function, changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in Sir2 mutants point to a shift away from catabolism. Surprisingly, although Sir2 is typically upregulated under conditions of starvation, Sir2 mutant larvae survive better than wild type under conditions of amino-acid starvation as long as sugars are provided. Our findings point to a Sir2-mediated pathway that activates a catabolic response to amino-acid starvation irrespective of the sugar content of the diet.

  2. Studies on the use of SIR-C and X-SAR data for identification, demarcation, and assessment of forest ecosystems. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von SIR-C und X-SAR Daten fuer die Identifizierung, Abgrenzung und Beurteilung von Waldoekosystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johlige, A.; Foerster, B.; Ammer, U.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present evaluation was to use SIR-C and X-SAR data for forest surveying and assess their suitability for this task. Amongst other work this included the discrimination of forest and non-forest, demarcation of cleared areas within forests, discrimination of different forest types, and assessment of the influence of foliation. The chief steps of the study were the preparation of radar data, accompanying aerial photo evaluation for the extraction of training and verification areas, and detailed signature analysis. Evaluation trials in ``Oberpfaffenhofen`` supertest area yielded unsatisfactory results when it came to discriminating different forest ecosystems. This can be attributed to the very heterogeneous and small-scale structure of the area and the absence of topographically coded X, C, and L band data. In the second study area, located in the ``Bavarian Forest National Park``, geocoded data of all three bands were available in the form of combined products. This permitted using the mask of the local angles of incidence to reduce the influence of relief. In this case distinguishability within wooded regions was also enhanced. A general finding was that ground resolution as it presents to the user is clearly poorer than the nominal resolution. What impressed us most was the high degree of weather-independence of the radar data. All data handled in this study were recorded under conditions that would have made photography impossible. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Auswertung ist es SIR-C/X-SAR Daten fuer die Waldbeobachtung einzusetzen und ihre Eignung dafuer zu bewerten. Zu loesende Teilaufgaben waren u.a. die Wald-Nichtwaldtrennung, die Abtrennung unbestockter Flaechen im Wald, Unterscheidung verschiedener Waldtypen selbst und die Beurteilung des Einflusses des Belaubungszustndes. Die zentralen Arbeitsschritte waren die Aufbereitung der Radardaten, die begleitende Luftbildauswertung zur Extraktion von Trainings- und Verifizierungsgebieten und die

  3. Studies on the use of SIR-C and X-SAR data for identification, demarcation, and assessment of forest ecosystems. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von SIR-C und X-SAR Daten fuer die Identifizierung, Abgrenzung und Beurteilung von Waldoekosystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johlige, A; Foerster, B; Ammer, U

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of the present evaluation was to use SIR-C and X-SAR data for forest surveying and assess their suitability for this task. Amongst other work this included the discrimination of forest and non-forest, demarcation of cleared areas within forests, discrimination of different forest types, and assessment of the influence of foliation. The chief steps of the study were the preparation of radar data, accompanying aerial photo evaluation for the extraction of training and verification areas, and detailed signature analysis. Evaluation trials in ``Oberpfaffenhofen`` supertest area yielded unsatisfactory results when it came to discriminating different forest ecosystems. This can be attributed to the very heterogeneous and small-scale structure of the area and the absence of topographically coded X, C, and L band data. In the second study area, located in the ``Bavarian Forest National Park``, geocoded data of all three bands were available in the form of combined products. This permitted using the mask of the local angles of incidence to reduce the influence of relief. In this case distinguishability within wooded regions was also enhanced. A general finding was that ground resolution as it presents to the user is clearly poorer than the nominal resolution. What impressed us most was the high degree of weather-independence of the radar data. All data handled in this study were recorded under conditions that would have made photography impossible. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Auswertung ist es SIR-C/X-SAR Daten fuer die Waldbeobachtung einzusetzen und ihre Eignung dafuer zu bewerten. Zu loesende Teilaufgaben waren u.a. die Wald-Nichtwaldtrennung, die Abtrennung unbestockter Flaechen im Wald, Unterscheidung verschiedener Waldtypen selbst und die Beurteilung des Einflusses des Belaubungszustndes. Die zentralen Arbeitsschritte waren die Aufbereitung der Radardaten, die begleitende Luftbildauswertung zur Extraktion von Trainings- und Verifizierungsgebieten und die

  4. Isonicotinamide Enhances Sir2 Protein-mediated Silencing and Longevity in Yeast by Raising Intracellular NAD+ Concentration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Julie M.; Wierman, Margaret B.; Maqani, Nazif; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases that function in the regulation of gene transcription, cellular metabolism, and aging. Their activity requires the maintenance of an adequate intracellular NAD+ concentration through the combined action of NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage pathways. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a key NAD+ precursor that is also a byproduct and feedback inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nicotinamidase Pnc1 converts NAM to nicotinic acid (NA), which is then used as a substrate by the NAD+ salvage pathway enzyme NA phosphoribosyltransferase (Npt1). Isonicotinamide (INAM) is an isostere of NAM that stimulates yeast Sir2 deacetylase activity in vitro by alleviating the NAM inhibition. In this study, we determined that INAM stimulates Sir2 through an additional mechanism in vivo, which involves elevation of the intracellular NAD+ concentration. INAM enhanced normal silencing at the rDNA locus but only partially suppressed the silencing defects of an npt1Δ mutant. Yeast cells grown in media lacking NA had a short replicative life span, which was extended by INAM in a SIR2-dependent manner and correlated with increased NAD+. The INAM-induced increase in NAD+ was strongly dependent on Pnc1 and Npt1, suggesting that INAM increases flux through the NAD+ salvage pathway. Part of this effect was mediated by the NR salvage pathways, which generate NAM as a product and require Pnc1 to produce NAD+. We also provide evidence suggesting that INAM influences the expression of multiple NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage pathways to promote homeostasis during stationary phase. PMID:22539348

  5. Isonicotinamide enhances Sir2 protein-mediated silencing and longevity in yeast by raising intracellular NAD+ concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Julie M; Wierman, Margaret B; Maqani, Nazif; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2012-06-15

    Sirtuins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that function in the regulation of gene transcription, cellular metabolism, and aging. Their activity requires the maintenance of an adequate intracellular NAD(+) concentration through the combined action of NAD(+) biosynthesis and salvage pathways. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a key NAD(+) precursor that is also a byproduct and feedback inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nicotinamidase Pnc1 converts NAM to nicotinic acid (NA), which is then used as a substrate by the NAD(+) salvage pathway enzyme NA phosphoribosyltransferase (Npt1). Isonicotinamide (INAM) is an isostere of NAM that stimulates yeast Sir2 deacetylase activity in vitro by alleviating the NAM inhibition. In this study, we determined that INAM stimulates Sir2 through an additional mechanism in vivo, which involves elevation of the intracellular NAD(+) concentration. INAM enhanced normal silencing at the rDNA locus but only partially suppressed the silencing defects of an npt1Δ mutant. Yeast cells grown in media lacking NA had a short replicative life span, which was extended by INAM in a SIR2-dependent manner and correlated with increased NAD(+). The INAM-induced increase in NAD(+) was strongly dependent on Pnc1 and Npt1, suggesting that INAM increases flux through the NAD(+) salvage pathway. Part of this effect was mediated by the NR salvage pathways, which generate NAM as a product and require Pnc1 to produce NAD(+). We also provide evidence suggesting that INAM influences the expression of multiple NAD(+) biosynthesis and salvage pathways to promote homeostasis during stationary phase.

  6. Relevamiento de factores de riesgo y de enfermedad renal en familiares de pacientes en diálisis Survey of risk factors and renal disease in first-degree relatives of dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Inserra

    2007-02-01

    de enfermedad renal crónica.Background: It has been established that first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have a higher CKD risk than the overall population. This paper deals with the relative frequency of CKD markers and cardiovascular (CV risk factors within first-degree relatives of ESRD patients in Argentina. Methods: 810 family members volunteered to participate; of them 668 over 18 ys. old. Trained nurses interviewed them and completed a questionnaire dealing with family history of renal and cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure, urine and blood analysis and anthropometric data were collected. Selected parameters were: smoking habit, presence of high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, high plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance estimated by MDRD formula, proteinuria and microalbuminuria. In pediatric population, weight and blood pressure parameters were evaluated as percentiles. CKD were classified in stage (National Kidney Foundation. Results: The relative frequencies were: CKD: 29.6%; proteinuria: 13.9%; microalbuminuria: 8.7%. The prevalence values found for main CV risks factors, adjusted by sex and age, were: high blood pressure= 41.8%; overweight/obesity by BMI= 62.1%, hypercholesterolemia= 42.9% and hyperglycemia= 5.2%. Smoking habit was present in 34.8%. In conclusion: Prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in first-degree relatives of ESRD patients is higher than previously communicated in studies of national reference populations. Prevalence of CKD is high, estimated as three-fold higher than for a general population as reported in poblational studies. These results support the fact that first-degree relatives of ESRD patients, as has been established elsewhere, constitute a population at high risk for developing ESRD.

  7. The Herschel objects and how to observe them exploring sir William Herschel's star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    Deep-sky observers are always on the lookout for new observing challenges. "The Herschel Objects, and How to Observe them" offers an exciting opportunity to retrace the footsteps of Sir William Herschel, discoverer of Uranus and arguably the greatest visual observer and celestial explorer that ever lived!Following a biography of Herschel that details his life and the telescopes he used, this practical observer's guide lists all the most impressive of Herschel's star clusters, nebulae and galaxies.More than 600 of the brightest of the objects that Herschel observed are covered, and there are detailed descriptions and images of almost 200 of the very best Herschel objects for amateur astronomers.

  8. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) and Sir John Forbes (1787-1861): neighbours in Old Burlington Street, Westminster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Robin

    2015-05-01

    The year 2010 marks the centenary of the birth of Florence Nightingale and will, no doubt, be universally remembered. Her life and nursing career have recently been fully described by Bostridge. It is less well known that her neighbour from November 1856 was the distinguished Scottish physician Sir John Forbes MD Edin FRCP Lond FRS DCL Oxon. Although they never met, they exchanged copies of each other's books and shared a mutual respect. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination and double diseases driven by Lévy jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination and double diseases which make the research more complex. The environment variability in this paper is characterized by white noise and Lévy noise. We establish sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the two epidemic diseases. It is shown that: (i) time delay and Lévy noise have important effects on the persistence and extinction of epidemic diseases; (ii) two diseases can coexist under certain conditions.

  10. A prospective evaluation of treatment with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIR-spheres) in patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-FU based chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, L; Gibbs, P; Yip, D; Shapiro, JD; Dowling, R; Smith, D; Little, A; Bailey, W; Liechtenstein, M

    2005-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective internal radiation (SIR) spheres in patients with inoperable liver metastases from colorectal cancer who have failed 5FU based chemotherapy. Patients were prospectively enrolled at three Australian centres. All patients had previously received 5-FU based chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients were ECOG 0–2 and had liver dominant or liver only disease. Concurrent 5-FU was given at investigator discretion. Thirty patients were treated between January 2002 and March 2004. As of July 2004 the median follow-up is 18.3 months. Median patient age was 61.7 years (range 36 – 77). Twenty-nine patients are evaluable for toxicity and response. There were 10 partial responses (33%), with the median duration of response being 8.3 months (range 2–18) and median time to progression of 5.3 mths. Response rates were lower (21%) and progression free survival shorter (3.9 mths) in patients that had received all standard chemotherapy options (n = 14). No responses were seen in patients with a poor performance status (n = 3) or extrahepatic disease (n = 6). Overall treatment related toxicity was acceptable, however significant late toxicity included 4 cases of gastric ulceration. In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that have previously received treatment with 5-FU based chemotherapy, treatment with SIR-spheres has demonstrated encouraging activity. Further studies are required to better define the subsets of patients most likely to respond

  11. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  12. To Sir with Love: the relations between teacher qualification and student performance in AccountingAo Mestre com Carinho: relações entre as qualificações docentes e o desempenho discente em ContabilidadeAl Máster con Cariño: relación entre la cualificación de los docentes y el rendimiento de los estudiantes en Contabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA, Gilberto José

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAccounting scholars who discuss the teaching of Accounting highlight two fundamental types of qualification for teaching staff in Accountancy programs: academic qualification (AQ, which refers to the teacher’s preparation for research; and professional qualification (PQ, defined by the teacher’s connection with current professional practices in the job market. Educational literature on higher education teaching, in turn, appoints a third type: pedagogical qualification (PeQ, which relates to the systemized preparation for teaching practice in the university context. Considering undergraduate Accountancy students’ low performance levels in the National Exam for the Assessment of Student Performance (Exame Nacional do Desempenho dos Estudantes/Enade, this research aimed to investigate the relations between student performance and teacher qualification. To identify variables related to teaching staff qualification, a questionnaire was developed, validated and applied in 218 higher education institutions (HEIs that offer undergraduate Accountancy programs. These variables were compared with graduates’ performance at the same institutions, verified on ENADE’s basis, using linear regression and correlation analysis. The results partially confirm the established hypotheses: only academic qualification shows a significant regression coefficient at 5% (p-value = 0.000 and a significant positive correlation at 1%. Professional and pedagogical qualification showed no significant correlations. The AQ rate at public HEIs is also significantly higher than at private HEIs.RESUMOOs estudiosos da área contábil, que discutem o ensino da Contabilidade, apontam dois tipos de qualificação essenciais ao quadro docente de um curso de Ciências Contábeis: a qualificação acadêmica (Qac, que se refere à preparação do docente para a pesquisa, e a qualificação profissional (Qpr, caracterizada pela ligação que o docente mantém com as pr

  13. Sir Harold Delf Gillies, the otolaryngologist and father of modern facial plastic surgery: review of his rhinoplasty case notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, C R

    2015-06-01

    Sir Harold Gillies, born in New Zealand, is widely considered a British icon and the father of modern plastic surgery. This article provides an overview of his life and the circumstances which led to him laying the foundations of plastic surgery in Britain in the early twentieth century. A hand search and review of case notes from the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup, UK, where he made history, was conducted. Gillies' ongoing legacy was found to also include his influence on the development of his cousin Sir Archibald McIndoe's work. Gillies was a talented sportsman who engaged in charitable activities. Additionally, he was a gifted teacher, with his hospital attracting many young surgeons from around the world. He was found to have expressed genius in both the design and execution of the art and science of surgery. He incepted reconstructive techniques ranging from the world's first gender reassignment operation to facial reanimation procedures for the treatment of facial paralysis. His operative work on ex-servicemen in need of complex rhinoplasty and in particular the inception of the tubed pedicle flap are depicted.

  14. Law of large numbers for the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) . The Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) is generated from the complete graph Cn with n vertices through independently deleting each edge with probability (1 - p) . We assign i. i. d. copies of a positive r. v. ρ on each vertex as the vertex weights. For the SIR model, each vertex is in one of the three states 'susceptible', 'infective' and 'removed'. An infective vertex infects a given susceptible neighbor at rate proportional to the production of the weights of these two vertices. An infective vertex becomes removed at a constant rate. A removed vertex will never be infected again. We assume that at t = 0 there is no removed vertex and the number of infective vertices follows a Bernoulli distribution B(n , θ) . Our main result is a law of large numbers of the model. We give two deterministic functions HS(ψt) ,HV(ψt) for t ≥ 0 and show that for any t ≥ 0, HS(ψt) is the limit proportion of susceptible vertices and HV(ψt) is the limit of the mean capability of an infective vertex to infect a given susceptible neighbor at moment t as n grows to infinity.

  15. Sawtooth events and O+ in the plasma sheet and boundary layer: CME- and SIR-driven events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E. J.; Nowrouzi, N.; Kistler, L. M.; Cai, X.; Liao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of ionospheric ions in sawtooth events is an open question. Simulations[1,2,3] suggest that O+ from the ionosphere produces a feedback mechanism for driving sawtooth events. However, observational evidence[4,5] suggest that the presence of O+ in the plasma sheet is neither necessary nor sufficient. In this study we investigate whether the solar wind driver of the geomagnetic storm has an effect on the result. Building on an earlier study[4] that used events for which Cluster data is available in the plasma sheet and boundary layer, we perform a superposed epoch analysis for coronal mass ejection (CME) driven storms and streaming interaction region (SIR) driven storms separately, to investigate the hypothesis that ionospheric O+ is an important contributor for CME-driven storms but not SIR-driven storms[2]. [1]O. J. Brambles et al. (2011), Science 332, 1183.[2]O. J. Brambles et al. (2013), JGR 118, 6026.[3]R. H. Varney et al. (2016), JGR 121, 9688.[4]J. Liao et al. (2014), JGR 119, 1572.[5]E. J. Lund et al. (2017), JGR, submitted.

  16. sir, besoin, dépendance : l'addiction comme (épreuve de la modernité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La frontière entre la santé et la pathologie est un lieu fascinant et dangereux, au caractère poreux et riche de familiarités des deux côtés, inavouées et coûteuses. Le terme d’addiction semble s’installer précisément sur cette frontière, gagnant en étendue médiatique ce qu’il perd en précision nosographique ; ainsi, aujourd’hui, nous serions « tous addicts » – au sucre, au téléphone portable, au chocolat, au café, aux soldes, à la chirurgie esthétique, à Facebook, à l’amour, cette liste pouvant être continuée par chacun d’entre nous puisque nous avons tous fait, nous faisons et ferons tous, l’expérience de la force des (mauvaises habitudes, du désir, voire de la pulsion, de l’abus et de la dépendance. Notre société contemporaine semble stimuler cette expérience, en multipliant tant les objets addictogènes que les comportements addictifs : d’une part par le statut attribué aux biens sériels, d’autre part par la dimension pulsionnelle revendiquée dans les habitudes de consommation. Société du plaisir, peut-être plus hédoniste qu’épicurienne, l’époque contemporaine impose le plaisir et son désir comme nouvelle norme. Dès lors, quel est notre rapport à la pulsion, au désir compulsif, au dépassement des limites imposées aux besoins et aux envies socialement acceptables ? Comment notre société régule le désir ? Comment la politique et les médias concourent-ils à le structurer, voire à le prescrire ? Quels mécanismes à l’œuvre dans l’addiction contredisent cette prescription, et surtout : s’agit-il véritablement d’une contradiction ? Notre culture de performance et satisfaction rapides peut effectivement expliquer certaines dépendances induites par leur objet ; néanmoins, la véritable addiction mentale se nourrit d’éléments plus profondément constitutifs de l’identité de l’homme moderne et contemporain : avant tout, la fragilité des acquis, la

  17. 大豆籽粒的化学-力学特性灰色关联度及本构模拟%Gray relation degree and constitutive modeling of chemo-mechanical properties for soybean seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 张锋伟; 孙伟; 孙步功; 王婷; 吴建民

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of soybean seeds has an important effect on the mechanical properties,and there is an inevitable connection between them.In order to study the mechanical properties of soybean seed under different loading types,and to explore the relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties of soybean seed,11 kinds of soybeans were selected as research material with the moisture content of 8.65%,and the chemical components test,the needle inserting test,the shear test and the compression test were carried out.Depending on the outline structure of soybean seed,compression types included flat placing,side placing,stand placing,and shear types included horizontal and vertical.The experiment was carried out in Gansu Agricultural University from March to July in 2016.Gray relation degree method was used to study the relationship of the 2 types of indices,chemical indices were set as the reference sequence,mechanical parameters were set as the comparison sequence,and the correlation degree and correlation order were analyzed with DPS software.With the support of Abaqus software,soybean seed constitutive modeling was set up,which defined the structure and properties by using the finite element software,and 3 types of compression test processes were simulated.The validity of the constitutive model was verified by comparing the simulation curve and the testing curve.Through mechanical test and compression simulation of soybean seed,the results indicated that the hardness of soybean seed was between 18.39 and 52.58 N/rm,the crippling strength of soybean seed was between 3.65 and 15.32 MPa,the ultimate shear force of soybean seed was between 12.70 and 52.33 N,and the variety had a highly significant effect on its mechanical properties (P<0.01).The resistance shear capacity of the virtical axis was significantly higher than the horizontal axis,and the ability of resisting damage from higher to lower was flat placing,side placing,and stand

  18. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Nussbaum

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  19. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Inbal; Weindling, Esther; Jubran, Ritta; Cohen, Aviv; Bar-Nun, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  20. Prevalence of any size adenomas and advanced adenomas in 40- to 49-year-old individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy because of a family history of colorectal carcinoma in a first-degree relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akshay K; Samadder, Jewel; Elliott, Eric; Sethi, Saurabh; Schoenfeld, Philip

    2011-07-01

    Per current guidelines, patients with a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) should get screened at least at age 40. Data about the prevalence of adenomas and advanced adenomas (AAs) in these patients are lacking. To examine the prevalence of adenomas and AAs in 40- to 49-year-old individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy for family history of CRC. Retrospective chart review. Asymptomatic patients 40 to 49 years of age undergoing their first screening colonoscopy at the University of Michigan during the period 1999 to 2009 because of an FDR with CRC. Prevalence of adenomas (any size), AAs, and risk factors associated with adenomas. Among 640 study patients, the prevalence of adenomas (any size) was 15.4% and 3.3% for AAs. Adenoma prevalence was lower if the FDR with CRC was younger than 60 years of age versus an FDR with CRC older than 60 years of age (12.4% vs 19%, P = .034). Male sex (odds ratio 2.6; 95% CI, 1.06-4.4) and advancing age (odds ratio 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31) were associated with adenomas. Limited data on risk factor exposure and insufficient sample size to assess risk factors for AAs. Among 40- to 49-year-old patients undergoing screening colonoscopy because of an FDR with CRC, the prevalence of adenomas and AAs is low. Further research should determine whether these individuals have a higher prevalence of adenomas compared with average-risk individuals. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin resistance, obesity, hypofibrinolysis, hyperandrogenism, and coronary heart disease risk factors in 25 pre-perimenarchal girls age < or =14 years, 13 with precocious puberty, 23 with a first-degree relative with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping

    2008-10-01

    Pre-peri-menarchal diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is important, because intervention with metformin-diet may prevent progression to full blown PCOS. In 25 girls age PCOS, 10 pre-, 15 post-menarchal, 13 with precocious puberty, 23 with a first-degree relative with PCOS, we hypothesized that reversible coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, insulin resistance, clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism, and hypofibrinolysis were already established. Fasting measures: insulin, glucose, total, LDL- (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (PAI-Fx), total (T) and free testosterone (FT), androstenedione, and DHEAS. Clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism was present in all 25 girls, with elevations of T or FT, or androstenedione in seven of ten pre-menarchal girls and in all 15 post-menarche. PAI-Fx was high in 28% of the 25 girls vs 6.5% in age-gender-race matched controls (p = 0.013). Categorized by race-age-specific distributions in 870 schoolgirls, the 25 girls with probable familial PCOS were more likely to have top decile body mass index (BMI), insulin, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), SBP, DBP, and TG, and bottom decile HDL-C. By analysis of variance, adjusting for race, age and BMI, PCOS girls had higher FT and waist circumference than controls, but did not differ for SBP, DBP, HDL-C, or TG (p>0.05). Pre-peri-menarchal acquisition of centripetal obesity amplifies CHD risk factors and hypofibrinolysis in hyperandrogenemic girls with probable familial PCOS and precocious puberty. When schoolgirls become as obese as girls with probable familial PCOS, they acquire the same CHD risk factors, and differ only by lower free T and less centripetal obesity.

  2. Triglyceride glucose-waist circumference, a novel and effective predictor of diabetes in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: cross-sectional and prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Shi, Sheng; Ren, Xingxing; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Chen, Yawen; Liu, Wei; Hou, Peter C; Hu, Yaomin

    2016-09-07

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adiposity index (VAI), triglyceride glucose index (TyG), TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC have been reported as markers of insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, little is known about the associations between the aforementioned markers and the risk of prediabetes and diabetes in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of T2DM patients. 1544 FDRs of T2DM patients (635 men and 909 women) were enrolled in the initial cross-sectional study and all of them finished corresponding examinations. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare and identify the associations of the six parameters (BMI, WC, VAI, TyG, TyG-BMI and TyG-WC) with the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. Subsequently, 452 of them were followed-up for an average of 5 years. Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to confirm the predictive value of the optimal marker. Among the indices, TyG-WC was more strongly associated with the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of TyG-WC, the adjusted odds ratio and 95 % CIs for prediabetes and diabetes was 11.19 (7.62-16.42) for those in the top quartile of TyG-WC. Moreover, the largest AUC was also observed in TyG-WC (0.765, 95 % CIs 0.741-0.789, P < 0.001). The robust predictive value of TyG-WC was further confirmed in the follow-up study (HR: 7.13, 95 % CIs 3.41-14.90, P < 0.001). TyG-WC is a novel and clinically effective marker for early identifying the risks of prediabetes and diabetes in FDRs of T2DM patients.

  3. Le continent noir du désir masculin : Colet et Flaubert, encore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vinken

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il y a peu d’échanges de lettres qui surprennent le lecteur aussi douloureusement que celui entre Louise Colet et Gustave Flaubert. Rarement, l’espoir qui sommeille au fond de tout lecteur d’une histoire d’amour heureux fut à ce point frustré.Les études de Freud – un des plus grands sceptiques en matière d’amour – sur la vie sexuelle éclairent les vicissitudes du désir amoureux masculin. Les Lettres de Flaubert à Colet sont la mise en scène dramatique d’un désir qui suit les complications du scénario fétichiste. L’investissement de l’objet fétiche – les pantoufles, à savoir les pantoufles dans lesquelles est enfoncé un mouchoir de Colet, taché de sang, et dont Flaubert se sert pour se masturber – n’est que le symptôme le plus évident, pour ainsi dire clinique, de cette disposition fétichiste. La masturbation, liée au fétichisme du pied et de la chaussure fut, selon ses lettres, la pratique sexuelle la plus satisfaisante pour Flaubert.Inscrit dans les pantoufles est le drame de la castration, façon enfantine d’interpréter la différence sexuelle. D’un côté, les pantoufles sont ce que l’enfant voit avant de s’apercevoir du manque du pénis maternel. Les pantoufles, fétiche on ne peut plus classique, prennent par un déplacement métonymique la place du phallus maternel, dont l’absence est constatée avec horreur. C’est ce manque qui fait que le garçon réalise la possibilité de la castration. L’objet fétiche est à la fois mémoire de et triomphe sur la castration. Le fétiche de Flaubert porte les marques de la castration : les taches de sang. Elles sont en même temps témoignage de et écran devant la blessure. Rien n’excite Flaubert tant que ces pantoufles, qui sont à la fois déni (Verleugnung et constat de la castration : le fétichiste, écrit Freud, ne fait pas qu’adorer le fétiche. Souvent la castration est inscrite dans l'objet.Son incapacité d

  4. Expectations Compared of First-Year Students in Pre-School and Primary School Education Degrees at the University of Burgos in Relation to Characteristics and Practices in University Teaching most Desired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime IBÁÑEZ QUINTANA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this work is to detect and analyse the desired characteristics and teaching practices that first year students will be taught in different subjects, comparing Pre-school with Primary Education degree at Burgos University. For that purpose, we have analysed data obtained from 120 surveys (60 others the Pre-school degree and 60 from the Primary Education degree, the surveys are based on the five basic aspects that we consider fundamental of a university education: personal and professional characteristics, evaluation, tutorial, information and communications technology (ICT and methodologies of education/learning. The results show that the student body values more the professional characteristics of its teaching staff than the personal ones; and the image transmitted by the teaching staff that uses ICT is always positive, creating a favourable opinion of his teaching, and the student body reaches to consider that ICTs are indispensable to nowadays education.

  5. Identifying and ranking influential spreaders in complex networks by combining a local-degree sum and the clustering coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengtian; Zhang, Ruisheng; Hu, Rongjing; Yang, Fan; Yao, Yabing; Yuan, Yongna

    2018-03-01

    Identifying influential spreaders is a crucial problem that can help authorities to control the spreading process in complex networks. Based on the classical degree centrality (DC), several improved measures have been presented. However, these measures cannot rank spreaders accurately. In this paper, we first calculate the sum of the degrees of the nearest neighbors of a given node, and based on the calculated sum, a novel centrality named clustered local-degree (CLD) is proposed, which combines the sum and the clustering coefficients of nodes to rank spreaders. By assuming that the spreading process in networks follows the susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, we perform extensive simulations on a series of real networks to compare the performances between the CLD centrality and other six measures. The results show that the CLD centrality has a competitive performance in distinguishing the spreading ability of nodes, and exposes the best performance to identify influential spreaders accurately.

  6. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to

  7. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  8. Set our Master's degrees free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Rachael

    2010-04-01

    Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.

  9. College Teaching as a Profession: The Doctor of Arts Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Paul L.

    The history of the Doctor of Arts (D.A.) degree and issues related to its development are briefly traced, and D.A. programs presently available and the success of degree recipients are addressed. Attention is also directed to other types of degree programs that are available, including their advantages and disadvantages, factors involved in…

  10. Impact of degree truncation on the spread of a contagious process on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2018-03-01

    Understanding how person-to-person contagious processes spread through a population requires accurate information on connections between population members. However, such connectivity data, when collected via interview, is often incomplete due to partial recall, respondent fatigue or study design, e.g., fixed choice designs (FCD) truncate out-degree by limiting the number of contacts each respondent can report. Past research has shown how FCD truncation affects network properties, but its implications for predicted speed and size of spreading processes remain largely unexplored. To study the impact of degree truncation on predictions of spreading process outcomes, we generated collections of synthetic networks containing specific properties (degree distribution, degree-assortativity, clustering), and also used empirical social network data from 75 villages in Karnataka, India. We simulated FCD using various truncation thresholds and ran a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) process on each network. We found that spreading processes propagated on truncated networks resulted in slower and smaller epidemics, with a sudden decrease in prediction accuracy at a level of truncation that varied by network type. Our results have implications beyond FCD to truncation due to any limited sampling from a larger network. We conclude that knowledge of network structure is important for understanding the accuracy of predictions of process spread on degree truncated networks.

  11. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  12. Coping and Its Relation to Retention among Male Minority Nursing Students in an Associate Degree Nursing Program in a South Texas Community College: An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Gwendolyn Smith

    2013-01-01

    In Texas, there is an increase in the enrollment of men of various ethnicities in nursing schools, especially Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs. As these men strive to complete the nursing education, they face many concerns that center on barriers that are encountered in what is still a predominately Caucasian and female environment. In…

  13. Toward the Ideal Professional Master's Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Maria P.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines work accomplished at the 1998 National Communication Association Summer Conference, presenting a model for a professional master's-degree program in public relations that integrates outcomes, assessment, curriculum, and pedagogy. Outlines program outcomes, curriculum, essential curriculum-content areas, pedagogical approaches, and…

  14. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  15. The application of HPLC with on-line coupled UV/MS-biochemical detection for isolation of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Narcissus 'Sir Winston Churchill'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingkaninan, K.; Hazekamp, A.; de Best, C.M.; Irth, H.; Tjaden, U.R.; van der Heijden, R.; van der Greef, J.; Verpoorte, R.

    2000-01-01

    An HPLC with on-line coupled UV/MS-biochemical detection method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in natural sources has been developed. The potential of this method is shown by the isolation of a new AChE inhibitor from the alcoholic extract of Narcissus 'Sir Winston Churchill'. Combining

  16. Sir Sayyid Ahmed Kahn's History of the Bijnor Rebellion, Translated with Notes and Introduction. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Asian Studies Center.

    The Bijnor Rebellion of 1857 was a revolt of the Muslim minority in the Bijnor district of India against the British East India Company and Hindu loyalists. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was an Indian Muslim serving the British Company. His account of the events of 1857 is the only one produced by an Indian who both participated in and analyzed the…

  17. Malingering as a Categorical or Dimensional Construct: The Latent Structure of Feigned Psychopathology as Measured by the SIRS and MMPI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Rogers, Richard; Berry, David T. R.; Miller, Holly A.; Duncan, Scott A.; McCusker, Paul J.; Payne, Joshua W.; Granacher, Robert P., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The 6 nonoverlapping primary scales of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) were subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 1,211 criminal and civil examinees in order to investigate the latent structure of feigned psychopathology. Both taxometric procedures used in this study, mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC) and maximum…

  18. Performance comparison and selection criteria: an assessment for choosing the best flight detector for the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.; Vilenius, E.; Mall, U.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance evaluation of a sample of InGaAs detectors from which the best unit had to be selected for the flight model of the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer to be flown on the Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008.

  19. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelli

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  20. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  1. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  2. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  3. Astronautics degrees for the space industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R. F.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree programs in Astronautics combine basic science and engineering classes with specialized classes in space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available entirely through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers while earning their degrees. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. Distance learning, and particularly the introduction of webcasting, transform the organization of the graduate program and class delivery. We describe in detail the program's academic focus, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  4. Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lian-Ming; Wu Xiang-Sheng; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS) level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the k min -degree (minimum degree) nodes and the k max -degree (maximum degree) nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links) in the hands of the richer (top best-connected) nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the k min -degree nodes is larger for larger λ and smaller k min or k max . The ratio of the k max -degree ones is larger for smaller λ and k max or larger k min . The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the k min -degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of k min . The ratio of the k max -degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k max , and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the ‘73/27 rule’). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. GRADO DE SUPERVISIÓN COMO VARIABLE MODERADORA ENTRE LIDERAZGO Y SATISFACCIÓN, MOTIVACIÓN Y CLIMA ORGANIZACIONAL DEGREE OF SUPERVISION AS A MODERATING VARIABLE OF THE RELATION BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND SATISFACTION, MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Adrián Cuadra-Peralta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es mostrar el impacto del Grado de Supervisión como variable moderadora de la relación entre liderazgo, motivación, satisfacción y clima organizacional. En este estudio, Grado de Supervisión se conceptualizó como un constructo con dos polos, estrecho o lejano. De acuerdo con esto, se dará una supervisión estrecha cuando el líder pase mucho tiempo con sus colaboradores y tenga gran influencia sobre cómo ejecuten su trabajo. El caso contrario daría cuenta de una supervisión lejana. Los resultados encontrados evidencian que el impacto del liderazgo sobre variables como la motivación, satisfacción y clima laboral está fuertemente mediada por Grado de Supervisión. Finalmente, se discute la relevancia de este efecto moderador en el ejercicio del liderazgo de los ingenieros que ejercen tanto una supervisión directa como indirecta.The objective of this research is to show the impact of the degree of supervision, as moderator variable of the relationship between leadership, motivation, satisfaction and organizational climate. In this study, Degree of Supervision has been conceptualized as a construct with two poles, close or distant. Accordingly, will be closely monitored when the leader passes much time with their employees and have great influence on his work as implemented, the reverse would account for remote monitoring. The results found evidence that the impact of leadership on variables such as motivation, job satisfaction and climate, is strongly mediated by the degree of supervision. Finally, we discuss the relevance of this moderating effect on the exercise of leadership of the engineers who exercise both direct and indirect supervision.

  6. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  7. Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone-corticotrophine releasing hormone test and other potential endophenotypes in healthy first-degree relatives of persons with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Klose, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    from baseline to the end of intervention. METHODS: The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day...

  8. The physical gravitational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O

    2005-01-01

    When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom

  9. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  10. Special Degree Programs for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuing Education for Adults, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Briefly describes Bachelor of Liberal Studies programs at six colleges and universities, the Master of Liberal Studies program at Boston University, and the Master of Engineering degree at the University of California at Los Angeles, as well as programs being conducted on a graduate level by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for government and industrial…

  11. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  12. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; FAJARDO PEÑA, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263

  13. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  14. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    frequencies resulting from solar activity over most of solar cycle 23. We present the correlation of medium and high degree modes with different solar indices. Our results confirm that the frequency shift scaled by the relative mode inertia is a function of frequency alone and follows a simple power law.

  15. Sjenički sir kao nematerijalno kulturno nasleđe: Antropološki pristup problemu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu se raspravlja o tradicionalnim tehnologijama kao nematerijalnom kulturnom nasleđu i iznosi se etnografija koja je rezultat rada na projektu pripreme dokumentacije za predlog upisa tehnologije proizvodnje sjeničkog sira u nacinalnu Listu nematerijalnih kulturnih dobara. U okviru toga razmotrena je tradicionalna tehnologija proizvodnje sjeničkog sira, kao i nastojanja lokalnih aktera da tu tehnologiju zaštite i sačuvaju. Zatim sledi analiza građe prikupljene u razgovorima s ispitanicima, pripadnicima lokalne zajednice – od samih proizvođača, pa do pojedinaca koji zauzimaju različite upravljačke pozicije. U ovom segmentu fokus je stavljen na svest i spoznaju koju sami lokalni akteri imaju o značaju proizvoda koji nastoje da zaštite i, kako oni sami kažu, „brendiraju“, ali pre svega na probleme sa kojima se suočavaju u tom procesu. Na kraju, analizirane su potencijalne mogućnosti realizacije projekta izrade aplikacije na osnovu koje bi sjenički sir bio upisan na Nacionalnu listu nematerijalnog kulturnog nasleđa. U tom segmentu, fokus je stavljen na delovanje menadžmenta lokalne zajednice, kao i mogućnosti profesionalnih antropologa da pomognu u realizaciji tog procesa.

  16. Return to the far side of planet Moore! rambling through observations, friendships and antics of sir Patrick Moore

    CERN Document Server

    Mobberley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The result of an exhaustive study of Sir Patrick Moore’s observations of the Moon and planets for more than 60 years, this book is a fantastic companion to the extremely popular, “It Came From Outer Space Wearing an RAF Blazer!” written by the same author.  Moore recorded his telescopic observations in his logbooks, which are reproduced and described here in detail, along with his sketches and notes. In this light, the author discusses the factors that caused Moore to switch from lunar observing to planetary and variable star observing.  He has also included personal recollections and humorous anecdotes from Moore’s friends and acquaintances, as well as a look at his best loved books. Further chapters describe Moore’s foreign travels and correspondence with those back home. Lastly, the author has not neglected a few of Moore’s most memorable television and radio appearances, which are examined along with a close up of what it was like to visit Moore’s beloved home of Farthings in Selsey. Essen...

  17. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the putative haloalkane dehalogenase DppA from Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanović, Xenia; Hesseler, Martin; Palm, Gottfried J.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of DppA from P. pacifica SIR-I are reported. DppA from Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-I is a putative haloalkane dehalogenase (EC 3.8.1.5) and probably catalyzes the conversion of halogenated alkanes to the corresponding alcohols. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and reversed-phase and ion-exchange chromatography. The DppA protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method and protein crystals suitable for data collection were obtained in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2. The DppA crystal diffracted X-rays to 1.9 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray generator

  19. A high-protein diet during hospitalization is associated with an accelerated decrease in soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in acutely ill elderly medical patients with SIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas Huneck; Andersen, Aino L

    2017-01-01

    inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet...... (1.7 g/kg per day) during hospitalization, and daily protein supplement (18.8 g) and 3 weekly resistance training sessions for 12 weeks after discharge (Intervention, n=14), or to standard-care (Control, n=15). Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator...... receptor (suPAR), interleukin-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin were measured at admission, discharge, and 4 and 13 weeks after discharge. The Intervention group had an earlier decrease in suPAR levels than the Control group: -15.4% vs. +14.5%, P=.007 during hospitalization, and -2.4% vs. -28.6%, P...

  20. Comparison of an Agent-based Model of Disease Propagation with the Generalised SIR Epidemic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    utilising 10 metre square buildings with the outcome of in-building combat resolved using a modified Lanchester equation. This limited the usefulness of...observations and the Australian Army’s “Future Land Warfighting Concept – Complex Warfare ” [9] document that highlighted three inter-related complex...by military commanders wishing to assess the impact of disease (naturally occurring or through deliberate biological warfare attack) on their

  1. The tumor suppressor SirT2 regulates cell cycle progression and genome stability by modulating the mitotic deposition of H4K20 methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of the epigenetic mark H4K20me1 (monomethylation of H4K20) by PR-Set7 during G2/M directly impacts S-phase progression and genome stability. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of this event are not well understood. Here we show that SirT2 regulates H4K20me1 depositi...

  2. Genes ycfR, sirA and yigG contribute to the surface attachment of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Saintpaul to fresh produce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle K Salazar

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a frequent contaminant of minimally-processed fresh produce linked to major foodborne disease outbreaks. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association of this enteric pathogen with fresh produce remain largely unexplored. In our recent study, we showed that the expression of a putative stress regulatory gene, ycfR, was significantly induced in S. enterica upon exposure to chlorine treatment, a common industrial practice for washing and decontaminating fresh produce during minimal processing. Two additional genes, sirA involved in S. enterica biofilm formation and yigG of unknown function, were also found to be differentially regulated under chlorine stress. To further characterize the roles of ycfR, sirA, and yigG in S. enterica attachment and survival on fresh produce, we constructed in-frame deletions of all three genes in two different S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium and Saintpaul, which have been implicated in previous disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene microtiter plates, cell aggregation and hydrophobicity, chlorine resistance, and surface attachment to intact spinach leaf and grape tomato were compared among wild-type strains, single-gene deletion mutants, and their respective complementation mutants. The results showed that deletions of ycfR, sirA, and yigG reduced bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene as well as fresh produce surface with or without chlorine treatment in both Typhimurium and Saintpaul. Deletion of ycfR in Typhimurium significantly reduced bacterial chlorine resistance and the attachment to the plant surfaces after chlorinated water washes. Deletions of ycfR in Typhimurium and yigG in Saintpaul resulted in significant increase in cell aggregation. Our findings suggest that ycfR, sirA, and yigG collectively contribute to S. enterica surface attachment and survival during post-harvest minimal processing of fresh produce.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE RESISTIVITY AND RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY OF SILICONE RUBBER FOR HIGH VOLTAGE APPLICATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicone Rubber (SiR is considered as one of the most established insulator in High Voltage (HV industry. SiR possess a great function ability such as its lighter weight, great heat resistance and substantial electrical insulation properties. Dynamic research were performed all around the world in order to explore the unique insulating behavior of SiR but very little are done on the optimization of SiR in term of their processing parameters and formulation. In this work, four materials and processing factors were introduced; A: Alumina Trihydrate (ATH, B: Dicumyl-Peroxide (DCP, C: mixing speed and D: mixing time in order to analyze its contribution towards improving the surface resistivity and relative permittivity of SIR rubber. The factors range were set based on prior screening and are defined as; ATH (10 – 50 pphr, Dicumyl Peroxide (0.50 -1.50 pphr, speed of mixer (40 – 70 rpm and mixing period (5 – 10 mins which were then varied accordingly to produce an overall 19 samples of SiR blends. The testing results were analyzed using statistical Design of Experiment (DOE by applying two level full factorial from Design Expert Software (v10 to discover the inter-correlation between the factors studied and benefaction of each factor in improving both surface resistivity and relative permittivity responses of produced SiR blends. The model analysis on surface resistivity shows the coefficient of determination R2 value of 88.72% while the one for relative permittivity shows R2 value of 82.34 %. Combination of both dependent variables had yielded an optimization suggestion for SiR formulation and processing strategy of ATH: 50 pphr, DCP: 0.50 pphr, mixing speed: 70 rpm and mixing period: 10 mins with the desirability level of 0.835. The optimized formulation had resulted in the production of SiR blend with the characteristic of surface resistivity of 1.02039x10^14 Ω/sq and relative permittivity of 4.0231, respectively. In conclusion, it can be

  4. A quantitative reading of competences documents of Law new degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Leví Orta, Genoveva del Carmen; Ramos Méndez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Documents formulating competences of degrees are key sources for analysis, evaluation and profile comparison of training, currently offered by different university degrees. This work aims to make a quantitative reading of competences documents of Law degree from various Spanish universities, based on the ideas of Content Analysis. The methodology has two phases. Firstly, a dictionary of concepts related to the components of competences is identified in the documentary corpus. Next, the corpus...

  5. Degree-based graph construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

    2009-01-01

    Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

  6. Levels and distribution of organohalogenated contaminants in 5 fish species from Sir Dam Lake, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogrul, Oe [Faculty of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Food Engineering; Covaci, A; Schepens, P [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center

    2004-09-15

    In Turkey, OCPs have been used since 1945, with large quantities of these chemicals being used during the 1960s and 1970s. Since 1983, the usage of OCPs has been severely restricted or banned. Only few studies have investigated the presence of OCPs in Turkish aquatic environment, where they have been evidenced in relatively high concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels and distribution of organohalogenated contaminants in several fish species from Syr Dam Lake (Kahramanmarab, Turkey), an artificial lake with great economical importance for the region.

  7. UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

  8. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  9. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.

    1998-12-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  10. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Biotite and chlorite weathering at 25 degrees C: the dependence of pH and (bi)carbonate on weathering kinetics, dissolution stoichiometry, and solubility; and the relation to redox conditions in granitic aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmstroem, M.; Banwart, S. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Duro, L. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Ingneria Quimica; Wersin, P.; Bruno, J. [MBT Technologia Ambiental, Cerdanyola (Spain)

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the kinetics and thermodynamics of biotite and chlorite weathering in the pH range 2degrees C. The dissolution is highly non-stoichiometric and pH dependent in the whole pH region. By XPD we have identified a clay mineral to be the main weathering product formed. A model of biotite dissolution and the formation of secondary solubility controlling minerals, such as Fe(III)-hydroxide, Na-clay, quartz and gibbsite is used to explain experimental equilibrium concentrations of silicon, iron, aluminium and magnesium. The model predict redox potentials in the range of -200-400 mV at neutral pH and qualitatively agrees with field data reported in the literature. We use observed iron release rate to make conservative estimates of timescales of 1. the depletion of molecular oxygen from deep aquifers (810{sup 2}-10{sup 2} year); and 2. the development of characteristic Fe(III) concentrations (10{sup -5} M in 10{sup -}1 years). The Fe(III)-bearing clay minerals formed during these experiments are similar to the fracture-filling-material observed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Such clays can provide reducing capacity to a repository. They can help maintain anoxic conditions by consuming oxygen that enters the repository during the construction and operation phases thereby helping maintain the redox stability of the repository regarding canister corrosion. The half-life of oxygen trapped in the repository at the time of closure depends on the rate of oxygen uptake by Fe(II) minerals, sulfide minerals and organic carbon. Fe(II)-clay minerals are important to the redox stability of a repository, as well as providing a sorption barrier to radionuclide migration. 107 refs, 52 figs, 35 tabs.

  12. Cases of leukaemia in the Sellafield area: the ''Sir Douglas Black'' report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.; Jammet, H.

    1984-01-01

    The report of this Advisory Group was published in the summer of 1984. Its conclusions can be summarised as follows: 1. Epidemiological surveys, although still incomplete, show that the incidence of cases of leukaemia and deaths caused by leukaemia in persons under 25 years of age is ''unusual'' in the village of Seascale and the Millom rural district. However, they are not unique and the same phenomenon can be found in comparable population groups located far away from any nuclear plants. 2. Taking all children born Seascale since 1950 who lived in the village up until 1980, their equivalent dose in the red marrow of the bone caused by Sellafield nuclear waste and the Windscale reactor fire of 1957 is only 13% of the equivalent dose due to background radiation. 3. The excessive leukaemia mortality rate at Seascale cannot be explained by radioactive waste. For this, a factor of 40 to 400 would be necessary. However, since doubts remain with respect to Sellafield nuclear waste, it must be temporarily concluded that the hypothesis of a connexion between the proximity of the nuclear plant and the excessive leukaemia rate cannot be fully eliminated. But neither can it be easily proven. The advisory Group recommendations are relating to: the surveys to be carried on; the inspection to be improved around the Sellafield plant; the incumbent regulations to be taken into consideration [fr

  13. Linear analysis of degree correlations in complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... 4College of Science, Qi Lu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, Shandong, China ... cal methods used usually to describe the degree correlation in the ... Most social networks show assorta- .... a clear but only qualitative description of the degree ... is difficult to give quantitative relation between DCC.

  14. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  15. Method of measuring the degree of fluid pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, A.; Hammer, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to an method and device for measuring the degree of pollution from particulates in fluids. The device consists of an emitter sending out green and red light in succession through the fluid to a light recorder. The recorder itself includes a unit designed for comparing the measured intensity of light with the values of known pollution degree in fluids. 2 figs

  16. Foundation Degree Learning: An Educational Journey of Personal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Helena; Brown, David; Portlock, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The foundation degree is an intermediate-level qualification designed to widen participation in higher education while providing work-related skills and knowledge. It has a vocational focus and a pedagogic approach that integrates academic and work-based learning. Research into opportunities and the process of learning within foundation degrees is…

  17. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  18. Testing different brain metastasis grading systems in stereotactic radiosurgery: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's RPA, SIR, BSBM, GPA, and modified RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Hirai, Tatsuo; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu; Miyakawa, Akifumi

    2012-12-01

    The authors conducted validity testing of the 5 major reported indices for radiosurgically treated brain metastases- the original Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), the Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR), the Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), and the subclassification of RPA Class II proposed by Yamamoto-in nearly 2500 cases treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), focusing on the preservation of neurological function as well as the traditional endpoint of overall survival. The authors analyzed data from 2445 cases treated with GKS by the first author (T.S.), the primary surgeon. The patient group consisted of 1716 patients treated between January 1998 and March 2008 (the Chiba series) and 729 patients treated between April 2008 and December 2011 (the Tokyo series). The interval from the date of GKS until the date of the patient's death (overall survival) and impaired activities of daily living (qualitative survival) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, while the absolute risk for two adjacent classes of each grading system and both hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. For overall survival, there were highly statistically significant differences between each two adjacent patient groups characterized by class or score (all p values RPA appeared to be better than the original RPA and GPA. The modified RPA subclassification, proposed by Yamamoto, is well balanced in scoring simplicity with respect to case number distribution and statistical results for overall survival. However, a new or revised grading system is necessary for predicting qualitative survival and for selecting the optimal treatment for patients with brain metastasis treated by GKS.

  19. Survey of methods of facial palsy documentation in use by members of the Sir Charles Bell Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Adel Y; Gavilan, Javier; Hadlock, Tessa A; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Marres, Henri; Nduka, Charles; Slattery, William H; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2014-10-01

    Facial palsy manifests a broad array of deficits affecting function, form, and psychological well-being. Assessment scales were introduced to standardize and document the features of facial palsy and to facilitate the exchange of information and comparison of outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine which assessment methodologies are currently employed by those involved in the care of patients with facial palsy as a first step toward the development of consensus on the appropriate assessments for this patient population. Online questionnaire. The Sir Charles Bell Society, a group of professionals dedicated to the care of patients with facial palsy, were surveyed to determine the scales used to document facial nerve function, patient reported outcome measures (PROM), and photographic documentation. Fifty-five percent of the membership responded (n = 83). Grading scales were used by 95%, most commonly the House-Brackmann and Sunnybrook scales. PROMs were used by 58%, typically the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation scale or Facial Disability Index. All used photographic recordings, but variability existed among the facial expressions used. Videography was performed by 82%, and mostly involved the same views as still photography; it was also used to document spontaneous movement and speech. Three-dimensional imaging was employed by 18% of respondents. There exists significant heterogeneity in assessments among clinicians, which impedes straightforward comparisons of outcomes following recovery and intervention. Widespread adoption of structured assessments, including scales, PROMs, photography, and videography, will facilitate communication and comparison among those who study the effects of interventions on this population. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Synchrony of sylvatic dengue isolations: a multi-host, multi-vector SIR model of dengue virus transmission in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Althouse

    Full Text Available Isolations of sylvatic dengue-2 virus from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates in Senegal show synchronized multi-annual dynamics over the past 50 years. Host demography has been shown to directly affect the period between epidemics in other pathogen systems, therefore, one might expect unsynchronized multi-annual cycles occurring in hosts with dramatically different birth rates and life spans. However, in Senegal, we observe a single synchronized eight-year cycle across all vector species, suggesting synchronized dynamics in all vertebrate hosts. In the current study, we aim to explore two specific hypotheses: 1 primates with different demographics will experience outbreaks of dengue at different periodicities when observed as isolated systems, and that coupling of these subsystems through mosquito biting will act to synchronize incidence; and 2 the eight-year periodicity of isolations observed across multiple primate species is the result of long-term cycling in population immunity in the host populations. To test these hypotheses, we develop a multi-host, multi-vector Susceptible, Infected, Removed (SIR model to explore the effects of coupling multiple host-vector systems of dengue virus transmission through cross-species biting rates. We find that under small amounts of coupling, incidence in the host species synchronize. Long-period multi-annual dynamics are observed only when prevalence in troughs reaches vanishingly small levels (< 10(-10, suggesting that these dynamics are inconsistent with sustained transmission in this setting, but are consistent with local dengue virus extinctions followed by reintroductions. Inclusion of a constant introduction of infectious individuals into the system causes the multi-annual periods to shrink, while the effects of coupling remain the same. Inclusion of a stochastic rate of introduction allows for multi-annual periods at a cost of reduced synchrony. Thus, we conclude that the eight-year period