WorldWideScience

Sample records for degree plan expires

  1. Displacement of structures in the thorax from expiration to inspiration as estimated by computed tomography and a 3-D treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmon, Pamela; Huang, David; Lutz, Steve; Zwicker, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The spread of image based three dimensional treatment planning and conformal radiotherapy have brought new attention to the problems of patient motion during treatment. Recent studies of the effects of breathing on the motion of internal structures have led to the suggestion that gated irradiation might improve the therapeutic benefits of conformal therapy. In the present work we investigate the displacement of tumor and other structures in the thorax with breathing in order to assess further the potential benefit of gating in the treatment of lung tumors. Materials and Methods: Thoracic CT scans were obtained for patients immediately after inspiration and after expiration. Tumor positions were assessed by computing the centers of the outlined volumes for both inspiration and expiration. Effects of breathing motion along the longitudinal direction were evaluated by using a three dimensional treatment planning system to measure the distances between scans where the top of the diaphragm was present. Displacement within the transverse direction was assessed by measuring the positions of the field skin markers, the aorta and the esophagus. Results: Movement of the centers of the tumor volumes as computed by reconstructed volumes was measured to be 0.7-1.2cm. The magnitude of this movement was greatest for tumors in the mid to lower region of the lung and was primarily in the direction of superior to inferior combined with anterior to posterior. Displacement of the diaphragm ranged 1-3 cm with breathing. Displacement of the aorta and esophagus was measured to be 0.2-1.5 cm. Movement of these structures was only analyzed transversely and showed displacement to the patients' left and posterior upon expiration. The magnitude did not appear to correlate with position relative to the diaphragm. Patients with less diaphragm movement also had smaller tidal volumes and conversely, patients with larger diaphragm displacement had greater tidal volumes

  2. [A comparison of degree of precision of auscultation, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in end-expiration, and transillumination technique in verifying accurate position of endotracheal tube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Le; Liu, Rong; Tang, Enhui; Li, Shouchun; Jin, Jun; He, Xihuan; Lyu, Shaojun; Weng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of auscultation, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in end-expiration (P(ET)CO2), transillumination technique to judge whether the endotracheal tube is misplaced into the esophagus. A blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) grade I - II undergoing endotracheal intubation in Fengxian Central Hospital admitted from September 2014 to February 2015 were enrolled. Two endotracheal tubes with the same size were respectively inserted into the trachea and esophagus for the same depth after general anesthesia by the same person. Two blinded anesthetists with different experience checked the tube position using three methods including auscultation, P(ET)CO2, and transillumination technique, respectively. The order of the tubes tested (trachea or esophagus) and the method used were randomized according to randomise numbers table. The experienced anesthetists conducted the test first, followed by an inexperienced anesthetist conducting the same methods. The numbers of right and wrong determinations with different methods by different anesthetists were recorded. Sixty patients underwent the procedures for 180 times, with intratracheal intubation for 90 times, and esophageal intubation for 90 times. It was shown that the results were not different in two groups [96.7% (174/180) vs. 92.2% (166/180), χ2 = 3.500, P = 0.057]. By using auscultation, the correct rate of experienced anesthetist was higher than that of inexperienced (95.0% vs. 78.3%, χ2 = 5.786, P = 0.013). Using P(ET)CO2, both anesthetists were correct in all cases, and the accuracy was 100%. Using transillumination, the experienced anesthetist was mistaken in 3 cases (accuracy was 95.0%), while the inexperienced mistook in 1 case (accuracy was 98.3%), and no significant difference was found between two groups χ2 = 0.500, P = 0.250). The correct rate of using transillumination was significantly higher than that of using

  3. Expiration Times for Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Albrecht; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to incorporating the notion of expiration time into data management based on the relational model. Expiration times indicate when tuples cease to be current in a database. The paper presents a formal data model and a query algebra that handle expiration times...... transparently and declaratively. In particular, expiration times are exposed to users only on insertion and update, and when triggers fire due to the expiration of a tuple; for queries, they are handled behind the scenes and do not concern the user. Notably, tuples are removed automatically from (materialised......) query results as they expire in the (base) relations. For application developers, the benefits of using expiration times are (1) leaner application code, (2) lower transaction volume, (3) smaller databases, and, (4) higher consistency for replicated data with lower overhead. Expiration times turn out...

  4. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  5. VET Providers Planning to Deliver Degrees: Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This good practice guide is intended to assist public and private registered training organisations (RTOs) planning to commence higher education (HE) delivery. The guide is based on research undertaken by Victor Callan and Kaye Bowman, who completed case studies with six providers currently delivering higher education qualifications in addition to…

  6. Evaluation of gene expression data generated from expired Affymetrix GeneChip® microarrays using MAQC reference RNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Weida

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix GeneChip® system is a commonly used platform for microarray analysis but the technology is inherently expensive. Unfortunately, changes in experimental planning and execution, such as the unavailability of previously anticipated samples or a shift in research focus, may render significant numbers of pre-purchased GeneChip® microarrays unprocessed before their manufacturer’s expiration dates. Researchers and microarray core facilities wonder whether expired microarrays are still useful for gene expression analysis. In addition, it was not clear whether the two human reference RNA samples established by the MAQC project in 2005 still maintained their transcriptome integrity over a period of four years. Experiments were conducted to answer these questions. Results Microarray data were generated in 2009 in three replicates for each of the two MAQC samples with either expired Affymetrix U133A or unexpired U133Plus2 microarrays. These results were compared with data obtained in 2005 on the U133Plus2 microarray. The percentage of overlap between the lists of differentially expressed genes (DEGs from U133Plus2 microarray data generated in 2009 and in 2005 was 97.44%. While there was some degree of fold change compression in the expired U133A microarrays, the percentage of overlap between the lists of DEGs from the expired and unexpired microarrays was as high as 96.99%. Moreover, the microarray data generated using the expired U133A microarrays in 2009 were highly concordant with microarray and TaqMan® data generated by the MAQC project in 2005. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that microarray data generated using U133A microarrays, which were more than four years past the manufacturer’s expiration date, were highly specific and consistent with those from unexpired microarrays in identifying DEGs despite some appreciable fold change compression and decrease in sensitivity. Our data also suggested that the

  7. 21 CFR 211.137 - Expiration dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration dating. 211.137 Section 211.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... § 211.137 Expiration dating. (a) To assure that a drug product meets applicable standards of identity...

  8. Using near infrared spectroscopy to classify soybean oil according to expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Gean Bezerra; Fernandes, David Douglas Sousa; Gomes, Adriano A; de Almeida, Valber Elias; Veras, Germano

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and non-destructive methodology is proposed for the screening of edible vegetable oils according to conservation state expiration date employing near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools. A total of fifty samples of soybean vegetable oil, of different brands andlots, were used in this study; these included thirty expired and twenty non-expired samples. The oil oxidation was measured by peroxide index. NIR spectra were employed in raw form and preprocessed by offset baseline correction and Savitzky-Golay derivative procedure, followed by PCA exploratory analysis, which showed that NIR spectra would be suitable for the classification task of soybean oil samples. The classification models were based in SPA-LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis coupled with Successive Projection Algorithm) and PLS-DA (Discriminant Analysis by Partial Least Squares). The set of samples (50) was partitioned into two groups of training (35 samples: 15 non-expired and 20 expired) and test samples (15 samples 5 non-expired and 10 expired) using sample-selection approaches: (i) Kennard-Stone, (ii) Duplex, and (iii) Random, in order to evaluate the robustness of the models. The obtained results for the independent test set (in terms of correct classification rate) were 96% and 98% for SPA-LDA and PLS-DA, respectively, indicating that the NIR spectra can be used as an alternative to evaluate the degree of oxidation of soybean oil samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-nucleon degrees of freedom in nuclei and ABC plan for developing fundamental nuclear theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiren

    1996-01-01

    We emphasize that to develop a fundamental nuclear theory one has to consider various non-nucleon degrees of freedom in nuclei and to make the theory relativistic. A three step ABC Plan for this purpose is proposed. The A pan is to reform the relativistic hadron field theory by taking the finite baryon size into account. We call finite size baryons atoms in contrast with points. The fundamental nuclear theory in this form is therefore a quantum atom dynamics (QAD). The B plan is to reform the bag model for hadrons by making it be quantum bag dynamics (QBD). This is a model fundamental nuclear theory on the quark level. The fundamental nuclear theory should eventually be developed on the basis of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This is the C Plan

  10. Adhesive performance of precoated brackets after expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Cayce C; Trojan, Terry M; Suliman, Sam N; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate adhesive performance in terms of debonding forces of precoated metal and ceramic brackets 4 years after expiration. Buccal and lingual surfaces of embedded extracted maxillary premolars were etched with 34% Tooth Conditioner Gel (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del), rinsed, and dried. Transbond MIP (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) was applied prior to placing adhesive precoated brackets (APC II Victory stainless steel and APC Plus Clarity ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). The preexpiration brackets had 29-35 months before, and the postexpiration brackets were 45-52 months past, their expiration dates. Sample size was 17-21 per group. Debonding forces were determined by subjecting the bonded brackets to a shear force in a universal testing machine. Debonding forces were compared using two-way ANOVA. Debonded surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine failure modes, which were compared using the chi-square test. No statistically significant difference was found in debonding forces (P  =  .8581) or failure modes (P  =  .4538) between expired and unexpired brackets. Metal brackets required statistically significantly higher debonding forces than did ceramic brackets (P  =  .0001). For both expired and unexpired brackets, failure modes were mostly cohesive in the adhesive layer for ceramic brackets, and mixed between adhesive and cohesive failure in the adhesive layer for metal brackets. Adhesive precoated brackets did not have any reduction in enamel-adhesion properties up to 4 years after their expiration date. Extended shelf life testing for precoated dental brackets may be worth considering.

  11. HMOs outscore both PPOs, traditional indemnity plans in degree of customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J

    1992-12-14

    A higher percentage of participants in health maintenance organizations say they are satisfied with their health plans than are those who have traditional indemnity plans or are enrolled in preferred provider organizations. The results, derived from a new study of consumer satisfaction, also show that 85% of Americans who have health insurance coverage say they are satisfied with those plans.

  12. Effect of artificial accelerated aging on the optical properties and monomeric conversion of composites used after expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Mundim, Fabricio Mariano; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Puppin Rontani, Regina Maria; Consani, Simonides

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how artificial accelerated aging (AAA) affected color stability (ΔE), opacity (ΔOP), and degree of conversion (DOC) for 3 composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Tetric Ceram HB, and Tetric Flow) used both 180 days before and 180 days after their expiration dates. To evaluate the materials' optical properties, 10 specimens of each composite-5 prior to expiration and 5 after the materials' expiration date-were made in a teflon matrix. After polishing, the specimens were submitted to initial color and opacity readings and submitted to AAA for 384 hours; at that point, new readings were taken to determine ΔE and ΔOP. To evaluate monomeric conversion evaluation, 6 specimens from each composite and expiration date-3 prior to AAA and 3 after-were submitted to DOC analysis. Results of the 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's tests (P 0.05). The expired Tetric Flow had the highest DOC values (71.42% ± 4.21) before AAA, significantly different than that of the other composites (P > 0.05). It was concluded that both expiration date and AAA affected the properties of the composites tested.

  13. 24 CFR 891.590 - Notice upon HAP contract expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice upon HAP contract expiration... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.590 Notice upon HAP contract expiration. (a) Notice required. The HAP contract will provide that the Borrower will, at least one year before the end of the HAP contract term...

  14. Air Force Officer Accession Planning: Addressing Key Gaps in Meeting Career Field Academic Degree Requirements for Nonrated Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report Air Force Officer Accession Planning Addressing Key Gaps in Meeting Career Field Academic Degree Requirements...potential performance, and how to include these quality measures in the classification process. The research sponsor asked us to focus on academic ...Andrew P., and James K. Lowe, “Decision Support for the Career Field Selection Process at the US Air Force Academy,” European Journal of Operational

  15. The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of creating a new program, no formal…

  16. Innovation in Doctoral Degrees Designed for Adult Learners: A Hybrid Model in Personal Financial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grable, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…

  17. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, LeBarian

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the SDTS. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  18. Investigation of six-degree-of-freedom image registration between planning and cone beam computed tomography in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiancheng; Pan Jianji; Hu Cairong; Wang Xiaoliang; Cheng Wenfang; Zhao Yunhui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore six-degree-of-freedom (6-DF) registration methods between planning and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) in esophageal cancer. Methods: Thirty pairs of CBCT images acquired before radiation and the corresponding planning computed tomography (CT) images of esophageal cancer were selected for further investigation. Registration markers for 6-DF image registration were determined and contoured in those images. The results of registration as well as time cost were compared among different registration methods of bone match, gray value match, manual match, and bone plus manual match. Results: Contouring bone and spinal canal posterior to the target volume of esophageal carcinoma as registration marker could make 6-DF registration quick and precise. Compared with manual match, set-up errors of v rotation in bone plus manual match (-0.55 degree vs.-0.88 degree, t=2.55, P=0.020), of x-axis and v rotation in bone match (0.12 mm vs.-2.33 mm, t=5.75, P=0.000; -0.35 degree vs. -0.88 degree, t=3.00, P=0.007), and of x-axis and w rotation in gray value match (7.20 mm vs. -2.33 mm, t=3.10, P=0.006; -0.10 degree vs. -0.59 degree, t=2.81, P =0.011) were significantly different. Compared with manual match, the coincidence rate of bone plus manual match was the highest (85.55%), followed by bone match and gray value match (74.45% and 74.45%). The time cost of each registration method from longest to shortest was: 6.00 -10.00 minutes for manual match, 1.00 - 5.00 minutes for bone plus manual match, 0.75 - 1.50 minutes for gray value match, and 0.50 - 0.83 minutes for bone match. Conclusions: Registration marker is useful for image registration of CBCT and planning CT in patients with esophageal cancer. Bone plus manual match may be the best registration method considering both registration time and accuracy. (authors)

  19. Schools Facing the Expiration of Windows XP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft's plans to end support for Windows XP, believed to be the dominant computer operating system in K-12 education, could pose big technological and financial challenges for districts nationwide--issues that many school systems have yet to confront. The giant software company has made it clear for years that it plans to stop supporting XP…

  20. New bimaxillary orthognathic surgery planning and model surgery based on the concept of six degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jaeho; Kim, Yongdeok; Kim, Jongryoul; Kang, Heejea; Ji, Hyunjin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose a new method of bimaxillary orthognathic surgery planning and model surgery based on the concept of 6 degrees of freedom (DOF). A 22-year-old man with Class III malocclusion was referred to our clinic with complaints of facial deformity and chewing difficulty. To correct a prognathic mandible, facial asymmetry, flat occlusal plane angle, labioversion of the maxillary central incisors, and concavity of the facial profile, bimaxillary orthognathic surgery was planned. After preoperative orthodontic treatment, surgical planning based on the concept of 6 DOF was performed on a surgical treatment objective drawing, and a Jeon's model surgery chart (JMSC) was prepared. Model surgery was performed with Jeon's orthognathic surgery simulator (JOSS) using the JMSC, and an interim wafer was fabricated. Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy, and malar augmentation were performed. The patient received lateral cephalometric and posteroanterior cephalometric analysis in postretention for 1 year. The follow-up results were determined to be satisfactory, and skeletal relapse did not occur after 1.5 years of surgery. When maxillary and mandibular models are considered as rigid bodies, and their state of motion is described in a quantitative manner based on 6 DOF, sharing of exact information on locational movement in 3-dimensional space is possible. The use of JMSC and JOSS will actualize accurate communication and performance of model surgery among clinicians based on objective measurements. PMID:23503161

  1. REEXAMINING THE EXPIRATION DAY EFFECTS OF STOCK INDEX DERIVATIVES: EVIDENCE FROM TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Lin Chuang; Dar-Hsin Chen; Chung-Hsien Su

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether the expiration of derivative contracts affects the underlying spot assets in Taiwan. The expiration effect refers to abnormal return, price reversal, abnormal return volatility, and abnormal volume in underlying spot stock markets as derivatives contracts expire. Due to the unique settlement procedure in the Taiwan Futures Exchange, this study also examines if the expiration effects occur on the settlement day which is the next business day after the expiration day...

  2. Training of Prospective Managers by Educational Institutions for Strategic Planning at the Stage of Studying for a Master’s Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R. Gumennikova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the attention is focused on training of master’s degree students – prospective managers of an enterprise, institution, organization (in the field of education and industrial training for strategic planning by an educational institution.Ways of methodological accompaniment of educational manager’s training for strategic planning are presented. Fragments of systemic work of master’s degree teachers in the plane of the problem under investigation are demonstrated on actual examples.

  3. Planning and implementing an honors degree in environmental science curricula: a case study from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2015-04-01

    Environmental degradation is undermining the sustainability of our planet. The multi-faceted nature of environmental stressors, which inherently couples human-environment interactions across space and time, necessitates that we train environmental scientists holistically within an interdisciplinary framework. Recruiting top-notch honors students to major in the environmental sciences is a critical step to ensure that we have the human capital to tackle complicated environmental problems successfully. Planning and implementing an honors degree is no trivial task. Based upon a recently completed and implemented set of programmatic revisions*, this poster showcases a successful example of an honors curriculum in environmental science to recruit and educate dynamic thinkers capable of improving the quality of our environment. The interdisciplinary environmental science program at the University of Delaware emphasizes the cross-cutting among earth's spheres through a core set of courses which employ a quantitative approach which is supplemented by several environmental policy courses. The core is coupled with six different thematic concentrations (students choose one) which permit the student to delve into a particular area of environmental science. The honors component of the degree consists of twelve additional credits. These credits are met through a specially designed introductory environmental course, a field experience requiring data collection, analysis, and write-up, a capstone course, and one other environmentally related course. The environmental sciences honors curriculum outlined in this poster may serve as a useful guide to others wishing to establish an honors program of their own in environmental science to recruit and prepare the next generation to mitigate environmental degradation. -------------- * Please note that the planning process for the environmental programs was and is the collective effort of many dedicated people. Current members of the

  4. Afs password expiration starts Feb 2nd 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Due to security reasons, and in agreement with CERN management, afs/lxplus passwords will fall into line with Nice/Mail passwords on February 2nd and expire annually. As of the above date afs account holders who have not changed their passwords for over a year will have a 60 day grace period to make a change. Following this date their passwords will become invalid. What does this mean to you? If you have changed your afs password in the past 10 months the only difference is that 60 days before expiration you will receive a warning message. Similar warnings will also appear nearer the time of expiration. If you have not changed your password for more than 10 months, then, as of February 2nd you will have 60 days to change it using the command ‘kpasswd'. Help to choose a good password can be found at: http://security.web.cern.ch/security/passwords/ If you have been given a temporary password at any time by the Helpdesk or registration team this will automatically fall into the expiration category ...

  5. Sensor gas analyzer for acetone determination in expired air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Vitaly V.

    2001-05-01

    Diseases and changes in the way of life change the concentration and composition of the expired air. Our adaptable gas analyzer is intended for the selective analysis of expired air and can be adapted for the solution of current diagnostic and analytical tasks by the user (a physician or a patient). Having analyzed the existing trends in the development of noninvasive diagnostics we have chosen the method of noninvasive acetone detection in expired air, where the acetone concentration correlates with blood and urine glucose concentrations. The appearance of acetone in expired air is indicative of disorders that may be caused not only by diabetes but also be wrong diet, incorrect sportsmen training etc. To control the disorders one should know the acetone concentration in the human body. This knowledge allows one to judge upon the state of the patient, choose a correct diet that will not cause damage to the patient's health, determine sportsmen training efficiency and results and solve the artificial pancreas problem. Our device provide highly accurate analysis, rapid diagnostics and authentic acetone quantification in the patient's body at any time aimed at prediction of the patient's state and assessing the efficiency of the therapy used. Clinical implementation of the device will improve the health and save lives of many thousands of diabetes sufferers.

  6. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction AGENCY: Social Security... published a final rule document extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the...) extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings...

  7. 23 CFR 1200.30 - Expiration of the right to incur costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration of the right to incur costs. 1200.30 Section... HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS Closeout § 1200.30 Expiration of the right to incur costs. Unless extended in accordance with the provisions of § 1200.31 of this part, the right to incur costs under Section 402 expires...

  8. An understanding about the process of communicative interactions in Joint Planning Groups among professors of the physics degree course based on Theory of Communicative Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Neves da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that aims to understand the possibilities from the accession of professors who teach specific topics of physics and physics teaching in the teachers formation degree in a Joint Planning Group about the relations among their disciplines. The study was built from the establishment and monitoring of a group of professors who met regularly during a year to plan their courses in the degree in physics together. Based on the theoretical perspective of the Theory of Communicative Acts, by Jürgen Habermas, the analysis aimed to understand the planning process through the use of language as a means of inter-subjective interaction and intention of understanding through the use of valid claims. The possibilities presented enable conceptualize the elements of a Joint Planning Group from the perspective of joint construction of concepts and practices, actions coordinating and theming of the practice in a an environment that enables communicative acts.

  9. Measurements of pulmonary gas exchange efficiency using expired gas and oximetry: results in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B; Wang, Daniel L; Prisk, G Kim

    2018-04-01

    We are developing a novel, noninvasive method for measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in patients with lung disease. The patient wears an oximeter, and we measure the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inspired and expired gas using miniature analyzers. The arterial Po 2 is then calculated from the oximeter reading and the oxygen dissociation curve, using the end-tidal Pco 2 to allow for the Bohr effect. This calculation is only accurate when the oxygen saturation is ideal alveolar Po 2 minus the measured arterial Po 2 . That measurement requires an arterial blood sample. The present study suggests that this noninvasive procedure will be valuable in assessing the degree of impaired gas exchange in patients with lung disease.

  10. STARTing Again: What Happens After START I Expires?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Eastman, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), a seminal arms control agreement that substantially reduced the levels of deployed strategic nuclear arms in the United States and Russia, will expire in December 2009. At this time, it is unclear what - if anything - will replace it. While the treaty remains relevant, more than a simple extension is appropriate. Instead the authors advocate for a successor regime that builds on the START I legacy but does not rely on the traditional tools of arms control. This paper examines the strategic context in which a successor regime would be developed and proposes several recommendations for future action

  11. The Problem of VAT Credit on Expired Goods: An Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available VAT paid on certain goods acquired does not allow the deducting of the Turkish tax system. One of them is the loss of goods VAT. There is no clear definition in the law is wasted. Therefore, there are certain problems in practice. The problems, in particular, focused on the VAT on expired or valueless goods. Current opinion on the subject of the tax administration is inconvenient regarding tax justice. Both states of the solution to the problem should be developed as well as an objective approach to protecting taxpayers.

  12. 360-Degree Feedback Implementation Plan: Dean Position, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Devin

    2002-01-01

    360-degree feedback is a personal development and appraisal tool designed to quantify the competencies and skills of fellow employees by tapping the collective experience of their superiors, subordinates, and peers...

  13. Value of digital radiography in expiration in detection of pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, L.; Natho, O.; Feigen, U.; Kivelitz, D.; Schulz, U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out whether pneumothorax detection and exclusion is superior in expiratory digital chest radiography. Materials and Methods: 131 patients with pneumothorax with paired inspiratory and expiratory chest radiographs were analyzed regarding localization and size of pneumothorax. Sensitivity, specificity, negative (npv) and positive predictive value (ppv) as well as the positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were determined in a blinded randomized interobserver study with 116 patients. The evaluation was performed by three board-certified radiologists. Results: In 131 patients, there were 139 pneumothoraces, 135 (97.1 %) were located apical, 88 (63.3 %) lateral and 33 (23.7 %) basal. Sensitivity was 99 % for inspiratory and 97 % for expiratory radiographs. The interobserver study yielded a mean sensitivity of 86.1 %/86.1 %, specificity of 97.3 %/93.4 %, npv of 88.7 %/88.5 % and ppv of 96.7 %/92.1 % for inspiration/expiration. For inspiratory radiographs the LR+/LR- were 40.2/0.14 and for expiration 13.9 and 0.15. McNemar-Test showed no significant difference for the detection of pneumothoraces in in-/exspiration. Conclusion: Inspiratory and expiratory digital radiographs are equally suitable for pneumothorax detection. Inspiratory radiographs are recommended as the initial examination of choice for pneumothorax detection, an additional expiratory radiograph is only recommended in doubtful cases. (orig.)

  14. Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States: A Comparison of the Curriculum Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2010-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, post-secondary institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of…

  15. Degrees of Freedom in Planning, Running, Analyzing, and Reporting Psychological Studies: A Checklist to Avoid p-Hacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Augusteijn, Hilde E M; Bakker, Marjan; van Aert, Robbie C M; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-01-01

    The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research. The list can be used in research methods education, and as a checklist to assess the quality of preregistrations and to determine the potential for bias due to (arbitrary) choices in unregistered studies.

  16. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  17. 78 FR 72571 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in... need to evaluate mental disorders at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial...

  18. THE EFFECT OF EXPIRED BREAD MEAL AS CORN SUBSTITUTION IN DIET ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the expired bread meal used as corn substitution in thebroiler diets to optimally the product performance. One hundred day old chick (DOC male broilerswere given the same diet until 2 weeks old, and then given the treatment diet until 7 weeks of age. ACompletely Randomized Design was used in this study. Data were analyzed by variance of analysis, andfollowed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test The treatments were : T0 = control feed (without expiredbread meal, T1 = corn substituted with 10% expired bread meal, T2 = corn substituted with 20%expired bread meal, T3 = corn substituted with 30% expired bread meal and T4 = corn substituted with40% expired bread meal. The result indicated that corn substituted with expired bread meal up to 40%has not significantly affected on carcass weight, carcass percentage and feed conversion, but decreasedsignificantly on feed consumption and body weight gain. It can be concluded that the use of expiredbread meal 30% of the proportion of corn produced the most optimal broiler performance. Thesubstitution corn with expired bread meal 40% was decreased body weight gain.

  19. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disp...

  20. 14 CFR 61.427 - What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? 61.427 Section 61.427 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.427 What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? You may exchange your expired flight instructor...

  1. A Character Segmentation Proposal for High-Speed Visual Monitoring of Expiration Codes on Beverage Cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Expiration date labels are ubiquitous in the food industry. With the passage of time, almost any food becomes unhealthy, even when well preserved. The expiration date is estimated based on the type and manufacture/packaging time of that particular food unit. This date is then printed on the container so it is available to the end user at the time of consumption. MONICOD (MONItoring of CODes; an industrial validator of expiration codes; allows the expiration code printed on a drink can to be read. This verification occurs immediately after printing. MONICOD faces difficulties due to the high printing rate (35 cans per second and problematic lighting caused by the metallic surface on which the code is printed. This article describes a solution that allows MONICOD to extract shapes and presents quantitative results for the speed and quality.

  2. Disposal practices of unused and expired pharmaceuticals among general public in Kabul

    OpenAIRE

    Bashaar, Mohammadk; Thawani, Vijay; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Most of the medicine users remain unaware about the disposal of unused or expired medicines. The aim of this study was to know the disposal practices of unused and expired medicines among the general public in Kabul. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through face-to-face interviews using prevalidated structured questionnaire. Returned questionnaires were double-checked for accuracy. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23 wa...

  3. HRD Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the growing movement toward accreditation for human resources development professionals. She covers the issue of diversity, undergraduate versus graduate degrees, and future trends. (CH)

  4. THE ECSTACY OF GOLD Patent Expirations for Trastuzumab, Bevacizumab, Rituximab, and Cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Gallegos, Tasha R; LaFargue, Christopher J; Tewari, Krishnansu S

    2017-11-22

    Fully humanized monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many solid tumors, including breast, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Among the most widely used monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology are cetuximab, trastuzumab, rituximab, and bevacizumab. This article will review these four notable monoclonal antibodies, their role in clinical oncology, and the drug patents that are nearing expiration. They are used in both first and second line treatment regimens for multiple common malignancies. With recent patent expirations, pharmaceutical companies involved in biosimilar manufacture are looking to establish ownership over these financial monopolies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. 37 CFR 2.196 - Times for taking action: Expiration on Saturday, Sunday or Federal holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Expiration on Saturday, Sunday or Federal holiday. 2.196 Section 2.196 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Saturday, Sunday or Federal holiday. Whenever periods of time are specified in this part in days, calendar... taking any action or paying any fee in the Office falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday within...

  6. 15 CFR 908.15 - Times for taking action; expiration on Saturday, Sunday, or holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Saturday, Sunday, or holiday. 908.15 Section 908.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... § 908.15 Times for taking action; expiration on Saturday, Sunday, or holiday. Whenever periods of time... under these rules for taking any action falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or on a Federal holiday, the action...

  7. 77 FR 25506 - Submission for Review: Expiring Information Collection, Interview Survey Form, INV 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Expiring Information Collection, Interview... collection request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No. 3206- 0106, for the Interview[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Interview Survey Form, INV 10, is a questionnaire that OPM...

  8. Biotechnology's Regulatory Science: The Case of Roundup Ready Soybean's Patent Expiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente Rodriguez, D.; Swart, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The patent held by Monsanto for Roundup Ready® soybeans will expire soon and, therefore, the first generic agro-food product in the short history of agro-biotechnology will become a fact. Using insights from science and technology studies, the article elaborates on the importance of regulatory

  9. Reuse of Expired Cefort Drug in Nickel Electrodeposition From Watts Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Andrada Duca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility to use ceftriaxone (CEFTR active compound from expired Cefort as additive in nickel electrodeposition from Watts baths. Electrochemical behaviour and the influence of CEFTR on nickel electroplating were studied by electrochemical methods. Experimental data recommends CEFTR as additive in nickel electroplating from Watts baths.

  10. 77 FR 35264 - Extension of Expiration Dates for Several Body System Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background We use... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 [Docket No. SSA-2012-0024] RIN 0960-AH49 Extension of Expiration Dates for Several Body System Listings AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION...

  11. 78 FR 54756 - Extension of Expiration Dates for Two Body System Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background We use the... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 [Docket No. SSA-2013-0039] RIN 0960-AH60 Extension of Expiration Dates for Two Body System Listings AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION...

  12. 37 CFR 1.7 - Times for taking action; Expiration on Saturday, Sunday or Federal holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.7 Times for taking action; Expiration on... taking any action or paying any fee in the United States Patent and Trademark Office falls on Saturday...

  13. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial. 114.14 Section 114.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... tests designated in the filed Outline of Production for such product in accordance with § 113.4(b) of...

  14. 41 CFR 102-85.205 - What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assignments. However, provisions are necessary to cover the GSA and customer relationship if an OA expires... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA? 102-85.205 Section 102-85.205 Public...

  15. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  16. Effects of expiration of the Federal energy tax credit on the National Photovoltaics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Projected 1986 sales are significantly reduced as a direct result of system price increases following from expiration of the Federal energy tax credits. There would be greatly reduced emphasis on domestic electric utility applications. Indirect effects arising from unrealized economies of scale and reduced private investment in PV research and development (R&D) and in production facilities could have a very large cumulative adverse impact on the U.S. PV industry. The industry forecasts as much as fourfold reduction in 1990 sales if tax credits expire, compared with what sales would be with the credits. Because the National Photovoltaics Program is explicitly structured as a government partnership, large changes in the motivation or funding of either partner can affect Program success profoundly. Reduced industry participation implies that such industry tasks as industrialization and new product development would slow or halt. Those research areas receiving heavy R&D support from private PV manufacturers would be adversely affected.

  17. Approach to recognition of flexible form for credit card expiration date recognition as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshkus, Alexander; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Ingacheva, Anastasia; Skoryukina, Natalya

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider a task of finding information fields within document with flexible form for credit card expiration date field as example. We discuss main difficulties and suggest possible solutions. In our case this task is to be solved on mobile devices therefore computational complexity has to be as low as possible. In this paper we provide results of the analysis of suggested algorithm. Error distribution of the recognition system shows that suggested algorithm solves the task with required accuracy.

  18. Did the expiration of retail price caps affect prices in the restructured Texas electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Linhong; Zarnikau, Jay

    2009-01-01

    On January 1, 2007, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market became the first restructured market in the US to completely remove caps on the prices which could be charged to residential energy consumers by the retailers associated with the traditional or incumbent utility service providers. Our analysis suggests that the expiration of the price-to-beat (PTB) price caps may have led to a reduction in the average prices charged by competitive retail electric providers (REPs). (author)

  19. Disposal practices of unused and expired pharmaceuticals among general public in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bashaar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the medicine users remain unaware about the disposal of unused or expired medicines. The aim of this study was to know the disposal practices of unused and expired medicines among the general public in Kabul. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through face-to-face interviews using prevalidated structured questionnaire. Returned questionnaires were double-checked for accuracy. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 23 was used for statistical analysis. Results Total of 301 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 100% in which 73.4% men and 26.6% women participated. More than half of the respondents were university graduates. Interestingly, 83.4% of the interviewees purchased medicines on the prescription of which 47.2% were university graduates, while 14.6% purchased medicine over the counter. Among the respondents, 46.5/100 purchased antibiotics and the remaining purchased NSAIDs, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic medicines. Significantly, 97/100 checked the expiry date of medicine before buying. Majority (95.3% of the respondents’ stored medicines at home. 77.7% of the respondents discarded the expired medicines in household trash. Majority of respondents held government responsible for creation of awareness for proper medicine disposal. Almost entire sample (98% felt that improper disposal of unused and expired medicines can affect the environment and health. Conclusion Gaps exist in practices, therefore robust, safe and cost-effective pharmaceutical waste management program supported with media campaign is needed. Healthcare practitioners and community pharmacists should offer training to educate customers on standard medicine disposal practices.

  20. Reversal of functional disorders by aspiration, expiration and cough reflexes and their voluntary counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan eTomori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agonal gasping provoked by asphyxia can save ~15% of mammals even from untreated ventricular fibrillation, but it fails to revive infants with sudden infant death syndrome. Our systematic study of airway reflexes in cats and other animals indicated that in addition to cough, there are 2 distinct airway reflexes that may contribute to auto-resuscitation. Gasp- and sniff-like spasmodic inspirations can be elicited by nasopharyngeal stimulation, strongly activating the brainstem generator for inspiration, which is also involved in the control of gasping. This aspiration reflex (AspR is characterized by spasmodic inspiration without subsequent active expiration and can be elicited during agonal gasping, caused by brainstem trans-sections in cats. Stimulation of the larynx can activate the generator for expiration to evoke the expiration reflex, manifesting with prompt expiration without preceding inspiration. Stimulation of the oro-pharynx and lower airways provokes the cough reflex which results from activating of both generators. The powerful potential of the AspR resembling auto-resuscitation by gasping can influence the control mechanisms of vital functions, mediating reversal of various functional disorders.The AspR in cats interrupted hypoxic apnea, laryngo- and bronchospasm, apneusis and even transient asphyxic coma, and can normalize various hypo- and hyper-functional disorders. Introduction of a nasogastric catheter evoked similar spasmodic inspirations in premature infants and interrupted hiccough attacks in adults. Coughing on demand can prevent anaphylactic shock and resuscitate the pertinent subject. Sniff representing nasal inspiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures are voluntary counterparts of airway reflexes, and are useful for diagnosis and therapy of various cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular disorders.

  1. Platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates support growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets.

  2. Disposal practices of unused and expired pharmaceuticals among general public in Kabul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaar, Mohammad; Thawani, Vijay; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2017-01-07

    Most of the medicine users remain unaware about the disposal of unused or expired medicines. The aim of this study was to know the disposal practices of unused and expired medicines among the general public in Kabul. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through face-to-face interviews using prevalidated structured questionnaire. Returned questionnaires were double-checked for accuracy. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23 was used for statistical analysis. Total of 301 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 100% in which 73.4% men and 26.6% women participated. More than half of the respondents were university graduates. Interestingly, 83.4% of the interviewees purchased medicines on the prescription of which 47.2% were university graduates, while 14.6% purchased medicine over the counter. Among the respondents, 46.5/100 purchased antibiotics and the remaining purchased NSAIDs, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic medicines. Significantly, 97/100 checked the expiry date of medicine before buying. Majority (95.3%) of the respondents' stored medicines at home. 77.7% of the respondents discarded the expired medicines in household trash. Majority of respondents held government responsible for creation of awareness for proper medicine disposal. Almost entire sample (98%) felt that improper disposal of unused and expired medicines can affect the environment and health. Gaps exist in practices, therefore robust, safe and cost-effective pharmaceutical waste management program supported with media campaign is needed. Healthcare practitioners and community pharmacists should offer training to educate customers on standard medicine disposal practices.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  4. Linearity of electrical impedance tomography during maximum effort breathing and forced expiration maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chuong; Leonhardt, Steffen; Zhang, Tony; Lüken, Markus; Misgeld, Berno; Vollmer, Thomas; Tenbrock, Klaus; Lehmann, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) provides global and regional information about ventilation by means of relative changes in electrical impedance measured with electrodes placed around the thorax. In combination with lung function tests, e.g. spirometry and body plethysmography, regional information about lung ventilation can be achieved. Impedance changes strictly correlate with lung volume during tidal breathing and mechanical ventilation. Initial studies presumed a correlation also during forced expiration maneuvers. To quantify the validity of this correlation in extreme lung volume changes during forced breathing, a measurement system was set up and applied on seven lung-healthy volunteers. Simultaneous measurements of changes in lung volume using EIT imaging and pneumotachography were obtained with different breathing patterns. Data was divided into a synchronizing phase (spontaneous breathing) and a test phase (maximum effort breathing and forced maneuvers). The EIT impedance changes correlate strictly with spirometric data during slow breathing with increasing and maximum effort ([Formula: see text]) and during forced expiration maneuvers ([Formula: see text]). Strong correlations in spirometric volume parameters [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), [Formula: see text]/FVC ([Formula: see text]), and flow parameters PEF, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) were observed. According to the linearity during forced expiration maneuvers, EIT can be used during pulmonary function testing in combination with spirometry for visualisation of regional lung ventilation.

  5. Preparing for chemical terrorism: a study of the stability of expired pralidoxime (2-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert S; Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Bouchard, Nicole; Ravikumar, Padinjarekuttu; Goldfrank, Lewis

    2012-03-01

    Oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) are essential antidotes for life-threatening organophosphate poisoning. Unfortunately, oximes are expensive, have limited use, and have short shelf lives. As such, maintaining large stockpiles in preparation for terrorist activity is not always possible. We have demonstrated that atropine is stable well beyond its labeled shelf life and that recently expired 2-PAM was clinically efficacious in a series of poisoned patients. Because 2-PAM is often dosed empirically, clinical improvement does not guarantee pharmacological stability. We therefore chose to analyze the chemical stability of expired 2-PAM. Samples of lyophylized 2-PAM were maintained according to the manufacturer's recommendations for 20 years beyond the published shelf life. We studied 2-PAM contained in a MARK I autoinjector that was stored properly for 3 years beyond its expiration date. An Agilent LC/MSD 1100 with diode-array detector and an Agilent Sorbax SB-C-18, 4.6 × 150-mm, 5-μm column were used with the following solvent systems: water with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid. Fresh reagent grade 2-PAM was used as a standard. Results were repeated for consistency. Lyophylized 2-PAM was a white powder that was clear and colorless in solution. Liquid chromatography was identical to the standard and resulted in 2 isolated peaks with identical mass spectra, suggesting that they are stereoisomers. The autoinjector discharged a clear, yellowish solution. In addition to the 2 peaks identified for lyophylized 2-PAM, a small third peak was identified with a mass spectra corresponding to the reported N -methyl pyridinium carboxaldehyde degradation product. When properly stored, lyophylized 2-PAM appears to be chemically stable well beyond its expiration date. Although the relative amount of degradation product found in solubilized (autoinjector) 2-PAM was small, it is unclear whether this may be toxic and therefore is of concern

  6. Sampling technique for collection of expired COsub(2) in studies using naturally labelled sup(13)C in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Pelletier, G.; Gagnon, M.

    1984-01-01

    Natural isotopic labelling of animal metabolic processes presents great advantages over the use of artificially enriched compounds. These advantages include the use of natural diets, low cost and easiness of handling, sampling and disposal. Changes in the sup(13)C/sup(12)C ratio of expired COsub(2) after ingestion of a test meal containing a variable proportion of Csub(3) and/or Csub(4) plant-derived products permits measurements of the immediate oxidation of dietary carbohydrates. A breathing device for collection of expired COsub(2) and purification techniques are described. The breath-sampling device is composed of a polypropylene enclosure and a rubber bag. The rubber bag is blown up by the animal and a sample of the expired gas is transferred to a sampling glass holder in which a vacuum had been previously achieved. Sample purification of expired COsub(2) is done by differential freezing

  7. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ...

  8. Administration of time-expired yellow fever vaccine: public health response and results of a serological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K W; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J S; Howells, J

    1999-06-01

    The discovery that a local travel clinic had administered 101 doses of time-expired yellow fever vaccine over a six month period prompted an immediate investigation in order to advise vaccinees about to travel to areas where yellow fever is endemic. No data were available to provide adequate reassurance about the potential efficacy of time-expired vaccine, so a rapid serological investigation was conducted, which provided evidence that the yellow fever vaccine had remained potent beyond its expiry date.

  9. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  10. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-07-09

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people's expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  11. A stability-study of expired ampoules manufactured more than 40 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Markus; Sörgel, Fritz; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2018-02-20

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers have to study the stability of drug products before marketing according to ICH guideline Q1A(R2); data of those investigations aim to set expiry dates. The expiry date on the container of a remedy assures the physician and the patient a stability of the drug in its formulation i.e. within a specification of 95-105%. Only few studies show that shelf-lives of pharmaceutical products are often longer than expiration dates. The objective of the study presented here was determining the content of nine expired ampoules manufactured in the last century and identifying the impurity profile by means of HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively. The ampoules are part of the "PEAK-collection" of long expired finished pharmaceutical products at IBMP, Nürnberg-Heroldsberg, and consists among others of epinephrine (Suprarenin and Adrenalin in Oil), etilefrine (Effortil ® ), synephrine (Sympatol ® ), caffeine and procaine (Impletol), caffeine and sodium salicylate (Caffeinum Salicylicum), dipyridamole (Persantin ® ), furosemide (Lasix ® ), and metamizole (Novalgin ® ). For chromatographic investigations methods of the European Pharmacopoeia for related substances were used; for determining the content, they were validated for linearity, precision, and accuracy. The results were compared to current reference ampoules. Five out of nine ampoules were still within the specified content limits. In Suprarenin and Adrenalin in Oil, both containing epinephrine, Impletol (procaine), and Persantin ® (dipyridamole) contents were decreased to 70%, 74%, 79%, and 86%, respectively, and therefore out of specification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart rate asymmetry follows the inspiration/expiration ratio in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klintworth, Anne; Ajtay, Zénó; Paljunite, Alina; Szabados, Sándor; Hejjel, László

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate asymmetry (HRA) quantifies the uneven distribution of points above and below the identity-line in a Poincaré plot of RR-intervals. The authors investigated if HRA could be influenced by the inspiration/expiration ratio. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) were studied in the supine position at 4.5 s metronome breathing. ECG and breathing signals were recorded for 360 s at each breathing pattern: inspiration controlled, inspiration/expiration controlled (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 ratio), inspiration controlled again. Time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot heart rate variability (HRV) analysis with Porta's and Guzik's indices were performed on 300 s tachograms. There were no statistically significant differences in time domain, frequency domain and standard Poincaré plot parameters during the various breathing patterns, whereas Porta's and Guzik's indices significantly rose at 1:1 and 2:1 compared to physiological 1:2 breathing. There were no significant differences in the HRA parameters between the first and the last runs. In our population the inspiration/expiration ratio significantly influenced HRA, but not standard HRV parameters. Positive correlation of Guzik's and Porta's index reflects reciprocal changes of the number of points and their dispersion in the accelerating and decelerating sets of RR-intervals. HRA-analysis can be a promising method for investigating cardiovascular regulation/health particularly with further spreading of wearable monitors. (paper)

  13. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chung; Sinusas, Albert J; Liu, Chi; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory–cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory–cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased

  14. Prototype apparatus for the measurement of tritium in expired air using plastic scintillator pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Ito, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    A new apparatus for measuring tritiated water in expired air was developed using plastic scintillator (PS) pellets and a low-background liquid scintillation counter. The sensitivity of the apparatus was sufficient when a large adapted Teflon vial was used. The measurement method generated low amounts of organic waste because the PS pellets were reusable by rinsing, and had adequate detection limits. The apparatus is useful for the safety management of workers that are exposed to radioactive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Replacing carbon lost from forests. An assessment of insurance, reserves, and expiring credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subak, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Concern over the 'non-permanence' or reversibility of carbon sequestration projects has been prominent in discussions over how to develop guidelines for forest project investments under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol. Accordingly, a number of approaches have been proposed that aim to help ensure that parties do not receive credit for carbon that is lost before project obligations are fulfilled. These approaches include forest carbon insurance, land reserves, and issuance of expiring credits. The potential costs of each of these different approaches are evaluated using a range of assumptions about project length, risk and discount rate, and a comparison of costs is ventured based on the estimated reduction in value of these credits compared with uninsured, and permanent credits. Obstacles to participation in the different approaches are discussed related to problems of long-term commitments, project scale, rising replacement costs, and low credit value. It is concluded that a system of expiring credits, which could be coupled with insurance or reserves, could guarantee obligations that span time-scales longer than that of conventional insurance policies while maintaining incentives for long-term sequestration

  16. Some infant ventilators do not limit peak inspiratory pressure reliably during active expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, H; Santos-Lyn, R; Roberts, R

    1988-09-01

    In order to minimize barotrauma in newborn infants with respiratory failure, peak inspiratory pressures should not exceed those required for adequate gas exchange. We examined whether four commonly used pressure-limited, constant flow ventilators limit pressure reliably during simulated active expiration against the inspiratory stroke of the ventilator. Three machines of each type were tested at 13 different expiratory flow rates (2 to 14 L/min). Flow-dependent pressure overshoot above a dialed pressure limit of 20 cm H2O was observed in all machines. However, the magnitude differed significantly between ventilators from different manufacturers (p = .0009). Pressure overshoot above 20 cm H2O was consistently lowest in the Healthdyne (0.8 cm H2O at 2 L/min, 3.6 cm H2O at 14 L/min) and highest in the Bourns BP200 (3.0 cm H2O at 2 L/min, 15.4 cm H2O at 14 L/min). We conclude that peak inspiratory pressure overshoots on pressure-limited ventilators occur during asynchronous expiration. This shortcoming may contribute to barotrauma in newborn infants who "fight" positive-pressure ventilation.

  17. Section 1603 Treasury Grant Expiration: Industry Insight on Financing and Market Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Harper, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crises, tax equity investors largely withdrew from the market, resulting in stagnation of project development. In response, Congress established the Treasury grant program pursuant to Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (..Section..1603 Program) to offer a cash payment in lieu of a production and investment tax credit. This study addresses the likely project financing and market impacts from the expiration of the ..Section..1603 Program. The authors assembled an array of insights offered by financial executives active in the renewable energy (RE) market during conference panel discussions and in presentations, direct interviews, and email correspondences. This analysis found that the ..Section..1603 Program alleviated the need to monetize the tax credit incentives through specialized investors, helped lower the transaction and financing costs associated with renewable electricity projects, and generally supported an extensive build-out of renewable power generation capacity. With the expiration of the ..Section..1603 Program, smaller or less-established renewable power developers will have more difficulty attracting needed financial capital and completing their projects, development of projects relying on newer or 'innovative' technologies will likely slow as traditional tax equity investors are known to be highly averse to technology risk in the projects they fund, and, finally, projects relying on tax equity may be more expensive to develop due to higher transaction costs and potentially higher yields required to attract tax equity.

  18. Section 1603 Treasury Grant Expiration. Industry Insight on Financing and Market Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harper, John [Birch Tree Capital, LLC, Framingham, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crises, tax equity investors largely withdrew from the market, resulting in stagnation of project development. In response, Congress established the Treasury grant program pursuant to Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Section 1603 Program) to offer a cash payment in lieu of a production and investment tax credit. This study addresses the likely project financing and market impacts from the expiration of the Section 1603 Program. The authors assembled an array of insights offered by financial executives active in the renewable energy (RE) market during conference panel discussions and in presentations, direct interviews, and email correspondences. This analysis found that the Section 1603 Program alleviated the need to monetize the tax credit incentives through specialized investors, helped lower the transaction and financing costs associated with renewable electricity projects, and generally supported an extensive build-out of renewable power generation capacity. With the expiration of the Section 1603 Program, smaller or less-established renewable power developers will have more difficulty attracting needed financial capital and completing their projects, development of projects relying on newer or 'innovative' technologies will likely slow as traditional tax equity investors are known to be highly averse to technology risk in the projects they fund, and, finally, projects relying on tax equity may be more expensive to develop due to higher transaction costs and potentially higher yields required to attract tax equity.

  19. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Wembabazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR technique. Acidic sulphonate (–SO3H groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5% than sulphonated saw dust (46.6% during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p=0.05. The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000°C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000°C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8% from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products.

  20. Breath-hold times in patients undergoing radiological examinations. Comparison of expiration and inspiration with and without hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groell, R.; Schaffler, G.J.; Schloffer, S.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Breath-holding is necessary for imaging studies of the thorax and abdomen using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this study was to compare the breath-hold times in expiration and inspiration and to evaluate the effects of hyperventilation. Patients and methods. Thirty patients and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this study after informed consent was obtained in all. The breath-hold times were measured in expiration and inspiration before and after hyperventilation. Results. The mean breath-hold times in expiration (patients: 24±9 sec, volunteers: 27±7 sec) were significantly shorter than those in inspiration (patients: 41±20 sec, p<0.001; volunteers: 62±18 sec, p<0.001). Additional hyperventilation resulted in a significant increase (range: 40-60%, p≤0.005) of the mean breathhold times either in expiration and in inspiration and for both patients and volunteers. Conclusions. Although breath-holding in expiration is recommended for various imaging studies particularly of the thorax and of the abdomen, suspending respiration in inspiration enables the patient a considerable longer breath-hold time. (author)

  1. Systems biology of stored blood cells: can it help to extend the expiration date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E

    2012-12-05

    With increasingly stringent regulations regarding deferral and elimination of blood donors it will become increasingly important to extend the expiration date of blood components beyond the current allowed storage periods. One reason for the storage time limit for blood components is that platelets and red blood cells develop a condition called storage lesions during their storage in plastic blood containers. Systems biology provides comprehensive bio-chemical descriptions of organisms through quantitative measurements and data integration in mathematical models. The biological knowledge for a target organism can be translated in a mathematical format and used to compute physiological properties. The use of systems biology represents a concrete solution in the study of blood cell storage lesions, and it may open up new avenues towards developing better storage methods and better storage media, thereby extending the storage period of blood components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward automatic regional analysis of pulmonary function using inspiration and expiration thoracic CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Keelin; Pluim, Josien P. W.; Rikxoort, Eva M. van

    2012-01-01

    and its results; (b) verify that the quantitative, regional ventilation measurements acquired through CT are meaningful for pulmonary function analysis; (c) identify the most effective of the calculated measurements in predicting pulmonary function; and (d) demonstrate the potential of the system...... disorder). Lungs, fissures, airways, lobes, and vessels are automatically segmented in both scans and the expiration scan is registered with the inspiration scan using a fully automatic nonrigid registration algorithm. Segmentations and registrations are examined and scored by expert observers to analyze...... to have good correlation with spirometry results, with several having correlation coefficients, r, in the range of 0.85–0.90. The best performing kNN classifier succeeded in classifying 67% of subjects into the correct COPD GOLD stage, with a further 29% assigned to a class neighboring the correct one...

  3. 8 CFR 211.3 - Expiration of immigrant visas, reentry permits, refugee travel documents, and Form I-551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permits, refugee travel documents, and Form I-551. 211.3 Section 211.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT... Expiration of immigrant visas, reentry permits, refugee travel documents, and Form I-551. An immigrant visa, reentry permit, refugee travel document, or Form I-551 shall be regarded as unexpired if the rightful...

  4. Abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurones are strong synergists for expiration but are not synergists for Group I monosynaptic afferent inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Tim W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    , 9 being in Group B Dist motoneurones. The complete absence of heteronymous monosynaptic Group I reflex excitation between muscles that are synergistically activated in expiration leads us to conclude that such connections from muscle spindle afferents of the thoracic nerves have little role...... in controlling expiratory movements but, where present, support other motor acts....

  5. 78 FR 53422 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Reinstatement of an Expired Information Collection; Bees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Expired Information Collection; Bees and Related Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... information collection associated with the regulations for the importation of bees and related articles into... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the regulations for the importation of bees...

  6. 42 CFR 137.137 - If the 45 day review period or extension thereto, has expired, and the Tribes offer is deemed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., has expired, and the Tribes offer is deemed accepted by operation of law, are there any exceptions to... SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.137 If the 45 day review period or extension thereto, has expired, and the Tribes offer is deemed...

  7. 25 CFR 161.610 - What will BIA do if livestock is not removed when a permit expires or is cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will BIA do if livestock is not removed when a permit expires or is cancelled? 161.610 Section 161.610 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... will BIA do if livestock is not removed when a permit expires or is cancelled? If the livestock is not...

  8. [Primary antisera before and after the expiration date. Comparative immunohistochemical observations and analysis of data sheets and labels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliani, R; Babache, N

    2002-06-01

    By means of positive and negative controls, the immunostaining properties of a series (B) of 78 primary antibodies (PAB) that had expired 7-77 months previously (mean, 26.3 months) were evaluated in comparison those of the same non expired (functioning) PAB. Qualitatively, no significative difference was observed in the specificity and sensitivity. Among all of the PAB (with the exception of one), no immunonegativity was observed. With special reference to immunohistochemical methods, dilution and retrieval procedures, as suggested on data sheets, were additionally considered. Moreover the residual availability of the reagents was checked. In fact 58 PAB were still available for further examination with probable prolongation of the duration of validity. Other observations are analytically reported as far as polyclonal, monoclonal, concentrated and predilluted expired PAB are concerned. In the same way, duration of available validity before the expiration date was examined for the expired PAB and for an additional series of 90 nonexpired PAB. Finally textual information (including intended use) reported on data sheets and labels has been scrutinized in detail. In conclusion, for the diagnostically applied immunohistochemistry on the basis of these findings and the recent American and European rules, the following propositions should be considered: (1) surveillance on methodological technical approach and diagnostic evaluation, with emphasis on accurate standardization and primary responsibility of the pathologist; (2) opportunity of a continuous feed-back between laboratories-customers and producers-traders, in order to render more uniform the information and establish more realistic parameters of utilization; and (3) possibility of cost reduction according to limited financial support from the health care administration.

  9. Product-line extensions and pricing strategies of brand-name drugs facing patent expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Song Hee; Shepherd, Marvin D; Scoones, David; Wan, Thomas T H

    2005-01-01

    This study proposed an alternative to brand loyalty as the explanation for the continued price rigidity of patent-expired brand-name prescription drugs despite the increase in market entry of generic drugs facilitated by the 1984 Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act. Study hypotheses were to test (1) whether market entries of new-product extensions are associated with market success of original brand-name drugs before generic drug entry, and (2) whether original brand-name drugs exhibit price rigidity to generic entry only when they are extended. The design is a retrospective follow-up study for the prescription drug brands that lost their patents between 1987 and 1992. The drug brands were limited to nonantibiotic, orally administered drugs containing only 1 active pharmaceutical ingredient. Information on patent expiration, entry of a product extension, and market success were determined from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.s Orange Book, First DataBank, and American Druggist, respectively. Market success was defined as whether an original drug brand was listed in the top 100 prescriptions most frequently dispensed before facing generic entry. Product-line extension was defined as the appearance of another product that a company introduces within the same market after its existing product. Drug prices were average wholesale prices from the Drug Topics Red Book. The relationship between product-line extension and market success was examined using a logistic regression analysis. The price rigidity to entry was tested using a panel regression analysis. A total of 27 drug brands lost their patents between 1987 and 1992. Drug brands that achieved market success were 16 times more likely to be extended than were those that did not (OR=16, 95% confidence interval, 2.12-120.65). The price rigidity to entry existed in drug brands with extensions (beta=2.65%, P new product-line extension introduced for an original brand helps the original price be

  10. Effect of irradiation on the pH for 11 commercial salad dressings near expiration date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for salad dressings has evolved significantly in recent years and has become a frequent option in the meal. The pH values for salad dressings are low, precisely because they are emulsions acidified by adding ingredients, such as, acetic acid and / or citric acid and preservatives like benzoic acid and / or sorbic those provide an environment unfavorable to the growth of many microorganisms. However, the deterioration of such products occur as a result of growth of lactobacilli, bacilli, yeasts, once damaged, can present loss of taste and dark spots on the surface as an indication of yeast colony formation. Whereas, the positive effects of gamma irradiation on food, such as improved safety and stability of food products on shelves, the pH is a key factor for assessing not only the conservation, but also to the quality. The aim of this study was to reassess the effects of radiation on the pH of 9 varieties of commercial salad dressing after 6 months of storage, near the expiration of samples validity. The samples were acquired on the market of Sao Paulo and subjected to low doses of radiation at irradiator Multipurpose IPEN / CNEN-SP. The irradiated samples were compared to control. Statistical analyzes were performed using the program Graph Pad 5 and adopting a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). (author)

  11. Flow-controlled expiration: a novel ventilation mode to attenuate experimental porcine lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, U; Haberstroh, J; Foerster, K; Dassow, C; Priebe, H-J; Guttmann, J; Schumann, S

    2014-09-01

    Whereas the effects of various inspiratory ventilatory modifications in lung injury have extensively been studied, those of expiratory ventilatory modifications are less well known. We hypothesized that the newly developed flow-controlled expiration (FLEX) mode provides a means of attenuating experimental lung injury. Experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by i.v. injection of oleic acid in 15 anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. After established lung injury ([Formula: see text]ratio ventilation (VCV) or a treatment group receiving VCV with additional FLEX (VCV+FLEX). At predefined times, lung mechanics and oxygenation were assessed. At the end of the experiment, the pigs were killed, and bronchoalveolar fluid and lung biopsies were taken. Expression of inflammatory cytokines was analysed in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar fluid. Lung injury score was determined on the basis of stained tissue samples. Compared with the control group (VCV; n=8), the VCV+FLEX group (n=7) demonstrated greater dynamic lung compliance and required less PEEP at comparable [Formula: see text] (both Pprotective ventilation. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2014-06-13

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics.

  13. Effect of irradiation on the pH for 11 commercial salad dressings near expiration date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: jusagretti@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for salad dressings has evolved significantly in recent years and has become a frequent option in the meal. The pH values for salad dressings are low, precisely because they are emulsions acidified by adding ingredients, such as, acetic acid and / or citric acid and preservatives like benzoic acid and / or sorbic those provide an environment unfavorable to the growth of many microorganisms. However, the deterioration of such products occur as a result of growth of lactobacilli, bacilli, yeasts, once damaged, can present loss of taste and dark spots on the surface as an indication of yeast colony formation. Whereas, the positive effects of gamma irradiation on food, such as improved safety and stability of food products on shelves, the pH is a key factor for assessing not only the conservation, but also to the quality. The aim of this study was to reassess the effects of radiation on the pH of 9 varieties of commercial salad dressing after 6 months of storage, near the expiration of samples validity. The samples were acquired on the market of Sao Paulo and subjected to low doses of radiation at irradiator Multipurpose IPEN / CNEN-SP. The irradiated samples were compared to control. Statistical analyzes were performed using the program Graph Pad 5 and adopting a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). (author)

  14. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics. PMID:24797134

  15. A new method for noninvasive measurement of pulmonary gas exchange using expired gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B; Prisk, G Kim

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of the gas exchange efficiency of the lung is often required in the practice of pulmonary medicine and in other settings. The traditional standard is the values of the PO2, PCO2, and pH of arterial blood. However arterial puncture requires technical expertise, is invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and expensive. Here we describe how the composition of expired gas can be used in conjunction with pulse oximetry to obtain useful measures of gas exchange efficiency. The new procedure is noninvasive, well tolerated by the patient, and takes only a few minutes. It could be particularly useful when repeated measurements of pulmonary gas exchange are required. One product of the procedure is the difference between the PO2 of end-tidal alveolar gas and the calculated PO2 of arterial blood. This measurement is related to the classical alveolar-arterial PO2 difference based on ideal alveolar gas. However that traditional index is heavily influenced by lung units with low ventilation-perfusion ratios, whereas the new index has a broader physiological basis because it includes contributions from the whole lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    , it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice...... and the interaction with gender is observed for milk in particular. Overall, perceived quality and estimated likelihood of consumption at home majorly determine likelihood of choice. Consumer acceptance of expiration date based pricing of suboptimal food can be increased through furthering consumer familiarity......Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However...

  17. A framework for an inventory model for deteriorating items with expiration under trapezoidal-type demand and partial backlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal T. Shukla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: As in the case of deteriorating items, expiration plays a major role in inventory management, a generalized approach is studied based on an inventory model for deteriorating items with expiration dates. Methods: In this paper, the demand rate during the cycle time is assumed to be trapezoidal. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. An inventory replenishment strategy is formulated for trapezoidal demand rates and backlogging rates in general for retailers; with the support of fundamental concepts of calculus. Results: The method is illustrated with the support of numerical examples along with sensitivity analysis with respect to major parameters. Conclusion: This generalized approach provides a platform to develop a strategy using different demand functions and backlogging rates.

  18. Comparison of several chemometric methods of libraries and classifiers for the analysis of expired drugs based on Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qun; Liu, Yan; Li, Hao; Chen, Hui; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Some expired drugs are difficult to detect by conventional means. If they are repackaged and sold back into market, they will constitute a new public health challenge. For the detection of repackaged expired drugs within specification, paracetamol tablet from a manufacturer was used as a model drug in this study for comparison of Raman spectra-based library verification and classification methods. Raman spectra of different batches of paracetamol tablets were collected and a library including standard spectra of unexpired batches of tablets was established. The Raman spectrum of each sample was identified by cosine and correlation with the standard spectrum. The average HQI of the suspicious samples and the standard spectrum were calculated. The optimum threshold values were 0.997 and 0.998 respectively as a result of ROC and four evaluations, for which the accuracy was up to 97%. Three supervised classifiers, PLS-DA, SVM and k-NN, were chosen to establish two-class classification models and compared subsequently. They were used to establish a classification of expired batches and an unexpired batch, and predict the suspect samples. The average accuracy was 90.12%, 96.80% and 89.37% respectively. Different pre-processing techniques were tried to find that first derivative was optimal for methods of libraries and max-min normalization was optimal for that of classifiers. The results obtained from these studies indicated both libraries and classifier methods could detect the expired drugs effectively, and they should be used complementarily in the fast-screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  20. Effectiveness of medicines authentication technology to detect counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines: a two-stage quantitative secondary care study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Bernard; Roberts, Lindsey; Dopson, Sue; Chapman, Stephen; Brindley, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the authentication and detection rate of serialised medicines using medicines authentication technology. Design and intervention 4192 serialised medicines were entered into a hospital dispensary over two separate 8-week stages in 2015. Medicines were authenticated using secure external database cross-checking, triggered by the scanning of a two-dimensional data matrix with a unit specific 12-digit serial code. 4% of medicines included were preprogrammed with a message to identify the product as either expired, pack recalled, product recalled or counterfeit. Setting A site within a large UK National Health Service teaching hospital trust. Participants Accredited checking staff, pharmacists and dispensers in a pharmacy department. Primary outcome measures Authentication and detection rate of counterfeit expired and recalled medicines. Results The operational detection rate of counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines scanned as a combined group was 81.4% (stage 1 (S1)) and 87% (stage 2 (S2)). The technology's technical detection rate (TDR) was 100%; however, not all medicines were scanned and of those that were scanned not all that generated a warning message were quarantined. Owing to an operational authentication rate (OAR) of 66.3% (over both stages), only 31.8% of counterfeit medicines, 58% of recalled drugs and 64% of expired medicines were detected as a proportion of those entered into the study. Response times (RTs) of 152 ms (S1) and 165 ms (S2) were recorded, meeting the falsified medicines directive-mandated 300 ms limit. Conclusions TDRs and RTs were not a limiting factor in this study. The suboptimal OAR poses significant quality and safety issues with this detection approach. Authentication at the checking stage, however, demonstrated higher OARs. There is a need for further qualitative research to establish the reasons for less than absolute authentication and detection rates in the hospital environment to improve this

  1. Public vs. Private Provision of Charity Care? Evidence from the Expiration of Hill-Burton Requirements in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Almond; Janet Currie; Emilia Simeonova

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the expiration of charity care requirements imposed on private hospitals by the Hill-Burton Act. We examine delivery care and the health of newborns using the universe of Florida births from 1989-2003 combined with hospital data from the American Hospital Association. We find that charity care requirements were binding on hospitals, but that private hospitals under obligation "cream skimmed" the least risky maternity patients. Conditional on patient cha...

  2. Comparison of human platelet lysate alternatives using expired and freshly isolated platelet concentrates for adipose-derived stromal cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessels, Carla; Durandt, Chrisna; Pepper, Michael S

    2018-03-19

    Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) has been used to expand adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and can be formulated using fresh or expired buffy coats (BCs) which are then resuspended in either plasma or an additive solution. Not much is known about the effects that expired products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion, and the need for quality control and release criteria has been expressed. This pilot study compared proliferation, cell size, morphology and immunophenotype of ASCs expanded in the different pHPL alternatives versus foetal bovine serum (FBS). Quality control criteria were assessed prior to and during the manufacture of the pHPL alternatives. ASCs were then expanded in 1%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% of the different pHPL alternatives or in 10% FBS. Cell size, morphology, cell number and immunophenotype were measured using microscopy and flow cytometry. The majority of the pHPL alternatives were within the recommended ranges for the quality control criteria. ASCs expanded in the pHPL alternatives were smaller in size, displayed a tighter spindle-shaped morphology, increased cell growth and had a similar immunophenotype (with the exception of CD34 and CD36) when compared to ASCs expanded in FBS. Here we report on the effects that expired BC products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion. When taken together, our findings indicate that all of the pHPL alternatives can be considered to be suitable replacements for FBS for ASC expansion, and that expired BC products can be used as an alternative to fresh BC products.

  3. Dose monitoring in Partial Liquid Ventilation by infrared measurement of expired perfluorochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, M; Nugent, L; Klein, D; Hoffman, J; Sekins, K M; Flaim, S F

    1999-01-01

    Patients undergoing Partial Liquid Ventilation (PLV) with the perfluorochemical liquid perflubron (PFB) continuously evaporate the drug from the lung during ventilatory expiration. In this study, two infrared (IR) devices, a modified industrial analyzer ("experimental prototype") and a custom-designed device suitable for use in a clinical environment ("clinical prototype"), were calibrated and validated on the bench to measure a range of PFB concentrations (CPFB) in a gas stream. PFB loss from the lung (area under the CPFB-vs-time-curve) could be correlated during PLV simulation with changes in tidal volume, breathing rate, and variable CPFB-vs-time profiles. The two IR devices produced nearly identical measurements for the same CPFB standards (maximum deviation = 1.5%). The experimental IR prototype was tested in 17 anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated swine (42-53 kg) to quantify the total amount and rate of evaporate loss of PFB over 12 hours of PLV, both with and without periodic supplemental PFB doses. The residual PFB volumes in the animal lungs at the end of the study, as determined by a gravimetric postmortem lung method, were found to agree on average for all animals to within 10% of the residual PFB volume as predicted by the IR approach. Furthermore, the IR signal of CPFB does not appear to correlate with the absolute amount of PFB in the lungs, but may reflect the relative proportion of PFB-wetted airway and alveolar surface. The authors conclude that IR quantitation of PFB evaporative loss is acceptably accurate for extended periods of PLV and may be a useful tool in the clinic for PFB dose monitoring and maintenance, thereby helping to optimize PLV treatment.

  4. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    , empirical data relevant to the development of the degree adverb function is presented and possible relevant constructions identified. It is argued that the degree adverb function of that possibly occurs later than the historical dictionaries indicate. The degree adverb function of this is challenging...

  5. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  6. Physical and chemical stability of expired fixed dose combination artemether-lumefantrine in uncontrolled tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Kimberly

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New artemisinin combination therapies pose difficulties of implementation in developing and tropical settings because they have a short shelf-life (two years relative to the medicines they replace. This limits the reliability and cost of treatment, and the acceptability of this treatment to health care workers. A multi-pronged investigation was made into the chemical and physical stability of fixed dose combination artemether-lumefantrine (FDC-ALU stored under heterogeneous, uncontrolled African conditions, to probe if a shelf-life extension might be possible. Methods Seventy samples of expired FDC-ALU were collected from private pharmacies and malaria researchers in seven African countries. The samples were subjected to thin-layer chromatography (TLC, disintegration testing, and near infrared Raman spectrometry for ascertainment of active ingredients, tablet integrity, and chemical degradation of the tablet formulation including both active ingredients and excipients. Results Seventy samples of FDC-ALU were tested in July 2008, between one and 58 months post-expiry. 68 of 70 (97% samples passed TLC, disintegration and Raman spectrometry testing, including eight samples that were post-expiry by 20 months or longer. A weak linear association (R2 = 0.33 was observed between the age of samples and their state of degradation relative to brand-identical samples on Raman spectrometry. Sixty-eight samples were retested in February 2009 using Raman spectrometry, between eight and 65 months post-expiry. 66 of 68 (97% samples passed Raman spectrometry retesting. An unexpected observation about African drug logistics was made in three batches of FDC-ALU, which had been sold into the public sector at concessional pricing in accordance with a World Health Organization (WHO agreement, and which were illegally diverted to the private sector where they were sold for profit. Conclusion The data indicate that FDC-ALU is chemically and

  7. Grasslands, wetlands, and agriculture: the fate of land expiring from the Conservation Reserve Program in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Philip E.; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Iovanna, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is the largest agricultural land-retirement program in the United States, providing many environmental benefits, including wildlife habitat and improved air, water, and soil quality. Since 2007, however, CRP area has declined by over 25% nationally with much of this land returning to agriculture. Despite this trend, it is unclear what types of CRP land are being converted, to what crops, and where. All of these specific factors greatly affect environmental impacts. To answer these questions, we quantified shifts in expiring CRP parcels to five major crop-types (corn, soy, winter and spring wheat, and sorghum) in a 12-state, Midwestern region of the United States using a US Department of Agriculture (USDA), field-level CRP database and USDA’s Cropland Data Layer. For the years 2010 through 2013, we estimate almost 30%, or more than 530 000 ha, of expiring CRP land returned to the production of these five crops in our study area, with soy and corn accounting for the vast majority of these shifts. Grasslands were the largest type of CRP land converted (360 000 ha), followed by specifically designated wildlife habitat (76 000 ha), and wetland areas (53 000 ha). These wetland areas were not just wetlands themselves, but also a mix of land covers enhancing or protecting wetland ecosystem services (e.g., wetland buffers). Areas in the Dakotas, Nebraska, and southern Iowa were hotspots of change, with the highest areas of CRP land moving back to agriculture. By contrast, we estimate only a small amount (˜3%) of the expiring land shifted into similar, non-CRP land-retirement or easement programs. Reconciling needs for food, feed, fuel, and healthy ecosystems is an immense challenge for farmers, conservationists, and state and federal agencies. Reduced enrollment and the turnover of CRP land from conservation to agriculture raises questions about sustaining ecosystem services in this region.

  8. Marked Increase in Flow Velocities During Deep Expiration: A Duplex Doppler Sign of Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, Ayse; Yurdakul, Mehmet; Cumhur, Turhan

    1999-01-01

    Symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia develop when the celiac artery is constricted by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Lateral aortography is the primary modality for diagnosing ligamentous compression of the celiac artery. However, duplex Doppler sonography performed during deep expiration can cause a marked increase in flow velocities at the compressed region of the celiac artery and suggest the diagnosis of celiac arterial constriction due to the diaphragmatic ligament. RID='''' ID='''' Correspondence to: A. Erden, M.D., Hafta sokak. 23/6, Gaziosmanpasa, 06700 Ankara, Turkey

  9. Portal venous blood flow while breath-holding after inspiration or expiration and during normal respiration in controls and cirrhotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Sasao, Ken-ichiro; Watanabe, Manabu

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure portal blood flow in 12 healthy controls and 17 cirrhotics while they were breath-holding after inspiration and after expiration. We then compared the results with measurements made during normal respiration in the healthy controls and cirrhotics. Blood flow in the main portal vein under basal fasting conditions was quantitated using the cine phase-contrast MR velocity mapping method. Three measurements were made on one occasion, as follows: throughout the cardiac cycle during normal respiration, with the subject breath-holding after maximal inspiration, and with the subject breath-holding after maximal expiration. During normal respiration, portal blood flow was 1.3±0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.0±0.1 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001); while subjects were breath-holding after inspiration, portal blood flow was 1.0±0.2 l/min in controls vs 0.9±0.1 l/min in cirrhotics; and while subjects were breath-holding after expiration, portal blood flow was 1.5±0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.1±0.2 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001). The differences were primarily due to changes in flow velocity. When the magnitude of these hemodynamic changes in the three respiratory conditions was compared in controls and cirrhotics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). In controls, portal blood flow decreased during maximal inspiration relative to flow during normal respiration (-24.6±8.3%). Changes in portal blood flow in controls were greater than in cirrhotics (-13.5±4.5%) (P<0.0001); however, the difference in blood flow increase associated with maximal expiration between the two groups (+11.8±9.4% vs +5.9±11.5%) was not significant. We found that the respiration-induced hemodynamic variation in portal blood flow was less in cirrhotics than in the healthy controls. Portal blood flow measurements made during normal respiration using MR imaging closely reflect nearly physiologic conditions

  10. Portal venous blood flow while breath-holding after inspiration or expiration and during normal respiration in controls and cirrhotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Sasao, Ken-ichiro; Watanabe, Manabu [Saiseikai Wakakusa Hospital, Yakohama (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure portal blood flow in 12 healthy controls and 17 cirrhotics while they were breath-holding after inspiration and after expiration. We then compared the results with measurements made during normal respiration in the healthy controls and cirrhotics. Blood flow in the main portal vein under basal fasting conditions was quantitated using the cine phase-contrast MR velocity mapping method. Three measurements were made on one occasion, as follows: throughout the cardiac cycle during normal respiration, with the subject breath-holding after maximal inspiration, and with the subject breath-holding after maximal expiration. During normal respiration, portal blood flow was 1.3{+-}0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.0{+-}0.1 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001); while subjects were breath-holding after inspiration, portal blood flow was 1.0{+-}0.2 l/min in controls vs 0.9{+-}0.1 l/min in cirrhotics; and while subjects were breath-holding after expiration, portal blood flow was 1.5{+-}0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.1{+-}0.2 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001). The differences were primarily due to changes in flow velocity. When the magnitude of these hemodynamic changes in the three respiratory conditions was compared in controls and cirrhotics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). In controls, portal blood flow decreased during maximal inspiration relative to flow during normal respiration (-24.6{+-}8.3%). Changes in portal blood flow in controls were greater than in cirrhotics (-13.5{+-}4.5%) (P<0.0001); however, the difference in blood flow increase associated with maximal expiration between the two groups (+11.8{+-}9.4% vs +5.9{+-}11.5%) was not significant. We found that the respiration-induced hemodynamic variation in portal blood flow was less in cirrhotics than in the healthy controls. Portal blood flow measurements made during normal respiration using MR imaging closely reflect nearly

  11. 13 CFR 124.403 - How is a business plan updated and modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporated into its business plan. The transition management strategy must describe: (1) How the Participant... business growth and promote profitable business operations after the expiration of its program term. (d... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is a business plan updated and...

  12. Value of digital radiography in expiration in detection of pneumothorax; Wertigkeit der digitalen Roentgenaufnahme in Exspiration zum Nachweis eines Pneumothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, L.; Natho, O.; Feigen, U.; Kivelitz, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schulz, U. [medistat GmbH, Kiel (Germany). Medical Statistics

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out whether pneumothorax detection and exclusion is superior in expiratory digital chest radiography. Materials and Methods: 131 patients with pneumothorax with paired inspiratory and expiratory chest radiographs were analyzed regarding localization and size of pneumothorax. Sensitivity, specificity, negative (npv) and positive predictive value (ppv) as well as the positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were determined in a blinded randomized interobserver study with 116 patients. The evaluation was performed by three board-certified radiologists. Results: In 131 patients, there were 139 pneumothoraces, 135 (97.1 %) were located apical, 88 (63.3 %) lateral and 33 (23.7 %) basal. Sensitivity was 99 % for inspiratory and 97 % for expiratory radiographs. The interobserver study yielded a mean sensitivity of 86.1 %/86.1 %, specificity of 97.3 %/93.4 %, npv of 88.7 %/88.5 % and ppv of 96.7 %/92.1 % for inspiration/expiration. For inspiratory radiographs the LR+/LR- were 40.2/0.14 and for expiration 13.9 and 0.15. McNemar-Test showed no significant difference for the detection of pneumothoraces in in-/exspiration. Conclusion: Inspiratory and expiratory digital radiographs are equally suitable for pneumothorax detection. Inspiratory radiographs are recommended as the initial examination of choice for pneumothorax detection, an additional expiratory radiograph is only recommended in doubtful cases. (orig.)

  13. Radiopacity and microhardness changes and effect of X-ray operating voltage in resin-based materials before and after the expiration date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirapelli Camila

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study observed alteration in the radiopacity and microhardness of expired resin-based materials compared to non-expired materials and the operating characteristics of the X-ray source used. Five 2 mm-thick cured specimens were prepared for each material: composite resins (P60®, Z100®, and a compomer (Dyract AP®. Radiopacity of the specimens was evaluated comparing the density of the resin-based material to an equivalent (mm density of a 99.5% pure aluminum step wedge using a transmission densitometer. Surface microhardness measurements were carried out using a calibrated Vickers indenter on three different points of the same surface. ANOVA and Tukey tests (pre-set alpha = 0.05 revealed that expired materials showed no significant change in radiopacity. One material (Filtek P60 demonstrated lower radiopacity with lower KVp. Change in microhardness wa s statistically significant for Z100: for this material, the microhardness after expiration was significantly lower than before the expiration date.

  14. Diretrizes para um Programa de Recolhimento de Medicamentos Vencidos no Brasil Guidelines for an Expired Medication Collection Program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cynamon Kligerman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apontar e discutir diretrizes fundamentais para um programa de recolhimento de medicamentos vencidos para o Brasil e evidenciar a importância de campanhas de conscientização da população para seu sucesso. Este é um trabalho de revisão descritiva de base documental que analisa documentos oficiais, técnicos e normativos, de Portugal, México, Canadá e Colômbia, onde existem recolhimento de medicamentos vencidos em diferentes estágios de implementação, alguns já consolidados, outros em fase inicial, mas todos com bons resultados. Os países citados foram escolhidos objetivando-se representação da Europa, América do Norte e América Latina. Seis diretrizes comuns foram apontadas: corresponsabilidade na cadeia de fabricação e distribuição do medicamento; minimização de resíduos como estratégia; realização de programa piloto; investigação e classificação dos resíduos gerados; intersetorialidade entre diferentes esferas do governo e campanhas de sensibilização e conscientização da comunidade. Estas diretrizes constituem uma base para um Programa de Recolhimento de Medicamentos Usados no Brasil.The scope of this paper is to outline and discuss fundamental guidelines for an expired medication collection program for Brazil and to provide evidence supporting campaigns to raise the population's awareness for the program's success. It is a document-based descriptive review that analyzes official, technical and regulatory documents from Portugal, Canada and Colombia, where there are expired medication collection programs in different stages of implementation. Some of them are already fully implemented, while others are in the preliminary stages, but all of them are achieving good results. The countries listed above were chosen in order to represent Europe, North America and Latin America. Six common guidelines were outlined: co-responsibility in the drug's manufacturing and distribution chain; a

  15. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  16. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  17. Investigation of molecular metabolites in expired air of healthy man in condition of long-term isolation in hermetical confined environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Mardanov, Robert; Markin, Andrey; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    Investigation of intermediary metabolites, produced in cells, in expired air of healthy man is directed on determination of molecular markers which are reflecting normal physiological pro-cesses in an organism, as well as on determination and validation of biomarkers for objective screening and non-invasive prenosological diagnostics of disorders in metabolic processes caused by negative effect of live environment. Investigation of influence of long-term isolation in her-metical confined environment on composition of healthy human expired air was made during experiment with 105 days isolation in condition of controlled environment and standard food ra-tion. Expired air samples were analyzed on gas chromatograph associated with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The investigation results show that at rest hydroxy ketones, mostly 1-hydroxy-prorapanone-2 (acetol), aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde), acetophenone, phenol and fatty acids were determined. After physical performance (oxidative stress) the content of ke-tones (heptanone-2, heptanone-3), phenol, determined aldehydes (decenal, octadecenal) and acetol in expired air of volunteers decreased. It can be concerned with prevailing of alternative -methylglyoxalic metabolic pathway and caused by oxidative stress. Analysis of expired air samples taken on 30, 60 and 90 day of isolation showed that in conditions of long-term iso-lation concentration of heptanone-2, heptanone-3, 2,3-butadione, acetol, furanones, aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde) and acetophenone is increasing while concentration of phenol and fatty acids is decreasing as compared to samples taken before isolation. It was shown that dynamics of concentration of saturated hydrocarbons in expired air can be informative marker for estima-tion of organism response to oxidative stress, while the level of acetol can be used as indicator of man's training status, validity of exercise load and as a marker of hypoxic state.

  18. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  19. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  20. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However......, it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice......, individual preferences, and product-related factors. An online survey experiment among 842 Danish consumers realistically mimicked the current market context. Findings reveal that neither communicating budget saving or food waste avoidance nor the product being organic has an influence. However...

  1. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique: pinternal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Degrees of sustainable location of railway stations : Integrating space syntax and node place value model on railway sations in the province of North Holland's strategic plan for 2010-2040

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.; Stolk, E.

    2012-01-01

    Mobility on rails is acknowledged to be one of the most sustainable means of transportation between cities and towns. Therefore, a railway station’s location in a built environment and its degree of accessibility is essential to reach as many travellers as possible. Even though there exist several

  3. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  4. Risk of iatrogenic human immunodeficiency virus infection through transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in a Zambian hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consten, E. C.; van der Meer, J. T.; de Wolf, F.; Heij, H. A.; Henny, P. C.; van Lanschot, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via the transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in Zambia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Surgical patients (n = 370) were tested with antibody

  5. Inflationary implications on an inventory with expiration date, capital constraint and uncertain lead time in a multi-echelon supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, R.; Singh, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study considers a multi-echelon supply system comprising of a supplier, a retailer and the end customer. The inventory is deteriorating and has a certain expiration date beyond which there is no demand for the item. The practicalities of real business world are embedded in the setup as

  6. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  7. Degrees of democraticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bergström

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342

  8. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-03-01

    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  9. Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Biranjan

    2013-01-01

    Degree Thesis “Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu” demonstrates structured marketing planning process with the help of case company “Feeniks Koulu”. The central idea of Thesis is to come up with systematic marketing plan following structured process. Thesis employs qualitative research methodology following inductive reasoning approach. Thesis, initiates by outlining theoretical planning methods, which then is materialized into marketing plan with the help of empirical research. Discussion and...

  10. [The role of expired air moisture condensate in assessment of pulmonary inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, E K; Goncharova, V A; Kuzubova, N A; Kamenova, M Iu; Egorova, N V

    2008-01-01

    To study biochemical composition of expired air condensate (EAC) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to a phase and severity of the disease and its treatment. EAC was investigated in 18 COPD patients and 9 healthy subjects. Basic broncholytic therapy with ipratropium bromide was combined with beclomethasone and fenspiride in 11 and 7 patients, respectively. The condensate was lyophilised, the residue was solved and analysed on the biochemical analyzer Casis (Beringer Manheim, Rosch). EAC was examined for albumin, C-reactive protein, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total calcium, magnesium. Compared to healthy subjects, COPD patients' EAC contains significantly higher levels of albumin, C-reactive protein, calcium, bilirubin and more active AP. Quantitative composition of EAC depends on COPD phase and severity. A negative correlation exists between FEV+AEA-1 and albumin concentration, FEV+AEA-1 and CRP concentration. The anti-inflammatory therapy decreases EAC content of both protein and lipid metabolism products, enzyme activity reflecting attenuation of oxidant and inflammatory processes, stabilization of cell membranes in the respiratory zone. EAC composition reflects metabolic processes in the lungs and can be used for assessment of airway affection, activity of the inflammatory process and COPD treatment efficacy.

  11. Appeal in nuclear power proceedings dismissed on the grounds of expiration of the period for lodging an appeal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In its decision of November 18, 1980 - No. 22 B 80 a 796 - the Administrative Court of Bavaria dismissed the appeal lodged against the dismissal of the Administrative Court of Regensburg handed down on March 19, 1980. The complainants had filed a declaratory action concerning the nullity of the licence granted for the Niederaischbach reactor, and for the Isar reactor at Ohu. Their actions were dismissed with costs on the grounds of lacking interest in the declaration - the complainants live a few hundred kilometers away from the sites of the nuclear power plants. The decision of the Administrative Court of Bavaria is based on the fact that the period for lodging appeals had expired. (Exept for the changed decision on costs) the decision of the Administrative Court of Regensburg has become final. The value in litigation of a declaratory action of nullity filed by a private person who denounces the violation of his basic right to life and to inviolability of his person is generally to be assessed at DM 10.000. In case of several complaints filed by different complainants, the subject value of the individual complaints are to be added according to Sect. 5 of the Code of Civil Procedure (ZPO). (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Unused and expired medications disposal practices in the community: a cross-sectional survey in Cheras, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Fatokun*, Ai Wei Chang, Wan Nah Ng, Thashini Nair, Vanitha Balakrishnan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Irresponsible disposal of unused and expired medicationsmay lead to both environmental and public health hazards andhas been subject of several studies [1-3]. The presence ofpharmaceuticals and their respective metabolites in theaquatic environment has become a source for rising concern inrecent years and several studies [2,3 ] have shown that theexistence of these substances in waste water and drinkingwater [4] and they may be potentially harmful to aquatic life.Besides, risk to human life remained a concern [2]. Therefore,the objective of this study was to assess medication disposalpractices and environmental risks awareness of improperdisposal of medications among individuals in the community.A 9-item structured questionnaire was developed based onexisting literature [1-3]. Following a pre-test on ten people in acommunity shopping mall, the final questionnaire wasadministered face-to-face to a convenience sample of 200participants at different areas in two large shopping malls andsurrounding restaurants in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Findings demonstrate that Majority of participants (51.5%were male. In terms of ethnic distribution, the majority ofparticipants surveyed were Chinese (66.5%, followed byMalays (17.0% and Indians (15.5%. Majority of participants(47.5% were aged between 20-29 years old.

  13. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.; Litvak, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  14. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  15. Application of the Novel Ventilation Mode FLow-Controlled EXpiration (FLEX): A Crossover Proof-of-Principle Study in Lung-Healthy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Steffen; Springer, Sebastian; Spaeth, Johannes; Borgmann, Silke; Goebel, Ulrich; Schumann, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, mechanical ventilation is achieved via active lung inflation during inspiration and passive lung emptying during expiration. By contrast, the novel FLEX (FLow-controlled EXpiration) ventilator mode actively decreases the rate of lung emptying. We investigated whether FLEX can be used during intraoperative mechanical ventilation of lung-healthy patients. In 30 adult patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures, we studied respiratory system mechanics, regional ventilation, oxygenation, and hemodynamics during ventilation with and without FLEX at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 and 7 cm H2O. The FLEX system was integrated into the expiratory limb and modified the expiratory flow profile by continuously changing expiratory resistance according to a computer-controlled algorithm. Mean airway pressure increased with PEEP by 1.9 cm H2O and with FLEX by 1 cm H2O (all P ventilated during general anesthesia. FLEX improves the homogeneous distribution of ventilation in the lungs.

  16. 10 CFR 70.38 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of decommissioning operations and presents no undue risk from radiation to the public health and... description of the planned final radiation survey; and (v) An updated detailed cost estimate for... physical security plan and material control and accounting plan provisions in place during decommissioning...

  17. Detailed analysis of the density change on chest CT of COPD using non-rigid registration of inspiration/expiration CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Eunsol; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jeon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-14

    One objective was to evaluate the air trapping index (ATI), measured by inspiration/expiration CT, in COPD patients and nonsmokers. Another objective was to assess the association between the pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT parameters such as ATI or other indices, separately in the whole lung, in emphysema, and in hyperinflated and normal lung areas. One hundred and thirty-eight COPD patients and 29 nonsmokers were included in our study. The ATI, the emphysema index (EI), the gas trapping index (Exp -856) and expiration/inspiration ratio of mean lung density (E/Iratio of MLD) were measured on CT. The values of the whole lung, of emphysema, and of hyperinflated and normal lung areas were compared and then correlated with various PFT parameters. Compared with nonsmokers, COPD patients showed a higher ATI in the whole lung and in each lung lesion (all P < 0.05). The ATI showed a higher correlation than EI with FEF{sub 25-75%}, RV and RV/TLC, and was comparable to Exp -856 and the E/I ratio of MLD. The ATI of emphysema and hyperinflated areas on CT showed better correlation than the normal lung area with PFT parameters. Detailed analysis of density change at inspiration and expiration CT of COPD can provide new insights into pulmonary functional impairment in each lung area. (orig.)

  18. Detailed analysis of the density change on chest CT of COPD using non-rigid registration of inspiration/expiration CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Young; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Eunsol; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do

    2015-01-01

    One objective was to evaluate the air trapping index (ATI), measured by inspiration/expiration CT, in COPD patients and nonsmokers. Another objective was to assess the association between the pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT parameters such as ATI or other indices, separately in the whole lung, in emphysema, and in hyperinflated and normal lung areas. One hundred and thirty-eight COPD patients and 29 nonsmokers were included in our study. The ATI, the emphysema index (EI), the gas trapping index (Exp -856) and expiration/inspiration ratio of mean lung density (E/Iratio of MLD) were measured on CT. The values of the whole lung, of emphysema, and of hyperinflated and normal lung areas were compared and then correlated with various PFT parameters. Compared with nonsmokers, COPD patients showed a higher ATI in the whole lung and in each lung lesion (all P 25-75% , RV and RV/TLC, and was comparable to Exp -856 and the E/I ratio of MLD. The ATI of emphysema and hyperinflated areas on CT showed better correlation than the normal lung area with PFT parameters. Detailed analysis of density change at inspiration and expiration CT of COPD can provide new insights into pulmonary functional impairment in each lung area. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise.

  20. Breath-hold after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle decreased the rate of pneumothorax in CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Lingfeng; Xu, Xingxiang [Subei People' s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Clinical Medical School of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Song, Yong [Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medical, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu (China); Issahar, Ben-Dov [Pulmonary Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Wu, Jingtao; Zhang, Le; Huang, Qian [Subei People' s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Clinical Medical School of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Mingxiang, E-mail: chenmx1129@126.com [Subei People' s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Clinical Medical School of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the effect of a breath-hold after forced expiration on the rate of pneumothorax after computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Materials and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy was performed in 440 patients. Two hundred and twenty-one biopsies were performed without (control group) and two hundred and nineteen biopsies were performed with (study group) the study maneuver – a breath-hold after forced expiratory approach. Multivariate analysis was performed between groups for risk factors for pneumothorax, including patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and biopsy technique. Results: A reduced number of pneumothoraces (18 [8.2%] vs 35 [15.8%]; P = 0.014) but no significant difference in rate of drainage catheter insertions (2 [0.9%] vs (4 [1.8%]; P = 0.418) were noted in the study group as compared with the control group. By logistic regression analysis, three factors significantly and independently affected the risk for pneumothorax including lesion size (transverse and longitudinal diameter), distance from pleura and utilizing or avoiding the breath-hold after deep expiration maneuver. Conclusion: Breath-holding after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle during the percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy almost halved the rate of overall pneumothorax. Small lesion size (longitudinal diameter) and the distance from pleura were also predictors of pneumothorax in our study.

  1. Breath-hold after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle decreased the rate of pneumothorax in CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Lingfeng; Xu, Xingxiang; Song, Yong; Issahar, Ben-Dov; Wu, Jingtao; Zhang, Le; Huang, Qian; Chen, Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of a breath-hold after forced expiration on the rate of pneumothorax after computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Materials and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy was performed in 440 patients. Two hundred and twenty-one biopsies were performed without (control group) and two hundred and nineteen biopsies were performed with (study group) the study maneuver – a breath-hold after forced expiratory approach. Multivariate analysis was performed between groups for risk factors for pneumothorax, including patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and biopsy technique. Results: A reduced number of pneumothoraces (18 [8.2%] vs 35 [15.8%]; P = 0.014) but no significant difference in rate of drainage catheter insertions (2 [0.9%] vs (4 [1.8%]; P = 0.418) were noted in the study group as compared with the control group. By logistic regression analysis, three factors significantly and independently affected the risk for pneumothorax including lesion size (transverse and longitudinal diameter), distance from pleura and utilizing or avoiding the breath-hold after deep expiration maneuver. Conclusion: Breath-holding after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle during the percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy almost halved the rate of overall pneumothorax. Small lesion size (longitudinal diameter) and the distance from pleura were also predictors of pneumothorax in our study

  2. Expiring Funds Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This weekly report assist Participating Jurisdictions in identifying FY 2006 and older grant balances, the Office of Affordable Housing Programs (OAHP) will post a...

  3. Studies on the relationship between the content of carbon monoxide in atmosphere and the health of mothers and babies. I. The status of carbon monoxide concentration in expired air of pregnant woman and its relationship to environmental and physical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, A

    1974-03-01

    The actual condition of carbon monoxide content in expired air and its relation to life-environmental and physical factors was investigated in 277 pregnant women. Subjects residing in a midtown area of Tokyo have average CO concentrations in the expired air slightly higher than those previously reported. Seventy two women (26%) have CO concentrations over 10 ppM. The concentration of CO in expired air correlates with the CO level in the immediate life environment of the individual. Pregnant women with a history of abnormal gestation and/or abnormal delivery are more frequent in the areas with those exhibiting higher CO concentrations in expired air, compared to regions with women showing lower CO levels.

  4. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  5. Degree Output in the South, 1975-76: Distribution by Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingle, James R.

    The first systematic national count of degree output by race is presented for use by institutional curriculum planners to help give students the opportunity to make realistic choices in career planning. Included are summary tables of degree production by level (doctoral, master's, bachelor's, and first-professional degrees awarded); degree changes…

  6. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to

  7. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  8. Set our Master's degrees free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Rachael

    2010-04-01

    Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.

  9. Diagnosing lung nodules on oncologic MR/PET imaging: Comparison of fast T1-weighted sequences and influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios; Brendle, Cornelia; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; LaFougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  10. Diagnosing Lung Nodules on Oncologic MR/PET Imaging: Comparison of Fast T1-Weighted Sequences and Influence of Image Acquisition in Inspiration and Expiration Breath-Hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Brendle, Cornelia [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Fougère, Christian la [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  11. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  12. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelli

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  13. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  14. VOYAGE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz SKÓRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sea voyage can be divided into three parts with varying degrees of risk: - from the berth at the port of departure to the pilot disembarkation point - from the pilot disembarkation to another pilot embarkation point near the port of call/destination - from the pilot embarkation point to the berth Results of statistical research into ship accidents at sea point to an increased number of incidents and accidents, including groundings, especially in restricted areas. Such areas are often narrow and have limited depths, while their short straight sections require frequent course alterations, often in varying hydrometeorological conditions. Due to all these factors, the voyage has to be carefully planned and all watchkeeping officers have to be well prepared to conduct the ship safely. The article presents the objectives, scope, legal basis and stages in the process of voyage planning. The compliance with the outlined principles will reduce the level of risk in maritime transport.

  15. The system Cu-Rh-S at 900 degrees, 700 degrees, 540 degrees and 500 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2007-01-01

    Phase relations in the dry condensed system Cu-Rh-S were determined at 900, 700, 540 and 500 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, the system contains digenite, four rhodium sulfides (Rh17S15, Rh3S4, Rh2S3 and RhS similar to 3), three ternary sulfides (CuRh2S4, CuxRhS3+x and a fibrous sulfide in the range...

  16. Respiratory management of CT-transmission for accuracy fusion in PET/CT. A comparison between normal expiration and free breathing in 600 experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Atsushi; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Tamura, Shintaro; Ohashi, Takashi; Miwa, Kenta; Akimoto, Kenta; Wagatsuma, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Image misregistration can occur in fusion positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, because of motion artifacts caused by the management of respiration. The standard imaging protocol of the CT component of PET/CT is normal expiration (NormExp) or free breathing (FB). The objective of this study was to compare NormExp and FB for the optimal breathing protocol for PET/CT scans. A total of 600 consecutive patients were examined using lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based PET/CT. CT was acquired during NormExp (id est (i.e.), the level reached when the patient exhaled without forcing expiration and then held the breath) in 300 patients and during FB in 300 patients. The profile of liver measured along body axis was assessed. The distance of profile centers between the PET image and the CT image was measured. The misalignment between profile centers (PET) and profile centers (CT) was compared between NormExp and FB using the histogram of patients. An F test was used to test if the variances of two misalignments are equal. Next, the relationship between misalignment and age was evaluated in two managements of respiration. There was no significant difference between NormExp and FB in the histogram. However, significant misalignments (>10 cm) were found with NormExp. Patient age may have influenced the mismatch. FB is recommended for geriatric patients during acquisition of attenuation correction CT data sets. (author)

  17. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  18. Special Degree Programs for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuing Education for Adults, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Briefly describes Bachelor of Liberal Studies programs at six colleges and universities, the Master of Liberal Studies program at Boston University, and the Master of Engineering degree at the University of California at Los Angeles, as well as programs being conducted on a graduate level by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for government and industrial…

  19. Astronautics Degrees for Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  20. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  1. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; FAJARDO PEÑA, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263

  2. Planning projects for generation of electrical energy in the state of Sao Paulo, according to the degree of interference on air quality: an atmospheric qualification index using fuzzy sets; Ordenamento de projetos de geracao de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo, segundo o grau de interferencia na qualidade do ar: um indice de qualificacao atmosferica (IQA) utilizando fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Duarte, Pamella Santos [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental issues are of great importance when assessing the feasibility and priority installation of new developments in electric power generation. In this sense, fuzzy logic can help define the regions that have favorable characteristics for receiving certain forms of generation. This study sought to order for the State of Sao Paulo, four kinds of generation projects: those using municipal solid waste gasification, those which make use of landfill gas with a change in firing (to reduce emissions), thermoelectric plants (TEPs) to bagasse (with 15% straw) and Small Hydropower (SHP). Such an ordering considered not only the type of generation but also the allocation of projects in the four regions, defined by regional vocations as defined by the State Water Resources Plan (Annex III of the State Law No. 9.034/94): Agriculture, Conservation, In Industrialization and Industrial. As a result, the use of fuzzy sets allowed the creation of a ranking of the alternatives (which totaled 14 possibilities), based exclusively on the degree of interference in air quality resulting from the installation of every form of generation. Such information may help the decision-making governing bodies to establish priorities in order, thereby accelerating the process of installation and operation of projects for generating electricity. (author)

  3. A degree of success? Messages from the new social work degree in England for nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Jo; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Macintyre, Gillian; Orme, Joan; Green Lister, Pam; Sharpe, Endellion; Crisp, Beth

    2010-07-01

    In September 2008 the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) approved plans to change pre-registration nursing education in England to an all-graduate qualification in 2015. In 2001 the Department of Health announced a similar decision for social work qualifying education and the first graduate-only qualifying programmes began in 2003-2004. This article presents findings from a national in-depth evaluation of the social work degree in England and describes ways in which efforts have been made to improve the quality of social workers, raise the status of the profession and link practice and theory as part of the transformation to a degree level qualification. Messages for nurse educators are drawn in the light of the professions' commonalities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of the Maximum Frequency of Electroglottographic Fluctuations in the Expiration Phase of Volitional Cough as a Functional Test for Cough Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Makoto; Hosokawa, Kiyohito; Kato, Chieri; Inohara, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    The hypotheses of the present study were that the maximum frequency of fluctuation of electroglottographic (EGG) signals in the expiration phase of volitional cough (VC) reflects the cough efficiency and that this EGG parameter is affected by impaired laryngeal closure, expiratory effort strength, and gender. For 20 normal healthy adults and 20 patients diagnosed with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), each participant was fitted with EGG electrodes on the neck, had a transnasal laryngo-fiberscope inserted, and was asked to perform weak/strong VC tasks while EGG signals and a high-speed digital image of the larynx were recorded. The maximum frequency was calculated in the EGG fluctuation region coinciding with vigorous vocal fold vibration in the laryngeal HSDIs. In addition, each participant underwent spirometry for measurement of three aerodynamic parameters, including peak expiratory air flow (PEAF), during weak/strong VC tasks. Significant differences were found for both maximum EGG frequency and PEAF between the healthy and UVFP groups and between the weak and strong VC tasks. Among the three cough aerodynamic parameters, PEAF showed the highest positive correlation with the maximum EGG frequency. The correlation coefficients between the maximum EGG frequency and PEAF recorded simultaneously were 0.574 for the whole group, and 0.782/0.717/0.823/0.688 for the male/female/male-healthy/male-UVFP subgroups, respectively. Consequently, the maximum EGG frequency measured in the expiration phase of VC was shown to reflect the velocity of expiratory airflow to some extent and was suggested to be affected by vocal fold physical properties, glottal closure condition, and the expiratory function.

  5. Integrated Marketing Communications: A New Master's Degree Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caywood, Clarke; Ewing, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    Describes how separate graduate degree programs have been fused into an integrated marketing communications program at Northwestern University. Discusses the five-quarter program that includes a core of new marketing communications planning and management classes, professional specialization classes in corporate public relations, advertising, and…

  6. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  7. Degree-based graph construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

    2009-01-01

    Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

  8. IMRT plan validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The lecture encompassed the following topics: Utility of radiographic and radiochromic film dosimetry; Diode and chamber arrays; 3D gel dosimetry; 4D dosimetry; Experimental design for dosimetry; In vivo measurements. and Portal dosimetry. In conclusion, the following pitfalls, potential errors and possible actions are pointed to: (i) Lacking algorithm in the TPS for tongue-and-groove effect. Action: Design and verify a new plan in which the tongue-and-groove effect plays a minor role. Discuss the issue with the TPS manufacturer. (ii) Systematic deviations between TPS calculations and ionisation chamber measurements at the isocentre for plans with many small segments due to uncertainties in the output factor calculation. Action: Rescale the number of MUs. Discuss the issue with the TPS manufacturer. (iii) Large regions with gamma values larger than one during repeated film measurements, while ionisation chamber measurements are correct. Action: Check if the film batch is not expired and if so repeat the measurement with a new batch. (iv) Missing significant errors, e.g., resulting from MLC displacements, due to the limited resolution of the measuring device. Action: Move the device in different directions and repeat the measurement. (v) Missing errors at other parts of the PTV or in OARs by performing only one ionisation chamber measurement or an independent MU calculation at a point. Action: Perform also measurements in a plane for representative clinical cases. (vi) Wrong parameter in the TPS for the definition of leaf position. Action: Understand and verify the definition of leaf position in your TPS. (P.A.)

  9. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  10. AUDIT plan documenting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornecsu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work describes a method of documenting the AUDIT plan upon the basis of two quantitative elements resulting from quality assurance program appraisal system function implementation degree as established from the latest AUDIT performed an system function weight in QAP, respectively, appraised by taking into account their significance for the activities that are to be performed in the period for which the AUDITs are planned. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs

  11. Plan Assurance Qualité for an Installation Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Gascon, C

    2001-01-01

    The current ST/EL group's installation and maintenance contract expires on June 2001. Official procedures for a new contract began a few months ago. Once the new contract has been adjudicated, contractor firm should establish a Quality Assurance Plan (PAQ) within 6 months to be approved. This PAQ is the essential main instrument which ST/EL group has in order to assure a perfect achievement of signed contract. PAQ efficiency depends on its good knowledge and its permanent application on the p...

  12. Plan Assurance Qualité for an Installation Contract

    CERN Document Server

    Gascon, C

    2001-01-01

    The current ST/EL group's installation and maintenance contract expires on June 2001. Official procedures for a new contract began a few months ago. Once the new contract has been adjudicated, contractor firm should establish a Quality Assurance Plan (PAQ) within 6 months to be approved. This PAQ is the essential main instrument which ST/EL group has in order to assure a perfect achievement of signed contract. PAQ efficiency depends on its good knowledge and its permanent application on the part of the contractor firm and especially on the part of ST/EL group. The acquired experience during last PAQ should be reflected in the future contract.

  13. Planning For Armenian NPP Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.; Atoyan, V.; Pyuskyulyan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) is situated in Ararat valley near the Metzamor town, approximately 30 km west of Yerevan. The plant consists of two units of WWER-440 Model V-270 that is seismically upgraded version of standard V-230 design. The two units were put in commercial operation in 1976 and 1980 respectively. An earthquake in northern Armenia occurred in December 1988. Although both plants continued to operate after the earthquake, the USSR Council of Ministers ordered the shutdown of both plants for safety reasons. Unit 1 was shutdown in February 1989; Unit 2 was shutdown in March 1989. Shortly after Armenia became an independent republic, the ''energy crisis'' began, leaving the country with virtually no power for five years. The Armenian Government ordered the restart of Unit 2 ANPP. Unit 2 was restarted in November 1995. Unit 1 remains in a long-term shutdown mode. Currently nuclear share in total electricity generation is about 45%. The design life of Unit 2 expires in 2016. As with many older reactors throughout the world the decommissioning issues had not been considered for ANPP at the design stage. The planning activities for ANPP decommissioning were started in 2002 taking into account the IAEA recommendations that early planning will facilitate future decommissioning activities, and the complexity of preparatory and D and D activities as well. (author)

  14. Motion planning for multiple robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronov, B.; Berg, de M.; van der Stappen, A.F.; Svestka, P.; Vleugels, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the motion-planning problem for pairs and triples of robots operating in a shared workspace containing n obstacles. A standard way to solve such problems is to view the collection of robots as one composite robot, whose number of degrees of freedom is d , the sum of the numbers of degrees

  15. Magnetic field control of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain wall resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Roya, E-mail: royamajidi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.

  16. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  17. The variability of expiration peak flow of workers employed in the washing installation (laundry) of Haji Adam Malik general hospital Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, W.; Tarigan, A. P.; Nainggolan, N.; Eyanoer, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Laundress in hospitals is very susceptible to respiratory disorders, especially occupational asthma. To investigate the occurrence of an obstruction, the daily Expiration Peak Flow (EPF) examination was carried to compare the EPF, before and after work. It is a descriptive study conducted in November 2016. The samplewas 24 workers in Haji Adam Malik General Hospital Medan Laundry Installation, without any exclusion criteria, where all workers have been working for more than one year. Sampling was by distributing daily questionnaires and EPF examination for 14 days. From the results of EPF examinations that have been conducted, there were nine persons were indicated to experience a decreased in lung function. Based on the most sex category, men were 5 people (55.6%), age ≥ 40 years were 2 people (22.2%), working duration ≥10 years were 3 people (33.3%), with the smoking habit were 5 people (55.6%), total dust ≥0.2 micron were 6 people (66.7), total exposure of bacterium ≥500 were 3 people (33.3%), poor APD usage was 3 people (33.3%). In conclusion, there was a decrease in lung function by ≥ 3.1% found in 9 workers.

  18. Effects of passive smoking in the work place on expiration air carbon monoxide (Co) and carboxihemoglobin (cohb) levels: results of a survey in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acimis, N.M.; Bostanci, M.; Ergin, A.; Bozkurt, A.Y.; Ozsahin, A.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of smoking and the effects of passive smoking among bank employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2001 and 2002. Data was collected through questionnaire. The level of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and the percentage of Carboxihemoglobin (COHb) level in the blood were measured by using Bend fond Pico Smokerlyser. Chi-square and ANOVA were used. Six hundred fifty four respondents participated in the study which included 384 (58.7%) male and 267 (40.6%) female. The mean value for CO in the expiration air was 14.57+-11.1 ppm [(18.49 +- 11.21, 7.74 +- 5.71 and 4.85 +- 2.35; for current smokers, non-smokers with current exposure and non-smokers without current exposure, respectively (p<0.001)]. The mean value for COHb % was 2.97 +- 1.9 [(3.60 +- 1.88, 1.80 +- 1.17 and 1.21 +- 0.99; for current smokers, non-smokers with current exposure and non-smokers without current exposure, respectively (p<0.001)]. Passive smoking is still a significant health problem in the work place. Anti-tobacco implementations should be carried out strictly in all work places. (author)

  19. Assessment of the dermal exposure to azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in selected Polish greenhouses after restricted entry intervals expired--the role of the protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the level of skin contamination by azoxystrobin in a group of women tending cucumbers in a vegetable-growing greenhouse after restricted entry intervals expired. Exposure samples were assessed on two days during the spring: first entry on the day after spraying of azoxystrobin and second entry six days later. Dermal exposure was measured by using patches on the outside of clothing and sampling gloves underneath regular working gloves. Pesticide deposited on clothing patches and gloves as a substitute for skin deposition was determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study has shown that workers in a Polish greenhouse are exposed to pesticides at re-entry into the greenhouse after pesticides were sprayed several days earlier. Azoxystrobin has been detected on hands, shoulders and chest. Higher levels of azoxystrobin were found on the cotton gloves of women tending the vegetables than on the patches. The levels decreased (by about 60%) on the patches and increased (by about 250%) on the cotton gloves between the two days of measurement. Women working in a vegetable-growing greenhouse and not directly engaged in the process of spraying experience a measurable dermal exposure to azoxystrobin. The protective gloves constitute a source of secondary exposure rather than protecting employees' hands from contact with the pesticide. More efficient personal protective gloves for proper protection of women working in vegetable greenhouses are needed.

  20. 'Plans are useless'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    An essential element in crisis recovery is the protection and/or recovery of reputation. This calls for a crisis communications function that is of more than passing interest to the business continuity specialist and which presents two major challenges in this era of process-driven management: (1) it is an inexact science, more about common sense, psychology, empathy and 'playing it by ear' than about box ticking; (2) it does not lend itself to detailed, rigid plans, although some degree of planning is essential. This paper outlines a flexible approach that will help the crisis team to develop a workable communications plan that strikes a balance between being too detailed and too sketchy. It argues that the whole management team should be involved in developing the plan and sets a number of questions, which, on being answered, will help a realistic, achievable and effective plan to evolve.

  1. Plan well, plan often

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes an invited paper by Courtney Schultz and her colleagues commenting on the application of the newly adopted U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule (hereafter, the rule) for wildlife. The rule is basically implementing language to interpret the spirit and intent of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. Laws such as NFMA require additional...

  2. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  3. Modular Circuitry for Combining and Controlling Degrees of Freedom in the Limb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giszter, Simon

    2001-01-01

    Work in the frog spinal cord, and more recently in mammals, suggests that the degrees of freedom problem in motor planning may be simplified by building motor actions from combinations of motor primitives...

  4. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  5. Reflux and Belching After 270 Degree Versus 360 Degree Laparoscopic Posterior Fundoplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Joris A.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Hazebroek, Eric J.; Broeders, Ivo A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Smout, André J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in effects of 270 degrees (270 degrees LPF) and 360 degrees laparoscopic posterior fundoplication (360 degrees LPF) on reflux characteristics and belching. Background: Three hundred sixty degrees LPF greatly reduces the ability of the stomach to vent ingested

  6. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies...

  7. How Adult Online Graduates Portray Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…

  8. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components

  9. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Unauthorized FY 2015 Appropriations: Not Available Organ Donation and Recovery Improvement ActP.L. 108-216 Reimbursement of travel and subsistence...FY 2013 Appropriation Authorized: Indefinite Unauthorized FY 2015 Appropriations: Not Available Capital investment grants to support intercity ...priority rail corridor projects necessary to reduce congestion or facilitate ridership growth in intercity rail passenger transportation * FY 2013

  10. Don't Plan for the Unexpected: Planning Based on Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2015-01-01

    is not computationally feasible. Weak epistemic planning is not satisfactory either, as there is no way to qualify which of two weak plans is more likely to lead to the goal. This seriously limits the practical uses of weak planning, as the planning agent might for instance always choose a plan that relies...... that the agent achieves this goal. Conversely, a weak plan promises only the possibility of leading to the goal. In real-life planning scenarios where the planning agent is faced with a high degree of uncertainty and an almost endless number of possible exogenous events, strong epistemic planning...

  11. Diploma to degree 1976 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The debate on degree education for radiographers began in earnest in the mid-1970s. Initially the debate hinged around whether a degree education was necessary for radiographers. One argument was that it was felt that a degree would separate academic and clinical training but eventually when degrees were introduced practical skills were assessed formally for the first time; something that had not been achieved with the Diploma of the College of Radiographers (DCR). The DCR itself became a barrier to degree education as the College of Radiographers (CoR) insisted that it was the only qualification recognised for state registration and as such would have to remain embedded as a distinct qualification within a degree. A major breakthrough came when the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) recognised the DCR at the same level as an ordinary degree. Around the same time the CoR published its Degree Rationale which announced a change in policy by not insisting that the DCR was sacrosanct. Developments followed rapidly and the first honours degree in radiography was validated in 1989 despite opposition from scientific officers at the Department of Health. Degrees were approved for state registration and radiography became a graduate profession by 1993 following years of debate and after overcoming opposition from both within and external to the profession.

  12. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  13. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  14. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  15. Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Chitta; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans

    The seminar Epistemic Planning brought together the research communities of Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, and Automated Planning to address fundamental problems on the topic of epistemic planning. In the context of this seminar, dynamic epistemic logic...... investigates the formal semantics of communication and communicative actions, knowledge representation and reasoning focuses on theories of action and change, and automated planning investigates computational techniques and tools to generate plans. The original goals of the seminar were to develop benchmarks...... for epistemic planning, to explore the relationship between knowledge and belief in multi-agent epistemic planning, to develop models of agency and capability in epistemic planning and to explore action types and their representations (these originally separate goals were merged during the seminar), and finally...

  16. Degrees of polarization for a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Soto, L L; Soederholm, J; Yustas, E C; Klimov, A B; Bjoerk, G

    2006-01-01

    Unpolarized light is invariant with respect to any SU(2) polarization transformation. Since this fully characterizes the set of density matrices representing unpolarized states, we introduce the degree of polarization of a quantum state as its distance to the set of unpolarized states. We discuss different candidates of distance, and show that they induce fundamentally different degrees of polarization

  17. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  18. Current Trends in Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Elaine Grant

    This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…

  19. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  20. Meson degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)

  1. [Research in the Master's Degree program in Social Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, C; Mercer, H

    1981-01-01

    The authors report on research as part of the master's degree in social medicine at the Metropolitan Autonomous University, Xochimilco campus, Mexico. They discuss research within the curriculum design, instructional research, teaching staff and research, and research as a source of knowledge. They explain that in order to establish guidelines for research it is necessary to consider the health-disease process and medical practice within the economic and social framework and therefore subject to analysis by the social sciences. Finally, they summarize ongoing research in the fields of social epidemiology, medical practice and planning, and human resources.

  2. Learning experience using an app in Bachelor Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fossas-Olalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to expose the planning and implementation of a learning improvement app in subjects related to Operations Management in Bachelor`s Degrees. We show the experience of the app in two subjects, commenting on the differences, the difficulties encountered and the analysis of the results of a survey conducted to the students. This initiative arises from the experience of the Research Group on Production and Information and Communication Technologies (GIPTIC-UCM of the Complutense University of Madrid as a result of the participation in an Educational Innovation Project.

  3. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  4. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Should the threshold for expired-air carbon monoxide concentration as a means of verifying self-reported smoking abstinence be reduced in clinical treatment programmes? Evidence from a Malaysian smokers' clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei-Hum; West, Robert; Mariapun, Jeevitha; Chan, Caryn Mei-Hsien; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Jit, Swinder

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that the expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) threshold for confirming smoking abstinence in clinical practice be reduced below 10 ppm. Optimal thresholds may vary across regions. Data are needed to assess the impact of such a change on claimed success. A total of 253 smokers who attended the Tanglin quit smoking clinic in Malaysia were followed-up 1, 3 and 6 months after the target quit date. All participants received a standard behavioural support programme and were prescribed either varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy. Expired-air CO was measured at every visit. Respondents' smoking status was assessed using a range of different CO thresholds (3, 5 and 10 ppm) and the impact on quit rates was calculated. Predictors of success as defined using the different thresholds were assessed. The 6-month abstinence rates were: 1 month - 54.9% at 10 ppm, 54.9% at 5 ppm and 48.6% at 3 ppm; 3 months - 36.0% at 10 ppm, 35.2% at 5 ppm and 30.4% at 3 ppm; 6 months - 24.1% at 10 ppm, 24.1% at 5 ppm and 20.6% at 3 ppm. Older smokers were more likely to be recorded as abstinent at 6 months regardless of the threshold used. Reducing the threshold for expired-air carbon monoxide concentrations to verify claimed smoking abstinence from 10 ppm to 5 ppm makes minimal difference to documented success rates in Malaysian smoker's clinic patients. Reducing to 3 ppm decreases success rates slightly. Predictors of success at stopping appear to be unaffected by the threshold used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forward planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    By definition, forward planning is a process where input consists of conditions on beam configurations and parameters and output consists of dose distributions on target and critical structures, in contrast to inverse planning, where the opposite is true. For forward planning IMRT, criteria are as follows: (i) Plans created as an extension of standard 3D conformational planning; (ii) No significant increase in the complexity of the treatment planning or treatment delivery process; (3) Treatment verification using standard QA procedures; and process consists of the following steps: (i) Create a standard 3D conformational treatment plan; (ii) Copy one of the existing beams; (iii) Create control points: design new beam segments, blocking high dose areas; (iv) Repeat for all beams; (v) Re-compute dose; and (vi) Adjust control points weights to achieve desired dose distribution. A detailed exposition, with many clinical examples, is given for the breast, lung, and brain (P.A.)

  7. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  8. Career Paths for Physics Degree Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick

    Physics degree holders have a diverse set of career opportunities open to them. So what are these opportunities? Where are they employed? How much do they earn? What skills will they need? Physics degrees make up a small proportion of the degrees conferred in the US but they play an important role in meeting workforce needs at many levels. This talk will give an overview of the employment outcomes of physics bachelors, masters and PhDs. It will discuss the diverse set fields they work in and the skills they use.

  9. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 73 US institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented here are historical data for the last decade, which provide information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students

  10. Subnuclear degrees of freedom in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.

    1985-03-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.

    1994-01-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)

  12. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-10-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.

  13. Inspection planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Levstek, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  14. Master’s Degree Programs of Camarines Norte State College, Philippines: Impact on Its Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Godofredo E. Peteza, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This research determined the impact of the master’s degree programs offered in the Graduate School such as Master in Business Administration, Master in Public Administration, Master in Management majors in Human Resource Management and Educational Planning and Management on its graduates from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive-survey method supplemented by interview was employed to identify specifically the profile of the graduates of master’s degree programs in terms of age, sex, civil ...

  15. Communication Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  16. Conference Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of the management planning technique known as Break Even Analysis and outlines its use as a tool in financial planning for organizations intending to conduct or sponsor a conference, seminar, or workshop. Three figures illustrating Break Even Analysis concepts and a Break Even Analysis worksheet are included. (JL)

  17. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  18. Planning & Urban Affairs Library Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbe, Mary L., Ed.; Lessel, Janice W., Ed.

    Written especially for persons without a library degree who are operating a small urban study or planning agency library on a part-time basis. Subjects covered are: (1) library function and staff function, duties and training; (2) physical layout and equipment of library; (3) establishing and maintaining the library; (4) library administration;…

  19. Deuteron photodisintegration: Data and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, J.

    1993-01-01

    We review existing data for the exclusive reaction γd → pn at photon energies above ∼ 1 GeV. We compare these data to various models, most notably those which rely on fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. We include a discussion of future plans for related measurements

  20. Strategic School Planning in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Hasan, Manal Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to measuring the applying degree of the strategic school planning stages at the Governmental high schools from the educational supervisors and principals perspective in the directorates related to Amman city, the study society was formed of the educational supervisors and principals working at Educational directorates related to…

  1. Strategic Planning for Management Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Dor, Phillip; Segev, Eli

    1978-01-01

    Two factors predominate in determining the appropriateness of strategic plans for management information systems (MIS)--explicitness (the degree to which the process is conscious, formal, and documented) and situational fit (the degree to which the MIS is compatible with the specific organization and its members). (Author/IRT)

  2. Optimization of total arc degree for stereotactic radiotherapy by using integral biologically effective dose and irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Myung Za; Chun, Ha Chung

    2001-01-01

    To find the optimal values of total arc degree to protect the normal brain tissue from high dose radiation in stereotactic radiotherapy planning. With Xknife-3 planning system and 4 MV linear accelerator, the authors planned under various values of parameters. One isocenter, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm of collimator diameters, 100 deg, 200 deg, 300 deg, 400 deg, 500 deg, 600 deg, of total arc degrees, and 30 deg or 45 deg of arc intervals were used. After the completion of planning, the plans were compared each other using V 50 (the volume of normal brain that is delivered high dose radiation) and integral biologically effective dose. At 30 deg of arc interval, the values of V 50 had the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, the values of V 50 decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. At 30 deg of arc interval, integral biologically effective dose showed the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval with less than 40 mm collimator diameter, the integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but with 50 and 60 mm of collimator diameters, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. In the stereotactic radiotherapy planning for brain lesions, planning with 400 deg of total arc degree is optimal. Especially, when the larger collimator more than 50 mm diameter should be used, the uses of 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees make the increase of V 50 and integral biologically effective dose, Therefore stereotactic radiotherapy planning using 400 deg of total arc degree can increase the therapeutic ratio and produce the effective outcome

  3. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career, intrinsic interest (Interest in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing. We investigated whether these motivation apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1 undergraduate (N = 989 and (2 prospective (N = 896 students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low interest in the degree. The choice of art and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples and Interest (only in undergraduate sample motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in undergraduate sample and Loafing (both samples. The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as help to improve degree programmes at universities and provide better career advice.

  4. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice.

  5. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H.

    2003-12-01

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust

  6. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H. [Chungman National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust.

  7. Progressively implementation of the new degrees at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering and extinction of the earlier degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, A.; Caniego, J.; Vazquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly

  8. [Preparation of the graduation dissertation at bachelor degree, a fruitful time for acquiring methodological competence: research regarding graduate satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Rita Ester; Roccu, Mariangela; Pazzaglini, Annarita

    2008-01-01

    To sphere the plan for formative quality improvement a course at bachelor degree, II Faculty of Medicine and Surgery La Sapienza of Rome, Study Center St. John of God FBF, has started a plan hinged various levels. To revisit the regulation of a school regarding DM 3 November 1999 n. 509 and to Dm 22 October 2004 n 270; To specify an evaluation standard a varied typology of the graduation dissertation; To plan a student guide for the drawing up of the graduation dissertation a bachelor degree; To value a graduate's satisfaction. The article explains the plan of a specific evaluation standard, the plan is a student guide drawn up for the graduation dissertation at bachelor degree; and the results of the known research about the graduate 's satisfaction.

  9. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  10. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.

  11. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  12. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  13. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    Full-disk observations taken with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, or the upgraded Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) instruments, have enough spatial resolution to resolve modes up to {iota} = 1000 if not {iota} = 1500. The inclusion of such high-degree modes (i.e., {iota} {<=} 1000) improves dramatically inferences near the surface. Unfortunately, observational and instrumental effects cause the characterization of high degree modes to be quite complicated. Indeed, the characteristics of the solar acoustic spectrum are such that, for a given order, mode lifetimes get shorter and spatial leaks get closer in frequency as the degree of a mode increases. A direct consequence of this property is that individual modes are resolved only at low and intermediate degrees. At high degrees the individual modes blend into ridges and the power distribution of the ridge defines the ridge central frequency, masking the underlying mode frequency. An accurate model of the amplitude of the peaks that contribute to the ridge power distribution is needed to recover the underlying mode frequency from fitting the ridge. We present a detailed discussion of the modeling of the ridge power distribution, and the contribution of the various observational and instrumental effects on the spatial leakage, in the context of the MDI instrument. We have constructed a physically motivated model (rather than an ad hoc correction scheme) that results in a methodology that can produce unbiased estimates of high-degree modes. This requires that the instrumental characteristics are well understood, a task that has turned out to pose a major challenge. We also present our latest results, where most of the known instrumental and observational effects that affect specifically high-degree modes were removed. These new results allow us to focus our attention on changes with solar activity. Finally, we present variations of mode

  14. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  15. Degree of Acetylization Chitosan Gonggong Snail Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiza, H.; Iskandar, I.; Aldo, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin, which is generally derived from crustacean animal waste and animal skins other sea. One marine animals that have compounds that can be processed chitin chitosan is derived from the snail Gonggong marine waters of Riau Islands province. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of chitosan from the shells of snails asetilisasi Gonggong. This research is an experimental research laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the degree of chitosan shell snail deasetilisasi Gonggong is 70.27%.

  16. Georgia Power Company's college degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Georgia Power Company's on-site college degree program for nuclear power plant personnel. In February 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement concerning engineering expertise on shift (Generic Letter 86-04), which appeared in Volume 50, Number 208 of the October 28, 1985 Federal Register. One of the options available to nuclear power plant personnel to meet the requirement was the combined senior reactor operator/shift technical adviser position. One of the methods for meeting the option included a bachelor's degree in engineering technology for an accredited institution, including course work in the physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences

  17. 810 Future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Roberts, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    It is believed that a good bet for finding the Quark-Gluon Plasma at AGS energies is with the heaviest projectiles on the heaviest target, i.e. Au on Au. One of the likely signatures of the plasma is strangeness enhancement. Al Saulys has shown what it's like to find Δ and K degree with Si projectiles. Our Monte Carlo simulations show track densities 4 times higher for Au projectiles. In addition, the Au beam itself produces 30 times more ionization. Thus the present TPC's will be limited to only a few hundred ions per sec. This paper discusses plans for these experiments and modification to TPC. 9 figs

  18. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  19. Ontological Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alkan

    2017-12-01

    • Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning? We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them. In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.

  20. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J. [Mintec Inc. (US)

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents a state-of-the-art mine planning program that facilitates data storage and provides easy access to essential mine information. MineSight from Mintec, Inc., and the addition MineSight 3D provide a powerful tool used by major coal companies worldwide, offering modelling of different deposit types and complete planning tools including advanced surface/surface and solid/surface intersection routines. The new MineSight Operations addition helps to streamline the planning process and store raw blasthole data (in acQuire) and essential cut attribute information. 12 figs.

  1. Second-degree discrete Painleve equations conceal first-degree ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, A; Grammaticos, B; Joshi, N

    2010-01-01

    We examine various second-degree difference equations which have been proposed over the years and according to their authors' claims should be integrable. This study is motivated by the fact that we consider that second-degree discrete systems cannot be integrable due to the proliferation of the images (and pre-images) of the initial point. We show that in the present cases no contradiction exists. In all cases examined, we show that there exists an underlying integrable first-degree mapping which allows us to obtain an appropriate solution of the second-degree one.

  2. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  3. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  4. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  5. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)

  6. PER PhDs & Bachelor's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the editor remarked to me that physics departments that offered a PhD with a specialization in Physics Education Research (PER) seemed to graduate more bachelor's degree recipients than those physics PhD departments that did not have the specialization. I was not convinced. That led to quite a bit of discussion between us. He compiled a…

  7. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  8. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  9. Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary

    2013-01-01

    While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…

  10. Astronautics degrees for the space industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R. F.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree programs in Astronautics combine basic science and engineering classes with specialized classes in space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available entirely through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers while earning their degrees. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. Distance learning, and particularly the introduction of webcasting, transform the organization of the graduate program and class delivery. We describe in detail the program's academic focus, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  11. Degree Audit Systems: Are They Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    A lot of various degree audit systems are available on the market and most often they have similar features such as the functionality they each provide, the technical platforms upon which they operate, their requirements for interfacing with the local SIS, the ease of use, and the level of effort required to implement and operate. However, the…

  12. Toward the Ideal Professional Master's Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Maria P.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines work accomplished at the 1998 National Communication Association Summer Conference, presenting a model for a professional master's-degree program in public relations that integrates outcomes, assessment, curriculum, and pedagogy. Outlines program outcomes, curriculum, essential curriculum-content areas, pedagogical approaches, and…

  13. Joint Supervision of Research Degrees: Second Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourner, Tom; Hughes, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of Britain's regulation that master's and doctoral degree candidates must have two or three program supervisors identifies four potential problems: fragmentation of supervisory responsibilities; conflicting advice; unproductive games; and absence of overall perspective on the thesis. Experience with an improved, team approach is…

  14. Master Degree Modules in Nanotechnologies for Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Tzanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an European project focusing on closer cooperation in the university sector and transparency of qualifications and recognition methods. It is aimed at common MSc degree level courses development for the new skills for new jobs in the multidisciplinary nanoelectronics and a new job organisation.

  15. Managing "Academic Value": The 360-Degree Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret R.; Corr, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of all universities is to create and deliver "academic value", which we define as the sum total of the contributions from the 360-degree "angles" of the academic community, including all categories of staff, as well as external stakeholders (e.g. regulatory, commercial, professional and community…

  16. Strategies for Pursuing a Master's Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia M; McIntosh, Constance E; Mensik, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Health care has become very complex and is in a constant state of change. As a result of the evolving change and increasing complexity, a more educated nursing workforce is needed (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010). It is now becoming necessary for registered nurses to earn an advanced degree to work at the highest level of their practice authority (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010.). Preparing to reenter college may be an overwhelming prospect for some registered nurses seeking an advanced degree. However, there are some simple strategies that may help sort out the many degree options, financial obligations, decisions about brick and mortar versus online learning, commitment to degree completion, and changing career paths. This article will provide the registered nurse valuable information that will assist in the exciting process of returning to college.

  17. Contribution to reconstruction of third degree rectovestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Abstract. The study was conducted on ten mares suffering from third degree rectovestibular laceration. Four uterine washes were performed in all cases by using diluted betadine (mixing 5ml of betadine antiseptic solution in 1 liter of sterile saline) to control vaginal and uterine infections before surgery.

  18. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  19. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  20. The Top 100: Graduate Degrees Conferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, some critics and policymakers have started to question the value of a college education given the increasing costs of attending and the commensurate high debt levels of college graduates. Past and present studies also demonstrate that the average value masks important variation by degree level and field of study. This paper focuses on…

  1. The Value of a College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although parents, high school students, and most civic leaders in this country and around the world see a college degree as important, this perspective has been attacked over the last five years. Once the Great Recession began in December 2007, there were far fewer good jobs available for new college graduates. The soaring price of college had…

  2. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  3. Education plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.

    1987-01-01

    There is pressing need for education of fusion people and those in the radiation effects community on the role of radiation hardening in radiation diagnostic. There is no plan at present to do this. The plan is to be proposed and developed. The education methods should include distribution of a primer, the proceedings of this workshop, and updated data compilations and talks by experts at the fusion labs, universities, and meetings

  4. business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Luzan, Dmitrij

    2009-01-01

    My thesis is dedicated to the business plan of the gastronomic facility. The thesis describes foundation of the company, analyses demand for the gastronomic services. The financial plan is being presented as well. The thesis includes the analysis of the company's environment, suppliers and customers. SWOT analysis, net present value analysis, index of the net present value and other ratio indexes are the parts of this thesis.

  5. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  6. THE DEGREE OF CONSUMER SATISFACTION WITH HOTEL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danka CURAKOVIĆ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The customer focus is one of the principles of quality management in organizations whose decisions, policy and strategy are based on market analysis. The results of the analysis are then used in the introduction of innovation, planning, investment in order to positioning in the market and meeting customer needs. The subject of research is the degree of consumer satisfaction with hotel services in order to determining the extent to which their quality meets customer needs and preferences. For the purposes of this paper there was conducted a research of primary and secondary materials, as well as field research in the July-August 2011. The research was conducted in hotels and B&B hotels in Novi Sad. The principal part of the paper is the analysis and description of results obtained in the study. The research results can be used by hotel managers in order to improve and adapt hotel services to market needs, as well by students.

  7. Pathways to a Four-Year Degree: Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; Burkum, Kurt R.; La Nasa, Steven M.

    The High School Sophomore Cohort of 1980 followed nine different pathways to a 4-year college degree. These paths were formed by a combination of different levels of academic preparation secured in high school and the first type of postsecondary institution attended. The pathway most likely to lead to a 4-year degree is one defined by acquiring…

  8. On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of

  9. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  10. Lessons Learned: Creating an Online Business Degree from a Successful On-Campus Business Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, William P.; Muraoka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The horse has left the barn. Distance education is here to stay and the number of degree programs offered online is growing rapidly. California State University Channel Islands (CI) admitted its first students in 2002, and the undergraduate and graduate degrees in business were among its first program offerings. From its inception, the…

  11. Temporal variations in the second-degree stokes tesseral geopotential coefficients from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vítek, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 1 (2003), s. 37-64 ISSN 0167-9295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : T/P altimery * stokes 2-nd degree tesseral coeficients Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2003

  12. Energy planning and management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration's final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program

  13. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.

    1998-12-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  14. Jamming in complex networks with degree correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore y Piontti, Ana L.; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of the degree-degree correlations on the pressure congestion J when we apply a dynamical process on scale free complex networks using the gradient network approach. We find that the pressure congestion for disassortative (assortative) networks is lower (bigger) than the one for uncorrelated networks which allow us to affirm that disassortative networks enhance transport through them. This result agree with the fact that many real world transportation networks naturally evolve to this kind of correlation. We explain our results showing that for the disassortative case the clusters in the gradient network turn out to be as much elongated as possible, reducing the pressure congestion J and observing the opposite behavior for the assortative case. Finally we apply our model to real world networks, and the results agree with our theoretical model.

  15. Effective hadron degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses several topics. The first one is the importance of a consistent treatment of extended nucleons and the subsequent requirement of accounting for quark antisymmetrization. It will probably be possible to account for these effects through quark exchange currents in much of the same way as meson exchange currents at lower values of Q 2 . In order to obtain more definite answers on intrinsic properties of nucleons and other hadronic degrees of freedom in nuclei it is important to establish to which extent hadronic degrees of freedom behaving like quasi-free nuclear constituents can be used to describe the nuclear response in inclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering at intermediate energies

  16. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. Isobar degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given on some recent investigations of the influence of isobar degrees of freedom on the ground state properties of finite nuclei like e.g. 16 O. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is constructed in the freamework of an extended one-boson-exchange (OBE) model using non-covariant, time-dependent perturbation theory. The explicit consideration of fourth-order iterative diagrams involving NΔ and ΔΔ intermediate states gives an effective NN interaction in the nuclear many-body system which is less attractive than those which are obtained treating these terms phenomenologically. Therefore the binding energy calculated in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation is smaller if these effects of isobar degrees of freedom are taken into account. This repulsive effect of isobar configurations is partly counterbalanced by the attraction obtained for three-nucleon terms with intermediate NNΔ states. (Auth.)

  18. The physical gravitational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O

    2005-01-01

    When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom

  19. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  20. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1994: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This survey is designed to include those programs sponsored by the Department of Energy. The survey is designed to include those programs offering a major in nuclear engineering or course work equivalent to a major in other engineering disciplines that prepare the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This survey provides data on nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees for use in labor market analyses, information on education programs for students, and information on new graduates to employers, government agencies, academia and professional societies

  1. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  2. Adolescent Obesity and Future College Degree Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.

    2009-01-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...

  3. Depth and degree of melting of komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude

    1992-04-01

    High pressure melting experiments have permitted new constraints to be placed on the depth and degree of partial melting of komatiites. Komatiites from Gorgona Island were formed by relatively low degrees of pseudoinvariant melting involving L + Ol + Opx + Cpx + Gt on the solidus at 40 kbar, about 130 km depth. Munro-type komatiites were separated from a harzburgite residue (L + Ol + Opx) at pressures that were poorly constrained, but were probably around 50 kbar, about 165 km depth; the degree of partial melting was less than 40 percent. Secular variations in the geochemistry of komatiites could have formed in response to a reduction in the temperature and pressure of melting with time. The 3.5 Ga Barberton komatiites and the 2.7 Ga Munro-type komatiities could have formed in plumes that were hotter than the present-day mantle by 500 deg and 300 deg, respectively. When excess temperatures are this size, melting is deeper and volcanism changes from basaltic to momatiitic. The komatiities from Gorgona Island, which are Mesozoic in age, may be representative of komatiities that are predicted to occur in oceanic plateaus of Cretaceous age throughout the Pacific (Storey et al., 1991).

  4. Flight Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  5. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received

  6. Performance and microbial community composition dynamics of aerobic granular sludge from sequencing batch bubble column reactors operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Sirous; Gabus, Sébastien; Rohrbach-Brandt, Emmanuelle; Hosseini, Maryam; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2010-07-01

    Two bubble column sequencing batch reactors fed with an artificial wastewater were operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C. In a first stage, stable granules were obtained at 20 degrees C, whereas fluffy structures were observed at 30 degrees C. Molecular analysis revealed high abundance of the operational taxonomic unit 208 (OTU 208) affiliating with filamentous bacteria Leptothrix spp. at 30 degrees C, an OTU much less abundant at 20 degrees C. The granular sludge obtained at 20 degrees C was used for the second stage during which one reactor was maintained at 20 degrees C and the second operated at 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C after prior gradual increase of temperature. Aerobic granular sludge with similar physical properties developed in both reactors but it had different nutrient elimination performances and microbial communities. At 20 degrees C, acetate was consumed during anaerobic feeding, and biological phosphorous removal was observed when Rhodocyclaceae-affiliating OTU 214 was present. At 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C, acetate was mainly consumed during aeration and phosphorous removal was insignificant. OTU 214 was almost absent but the Gammaproteobacteria-affiliating OTU 239 was more abundant than at 20 degrees C. Aerobic granular sludge at all temperatures contained abundantly the OTUs 224 and 289 affiliating with Sphingomonadaceae indicating that this bacterial family played an important role in maintaining stable granular structures.

  7. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  8. Double nursing degree: potentialities and challenges of an international student academic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Schaefer, Rafaela; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective To share the experience of a Double Nursing degree promoted between the Nursing School of the Universidade de São Paulo and the Health Sciences Institute of the Universidade Católica Portuguesa, reflecting on the potentialities and challenges of this opportunity for graduate students. Method This is an experience report presented in chronological order and of a descriptive nature. The double degree in Nursing was accomplished over a period of 6 months in a different institution from the institution of origin. Results Among the activities developed during the Double Degree are: participating in examining boards, congresses, seminars, courses, meetings, lectures, colloquium, classes, research groups and technical visits to health services. A table presents and describes the main benefits of the experience experienced by the authors. Conclusion When well-planned and well-developed, a double degree can promote personal, cultural and professional development of the students, favoring internationalization and contributing to the qualification of graduate programs.

  9. Developing Your 360-Degree Leadership Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nupur; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Bhargava, Puneet

    2017-09-01

    Radiologists serve in leadership roles throughout their career, making leadership education an integral part of their development. A maxim of leadership style is summarized by 360-Degree Leadership, which highlights the ability of a leader to lead from any position within the organization while relying on core characteristics to build confidence from within their team. The qualities of leadership discussed can be learned and applied by radiologists at any level. These traits can form a foundation for the leader when faced with unfavorable events, which themselves allow the leader an opportunity to build trust. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  11. Importance of small-degree nodes in assortative networks with degree-weight correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sijuan; Feng, Ling; Monterola, Christopher Pineda; Lai, Choy Heng

    2017-10-01

    It has been known that assortative network structure plays an important role in spreading dynamics for unweighted networks. Yet its influence on weighted networks is not clear, in particular when weight is strongly correlated with the degrees of the nodes as we empirically observed in Twitter. Here we use the self-consistent probability method and revised nonperturbative heterogenous mean-field theory method to investigate this influence on both susceptible-infective-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) spreading dynamics. Both our simulation and theoretical results show that while the critical threshold is not significantly influenced by the assortativity, the prevalence in the supercritical regime shows a crossover under different degree-weight correlations. In particular, unlike the case of random mixing networks, in assortative networks, the negative degree-weight correlation leads to higher prevalence in their spreading beyond the critical transmissivity than that of the positively correlated. In addition, the previously observed inhibition effect on spreading velocity by assortative structure is not apparent in negatively degree-weight correlated networks, while it is enhanced for that of the positively correlated. Detailed investigation into the degree distribution of the infected nodes reveals that small-degree nodes play essential roles in the supercritical phase of both SIR and SIS spreadings. Our results have direct implications in understanding viral information spreading over online social networks and epidemic spreading over contact networks.

  12. Sampling networks with prescribed degree correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Charo; Bassler, Kevin; Erdos, Péter; Miklos, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2014-03-01

    A feature of a network known to affect its structural and dynamical properties is the presence of correlations amongst the node degrees. Degree correlations are a measure of how much the connectivity of a node influences the connectivity of its neighbours, and they are fundamental in the study of processes such as the spreading of information or epidemics, the cascading failures of damaged systems and the evolution of social relations. We introduce a method, based on novel mathematical results, that allows the exact sampling of networks where the number of connections between nodes of any given connectivity is specified. Our algorithm provides a weight associated to each sample, thereby allowing network observables to be measured according to any desired distribution, and it is guaranteed to always terminate successfully in polynomial time. Thus, our new approach provides a preferred tool for scientists to model complex systems of current relevance, and enables researchers to precisely study correlated networks with broad societal importance. CIDG acknowledges support by the European Commission's FP7 through grant No. 288021. KEB acknowledges support from the NSF through grant DMR?1206839. KEB, PE, IM and ZT acknowledge support from AFSOR and DARPA through grant FA?9550-12-1-0405.

  13. The True Gravitational Degrees Of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murchadha, N. o

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years ago it was realized that General Relativity could be expressed in Hamiltonian form. Unfortunately, just like electromagnetism and Yang-Mills theory, the Einstein equations split into evolution equations and constraints which complicates matters. The 4 constraints are expressions of the gauge freedom of the theory, general covariance. One can cleanly pose initial data for the gravitational field, but this data has to satisfy the constraints. To find the independent degrees of freedom, one needs to factor the initial data by the constraints. There are many ways of doing this. I can do so in such a way as to implement the model suggested by Poincare for a well-posed dynamical system: Pick a configuration space and give the free initial data as a point of the configuration space and a tangent vector at the same point. Now, the evolution equations should give a unique curve in the same configuration space. This gives a natural definition of what I call the true gravitational degrees of freedom. (author)

  14. Neighbor Rupture Degree of Some Middle Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökşen BACAK-TURAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks have an important place in our daily lives. Internet networks, electricity networks, water networks, transportation networks, social networks and biological networks are some of the networks we run into every aspects of our lives. A network consists of centers connected by links. A network is represented when centers and connections modelled by vertices and edges, respectively. In consequence of the failure of some centers or connection lines, measurement of the resistance of the network until the communication interrupted is called vulnerability of the network. In this study, neighbor rupture degree which is a parameter that explores the vulnerability values of the resulting graphs due to the failure of some centers of a communication network and its neighboring centers becoming nonfunctional were applied to some middle graphs and neighbor rupture degree of the $M(C_{n},$ $M(P_{n},$ $M(K_{1,n},$ $M(W_{n},$ $M(P_{n}\\times K_{2}$ and $M(C_{n}\\times K_{2}$ have been found.

  15. Gauge invariance and degree of freedom count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.; Universite Libre de Bruxelles; Teitelboim, C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Zanelli, J.; Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)

    1990-01-01

    The precise relation between the gauge transformations in lagrangian and hamiltonian form is derived for any gauge theory. It is found that in order to define a lagrangian gauge symmetry, the coefficients of the first class constraints in the hamiltonian generator of gauge transformations must obey a set of differential equations. Those equations involve, in general, the Lagrange multipliers. Their solution contains as many arbitrary functions of time as there are primary first class constraints. If n is the number of generations of constraints (primary, secondary, tertiary...), the arbitrary functions appear in the general solution together with their successive time derivatives up to order n-1. The analysis yields as by-products: (i) a systematic way to derive all the gauge symmetries of a given lagrangian; (ii) a precise criterion for counting the physical degrees of freedom of a gauge theory directly from the form of gauge transformations in lagrangian form. This last part is illustrated by means of examples. The BRST analog of the counting of physical degrees of freedom is also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Device for measuring a burnup degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshiaki; Goto, Seiichiro

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the burnup degree at high efficiency and accuracy. Constitution: The outer metal wall of fuel assemblies is heated under gamma radiation with long half life gamma rays in inverse proportion to the burnup degree and issues infrared radiation in proportion to the intensity of the gamma rays. An image pick-up tube is opposed to one surface of the fuel assemblies to detect the radiated infrared rays. Since the output signal from the pick-up tube is subjected to the absorptive damping by the distance between the pick-up tube and the fuel assembly, as well as water filled in the gap therebetween, it is corrected through a main amplifier comprising a signal correction circuit composed of a characteristic section inverse to the absorption property and a characteristic section inverse to the square of the distance. The corrected output signal is displayed on a display unit such as CRT or recorded in a film or a magnetic tape. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Epidemic spreading on preferred degree adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B; Zia, R K P

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree κ. Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting κ depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either 'blind' or 'selective'--depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result λ(c)/μ = / and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With 'blind' adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The 'selective' adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram.

  18. Master’s Degree Programs of Camarines Norte State College, Philippines: Impact on Its Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godofredo E. Peteza, Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research determined the impact of the master’s degree programs offered in the Graduate School such as Master in Business Administration, Master in Public Administration, Master in Management majors in Human Resource Management and Educational Planning and Management on its graduates from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive-survey method supplemented by interview was employed to identify specifically the profile of the graduates of master’s degree programs in terms of age, sex, civil status, level of appointment before and after taking the master’s degree program, monthly income before and after taking the master’s degree program, number of promotions after graduation, and years in service and the impact of the CNSC Graduate School’s Master’s Degree Programs along professional practice, career development; and employment. Results show that majority of the respondents are in the middle age from 31 -37 years old, married, mostly females, 6-10 years in service and have one promotion after they have graduated from their respective master’s degrees. The level of appointment of the respondents has a positive movement from rank and file to supervisory and managerial levels positions. The Graduate School’s Master’s degree programs provided high impact on the graduates’ professional practice, and on employment while average impact on career development.

  19. Statistical methods for the planning of inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, C.G.; Beetle, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    Inspection plans are designed to detect diversions of M kilograms of nuclear material with a high degree of confidence. Attribute sample plans were first developed and applied at a zero-energy fast reactor in the United Kingdom in co-operation with the Agency. Battelle-Northwest in the United States of America proposed a variables sample plan based on decision theory. The Karlsruhe Research Center in the Federal Republic of Germany developed the strategic points concept and sample plans based on game theory considerations. All these approaches were combined into a common approach which is summarized in this report. (author)

  20. Big plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kevin F; Doyle, James F

    2005-09-01

    In Elmhurst Memorial Healthcare's capital planning method: Future replacement costs of assets are estimated by inflating their historical cost over their lives. A balanced model is created initially based on the assumption that rates of revenue growth, inflation, investment income, and interest expense are all equal. Numbers then can be adjusted to account for possible variations, such as excesses or shortages in investment or debt balances.

  1. Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Dorożyński, Tomasz; Urbaniak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...

  2. Strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In November 1989, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was formed within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EM Program was born of the recognition that a significant national effort was necessary to clean up over 45 years' worth of environmental pollution from DOE operations, including the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons. Within EM, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration (EM-40) has been assigned responsibility for the assessment and cleanup of areas and facilities that are no longer a part of active DOE operations, but may be contaminated with varying levels and quantifies of hazardous, radioactive, and n-mixed waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities are managed as an integral part of Envirorunental Restoration cleanup efforts. The Office of Environmental Restoration ensures that risks to the environment and to human health and safety are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed, acceptable levels. This Strategic Plan has been developed to articulate the vision of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and to crystallize the specific objectives of the Environmental Restoration Program. The document summarizes the key planning assumptions that guide or constrain the strategic planning effort, outlines the Environmental Restoration Program's specific objectives, and identifies barriers that could limit the Program's success

  3. Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD in chitooligosaccharides (COS. This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in COS having relatively high and low molecular weights: an acid-base titration with bromocresol green indicator and a first order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for assessment of DD in COS. The accuracy of both methods as a function of molecular weight was also investigated and compared to results obtained using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates two simple, fast, widely adaptable, highly precise, accurate, and inexpensive methods for the effective determination of DD in COS, which have the potential for widespread commercial applications in developing country.

  4. Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuhan; Wu, Sihui; Liu, Guihua; Guo, Jiao; Su, Zhengquan

    2017-01-01

    The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD) in chitooligosaccharides (COS). This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in COS having relatively high and low molecular weights: an acid-base titration with bromocresol green indicator and a first order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for assessment of DD in COS. The accuracy of both methods as a function of molecular weight was also investigated and compared to results obtained using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates two simple, fast, widely adaptable, highly precise, accurate, and inexpensive methods for the effective determination of DD in COS, which have the potential for widespread commercial applications in developing country. PMID:29068401

  5. Degree of mapping for general relativistic kinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriot, Tina A.; Williams, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Finkelstein-Misner metrical kinks of general relativity are homo topically nontrivial light cone configurations that can occur on space-time hypersurfaces. The number of kinks corresponds to the winding number of a timelike vector field that that is determined from the metric. This paper uses the usual Euclidean integral formula for degree of mapping as a starting point and so produces a covariant formula that can be applied to counting general relativistic kinks in any dimension. The kink number is calculated for some simple-to-visualize examples in 2 + 1 dimensions. These include hypersurfaces of differing topologies and so have relevance to mechanisms of topology change in semi-classical theories of quantum gravity

  6. Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states.

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  8. Bounded-Degree Approximations of Stochastic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Christopher J.; Pinar, Ali; Kiyavash, Negar

    2017-06-01

    We propose algorithms to approximate directed information graphs. Directed information graphs are probabilistic graphical models that depict causal dependencies between stochastic processes in a network. The proposed algorithms identify optimal and near-optimal approximations in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence. The user-chosen sparsity trades off the quality of the approximation against visual conciseness and computational tractability. One class of approximations contains graphs with speci ed in-degrees. Another class additionally requires that the graph is connected. For both classes, we propose algorithms to identify the optimal approximations and also near-optimal approximations, using a novel relaxation of submodularity. We also propose algorithms to identify the r-best approximations among these classes, enabling robust decision making.

  9. The 360 Degree Fulldome Production "Clockwork Ocean"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, B.; Heinsohn, R.; Opitz, D.; Fischer, T.; Baschek, T.

    2016-02-01

    The investigation of submesoscale eddies and fronts is one of the leading oceanographic topics at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016. In order to observe these small and short-lived phenomena, planes equipped with high-resolution cameras and fast vessels were deployed during the Submesoscale Experiments (SubEx) leading to some of the first high-resolution observations of these eddies. In a future experiment, a zeppelin will be used the first time in marine sciences. The relevance of submesoscale processes for the oceans and the work of the eddy hunters is described in the fascinating 9-minute long 360 degree fulldome production Clockwork Ocean. The fully animated movie is introduced in this presentation taking the observer from the bioluminescence in the deep ocean to a view of our blue planet from space. The immersive media is used to combine fascination for a yet unknown environment with scientific education of a broad audience. Detailed background information is available at the parallax website www.clockwork-ocean.com. The Film is also available for Virtual Reality glasses and smartphones to reach a broader distribution. A unique Mobile Dome with an area of 70 m² and seats for 40 people is used for science education at events, festivals, for politicians and school classes. The spectators are also invited to participate in the experiments by presenting 360 degree footage of the measurements. The premiere of Clockwork Ocean was in July 2015 in Hamburg, Germany and will be worldwide available in English and German as of fall 2015. Clockwork Ocean is a film of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht produced by Daniel Opitz and Ralph Heinsohn.

  10. Challenges and Driving Forces for Business Plans in Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheiner, Tanja; Huppertz, Berthold; Bayer, Michaela; Sargsyan, Karine

    2017-04-01

    Due to increased utilization of biospecimens for research and emergence of new technologies, the availability and quality of biospecimens and their collection are coming more and more into focus. However, the long-term economic situation of biobanks is still mostly unclear. Also, the common sustainable utilization of various international biobanks is challenging due to local differences in sample processing, law and ethics. This article discusses possible strategies to achieve a sustainable utilization of biospecimens as part of the business plan of biobanks. The following questions were addressed as part of a business plan: (1) How can a biobank build up and maintain an up-to-date infrastructure? (2) What kind of funding can support the sustainability of a biobank? (3) Is there an international solution for informed consents to enable sample and data sharing? (4) How can a biobank react during economically unstable periods? (5) Which kind of biobanking research is innovative? (6) What kind of education could be most needful for knowledge transfer in biobanking? (7) Does an expiration date for a biobank make sense according to the period of funding? A strategy for optimal utilization begins with sharing of resources, infrastructure, and investments at the planning stage of a biobank, and continues to the transfer of knowledge and know-how by education. For clinical biobanks in particular, a long-term funding and cost recovery strategy is necessary for sustainable utilization.

  11. Dynamic Model of Platform Manipulator with Six Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Lapikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a solution of the relevant tasks related to deriving dynamic equations for the platform manipulators with 6 degrees of freedom. It presents a detailed analysis of the subject area, describes key problems arising in the course of research, and suggests their solution methods. The equations describing dynamics of the mechanical system under discussion were derived using Lagrange equation of the second kind. For this purpose Cartesian coordinates and three Euler angles (angles of precession, nutation and intrinsic rotation describing the orientation of moving frame of reference connected with the platform towards the base were chosen as generalized coordinates of the model. Such choice allowed us to simplify the derivation of the model considerably, because it was possible to represent a dependence of kinetic energy of the mechanical system on the generalized coordinates in an explicit form. In addition, formulation of kinetic energy was supplemented with correlations describing kinetic energy of the mechanism legs. During the derivation of equations for the legs velocities the part of the component defining a rotation movement of the leg against the joint of the base was ignored because of it was small in comparison with the component of linear separation. Besides, during the derivation of equations for kinetic energy of the legs, modified correlations for kinematics of platform manipulators with 6 degrees of freedom suggested in the previous papers of the authors were used.he paper examines a numerical example to solve a reverse dynamic problem in the case of equal harmonic changes of controlling forces. It was found out that under controlling forces described above the platform carries out harmonic advancing movements along the vertical axis.Further planning research concerns the extended capabilities of the model to consider the influence of the working load and to create algorithms for deriving dynamic models of a

  12. Variation in meroplankton along 78 degrees E Meridian

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, T.; Peter, K.J.

    Variations along the meridian 78 degrees E between 8 degrees N and 25 degrees S, based on 43 zooplankton samples were studied. Fish larvae exhibited fluctuations in abundance (26 to 57 specimens/IOSN haul) in the three zones studied (8 degrees N-5...

  13. Outcomes of torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification performed by 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacioglu, Firat; Yeter, Celal; Tunc, Zeki; Sencan, Sadik

    2013-08-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of Ozil Intelligent Phaco torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed with 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips using the Infiniti Vision System. Maltepe University School of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey. Comparative case series. Eyes were assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the torsional mode with a 22-degree bent tip (Group 1) or a 12-degree bent tip (Group 2). The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) amplitudes, mean surgical time, mean volume of balanced salt solution used, and surgical complications. Both groups included 45 eyes. The mean UST, CDE, longitudinal US amplitude, and torsional US amplitude were 65 seconds ± 27.23 (SD), 11.53 ± 6.99, 0.22 ± 0.26, and 42.86 ± 15.64, respectively, in Group 1 and 84 ± 45.04 seconds, 16.68 ± 10.66, 0.48 ± 0.68, and 46.27 ± 14.74, respectively, in Group 2. The mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal amplitudes were significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.003, P=.008, and P=.022, respectively). The mean volume of balanced salt solution was 73.33 ± 28.58 cc in Group 1 and 82.08 ± 26.21 cc in Group 2 (P=.134). Torsional phacoemulsification performed with 22-degree bent tips provided more effective lens removal than 12-degree bent tips, with a lower UST and CDE. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioiodotherapy: dosimetry planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apyan, A.; Mileshin, O.; Klyopov, A.; Shishkanov, N.; Matusevich, E.; Roziev, A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatment of 142 case histories of 125 patients who had been treated with radioactive iodine at the Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medicine Sciences from 1983 to 1999 are given in the presentation. Among the patients, 35 cases of diffuse toxic goiter with signs of thyrotoxicosis of a mild degree, 25 cases of Diffuse toxic goiter with severe thyrotoxicosis, 6 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck, 30 cases of thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck and lung and 1 case of thyroid cancer with metastases to bones were diagnosed. This paper gives recommendations for individual dosimetry planning for radioiodine-therapy. (authors)

  15. Planning Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    as a territorial container, in which the social merges into regional and national entities. Correspondingly, movement is only interpreted as a derived demand, ignoring its integrative aspect as precondition of participation and part of network capital. On the other hand, the spatiality of the economy...... is represented as something outside and fluid which is meant to be channelled into the territorial containers by means of regional development and spatial planning. These representations of the social suggest a territorialized culturally integrated society as the unquestioned frame of reference which has lost...

  16. What contributes to action plan enactment? Examining characteristics of physical activity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Gardner, Benjamin; Keller, Jan; Lippke, Sonia; Pomp, Sarah; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2017-11-01

    change. Plan enactment (i.e., degree to which plan is followed through) is positively linked to behaviour change. What does this study add? Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment. Individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans. Planning interventions should focus on specificity of context cues but flexibility of behavioural action. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Increasingly Global: Combining an International Business Degree with a Post-Degree Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Terry, Andy; Vibhakar, Ashvin

    2006-01-01

    In the increasingly complex and competitive global marketplace, many students seek to gain multiple skills and credentials that can aid them in their career goals. One such career strategy weds a general overarching comprehensive degree with a specific and targeted skill set. This paper provides a viable curriculum path for students who seek…

  18. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2007 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census from October through February of all 75 departments that offer degrees in astronomy in the United States. For the class of 2007, the authors received responses from 73 (97%) of these departments. Estimates were derived and included in the totals for…

  19. Making Sense of the Combined Degree Experience: The Example of Criminology Double Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimshurst, Kerry; Manning, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken on student experiences of combined degrees. The few studies report that a considerable number of students experienced difficulty with the contrasting epistemic/disciplinary demands of the component programmes. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore the experiences of graduates from four double degrees…

  20. Degree of Success? A Review of Delivering BSc Honours Degrees in an FE College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Lloyd, Mary Golding

    2009-01-01

    Widening participation initiatives led by the government encourage non-traditional students to enrol in higher education courses usually offered through a franchising arrangement between a Higher Education Institution (HEI) and a local Further Education Institution (FEI). The focus has been on the development of foundation degrees with most…

  1. Multiemployer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active multiemployer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  2. Tensions related to implementation of postgraduate degree projects in specialist nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Millberg, Lena; Berg, Linda; Lindström, Irma; Petzäll, Kerstin; Öhlén, Joakim

    2011-04-01

    In conjunction with the introduction of the Bologna process in Sweden, specialist nursing education programmes were moved up to the second cycle of higher education with the opportunity to take a one-year master's degree, which also meant that students would undertake a degree project carrying 15 ECTS. The purpose of this study was to examine the introduction of postgraduate degree projects on the second-cycle level into Swedish specialist nursing programmes in accordance with the Bologna process. Five universities were involved and the study design took the form of action research. Problem formulation, planning, evaluation and follow-up with reflection led to new actions over a period of 2 1/2 years. Through a review of local curriculum documents, the implementation of a postgraduate degree project was monitored and these reviews, together with field notes, were analysed by means of constant comparative analysis. The results revealed a variety of tensions that arose when postgraduate degree projects were introduced, taking the form of differing views on the relationship between research, clinical development, specific professional objectives and academic objectives. These tensions were reflected in six areas of change. In summary, it can be noted that implementation of the postgraduate degree projects highlighted tensions related to basic views of learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. European master degree in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2003-01-01

    In order to preserve and to improve the quality of nuclear engineering education and training in Europe, as well to ensure the safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants, the European Nuclear Engineering Network Program (ENEN) started in 2002. It is a program aiming to establish and maintain a set of criteria for specific curricula of nuclear engineering education, in particular, for an European Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering (EMNE). The ENEN program is financed by the FP5 and has the wide support of IAEA, OECD and EU Commission departments dealing with the nuclear engineering knowledge management. The promising results up to now determined the creation of the Asian Nuclear Engineering Network (ANEN) in July 2003 and of the World Nuclear University (WNU) starting in September 2003. The paper presents the future structure of EMNE which will allow the harmonization of the curricula of the universities of Europe until the Bologna Convention will be fully accepted and operational in all European countries. The ENEN program has taken into consideration the curricula of 22 universities and research centres from 15 different European countries and proposed a feasible scheme which allows the undergraduates with a weak to strong nuclear background to continue their graduate education in the nuclear engineering field towards EMNE. As one of the contractors of this program, University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest brings its contribution and actively takes part in all activities establishing the EMNE. (author)

  4. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  5. Double degree master program: Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Livshits, Irina; Styk, Adam; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia; Ermolayeva, Elena; Ivanova, Tatiana; Romanova, Galina; Tolstoba, Nadezhda

    2015-10-01

    Modern tendencies of higher education require development of master programs providing achievement of learning outcomes corresponding to quickly variable job market needs. ITMO University represented by Applied and Computer Optics Department and Optical Design and Testing Laboratory jointly with Warsaw University of Technology represented by the Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics at The Faculty of Mechatronics have developed a novel international master double-degree program "Optical Design" accumulating the expertise of both universities including experienced teaching staff, educational technologies, and experimental resources. The program presents studies targeting research and professional activities in high-tech fields connected with optical and optoelectronics devices, optical engineering, numerical methods and computer technologies. This master program deals with the design of optical systems of various types, assemblies and layouts using computer modeling means; investigation of light distribution phenomena; image modeling and formation; development of optical methods for image analysis and optical metrology including optical testing, materials characterization, NDT and industrial control and monitoring. The goal of this program is training a graduate capable to solve a wide range of research and engineering tasks in optical design and metrology leading to modern manufacturing and innovation. Variability of the program structure provides its flexibility and adoption according to current job market demands and personal learning paths for each student. In addition considerable proportion of internship and research expands practical skills. Some special features of the "Optical Design" program which implements the best practices of both Universities, the challenges and lessons learnt during its realization are presented in the paper.

  6. Neural mechanisms mediating degrees of strategic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Rosemarie; Brovelli, Andrea; Heinemann, Frank; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i.e. strategic thinking). Participants were confronted with risky lotteries and two types of coordination games requiring different degrees of strategic thinking of the kind 'I think that you think that I think etc.' We found that the brain network mediating risk during lotteries (anterior insula, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex) is also engaged in the processing of strategic uncertainty in games. In social settings, activity in this network is modulated by the level of strategic thinking that is reflected in the activity of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that strategic uncertainty is resolved by the interplay between the neural circuits mediating risk and higher order beliefs (i.e. beliefs about others' beliefs). © The Author(s) (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Burnup degree measuring device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideo; Imaizumi, Hideki; Endo, Yasumi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a small-sized and convenient device for measuring a burnup degree of spent fuels, which can be installed without remodelling an existent fuel storage pool. Namely, a gamma-ray detecting portion incorporates a Cd-Te detector for measuring intensity ratio of gamma-rays. A neutron detecting portion incorporates a fission counter tube. The Cd-Te detector comprises a neutron shielding member for reducing radiation damages and a background controlling plate for reducing low energy gamma-rays entering from a collimator. Since the Cd-Td detector for use in a gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used at a normal temperature and can measure even a relatively strong radiation field, it can measure the intensity of gamma-rays from Cs-137 and Cs-134 in spent fuels accurately at a resolving power of less than 10 keV. Further, in a case where a cooling period is less than one year, gamma-rays from Rh-106 and Nb-95 can also be measured. (I.S.)

  8. Evaluation and comparison of New 4DCT based strategies for proton treatment planning for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ning; Patyal, Baldev; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Bush, David

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate different strategies for proton lung treatment planning based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans. Twelve cases, involving only gross tumor volumes (GTV), were evaluated. Single image sets of (1) maximum intensity projection (MIP3) of end inhale (EI), middle exhale (ME) and end exhale (EE) images; (2) average intensity projection (AVG) of all phase images; and (3) EE images from 4DCT scans were selected as primary images for proton treatment planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) outlined by a clinician were imported into MIP3, AVG, and EE images as planning targets. Initially, treatment uncertainties were not included in planning. Each plan was imported into phase images of 4DCT scans. Relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and mean ipsilateral lung dose of a phase image obtained by averaging the dose in inspiration and expiration phases were used to evaluate the quality of a plan for a particular case. For comparing different planning strategies, the mean of the averaged relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and its standard deviation for each planning strategy for all cases were used. Then, treatment uncertainties were included in planning. Each plan was recalculated in phase images of 4DCT scans. Same strategies were used for plan evaluation except dose-volume histograms of the planning target volumes (PTVs) instead of GTVs were used and the mean and standard deviation of the relative volumes of PTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and the ipsilateral lung dose were used to compare different planning strategies. MIP3 plans without treatment uncertainties yielded 96.7% of the mean relative GTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 5.7% for all cases). With treatment uncertainties, MIP3 plans yielded 99.5% of mean relative PTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 0.7%). Inclusion of treatment uncertainties improved PTV dose coverage but also increased the ipsilateral

  9. A robotized six degree of freedom stage for optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramov, M. Z.; Ivanov, I.; Pavlov, V.; Zaharieva, K.

    2013-04-01

    This work represents an investigation of the possibility to use a hexapod system for optical microscopy investigation and measurements. An appropriate hexapod stage has been developed. The stage has been calibrated and used for several different optical microscopy applications. The construction of the stage is based on the classic Stewart platform and thus represents a parallel robot with 6 degree of freedom. Appropriate software is controlling the transformation of the 3 position coordinates of the moving plate and the 3 Euler angles in position velocities and accelerations of the plate motion. An embedded microcontroller is implementing the motion plan and the PID controller regulating the kinematics. By difference to the available in the market hexapods the proposed solution is with lower precision but is significantly cheaper and simple to maintain. The repeatability obtained with current implementation is 0,05 mm and 0,001 rad. A specialized DSP based video processing engine is used for both feedback computation and application specific image processing in real-time. To verify the concept some applications has been developed for specific tasks and has been used for specific measurements.

  10. Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lian-Ming; Wu Xiang-Sheng; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS) level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the k min -degree (minimum degree) nodes and the k max -degree (maximum degree) nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links) in the hands of the richer (top best-connected) nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the k min -degree nodes is larger for larger λ and smaller k min or k max . The ratio of the k max -degree ones is larger for smaller λ and k max or larger k min . The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the k min -degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of k min . The ratio of the k max -degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k max , and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the ‘73/27 rule’). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Comparison of two-stage thermophilic (68 degrees C/55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion with one-stage thermophilic (55 degrees C) digestion of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Mladenovska, Z; Westermann, P; Ahring, B K

    2004-05-05

    A two-stage 68 degrees C/55 degrees C anaerobic degradation process for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, an increase of the specific methane yield, ranging from 24% to 56%, was obtained when cattle manure and its fractions (fibers and liquid) were pretreated at 68 degrees C for periods of 36, 108, and 168 h, and subsequently digested at 55 degrees C. In a lab-scale experiment, the performance of a two-stage reactor system, consisting of a digester operating at 68 degrees C with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, connected to a 55 degrees C reactor with 12-day HRT, was compared with a conventional single-stage reactor running at 55 degrees C with 15-days HRT. When an organic loading of 3 g volatile solids (VS) per liter per day was applied, the two-stage setup had a 6% to 8% higher specific methane yield and a 9% more effective VS-removal than the conventional single-stage reactor. The 68 degrees C reactor generated 7% to 9% of the total amount of methane of the two-stage system and maintained a volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of 4.0 to 4.4 g acetate per liter. Population size and activity of aceticlastic methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, and hydrolytic/fermentative bacteria were significantly lower in the 68 degrees C reactor than in the 55 degrees C reactors. The density levels of methanogens utilizing H2/CO2 or formate were, however, in the same range for all reactors, although the degradation of these substrates was significantly lower in the 68 degrees C reactor than in the 55 degrees C reactors. Temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis profiles (TTGE) of the 68 degrees C reactor demonstrated a stable bacterial community along with a less divergent community of archaeal species. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nuclear forces and quark degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.; Demetriou, P.; Pantis, C.

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to derive the NN forces from the quark and gluon degrees of freedom have been made so far in the framework of the nonrelativistic quark-cluster model (QCM). The justification of such a model is based on the remarkable success in describing the static properties of single hadrons. In the earlier calculations, the NN s-wave phase shifts obtained with the QCM show that the model produces repulsive NN forces at short distances, which constitutes a success for the model, but fails to provide the intermediate range attraction indispensable for binding nucleons in nuclei. This drawback is amended within the context of these models, at the expense of introducing by hand intermediate-range attraction through meson-exchange potentials between quarks or/and between nucleons (quark clusters). This procedure improves the results for the phase shifts and it is often concluded that the QCM provides a good description of the short-range (SR) part of the NN potential. In our opinion, the above procedure does not provide a rigorous test of the validity of the quark-cluster model. In order to get a clear-cut conclusion one should consider the QCM in association with an accurate and well founded model for the long-medium-range (LR+MR) forces. For these reason we study a NN interaction model which satisfies this requirement. In this model, the LR+MR parts are given by the Paris NN potential and the SR part by the QCM. The quality of the model is then tested by confronting directly its predictions with data on observables rather then, as it is usually done, with phase shifts. We compute all the observables for pp and np scattering at energies below the pion production threshold for different QCM versions corresponding to different qq interactions. The results are then compared with the existing world set data. Preliminary results show that the agreement with experiment is not good. (authors)

  13. Pursuit of STEM: Factors shaping degree completion for African American females in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine secondary data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman and College Senior Surveys to investigate factors shaping degree aspirations for African American female undergraduates partaking in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the data and identify relationships between independent variables in relation to the dependent variable. The findings of the study reveal four key variables that were predictive of degree completion for African American females in STEM. Father's education, SAT composite, highest degree planned, and self-perception were positive predictors for females; while independent variable overall sense of community among students remained a negative predictor. Lastly implications for education and recommendations for future research were discussed.

  14. [Models, methods, clinical contents in the specialized degree in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document presented is the result of a consensus conference where nurses involved in teaching, direct care and management discussed with professionals and experts of other disciplines on the role of the clinical teaching at specialistic level. Nursing education in fact recently underwent a re-organization therefore after the degree (first level) there is a second level (Specialistic degree and PhD) first and second level master courses. The main question of the consensus conference was if there is a role and what are the contents of clinical nursing to be taught at specialistic level. A consensus was reached on the importance of not separating the teaching of the methods from the contents of care, to allow the production of new knowledge relevant for patients' care. A nurse with a specialistic degree should be able to plan and implement innovative models of care based on scientific knowledge; to recognise unexpected and rapidly evolving problems; to plan and implement, in collaboration with other professionals, complex educational interventions; study and explore principles and theories of helping relationship. The differences in contents and methods of clinical teaching between master and specialistic degree need to be further discussed and explored.

  15. Plan Repair as an Extension of Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In dynamic environments, agents have to deal with changing situations. In these cases, repairing a plan is often more efficient than planning from scratch, but existing planning techniques are more advanced than existing plan repair techniques. Therefore, we propose a straightforward method to

  16. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  17. Planning documents: a business planning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehrle, P A

    2000-06-01

    Strategic planning and business plan development are essential nursing management skills in today's competitive, fast paced, continually changing health care environment. Even in times of great uncertainty, nurse managers need to plan and forecast for the future. A well-written business plan allows nurse managers to communicate their expertise and proactively contribute to the programmatic decisions and changes occurring within their patient population or service area. This article presents the use of planning documents as a practical, strategic business planning strategy. Although the model addresses orthopedic services specifically, nurse managers can gain an understanding and working knowledge of planning concepts that can be applied to all patient populations.

  18. An alternative method to specify the degree of resonator stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    *School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 134, India. E-mail: ... Degree of optical stability; S parameter; misalignment tolerance. ... maximum value of the degree of stability corresponding to S = 100%, automatically.

  19. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-01-01

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey

  20. Annealing properties of potato starches with different degrees of phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhrbeck, Per; Svensson, E

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the gelatinization temperature interval and gelatinization enthalpy with annealing time at 50 degrees C were followed for a number of potato starch samples, with different degrees of phosphorylation, using differential scanning calorimetry. The gelatinization temperature increased...

  1. Most probable degree distribution at fixed structural entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we derive the most probable degree distribution emerging ... the structural entropy of power-law networks is an increasing function of the expo- .... tition function Z of the network as the sum over all degree distributions, with given energy.

  2. Economic planning: Time to reconsider?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafouros Wassily

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the collapse of what was once called the socialist system, was also the collapse of research on any other form of economic organization of a society. Administrative methods for running an economy, with economic planning foremost among them, were inseparably linked to the collapse of the socialist system and, in essence, were held responsible for it. Thus, although the dominant economic paradigm has once again failed to deliver in recent years, the research for other methods fell into oblivion along with the system they were attached to. This work represents an attempt to reconsider the potential of economic planning as a means of organizing an economy at various levels, at various degrees and in various environments. I shall try to illustrate that the blame for the collapse of different socialist systems should not have fallen on the systemic deficiencies of economic planning but, instead, on the political institutions responsible for its application. In addition, I will stress that economic planning has been condemned by non-economic parameters and the application of wrong planning methods. In making this argument I hope to provide an angle through which the discussion of economic organization can be opened to a broader scope of research.

  3. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  4. The degree of irreversibility in deterministic finite automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Holzer, Markus; Kutrib, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the language, and show that the degree induces a strict infinite hierarchy of languages. We examine how the degree of irreversibility behaves under the usual language operations union, intersection, complement, concatenation, and Kleene star, showing tight bounds (some asymptotically) on the degree....

  5. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. it also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  6. Structure and origin of the 85 degrees E ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramprasad, T.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Desa, M.; Murty, G.P.S.; Subrahmanyam, C

    The submerged 85 degrees E Ridge in the Bay of Bengal trends approximately N-S between 19 degrees N and 6 degrees N latitudes. Off the southeast coast of Sri Lanka it takes an arcuate shape and seems to terminate with the northweard extension...

  7. Degree-regular triangulations of torus and Klein bottle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 3 ... A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called degree-regular if each of its vertices have the same degree. ... In [5], Datta and Nilakantan have classified all the degree-regular triangulations of closed surfaces on at most 11 vertices.

  8. Scholarship in nursing: Degree-prepared nurses versus diploma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All but one (n = 18) nursing educators who obtained a degree as first qualification are educators in the private sector that include both universities as well as nursing colleges of private hospital groups. Data further revealed that most nurse educators and those in managerial positions were degree prepared. More degree ...

  9. Actuator with Multi Degrees of Freedom(Actuator)

    OpenAIRE

    矢野, 智昭; Tomoaki, YANO; 産業技術総合研究所

    2006-01-01

    The advantages, problems and the recent developments of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are presented. At first, the advantages of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are described. Next, the problems needed to solve for practical use are presented. The recent applications of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are also reviewed.

  10. The Striking Progress of African Americans in Degree Attainments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    While the number of blacks earning bachelor's and master's degrees has risen significantly since 1985, and the number of black doctoral degrees rose 110 percent, the percentage of all degrees awarded to blacks at all levels is far lower than the black percentage of the U.S. population. Black women earn 65.7 percent of all doctorates awarded to…

  11. College Teaching as a Profession: The Doctor of Arts Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Paul L.

    The history of the Doctor of Arts (D.A.) degree and issues related to its development are briefly traced, and D.A. programs presently available and the success of degree recipients are addressed. Attention is also directed to other types of degree programs that are available, including their advantages and disadvantages, factors involved in…

  12. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  13. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2004 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 28 U.S. universities in 2004

  14. Dibaryonic degrees of freedom in Hadronic and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V.I.; Shikhalev, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The basic aim of the talk is to show that the dibaryons (independently upon the fact of existence or nonexistence of narrow dibaryons) may become one of the main ingredients and degrees of freedom in hadronic and nuclear physics. It follows straightforwardly from the new model for nuclear force, in which the intermediate-state dibaryons play the role of main carriers of strong interaction of nucleons at intermediate and short ranges in 2N, 3N and other nuclear systems. These intermediate-state dibaryons, or dressed six-quark bags in NN-scattering are strongly coupled to the initial and final NN-channels and thus they have large widths which prevent their direct experimental evidence. However the new model predicts a lot of new effects of dibaryons, which should be seen experimentally in hadronic and nuclear processes. Some of these new predictions have been already confirmed in numerous calculations made jointly in Moscow and Tuebingen university groups. We enumerate shortly here only the most interesting effects of dibaryons in hadronic and nuclear physics: (i) partial restoration of chiral symmetry in multiquark (i.e. 6q, 9q etc.) systems with the respective reduction of the scalar sigma-meson mass; (ii) enhancement of the near-threshold π 0 and π + π − , π 0 π 0 – production in pp, pd etc. collisions; explanation of the long-term ABC-puzzle; (iii) enhancement of the vector-meson and (e + e − ) production in the GeV region in pp, pd etc. collisions; (iv) large yield of cumulative mesons and other hadrons (studied experimentally by Baldin with coworkers) in p-A, d-A etc. high-energy collisions; (v) new electro-magnetic currents related intimately to the dibaryon degrees of freedom, which contribute to the all deuteron e.-m. observables, like deuteron magnetic and quadrupole moments, cross sections of photo-disintegration etc.; (vi) some novel contribution to the Coulomb energies of all nuclei (∼ 15%), which is able to explain the long-standing Nollen

  15. Germany unveils €18bn research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The German government has unveiled an ambitious plan to inject a total of €18bn into teaching and research over the next decade. The German chancellor Angela Merkel, who has a degree in physics, announced that she was releasing the funds despite concerns from her social-democrat coalition partners that financing the package could be difficult in the economic downturn.

  16. Plans for Widening Women's Educational Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Elizabeth Duncan

    This paper focuses on nonlegal plans for promoting women's educational opportunities and for overcoming institutional and psychological constraints that are discriminatory. The areas covered in this discussion include: continuing education programs; the open university and external degrees; education for "nontraditional professions"; career…

  17. Plan Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chomsky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia recibe más ayuda militar de Estados Unidos que el resto de América Latina y el Caribe unidos, y esta situación puede profundizarse con la ejecución del Plan Colombia, fundamentado en la lucha antidrogas. Sin embargo, el pais ha sido calificado con el récord en violación de derechos humanos. En este contexto se aplica la reforma económica más significativa en la década de los noventa, generando condicionantes en los procesos de integración con sus vecinos. En concordancia con el secretario de Defensa, Henry Stimson, desde los años 60 Estados Unidos estaba autorizado para controlar su propio sistema regional, mientras todos los demás intenlos serian desmantelados. La presentación ambigua de esta política del gobierno estadounidense en Colombia es cómo disociar esta guerra contra la droga y la lucha irregular contrainsurgente En Estados Unidos hay otra opinión que debe conocerse para comprender las divergencias en e! interior de dicho país. Este artículo del prestigioso profesor universitario del MU, Noam Chomsky, es un referente obligado en términos de opinión pública y académica de dimensión internacional, por el inmenso respeto que infunde tanto en América como en Europa

  18. Planning activities for ANPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Armenian NPP consists of two WWER-440, model 270 pressurized water reactors. After an earthquake in northern Armenia in December 1988 both units were shut down for safety reasons: Unit 1 in February 1988, Unit 2 in March 1989, respectively. Unit 2 was restarted in November 1995 after a number of safety upgrades. Unit 1 remains in a long-term shutdown mode. The design lifetime of Unit 2 expires in 2015. Opportunity to shutdown earlier has been discussed in the last years. In particular a statement has been issued by EC asking for an early shutdown of Unit 2 in exchange for the TACIS support in implementing the safety upgrades in a short term. Currently the safety improvement program is being successfully implemented in the framework of US DOE and TACIS assistance. At the moment the date of the permanent plant shutdown is not specified. As with many older reactors throughout the world, a decommissioning plan has not been developed for Armenian NPP at the design stage. After shutdown of ANPP in 1988-1989 the radiological characterization campaign at Unit 1 had been carried out. Recently two studies in the decommissioning area have been performed for ANPP. The first one has been carried out under the US DOE Assistance Program. The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate feasible decommissioning options for ANPP. Some critical issues related to the waste management had been specified and the near-term activities within this project will be focused on issues of waste characterization and information data base creation as an important prerequisite to manage waste safely. The model used to calculate many of the decommissioning costs was NRC CECP reprogrammed for WWER NPPs. The second study had been carried out in the framework of TACIS project 'Assistance to Energy Strategic Center'. The purpose of the study was to select the best strategy to phase-out and decommission the ANPP and evaluate conditions, implications and consequence of this decision. A

  19. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  20. Expiration of private property rights: a note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to libertarian law, upon what occasions may a person’s private property rights in goods, commodities, in himself, be alienated from him? The present paper is an attempt to wrestle with this question. We consider abandonment, punishment, salvage, misplacement, liberation of property.

  1. Measuring Direct Teaching Costs: Does an Undergraduate Business Degree Cost More to Produce than a Nonbusiness Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis

    2016-01-01

    Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…

  2. How Much Does It Cost Institutions to Produce Stem Degrees? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This AIR Data Brief breaks down the "cost per degree" estimates for 28 disciplines, including those in the STEM fields, which among the most expensive degrees to produce. The brief points to ways colleges can change their tuition structure to finance STEM degrees more affordably. This data brief is the fourth of four in the series. (See…

  3. A Study on Strategic Planning and Procurement of Medicals in Uganda’s Regional Referral Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study was an analysis of the effect of strategic planning on procurement of medicals in Uganda’s regional referral hospitals (RRH’s). Medicals were defined as essential medicines, medical devices and medical equipment. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has been carrying out strategic planning for the last 15 years via the Health Sector Strategic Plans. Their assumption was that strategic planning would translate to strategic procurement and consequently, availability of medicals in the RRH’s. However, despite the existence of these plans, there have been many complaints about expired drugs and shortages in RRH’s. For this purpose, a third variable was important because it served the role of mediation. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on perceptions of 206 respondents who were selected using simple random sampling. 8 key informant interviews were held, 2 in each RRH. 4 Focus Group Discussions were held, 1 for each RRH, and between 5 and 8 staff took part as discussants for approximately three hours. The findings suggested that strategic planning was affected by funding to approximately 34% while the relationship between funding and procurement was 35%. The direct relationship between strategic planning and procurement was 18%. However when the total causal effect was computed it turned out that strategic planning and the related variable of funding contributed 77% to procurement of medicals under the current hierarchical model where MOH is charged with development of strategic plans for the entire health sector. Since even with this contribution there were complaints, the study proposed a new model called CALF which according to a simulation, if adopted by MOH, strategic planning would contribute 87% to effectiveness in procurement of medicals. PMID:28299158

  4. A Study on Strategic Planning and Procurement of Medicals in Uganda's Regional Referral Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masembe, Ishak Kamaradi

    2016-12-31

    This study was an analysis of the effect of strategic planning on procurement of medicals in Uganda's regional referral hospitals (RRH's). Medicals were defined as essential medicines, medical devices and medical equipment. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has been carrying out strategic planning for the last 15 years via the Health Sector Strategic Plans. Their assumption was that strategic planning would translate to strategic procurement and consequently, availability of medicals in the RRH's. However, despite the existence of these plans, there have been many complaints about expired drugs and shortages in RRH's. For this purpose, a third variable was important because it served the role of mediation. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on perceptions of 206 respondents who were selected using simple random sampling. 8 key informant interviews were held, 2 in each RRH. 4 Focus Group Discussions were held, 1 for each RRH, and between 5 and 8 staff took part as discussants for approximately three hours. The findings suggested that strategic planning was affected by funding to approximately 34% while the relationship between funding and procurement was 35%. The direct relationship between strategic planning and procurement was 18%. However when the total causal effect was computed it turned out that strategic planning and the related variable of funding contributed 77% to procurement of medicals under the current hierarchical model where MOH is charged with development of strategic plans for the entire health sector. Since even with this contribution there were complaints, the study proposed a new model called CALF which according to a simulation, if adopted by MOH, strategic planning would contribute 87% to effectiveness in procurement of medicals.

  5. Exact sampling of graphs with prescribed degree correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Kevin E.; Del Genio, Charo I.; Erdős, Péter L.; Miklós, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2015-08-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit correlations between the node degrees. For instance, in social networks nodes tend to connect to nodes of similar degree and conversely, in biological and technological networks, high-degree nodes tend to be linked with low-degree nodes. Degree correlations also affect the dynamics of processes supported by a network structure, such as the spread of opinions or epidemics. The proper modelling of these systems, i.e., without uncontrolled biases, requires the sampling of networks with a specified set of constraints. We present a solution to the sampling problem when the constraints imposed are the degree correlations. In particular, we develop an exact method to construct and sample graphs with a specified joint-degree matrix, which is a matrix providing the number of edges between all the sets of nodes of a given degree, for all degrees, thus completely specifying all pairwise degree correlations, and additionally, the degree sequence itself. Our algorithm always produces independent samples without backtracking. The complexity of the graph construction algorithm is {O}({NM}) where N is the number of nodes and M is the number of edges.

  6. Competencies and skills for future Industrial Engineers defined in Spanish degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santandreu-Mascarell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper has a double purpose. First, to analyze the competencies and skills proposed as ideals for an Industrial Engineering degree and identify them in the current study plans implemented in Spanish universities. Second, to check the fit between competencies and skills described in Spanish Industrial Engineering degrees and a real business environment.Design/methodology/approach: We searched information from universities through the web www.universia.es and obtained the list of all Spanish Universities, which have been filtered one by one according to their studies about Industrial Engineering degree. In addition, to compare competencies with real business world we have used results provided from the web analysis and from a previous paper in which a qualitative methodology called grounded theory was used.Findings: On one hand, we have analyzed and identified the competencies and skills proposed as ideals for an Industrial Engineering degree in the current study plans implemented in Spanish universities: competencies as multidisciplinariety and R&D are considered in all the universities, but commercial or environment are not so popular. On the other hand we have checked the fit between competencies and skills described in Spanish Industrial Engineering degrees and a real business environment. As a result, competencies as rotation, experience, company vision and corporative strategy are in all the analyzed study plans, but competencies as shared vision, free access to information and involvement of managers do not appear in new degrees, but they are required in real business.Research limitations/implications: About the origin of information, we use official web sites belonging to Spanish public and some private universities, and corresponding schools. Some universities have not updated the information about degrees in Industrial Engineering, and they still have old plans information. Moreover, the comparison we can make between the

  7. [The importance of master's degree and doctorate degree in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Mendoza-Barrera, Germán Eduardo; Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Alcántara-Medina, Stefany; Macías-Huerta, Nain Abraham; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree that can be obtained in universities. Graduate Education Program in Medicine in Mexico is divided into 2 major categories: Medical Specialty and Master studies/Doctor of Philosophy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of master's degrees and Doctor of Philosophy in general surgery. A literature search in PubMed and Medline among others, from 1970 to 2015 with subsequent analysis of the literature reviews found. The physicians who conducted doctoral studies stand out as leaders in research, teaching and academic activities. Dual training with a doctorate medical specialty is a significant predictor for active participation in research projects within the best educational institutions. It is important to study a PhD in the education of doctors specialising in surgery, who show more training in teaching, research and development of academic activities. Currently, although there is a little proportion of students who do not finish the doctoral program, the ones who do are expected to play an important role in the future of medical scientific staff. It has been shown that most doctors with Doctor of Philosophy have wide range of career options. The importance of doctoral studies in the formation of general surgery is due to various reasons; the main one being comprehensively training physician scientists who can develop in clinical, teaching and research. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. A unique degree program for pre-pharmacy education: An undergraduate degree in pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahtab

    2018-02-01

    Within the coming decade, the demand for well-trained pharmacists is expected to only increase, especially with the aging of the United States (US) population. To help fill this growing demand, the University of California, Irvine (UCI) aims to offer a unique pre-pharmacy degree program and has developed a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences to help achieve this goal. In this commentary, we share our experience with our curriculum and highlight its features in an effort to encourage other institutions to enhance the learning experience of their pre-pharmacy students. The efforts of the UCI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences has resulted in UCI being consistently ranked as one of the top feeder institutions by the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) in recent years. The UCI Pharmaceutical Sciences Bachelor of Science offers a unique pre-pharmacy educational experience in an effort to better prepare undergraduates for the rigors of the doctorate of pharmacy curriculum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  10. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  12. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  13. Intelligent robot action planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, T; Siegler, A

    1982-01-01

    Action planning methods used in intelligent robot control are discussed. Planning is accomplished through environment understanding, environment representation, task understanding and planning, motion analysis and man-machine communication. These fields are analysed in detail. The frames of an intelligent motion planning system are presented. Graphic simulation of the robot's environment and motion is used to support the planning. 14 references.

  14. Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Herbert Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems / B. Fleischmann, H. Meyr. - In: Supply chain management / ed. by A. G. de Kok ... - Amsterdam u.a. : Elsevier, 2003. - (Handbooks in operations research and management science ; 11)

  15. Financial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Χατζηγώγου, Αρτεμις Π.

    2003-01-01

    Σκοπός της μελέτης αυτής, είναι η συγκέντρωση όλων των στοιχείων εκείνων που συνθέτουν μια οργανωμένη διαδικασία έρευνας, που είναι γνωστή ως Financial Planning. Θα μπορούσαμε εναλλακτικά να πούμε, ότι βασικά ο χρηματοοικονομικός σχεδιασμός προγραμματίζει, εξευρίσκει και χρησιμοποιεί τα κεφάλαια με τέτοιο τρόπο ώστε η συνεισφορά τους να είναι μεγαλύτερη στην αποτελεσματική λειτουργία της οικονομικής μονάδας. Παρέχει τις γνώσεις των χρηματιστικών αγορών από όπου αντλούνται τα κεφάλαια. Οδηγεί ...

  16. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  17. A study on making a long-term improvement in the national energy efficiency and GHG control plans by the AHP approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Yoon, Yong Jin; Kim, Jong Wook

    2007-01-01

    Owing to the expiration of the national 10-year period plan and the establishment of an efficient energy and resource technology R and D system, the Korean government needs to make a strategic long-term national energy and resource technology R and D plan (NERP) to cope with forthcoming 10-year period. A new NERP aims to improve the energy intensity, reduce the emissions of greenhouse gas within the United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC), and contribute to the construction of an advanced economic system. We determine the priorities in technology development for the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas control plans (EGCP), which are parts of a new NERP, by using the AHP approach for the first time. We suggest a scientific procedure to determine the priorities in technology development by using AHP

  18. Perceived Speech Privacy in Computer Simulated Open-plan Offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Claudiu B.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    In open plan offices the lack of speech privacy between the workstations is one of the major acoustic problems. Improving the speech privacy in an open plan design is therefore the main concern for a successful open plan environment. The project described in this paper aimed to find an objective...... parameter that correlates well with the perceived degree of speech privacy and to derive a clear method for evaluating the acoustic conditions in open plan offices. Acoustic measurements were carried out in an open plan office, followed by data analysis at the Acoustic Department, DTU. A computer model...

  19. Specificities of sustainable tourism planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.

  20. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Regina 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Earl A.; Schreiner, Bryan T.; Colton, Roger B.; Clayton, Lee; Bush, Charles A.; Fullerton, David S.

    2007-01-01

    For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits and materials on the basis of clast lithology or composition, matrix texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relations, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the 'Description of Map Units'. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as end moraines, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. Differentiation of sequences of fluvial and glaciofluvial deposits at this scale is not possible. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use planning, or land-management projects can be derived and from which a variety of maps relating to earth surface processes and Quaternary geologic history can be derived.

  1. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  2. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  3. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  4. Characteristics of regents college nontraditional nuclear technology degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSain, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    In 1971, the Board of Regents of The University of The State of New York created Regents College Degrees to assess academic knowledge of working adults and award college degrees based on demonstrated knowledge rather than time spent in a college classroom. It was founded on a basic premise that seemed radical to some but which is now widely accepted: What a person knows is more important than how or where that knowledge was acquired. Regents College degrees, therefore, are a different concept of a college: one that is an assessing institution rather than a teaching institution. It has no campus and offers no courses. Students can combine college credits from a variety of different sources int an accredited degree program. Staff and faculty evaluate that credit according to the requirements of the particular degree program. When all requirements are met, the Board or Regents of The University of The State of New York confers the degree

  5. Does a bachelor’s degree pay off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, Martin; Weiss, Felix

    Academic education is generally rewarded by employers, but what happens to graduates if they are trained for two years less and have to compete with vocationally trained labor market entrants in a similar field of study? Focusing on Germany, we analyze labor market entries of individuals eligible...... for higher education, who either opted for newly introduced short bachelor’s degrees, or for well-established vocational degrees. Based on Microcensus data, we find that bachelor’s degrees from classical universities are associated with higher earnings and more prestigious jobs than initial vocational...... training degrees, and with higher prestige (but similar earnings) than further vocational degrees. However, bachelor’s degrees from universities are also related to higher risks of unemployment or fixed-term employment. Universities of applied sciences, which combine academic and practical training, offer...

  6. Trade study plan for Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-07-01

    This TA 1 document describes the trade study plan (with support from TA 2) that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The analysis uses information derived in the TA 2 study as identified within the study plan. In view of this, for convenience, the TA 2 study plan is included as an appendix to this document.

  7. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  8. Requirements of British universities for higher medical degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the requirements and opportunities for obtaining a doctor of medicine or master of surgery degree from a university in the United Kingdom other than the graduate's own, particularly in the case of foreign graduates. DESIGN--Review of regulations governing the award of doctor of medicine and master of surgery degrees in British universities. SETTING--All 19 universities in the United Kingdom offering clinical courses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Availability of degrees to gradu...

  9. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  10. A quantitative reading of competences documents of Law new degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Leví Orta, Genoveva del Carmen; Ramos Méndez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Documents formulating competences of degrees are key sources for analysis, evaluation and profile comparison of training, currently offered by different university degrees. This work aims to make a quantitative reading of competences documents of Law degree from various Spanish universities, based on the ideas of Content Analysis. The methodology has two phases. Firstly, a dictionary of concepts related to the components of competences is identified in the documentary corpus. Next, the corpus...

  11. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  12. Families of Smooth Rational Curves of Small Degree on the Fano Variety of Degree 5 of Main Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Omelkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider some families of smooth rational curves of degree 2, 3 and 4 on a smooth Fano threefold X which is a linear section of the Grassmanian G(1, 4 under the Pl¨ucker embedding. We prove that these families are irreducible. The proof of the irreducibility of the families of curves of degree d is based on the study of degeneration of a rational curve of degree d into a curve which decomposes into an irreducible rational curve of degree d−1 and a projective line intersecting transversally at a point. We prove that the Hilbert scheme of curves of degree d on X is smooth at the point corresponding to such a reducible curve. Then calculations in the framework of deformation theory show that such a curve varies into a smooth rational curve of degree d. Thus, the set of reducible curves of degree d of the above type lies in the closure of a unique component of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on X. From this fact and the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on the Grassmannian G(1, 4 one deduces the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on a general Fano threefold X.

  13. Education evolution: a historical perspective of associate degree nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini-Hain, Liana; Waters, Verle

    2009-05-01

    Exploring the inception and growth of associate degree nursing education informs our understanding of what led to such explosive growth so that most of the nursing workforce is currently educated at the associate degree level. The success of associate degree nursing programs led to many divisive years in nursing education of differentiation of practice debates that were hardly productive. Work world practices and patient needs are creating pressures on community colleges to join forces with universities to increase the percentage of baccalaureate-educated nurses. Associate degree nursing education continues to evolve to meet the demands of a higher educated nursing workforce.

  14. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  15. 11. Strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  16. Can the collection of expired long-lasting insecticidal nets reduce their coverage and use? Sociocultural aspects related to LLIN life cycle management and use in four districts in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Ambinina; Wilson-Barthes, Marta; Rahenintsoa, Rindra; Hoibak, Sarah; Ranaivoharimina, Harilala; Rahelimalala, Martha Delphine; Rakotomanga, Avotiana; Finlay, Alyssa; Muela Ribera, Joan; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2017-10-10

    There is growing awareness of the likely impact increased numbers of LLINs will have on the environment, if not disposed of or recycled appropriately. As part of a World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) pilot study to assess environmentally-sound and cost-effective LLIN recycling strategies, the USAID-Deliver Project collected 22,559 used bed nets in Madagascar. A social science study was conducted to provide data on socio-cultural factors related to collection and replacement of LLINs, including impact on primary and other net uses. Ethnographic exploratory research was carried out following the pilot USAID-Deliver net collection and recycling campaign in Betioky, Tsihombe, Fenerive Est and Ambanja districts of Madagascar, triangulating participant observation, interviewing and group discussions. Sampling was theoretical and data analysis was a continuous and iterative process concurrent to data collection. Final analysis was conducted using NVivo10. The following themes emerged as contributing to the success of collecting expired LLINs in the community for recycling purposes: (i) net adequacy and preference: characteristic differences between collected and newly distributed nets lead to communities' reticence to relinquish old nets before confirming new nets were appropriate for intended use. Where newly distributed nets failed to meet local requirements, this was expected to increase alternative uses and decrease household turn over. (ii) Net collection strategies: the net collection campaign brought net use out of the private sphere and into the public arena. Net owners reported feeling ashamed when presenting damaged nets in public for collection, leading to reduced net relinquishment. (iii) Net lifecycle: communities perceived nets as being individually owned and economic value was attributed both to good-condition nets for sleeping and to worn nets for alternative/secondary purposes. Collecting nets at the stage of

  17. [Public health competencies and contents in pharmacy degree programs in Spanish universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Bosch, Félix

    2015-01-01

    To identify public health core competencies and contents in pharmacy degrees at a meeting of public health lecturers in pharmacy degrees from various public and private universities. The first Meeting of the Forum of University Teaching Staff in Pharmacy Degrees was held at the Faculty of Medicine in the Complutense University, Madrid, Spain on the 19(th) and 20(th) of November 2013. The meeting was attended by 17 lecturers. Participants brought their own teaching programs and were given two previous studies on public health competencies for analysis of public health contents and competencies in pharmacy degrees. Working groups were formed and the results were shared. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the following functions: "Assessment of the population's health needs" and "Developing health policies". The final program included basic contents organized into 8 units: Concept of Public Health, Demography, Epidemiological Method, Environment and Health, Food Safety, Epidemiology of Major Health Problems, Health Promotion and Education, and Health Planning and Management. Representation of almost all the Spanish Pharmacy Faculties and the consensus reached in the description of competences and program contents will greatly improve the quality of teaching in this area. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The design concept of the 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker at ESTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, P. W.; Kretz, D.

    1992-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has decided to extend its test facilities at the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) at Noordwijk, The Netherlands, by implementing a 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker. This shaker will permit vibration testing of large payloads in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. Conventional single axis sine and random vibration modes can be applied without the need for a configuration change of the test set-up for vertical and lateral excitations. Transients occurring during launch and/or landing of space vehicles can be accurately simulated in 6-degrees-of-freedom. The performance requirements of the shaker are outlined and the results of the various trade-offs, which are investigated during the initial phase of the design and engineering program are provided. Finally, the resulting baseline concept and the anticipated implementation plan of the new test facility are presented.

  19. Availability and Perceived Value of Masters of Business Administration Degree Programs in Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Kevin A.; Latif, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists’ perceptions regarding them. Methods. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists’ perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy. Results. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%). Conclusion. An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market. PMID:22611273

  20. Availability and perceived value of masters of business administration degree programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A

    2012-05-10

    To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists' perceptions regarding them. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists' perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%). An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market.

  1. Astrometric studies of the regions BD + 17 degree 4946, BD -5 degree 3071, and Ross 730-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.; Gatewood, G.

    1975-01-01

    Positions, proper motions, and absolute parallaxes were found for 46 stars in the regions of BD +17 degree4946, BD -5 degree3071, and Ross 730-1. BD +17 degree4946 showed some evidence of irregular variations in position and magnitude. The residuals for Ross 730-1 were used in a preliminary study to test for an appropriate weighting system; a weak weighting system was indicated. (auth)

  2. Probabilistic relation between In-Degree and PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic model that explains the relation between power laws of In-Degree and PageRank. PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. We model the relation between PageRank and In-Degree through a stochastic equation, which is inspired by the

  3. Chapter 3: Crossing Boundaries--Foundation Degrees in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Derek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…

  4. Special Report: Top 100 Degree Producers. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Data on the colleges and universities producing the highest numbers of minority master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees in 1996-1997 are presented. Rankings are organized by degree level, ethnic group (African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, Native American), discipline group, and overall graduation rate. Breakouts are also…

  5. Scientific Degrees as a Status Characteristic of Russian University Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Irina Yurievna; Kryukova, Elena Mihajlovna; Zotova, Alexandra Ivanovna; Chardymskiy, Maxim Georgiyevich; Skudareva, Nelli Zinnurovna

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an assessment of the social and motivational value of scientific degrees of Russian university teachers. The author analyzes the historical experience and current trends in the transformation of the system of degrees. The paper shows the dynamics and structural characteristics of teachers with different professional and…

  6. On the Lorentz degree of a product of polynomials

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we negatively answer two questions of T. Erdélyi (1991, 2010) on possible lower bounds on the Lorentz degree of product of two polynomials. We show that the correctness of one question for degree two polynomials is a direct consequence of a result of Barnard et al. (1991) on polynomials with nonnegative coefficients.

  7. Should 360-Degree Feedback Be Used Only for Developmental Purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, David W.; Dalton, Maxine A.; Jako, Robert A.; McCauley, Cynthia D.; Pollman, Victoria A.

    This booklet presents five papers that address the issue of whether 360-degree feedback (in which a manager or executive receives feedback on how bosses, peers, and direct reports see him or her) should be used only for development, or whether 360-degree feedback (also known as multi-rater feedback) should be used for administrative purposes such…

  8. Joint degrees and engaging with a Europe of Knowledge: lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study of staff perspectives and quality assurance assessment of joint degrees offers insights into the challenges and the lessons that can be learned and the lived reality of this type of international curriculum development from the practitioner perspective. Keywords: international joint degrees, international ...

  9. On the estimation of the degree of regression polynomial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Cs.

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical functions most commonly used to model curvature in plots are polynomials. Generally, the higher the degree of the polynomial, the more complex is the trend that its graph can represent. We propose a new statistical-graphical approach based on the discrete projective transformation (DPT) to estimating the degree of polynomial that adequately describes the trend in the plot

  10. Cross-Evaluation of Degree Programmes in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to develop and describe the benchmarking approach of enhancement-led evaluation in higher education and to present a cross-evaluation process for degree programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The benchmarking approach produces useful information for the development of degree programmes based on self-evaluation,…

  11. Shrinkage Degree in $L_{2}$ -Rescale Boosting for Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Wang, Yao; Xu, Zongben

    2017-08-01

    L 2 -rescale boosting ( L 2 -RBoosting) is a variant of L 2 -Boosting, which can essentially improve the generalization performance of L 2 -Boosting. The key feature of L 2 -RBoosting lies in introducing a shrinkage degree to rescale the ensemble estimate in each iteration. Thus, the shrinkage degree determines the performance of L 2 -RBoosting. The aim of this paper is to develop a concrete analysis concerning how to determine the shrinkage degree in L 2 -RBoosting. We propose two feasible ways to select the shrinkage degree. The first one is to parameterize the shrinkage degree and the other one is to develop a data-driven approach. After rigorously analyzing the importance of the shrinkage degree in L 2 -RBoosting, we compare the pros and cons of the proposed methods. We find that although these approaches can reach the same learning rates, the structure of the final estimator of the parameterized approach is better, which sometimes yields a better generalization capability when the number of sample is finite. With this, we recommend to parameterize the shrinkage degree of L 2 -RBoosting. We also present an adaptive parameter-selection strategy for shrinkage degree and verify its feasibility through both theoretical analysis and numerical verification. The obtained results enhance the understanding of L 2 -RBoosting and give guidance on how to use it for regression tasks.

  12. On the Lorentz degree of a product of polynomials

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we negatively answer two questions of T. Erdélyi (1991, 2010) on possible lower bounds on the Lorentz degree of product of two polynomials. We show that the correctness of one question for degree two polynomials is a direct consequence

  13. Human Service Administrator Perceptions of Online MSW Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Laura; Sanchez Mayers, Ray; Fulghum, Fontaine

    2017-01-01

    Online programs have proliferated rapidly in higher education, and this reality holds true for social work education as well. Employing a mixed methods design, this study looked at employer perceptions of online degrees compared to traditional degrees. Data was collected through an online survey that included Likert type and open-ended questions…

  14. Linear analysis of degree correlations in complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many real-world networks such as the protein–protein interaction networks and metabolic networks often display nontrivial correlations between degrees of vertices connected by edges. Here, we analyse the statistical methods used usually to describe the degree correlation in the networks, and analytically give linear ...

  15. Linear analysis of degree correlations in complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... 4College of Science, Qi Lu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, Shandong, China ... cal methods used usually to describe the degree correlation in the ... Most social networks show assorta- .... a clear but only qualitative description of the degree ... is difficult to give quantitative relation between DCC.

  16. The degree distribution of fixed act-size collaboration networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we investigate a special evolving model of collaboration net-works, where the act-size is fixed. Based on the first-passage probability of Markov chain theory, this paper provides a rigorous proof for the existence of a limiting degree distribution of this model and proves that the degree distribution obeys the ...

  17. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  18. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  19. Method of measuring the degree of fluid pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, A.; Hammer, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to an method and device for measuring the degree of pollution from particulates in fluids. The device consists of an emitter sending out green and red light in succession through the fluid to a light recorder. The recorder itself includes a unit designed for comparing the measured intensity of light with the values of known pollution degree in fluids. 2 figs

  20. Foundation Degree Learning: An Educational Journey of Personal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Helena; Brown, David; Portlock, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The foundation degree is an intermediate-level qualification designed to widen participation in higher education while providing work-related skills and knowledge. It has a vocational focus and a pedagogic approach that integrates academic and work-based learning. Research into opportunities and the process of learning within foundation degrees is…

  1. The Design of an Undergraduate Degree Program in Computer & Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Champlain College formally started an undergraduate degree program in Computer & Digital Forensics in 2003. The underlying goals were that the program be multidisciplinary, bringing together the law, computer technology, and the basics of digital investigations; would be available as on online and on-campus offering; and would have a process-oriented focus. Success of this program has largely been due to working closely with practitioners, maintaining activity in events related to both industry and academia, and flexibility to respond to ever-changing needs. This paper provides an overview of how this program was conceived, developed, and implemented; its evolution over time; and current and planned initiatives.

  2. Where are the black-hole entropy degrees of freedom?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Saurya; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the area proportionality of black-hole entropy (the 'area law') from an underlying fundamental theory has been one of the goals of all models of quantum gravity. A key question that one asks is: where are the degrees of freedom giving rise to black-hole entropy located? Taking the point of view that entanglement between field degrees of freedom inside and outside the horizon can be a source of this entropy, we show that when the field is in its ground state, the degrees of freedom near the horizon contribute most to the entropy, and the area law is obeyed. However, when it is in an excited state, degrees of freedom far from the horizon contribute more significantly, and deviations from the area law are observed. In other words, we demonstrate that horizon degrees of freedom are responsible for the area law

  3. Comparison of two-stage thermophilic (68 degrees C/55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion with one-stage thermophilic (55 degrees C) digestion of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Westermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage 68degreesC/55degreesC anaerobic degradation process for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, an increase of the specific methane yield, ranging from 24% to 56%, was obtained when cattle manure and its fractions (fibers and liquid) were pretreated at 68degrees......, was compared with a conventional single-stage reactor running at 55degreesC with 15-days HRT. When an organic loading of 3 g volatile solids (VS) per liter per day was applied, the two-stage setup had a 6% to 8% higher specific methane yield and a 9% more effective VS-removal than the conventional single......-stage reactor. The 68degreesC reactor generated 7% to 9% of the total amount of methane of the two-stage system and maintained a volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of 4.0 to 4.4 g acetate per liter. Population size and activity of aceticlastic methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, and hydrolytic...

  4. Time to Degree: A National View of the Time Enrolled and Elapsed for Associate and Bachelor's Degree Earners. (Signature Report No. 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Wakhungu, Phoebe Khasiala; Yuan, Xin; Nathan, Angel; Hwang, Youngsik

    2016-01-01

    This report examines time to degree completion for a cohort of students who earned an associate degree as their first and only postsecondary degree or a bachelor's degree as their first four-year degree between July 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Overall, the average time enrolled for associate and bachelor's degree earners was 3.3 years and 5.1…

  5. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  6. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Material Recycling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA- 60 Material Recycling Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Material Recycling Facility. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  7. Conditional Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) offers a solid foundation for automated planning under partial observability and non-determinism. Under such circumstances, a plan must branch if it is to guarantee achieving the goal under all contingencies (strong planning). Without...... branching, plans can offer only the possibility of achieving the goal (weak planning). We show how to formulate planning in uncertain domains using DEL and give a language of conditional plans. Translating this language to standard DEL gives verification of both strong and weak plans via model checking....... In addition to plan verification, we provide a tableau-inspired algorithm for synthesising plans, and show this algorithm to be terminating, sound and complete....

  8. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  9. Is That Graduate Degree Worth It? Comparing the Recruitment of Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Job Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.

    2001-12-01

    One could argue from a business prospective that colleges and universities are not working hard enough to train students for life in the business and civic world, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. What is it that employers are looking for in students? How different are the skills and attributes employers are looking for between undergraduate and graduate students? How unique are the geosciences in this respect? At the undergraduate level recruiters have spoken loud and clear about what they want. According to the dean of the business school here at the University of Arizona, recruiters at the undergraduate degree level in business base less than half of their hiring decision on specific content knowledge in the discipline, and correspondingly more than half on the so-called soft skills ... ability to apply knowledge in new situations, ability to think critically, ability to communicate with others in both written and oral forms, ability to work in teams, ability to work with a diverse set of employees and customers (especially, but not limited to, the global job market), etc. How true is this at the graduate level, where students have typically spent 4-6 years specializing in a discipline? Is there a set of fundamental knowledge that employers are looking for at the graduate level? Are the so-called soft skills correspondingly less important? I will present results from a survey of graduate programs and industry recruiters addressing these questions, and highlight the areas of overlap and difference between undergraduates and graduates looking for jobs. I will concentrate specifically on jobs in the oil industry and on both masters and Ph.D. programs.

  10. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Farrand, William R.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the map unit descriptions. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of

  11. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2009 & 2010 Surveys of Physics & Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census from October through February of all departments that offer degrees in astronomy (78) in the United States. Astronomy departments consist of stand-alone degree-granting departments (39) and departments that are administered along with a physics program…

  12. Data on ground-water quality for the Lovelock 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater has been compiled for the Lovelock 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of western Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area are also presented in a table. (USGS)

  13. Maintaining quality control in a nontraditional nuclear technology degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSain, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Regents College, created by the Board of Regents of the University of The State on New York in 1971, has been offering, since January 1985, AS and BS degrees in nuclear technology. The impetus for establishing the nuclear technology degrees came from nuclear utility management and had to do with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed rule regarding degreed operators on shift. There are a variety of ways to earn credits in Regents College degree programs: (1) college courses taken for degree-level credit from regionally accredited colleges; (2) courses sponsored by business, industry, or government that have been evaluated and recommended for credit by the New York National or American Council on Education (ACE's) Program on Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI); (3) military education that has been evaluated by ACE PONSI; (4) approved college-proficiency examinations; and (5) special assessment: an individualized examination of college-level knowledge gained from experience or independent study. Nuclear technology students primarily use college course work, evaluated military education, and proficiency examinations to complete degree programs. However, an increasing number of utilities are having training programs PONSI evaluated, resulting in an increased use of these courses in the nuclear technology degrees. Quality control is a function of several factors described in the paper

  14. Maximizing the Spread of Influence via Generalized Degree Discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Chengli; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    It is a crucial and fundamental issue to identify a small subset of influential spreaders that can control the spreading process in networks. In previous studies, a degree-based heuristic called DegreeDiscount has been shown to effectively identify multiple influential spreaders and has severed as a benchmark method. However, the basic assumption of DegreeDiscount is not adequate, because it treats all the nodes equally without any differences. To consider a general situation in real world networks, a novel heuristic method named GeneralizedDegreeDiscount is proposed in this paper as an effective extension of original method. In our method, the status of a node is defined as a probability of not being influenced by any of its neighbors, and an index generalized discounted degree of one node is presented to measure the expected number of nodes it can influence. Then the spreaders are selected sequentially upon its generalized discounted degree in current network. Empirical experiments are conducted on four real networks, and the results show that the spreaders identified by our approach are more influential than several benchmark methods. Finally, we analyze the relationship between our method and three common degree-based methods.

  15. Optimization approaches for robot trajectory planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of optimal trajectory planning algorithms for autonomous robots is a key issue in order to efficiently perform the robot tasks. This problem is hampered by the complex environment regarding the kinematics and dynamics of robots with several arms and/or degrees of freedom (dof, the design of collision-free trajectories and the physical limitations of the robots. This paper presents a review about the existing robot motion planning techniques and discusses their pros and cons regarding completeness, optimality, efficiency, accuracy, smoothness, stability, safety and scalability.

  16. Computer aided planning of open cast coal. Planificacion informatizada cielo abierto carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Ester, J.L.; San Miguel, J.M. (Hullera Vasco Leonesa, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the planning, highly automated, and obtaining the functions relating costs with ashes and ratios, allowing to select the best working. It is remarkable for its versatility for manual design studies and the high degree of automatism reached in Planning and the getting of results oriented toward the Annual Plan definition and decision making in the future exploitation.

  17. 36 CFR 228.4 - Plan of operations-notice of intent-requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet the requirements for environmental protection in § 228.8. (d) The plan of operations shall cover... disturbance not covered by the initial plan. (e) At any time during operations under an approved plan of...), resulting in varying degrees of disturbance to vegetative resources, soil, water, air, or wildlife. The...

  18. Hanford Site Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Plan (HWMP) was prepared in accordance with the outline and format described in the US Department of Energy Orders. The HWMP presents the actions, schedules, and projected costs associated with the management and disposal of Hanford defense wastes, both radioactive and hazardous. The HWMP addresses the Waste Management Program. It does not include the Environmental Restoration Program, itself divided into the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program and the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. The executive summary provides the basis for the plans, schedules, and costs within the scope of the Waste Management Program at Hanford. It summarizes fiscal year (FY) 1988 including the principal issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished. It further provides a forecast of FY 1989 including significant milestones. Section 1 provides general information for the Hanford Site including the organization and administration associated with the Waste Management Program and a description of the Site focusing on waste management operations. Section 2 and Section 3 describe radioactive and mixed waste management operations and hazardous waste management, respectively. Each section includes descriptions of the waste management systems and facilities, the characteristics of the wastes managed, and a discussion of the future direction of operations

  19. The master degree: A critical transition in STEM doctoral education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sheila Edwards

    The need to broaden participation in the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate and graduate programs is currently a matter of national urgency. The small number of women and underrepresented minorities (URM) earning doctoral degrees in STEM is particularly troubling given significant increases in the number of students earning master's degrees since 1990. In the decade between 1990 and 2000, the total number of master's recipients increased by 42%. During this same time period, the number of women earning master's degrees increased by 56%, African Americans increased by 132%, American Indians by 101%, Hispanics by 146%, and Asian Americans by 117% (Syverson, 2003). Growth in underrepresented group education at the master's level raises questions about the relationship between master's and doctoral education. Secondary data analysis of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) was used to examine institutional pathways to the doctorate in STEM disciplines and transitions from master's to doctoral programs by race and gender. While the study revealed no significant gender differences in pathways, compared to White and Asian American students, URM students take significantly different pathways to the doctorate. URM students are significantly more likely to earn the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees at three different institutions. Their path is significantly more likely to include earning a master's degree en route to the doctorate. Further, URM students are more likely to experience transition between the master's and doctoral degrees, and the transitions are not limited to those who earn master's degrees at master's-only institutions. These findings suggest that earning a master's degree is more often a stepping stone to the doctorate for URM students. Master's degree programs, therefore, have the potential to be a valuable resource for policymakers and graduate programs seeking to increase the diversity of URM students

  20. Protograph LDPC Codes with Node Degrees at Least 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present protograph codes with a small number of degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. The iterative decoding threshold for proposed rate 1/2 codes are lower, by about 0.2 dB, than the best known irregular LDPC codes with degree at least 3. The main motivation is to gain linear minimum distance to achieve low error floor. Also to construct rate-compatible protograph-based LDPC codes for fixed block length that simultaneously achieves low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance. We start with a rate 1/2 protograph LDPC code with degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. Higher rate codes are obtained by connecting check nodes with degree-2 non-transmitted nodes. This is equivalent to constraint combining in the protograph. The condition where all constraints are combined corresponds to the highest rate code. This constraint must be connected to nodes of degree at least three for the graph to have linear minimum distance. Thus having node degree at least 3 for rate 1/2 guarantees linear minimum distance property to be preserved for higher rates. Through examples we show that the iterative decoding threshold as low as 0.544 dB can be achieved for small protographs with node degrees at least three. A family of low- to high-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  1. Effects of degree correlation on scale-free gradient networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Guijun; Yan Xiaoqing; Ma Weichuan; Luo Yihui; Huang Zhongbing

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the effects of degree correlation on congestion pressure in scale-free gradient networks. It is observed that the jamming coefficient J is insensitive to the degree correlation coefficient r for assortative and strongly disassortative scale-free networks, and J markedly decreases with an increase in r for weakly disassortative scale-free networks. We have also investigated the effects of degree correlation on the topology structure of scale-free gradient networks, and discussed the relation between the topology structure properties and transport efficiency of gradient networks.

  2. Venus gravity and topography: 60th degree and order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Borderies, N. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Christensen, E. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Williams, B. G.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic topography model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus topography relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.

  3. Introducing Modified Degree 4 Chordal Rings with Two Chord Lengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of modified degree 4 Chordal Rings with two chord lengths named CHRm is presented and compared to similar topologies: Chordal Rings, N2R and modified N2R. Formulas for approximating diameters and average path lengths are provided and verified, and it is shown...... that the distances in CHRm are significantly smaller than in traditional Chordal Rings and N2R, and also smaller than modified N2R for topologies with up to 1500 nodes. Despite the proposed CHRm being of degree 4, and the modified N2R of degree 3, CHRm may be better suited for the optical level of fiber rings, due...

  4. 1-Colored Archetypal Permutations and Strings of Degree n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Eduard Tara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New notions related to permutations are introduced here. We present the string of a 1-colored permutation as a closed planar curve, the fundamental 1-colored permutation as an equivalence class related to the equivalence in strings of the 1-colored permutations. We give formulas for the number of the 1-colored archetypal permutations of degree n. We establish an algorithm to identify the 1- colored archetypal permutations of degree n and we present the atlas of the 1-colored archetypal strings of degree n, n ≤ 7, based on this algorithm.

  5. Inversion degree and saturation magnetization of different nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concas, G.; Spano, G.; Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Peddis, D.; Piccaluga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The inversion degree of a series of nanocrystalline samples of CoFe 2 O 4 ferrites has been evaluated by a combined study, which exploits the saturation magnetization at 4.2 K and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples, prepared by sol-gel autocombustion, have different thermal history and particle size. The differences observed in the saturation magnetization of these samples are explained in terms of different inversion degrees, as confirmed by the analysis of the components in the Moessbauer spectra. It is notable that the inversion degrees of the samples investigated are set among the highest values reported in the literature.

  6. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel

  7. Choroidal thickness in eyes with different degrees of myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Sergeyevich Astakhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 66 healthy people (124 eyes with different degrees of myopia and emmetropia were examined using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT using the “Spectralis OCT”. It was found that the choroid in subjects with medium and high degrees of myopia was significantly thinner than that in the control group. In the study, a negative correlation was found between the subfoveal choroidal thickness and the degree of myopia (r = -0.75, p < 0.0001. It was also found that the subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased for each diopter of myopia by approximately 18.03 μm.

  8. Radioactive waste management plan. Plan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The report is the first account of the nuclear power utilities of Sweden about the plans for the final disposal of the radioactive waste products of the nuclear power. Part 1 describes the general background, the plans for research and development, including the necessary facilities. The time schedule and the calculated costs of the operations are presented. (G.B.)

  9. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  10. Changed planning for planned and unplanned change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.; Aarts, N.; Herzele, Van A.

    2011-01-01

    Change, planned and unplanned, can be the product of events (change by chance), new language (change from societal interaction), and practices (track-bound change), and can involve many different societal actors. To position planning as an activity within this broader context, we present a model

  11. [Consumer satisfaction study in philanthropic hospital health plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschman, Silvia; Veiga, Luciana; Guimarães, César; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of research aimed at identifying and analyzing the argumentation and rationale that justify the satisfaction of consumers with their health plans. The qualitative method applied used the focus group technique, for which the following aspects were defined: the criteria for choosing the health plans which were considered, the composition of the group and its distribution, recruitment strategy, and infrastructure and dynamics of the meetings. The health plan beneficiaries were classified into groups according to their social class, the place where they lived, mainly, the relationship that they established with the health plan operators which enabled us to develop a typology for the plan beneficiaries. Initially, we indicated how the health plan beneficiaries assess and use the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), and, then, considering the types of plans defined, we evaluated their degree of satisfaction with the different aspects of health care, and identified which aspects mostly contributed explain their satisfaction.

  12. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  13. Coral Reef Watch, Degree Heating Weeks, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch distributes Degree Heating Week products using a combination of the POES AVHRR Global Area Coverage data, and data from a climatological...

  14. Brief 66 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, Larry M.

    2010-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009, and fall 2009 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2009, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  15. An alternative method to specify the degree of resonator stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Degree of optical stability; parameter; misalignment tolerance. ... The value of zero corresponds to marginally stable resonator and < 0 corresponds ... 452 013, India; School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 134, India ...

  16. Change in Annual Heating and Cooling Degree Days by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This service show changes in heating and cooling degree days by state in the US. Both layers in this service were created by comparing the first 60 years of...

  17. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Husdal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure, and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure and the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a “cross-over” temperature of 214 MeV, where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  18. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2007 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2008-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2006, and August 1, 2007, and fall 2007 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2007, and data was obtained for all thirty-one

  19. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007, and August 31, 2008, and fall 2008 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2008, and data was provided by all thirty-one programs

  20. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007 and August 31, 2008. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2008. Twenty-six academic programs were included in the survey universe, and all 26 programs provided data

  1. What Is the Tech Prep/Associate Degree Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the nature, importance, and future of the Tech Prep/Associate Degree program. Suggests that these programs must move beyond simple articulation and become aggressive in jointly examining, developing, and sustaining high quality educational programs. (JOW)

  2. Dual degree partnership in nursing: an innovative undergraduate educational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastable, Susan B; Markowitz, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    We report the success of a unique articulation Dual Degree Partnership in Nursing (DDPN) model. The process used to establish and implement this approach is described. Unlike typical 2+2 agreements between associate degree (AD) and bachelor degree (BS) nursing education programs, the DDPN is designed with a 1+2+1 sequence. Intended to attract high school students, this model provides the opportunity to earn two degrees (AD and BS) while experiencing a 4-year campus living and learning environment. This configuration was accomplished without compromising the integrity of either of the established programs. After collecting data over the past 6 years, this model demonstrates popularity with the traditional-aged student, as well as success from an academic perspective. Statistics on retention, graduation, and NCLEX® pass rates indicate the feasibility and success of the model. Based on the findings, the potential for replication is promising for other colleges interested in a similar collaboration. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Maiorana-McFarland class: Degree optimization and algebraic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasalic, Enes

    2006-01-01

    degree of functions in the extended Maiorana-McFarland (MM) class (nonlinear resilient functions F : GF (2)(n) -> GF (2)(m) derived from linear codes). We also show that in the Boolean case, the same subclass seems not to have an optimized algebraic immunity, hence not providing a maximum resistance......In this paper, we consider a subclass of the Maiorana-McFarland class used in the design of resilient nonlinear Boolean functions. We show that these functions allow a simple modification so that resilient Boolean functions of maximum algebraic degree may be generated instead of suboptimized degree...... in the original class. Preserving a high-nonlinearity value immanent to the original construction method, together with the degree optimization gives in many cases functions with cryptographic properties superior to all previously known construction methods. This approach is then used to increase the algebraic...

  4. Mixed-Degree Spherical Simplex-Radial Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional low degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filters often generate low filtering accuracy or even diverge for handling highly nonlinear systems. The high-degree Kalman filters can improve filtering accuracy at the cost of increasing computational complexity; nevertheless their stability will be influenced by the negative weights existing in the high-dimensional systems. To efficiently improve filtering accuracy and stability, a novel mixed-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (MSSRCKF is proposed in this paper. The accuracy analysis shows that the true posterior mean and covariance calculated by the proposed MSSRCKF can agree accurately with the third-order moment and the second-order moment, respectively. Simulation results show that, in comparison with the conventional spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filters that are based on the same degrees, the proposed MSSRCKF can perform superior results from the aspects of filtering accuracy and computational complexity.

  5. Scholarship in nursing: Degree-prepared nurses versus diploma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lizeth Roets

    tion (critical thinking), the scholarship of application (knowl- ... degree-qualified nurses have stronger leadership skills; they are more creative, critical .... Ethical considerations ..... so that research do not imply taking well educated people away.

  6. Marketing and Retention Strategies for Adult Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joann A.

    2004-01-01

    Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing, knowing your students (research), shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course (retention).

  7. USNY college degrees: three successful collaborations to fulfill NRC requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley-Walker, L.; DeSain, G.

    1986-01-01

    Within the last few years, an evident need has surfaced in the nuclear industry regarding the necessity for degreed individuals on shift. While nuclear utility management has attempted to accommodate this direction in a variety of ways, none is as unique as the collaborative model developed by the University of the State of New York (USNY) Regents College Degrees (RCDs). This paper reviews USNY's collaborative efforts to provide degree programs for senior reactor operators to utilities and presents three models for degree completion used at Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, New York Power Authority, and Pacific Gas and Electric. Several other utilities are utilizing the collaboration model, and while these are not discussed in detail, information about their progress is available

  8. Planning for information systems

    CERN Document Server

    King, William R

    2015-01-01

    Edited by one of the best-known and most widely respected figures in the field, ""Planning for Information Systems"" is a comprehensive, single source overview of the myriad ideas and processes that are identified with IS planning. While many chapters deal with high level strategic planning, the book gives equal attention to on-the-ground planning issues.Part I, 'Key Concepts of IS Planning', focuses on how IS planning has evolved over the years; business-IS strategic alignment; and the role of dynamic organizational capabilities in leveraging IS competencies. Part II, 'The Organizational IS P

  9. The nuclear emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Menendez, M. J.; Gasco Leonarte, L.; Granada Ferrero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning of the response to emergencies in nuclear plants is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN). This basic Plan is the guidelines for drawing up, implementing and maintaining the effectiveness of the nuclear power plant exterior nuclear emergency plans. The five exterior emergency plans approved as per PLABEN (PENGUA, PENCA, PENBU, PENTA and PENVA) place special emphasis on the preventive issues of emergency planning, such as implementation of advance information programs to the population, as well as on training exercises and drills. (Author)

  10. Plan de Marketing: agencia de viajes

    OpenAIRE

    ÁLVARO PÉREZ, MARÍA PILAR

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Nowadays, a lot of little local travel agencies had lost a lot of clients due to the economic crisis, new competitors and digital obsolescence. The objective of this dissertation is to elaborate a marketing plan, basically digital, to help little companies to solve the problem. Another objective is to reflect the knowledge that has been learned in the Business Management Degree. The analysed company is fictitious, a little travel agency located in Valencia, but it reflects the reali...

  11. Cooling hyperthermic firefighters by immersing forearms and hands in 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Jamieson, Christopher; Cahill, Farrell

    2007-06-01

    Firefighters experience significant heat stress while working with heavy gear in a hot, humid environment. This study compared the cooling effectiveness of immersing the forearms and hands in 10 and 20 degrees C water. Six men (33 +/- 10 yr; 180 +/- 4 cm; 78 +/- 9 kg; 19 +/- 5% body fat) wore firefighter 'turn-out gear' (heavy clothing and breathing apparatus weighing 27 kg) in a protocol including three 20-min exercise bouts (step test, 78 W, 40 degrees C air, 40% RH) each followed by a 20-min rest/cooling (21 degrees C air); i.e., 60 min of exercise, 60 min of cooling. Turn-out gear was removed during rest/cooling periods and subjects either rested (Control), immersed their hands in 10 or 20 degrees C water (H-10, H-20), or immersed their hands and forearms in 10 or 20 degrees C water (HF-10, HF-20). In 20 degrees C water, hand immersion did not reduce core temperature compared with Control; however, including forearm immersion decreased core temperature below Control values after both the second and final exercise periods (p hand immersion produced a lower core temperature (0.8 degrees C above baseline) than all other conditions (1.1 to 1.4 degrees C above baseline) after the final exercise period (p Hand and forearm immersion in cool water is simple, reduces heat strain, and may increase work performance in a hot, humid environment. With 20 degrees C water, forearms should be immersed with the hands to be effective. At lower water temperatures, forearm and/or hand immersion will be effective, although forearm immersion will decrease core temperature further.

  12. Evaluation of Plan Implementation: Peri-urban Development and the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuan He

    2015-01-01

    guided by the Plan 1999. It is not surprising that plans are left behind in the context of such unprecedented growth, but the pilot programmes and the key projects proposed in the Plan 1999 were implemented with a high level of conformance. However, the Plan 1999 performed differently in local urban projects, with varying degrees of project conformity, development process and development timing. Second, there was variation in the delivery of the main objectives to the subsequent urban plans, the consistency between the Plan 1999 and the related sector plans, the ways of interaction between involved actors and their reactions to the plan, and the methods of land development. Overall, the Plan 1999 performed better in the case of North Jinqiao Export Processing Zone because the governments (at both national and municipal levels intervened more in the development process, compared with the case of Xinmin Development Area. The performance of the plan is closely related to the level of conformity between the plan and the actual development. Therefore, although the conformance-based and performance-based approaches to implementation can be separated conceptually, they are very interconnected in practice. Third, the urban planning system in Shanghai has experienced a structural reorganization in terms of the system of plans, the involved actors and the planning instruments since the late 1980s. But the emphasis on the rational technocratic process used in the 1960s in the western society is still predominant in the planning system in Shanghai. Aside from the demanding urban growth, the other reason of non-conformance between the actual peri-urban development and the Plan 1999 and bad performance of the Plan 1999 in local projects is a big gap between the seemingly rational operation of the urban planning system and the reality of external challenges. The current planning system lacks proper coordination with the external challenges, such as insufficient investigation of the

  13. g-boson degree of freedom in vibrational regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yaomin

    1991-01-01

    The g-boson degree of freedom in the vibrational regions is discussed in term of the energies and the electromagnetic transitions. Several closed expressions for the rates of M1, E2 transitions and the E2, M1 mixing ratios are obtained. Some survey is made and it reveals it is meaningful to investigate the g-boson degree of freedom in those regions

  14. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  15. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2002 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2003-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between July 1, 2001 and June 30, 2002. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2002. Thirty-six academic programs at 35 different institutions were in the survey universe and all responded (100% response rate). Several of these programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Five programs included in the 2001 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2002 survey

  17. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2003 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2004-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2003. Thirty-four academic programs at 33 different institutions were included in the survey universe with all responding (100% response rate). Several of the programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Two programs included in the 2002 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2003 survey

  18. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roust Aaberg, Anne Marie; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker.......We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker....

  19. Access to Four-Year Public Colleges and Degree Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Goodman; Michael Hurwitz; Jonathan Smith

    2015-01-01

    Does access to four-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend two-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s four-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases four-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from two-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking ...

  20. Access to 4-Year Public Colleges and Degree Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Does access to 4-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend 2-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s 4-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases 4-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from 2-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking behavior sugg...

  1. What is the (Real Option) Value of a College Degree?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey R. Stokes

    2013-01-01

    The value of a college degree is often quantified as the difference in earnings between those with and without a degree. The research presented here operationalizes this idea in two important ways. First, since future income and tuition are uncertain, a contingent claims model is developed and the appropriate discount rate for valuing future earnings is, therefore, endogenized given an economy that does not permit arbitrage. Second, the model is sensitive to the valuation of the real option t...

  2. Combined 30-degree bevel up and down technique against 0-degree phaco tip for phacoemulsification surgery of hard cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi RS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajesh Subhash Joshi, Sonal Jayant Muley Department of Ophthalmology, Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India Purpose: To evaluate the effective phaco time (EPT, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE and nucleus emulsification time (NET as phaco parameters with 0- and 30-degree phaco tip. Patients and methods: This prospective, interventional and observational case series included 294 patients scheduled for cataract removal by phacoemulsification technique. Patients with nuclear cataracts of grade 4 and 5 nuclear opalescence of Lens Opacities Classification System III were included in the study. Patients were consecutively allocated to phaco chop technique with 0-degree (0-degree group, n=147 and combined bevel up and down position using 30-degree phaco tip (combined bevel up/down group, n=147. The 0-degree group had phacoemulsification with 0-degree phaco tip, while the 30-degree group had chopping of the nucleus with bevel down phaco tip and emulsification of nuclear fragments was accomplished with bevel up tip. EPT, CDE, NET and intraoperative complications were noted and compared between the groups using analysis of variance. Results: Average EPT, CDE and NET were lower in the 30-degree group than in the 0-degree group. However, no statistically significant difference was found in EPT (P=0.0733, CDE (P=0.0663 and NET (P=0.0633 between the two groups. No serious intraoperative complications were noted. The anterior chamber was maintained throughout the procedure in both groups. No patients had wound burn and miosis during the procedure. None of the patients developed bullous keratopathy, uveitis and cystoid macular edema during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Combined bevel up and down 30-degree tip can yield effective hard nucleus phacoemulsification. Bevel down tip of 30-degree helps in effective chopping and bevel up tip assists in emulsification of the nuclear fragments. Although combined bevel up and down 30

  3. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  4. INDOT Technical Training Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The study provides the background documents necessary for the development of a Technical Training Plan and makes recommendations : for the content and structure of such a plan for the District Operations, Operations, Capital Program Management, and E...

  5. DASH Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It is an eating plan that is based on research studies sponsored by ... risk of getting heart disease. The DASH eating plan Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and whole-grains Includes fat- ...

  6. TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This document has the purpose to describe the technological implementation plan in the IDEAL project.......This document has the purpose to describe the technological implementation plan in the IDEAL project....

  7. Technology Implementation Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    The Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) describes the main project results and the intended future use. The TIP is confidential.......The Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) describes the main project results and the intended future use. The TIP is confidential....

  8. Planning for Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ...

  10. Planning for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Pregnancy Home Overview Planning for Pregnancy Women Men Image Library Women Who Want to Become Pregnant Women Who Do Not Want to Become Pregnant Hugging Nutrition Physical Activity Visiting the Doctor Planning for Pregnancy Language: English ( ...

  11. Planning a pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America September 27, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Planning ahead From choosing the crib to finding a ... care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ...

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ... health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ...

  14. The Plan's the Thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Planning is the process of setting direction, priorities, and guidelines. A CASE survey of public relations professionals is described that notes the use of staff retreats and brainstorming sessions, among other techniques and strategies, that help professionals plan. (MLW)

  15. Holiday Meal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  16. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  17. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  18. Integrated transportation scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Regional land usetransportation scenario planning emerged as a planning technique in U.S. : metropolitan areas in the 1990s. Building on prior work by this research team, this study continues : to track the development and expansion of regional sc...

  19. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Planning ahead It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding ...

  20. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with ... Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with ...