WorldWideScience

Sample records for degree attainment rates

  1. Latino Students and Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jacquelyn D.; Parks, Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Latinos are the largest growing population in America, and thus, have the potential to have the greatest impact on our nation's economy. However, Latinos also graduate college at a lower rate than their counterparts. This article focuses on the various cultural, social, and financial barriers Latino students face and provides recommendations for…

  2. Adolescent Obesity and Future College Degree Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.

    2009-01-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...

  3. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.

  4. The Role of Religiosity on Postsecondary Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana; Clark, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Although previous researchers found that several individual, family, and school characteristics influenced adolescents' academic performance, religion related factors have not typically been considered for models of bachelor's degree attainment. Using longitudinal data in a national database, the authors examined the relationship between high…

  5. Factors That Contribute to Transfer and Bachelor's Degree Attainment of Low-Income Community College Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Andrea Darlene

    2016-01-01

    Transfer and bachelor's degree attainment rates of low-income community college beginners lag behind their middle- and high-income peers. As community college continues to be an affordable and accessible route to higher education, consideration should be given to how to close the gap in transfer and bachelor's degree attainment rates of low-income…

  6. The Striking Progress of African Americans in Degree Attainments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    While the number of blacks earning bachelor's and master's degrees has risen significantly since 1985, and the number of black doctoral degrees rose 110 percent, the percentage of all degrees awarded to blacks at all levels is far lower than the black percentage of the U.S. population. Black women earn 65.7 percent of all doctorates awarded to…

  7. Heterogeneous returns to U.S. college selectivity and the value of graduate degree attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Mai

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on the returns to college selectivity have mixed results, mainly due to the difficulty of controlling for selection into more-selective colleges based on unobserved ability. Moreover, researchers have not considered graduate degree attainment in the analysis of labour market returns to college selectivity. In this paper, I estimate the effect of a U.S. four-year undergraduate program’s selectivity on wages, including graduate degree attainment. I control for both observed a...

  8. Educational Attainment and Financial Satisfaction: The Changing Economic Value of a College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren Ann

    2014-01-01

    Dwindling American financial satisfaction and growing college degree attainment were revealed in national social survey data spanning more than four decades (N = 57,061). Against these backdrops, associations between being financially satisfied and having a college degree grew stronger in each decade, with the strongest association between…

  9. Income and financial aid effects on persistence and degree attainment in public colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Dowd

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the distribution of financial aid among financially dependent four-year college students and the effectiveness of different types of financial aid in promoting student persistence and timely bachelor’s degree attainment. The findings of descriptive statistical and logistic regression analyses using the NCES Beginning Postsecondary Students (1990-94 data show that subsidized loans taken in the first year of college have a positive effect on persistence. The first-year distribution of aid does not close the income gap in bachelor’s degree attainment. Living on campus and first-year grade point average are the most important predictors of timely degree completion.

  10. The Attainability of University Degrees and Their Labour Market Benefits for Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    I used data from the 1995 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth to investigate the factors associated with the attainment of Australian university degrees and estimate their domestic labour market benefits. I considered vertical and horizontal stratification in education and examined monetary and non-monetary benefits. The…

  11. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: The Case of Doctoral Degrees in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastekaasa, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Despite strong trends in most Western countries towards gender equality in educational attainments, men are still considerably more likely to obtain doctoral degrees. Using data comprising nearly all students graduating from Norwegian universities during 1981-1996, separate event history analyses are carried out of recruitment to and completion of…

  12. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  13. 40 CFR 406.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.73 Section 406.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  14. Stymied Mobility or Temporary Lull? The Puzzle of Lagging Hispanic College Degree Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Sigal; Domina, Thurston; Tienda, Marta

    2010-06-01

    We assess the intergenerational educational mobility of recent cohorts of high school graduates to consider whether Hispanics' lagging postsecondary attainment reflects a temporary lull due to immigration of low education parents or a more enduring pattern of unequal transmission of social status relative to whites. Using data from three national longitudinal studies, a recent longitudinal study of Texas high school seniors and a sample of students attending elite institutions, we track post-secondary enrollment and degree attainment patterns at institutions of differing selectivity. We find that group differences in parental education and nativity only partly explain the Hispanic-white gap in college enrollment, and not evenly over time. Both foreign- and native-born college-educated Hispanic parents are handicapped in their ability to transmit their educational advantages to their children compared with white parents. We conclude that both changing population composition and unequal ability to confer status advantages to offspring are responsible for the growing Hispanic-white degree attainment gap.

  15. 40 CFR 468.16 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT). [Reserved] 468.16 Section 468.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... application of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT). [Reserved] ...

  16. 40 CFR 406.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.12 Section 406.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  17. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.33 Section 406.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  18. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.53 Section 406.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  19. 40 CFR 414.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achievable (BAT). 414.73 Section 414.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 414.73 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 420.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achievable (BAT). 420.73 Section 420.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Subcategory § 420.73 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 410.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achievable (BAT). 410.73 Section 410.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 410.73 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. An examination of the factors related to women's degree attainment and career goals in science, technology, and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitopi, Marie

    During the last 30 years, women have made tremendous advances in educational attainment especially in post-secondary education. Despite these advances, recent researchers have revealed that women continue to remain underrepresented in attainment of graduate degrees in the sciences. The researcher's purpose in this study was to extend previous research and to develop a model of variables that significantly contribute to persistence in and attainment of a graduate degree and an eventual career in the science, mathematics, or technology professions. Data were collected from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03). Variables in the categories of demographics, academics, finances, values and attitudes toward educational experiences, and future employment were analyzed by t tests and logistic regressions to determine gender differences in graduate degree attainment and career goals by male and female who majored in science, technology and mathematics. Findings supported significant gender differences in expectations for a graduate degree, age at baccalaureate degree attainment, number of science and engineering credits taken, and the value of faculty interactions. Father's education had a significant effect on degree attainment. Women and men had similar expectations at the beginning of their educational career, but women tended to fall short of their degree expectations ten years later. A large proportion of women dropped out of the science pipeline by choosing different occupations after degree completion. Additionally, women earned fewer science and math credits than men. The professions of science and technology are crucial for the nation's economic growth and competitiveness; therefore, additional researchers should focus on retaining both men and women in the STEM professions.

  3. 40 CFR 424.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. 424.13 Section 424.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.13 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  4. 40 CFR 424.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. 424.23 Section 424.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Furnaces and Other Smelting Operations With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.23 Effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 424.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. 424.43 Section 424.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.43 Effluent limitations...

  6. 40 CFR 406.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 406.17 Section 406.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...] Effective Date Note: Section 406.17 was indefinitely suspended at 45 FR 45582, July 7, 1980. ...

  7. 40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.27 Section 406.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the... conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.22 of this subpart for the best practicable...

  8. 40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.47 Section 406.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.42 of this subpart for the...

  9. 40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.37 Section 406.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.32 of this subpart for the...

  10. Developing 20/20 Vision on the 2020 Degree Attainment Goal: The Threat of Income-Based Inequality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard

    2011-01-01

    Improving college degree attainment is essential as the United States seeks to remain economically competitive in a globalized marketplace. As the economy continues to evolve and become increasingly more complex, it is critical that our education system provides our youth with the skills, ingenuity, and critical thinking abilities that can…

  11. 40 CFR 445.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations which represent the application of BAT: Limitations for ammonia (as N), a-terpineol, aniline... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of best available technology economically... application of best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...

  12. 40 CFR 429.163 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125...

  13. 40 CFR 429.171 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...

  14. 40 CFR 429.173 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through...

  15. 40 CFR 429.161 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  16. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "The Impact of Dual Enrollment on College Degree Attainment: Do Low-SES Students Benefit?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study reviewed in this report used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) to examine the effects of dual enrollment programs for high school students on college degree attainment. The study further reported on whether the impacts of dual enrollment were different for first generation college students. Dual enrollment…

  17. 40 CFR 421.323 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....885 Nickel 3.503 2.357 Fluoride 222.900 126.700 (d) Digestion wet air pollution control. BAT... denitration wet air pollution control. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Uranium Subcategory Pollutant or... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  18. 40 CFR 471.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment wet air pollution control scrubber blowdown. Subpart J—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum...) Mixing wet air pollution control scrubber blowdown. Subpart J—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  19. 40 CFR 421.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Vanadium decomposition wet air pollution control. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium... (d) Molybdenum drying wet air pollution control. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  20. 40 CFR 430.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days BOD5 8.0 4.0 TSS 10.0 5.0 pH (1) (1... Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days BOD5 8.7 4.35 TSS 11.0 5.5 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  1. Hispanic American Degree Attainment and the Effects of Critical Events and Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the critical events and support systems that have contributed to the attainment of an academic doctorate by Hispanics and to discern the similarities that existed in their parental educational level, socioeconomic status, and cultural background. The study will furthermore seek to identify major obstacles…

  2. The Impact of Dual Enrollment on College Degree Attainment: Do Low-SES Students Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Dual enrollment in high school is viewed by many as one mechanism for widening college admission and completion of low-income students. However, little evidence demonstrates that these students discretely benefit from dual enrollment and whether these programs narrow attainment gaps vis-a-vis students from middle-class or affluent family…

  3. Effects of Interest-Major Congruence, Motivation, and Academic Performance on Timely Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion…

  4. Experimental Evidence on the Effect of Childhood Investments on Postsecondary Attainment and Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Hyman, Joshua; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of early childhood investments on college enrollment and degree completion. We used the random assignment in Project STAR (the Tennessee Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio experiment) to estimate the effect of smaller classes in primary school on college entry, college choice, and degree completion. We improve on…

  5. Effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and academic performance on timely degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.

  6. 40 CFR 419.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) COD 1 74.0 38.4 Ammonia as N 6.6 3.0 Sulfide 0.065 0.029... factor Less than 2.49 0.58 2.5 to 3.49 0.63 3.5 to 4.49 0.74 4.5 to 5.49 0.88 5.5 to 5.99 1.00 6.0 to 6... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  7. 40 CFR 419.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... factor Less than 2.49 0.62 2.5 to 3.49 0.67 3.5 to 4.49 0.80 4.5 to 5.49 0.95 5.5 to 5.99 1.07 6.0 to 6... 12.0 to 12.49 3.24 12.5 to 12.99 3.53 13.0 to 13.49 3.84 13.5 to 13.99 4.18 14.0 or greater 4.36 (3... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  8. Amotivation in Physical Education: Relationships with Physical Self-Concept and Teacher Ratings of Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Amotivation Inventory in Physical Education (AI-PE). In addition, the study sought to identify the relationships between students' amotivation, physical self-concept, and teacher ratings of National Curriculum attainment levels in PE. Students ("N" = 510) from a…

  9. Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Unemployment Rates in Nigeria, Implications for Attaining Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Nwosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of macroeconomic policies on unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria from 1980 to 2013 with implication to achieving inclusive growth. The inability of macroeconomic policies in addressing the rising issues unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria despite the impressive economic growth experience over the last decades has increasingly called for the need for the pursuance of inclusive growth to address the social issues of unemployment and poverty rate. Previous studies have not considered the extent to which macroeconomic policies affects unemployment and poverty rate in Nigeria, and the implication of this relationship to the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The study adopts the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The study observed that among macroeconomic policy variables only exchange rate significantly influenced unemployment rate while only fiscal policy significantly influenced and poverty rate. This implies that present macroeconomic policies in Nigeria do not guarantee the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The contribution of the paper is that to achieve inclusive growth that guarantees high employment and reduced poverty rate, there is the need for a re-examination of macroeconomic policy management in Nigeria.

  10. Attaining the rate-independent limit of a rate-dependent strain gradient plasticity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The existence of characteristic strain rates in rate-dependent material models, corresponding to rate-independent model behavior, is studied within a back stress based rate-dependent higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity model. Such characteristic rates have recently been observed...... for steady-state processes, and the present study aims to demonstrate that the observations in fact unearth a more widespread phenomenon. In this work, two newly proposed back stress formulations are adopted to account for the strain gradient effects in the single slip simple shear case, and characteristic...... rates for a selected quantity are identified through numerical analysis. Evidently, the concept of a characteristic rate, within the rate-dependent material models, may help unlock an otherwise inaccessible parameter space....

  11. 40 CFR 455.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 455.63 Section 455.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... application of the best conventional pollution control technology: There shall be no discharge of process... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT...

  12. Tracking Transfer: New Measures of Institutional and State Effectiveness in Helping Community College Students Attain Bachelor's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Fink, John

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the effectiveness of two- to four-year college transfer is critical for meeting national goals for college attainment and promoting upward social mobility. Efforts to improve institutional effectiveness in serving transfer students and state transfer policy have been hampered by a lack of comparable metrics for measuring transfer…

  13. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  16. Experimental Evidence on the Effect of Childhood Investments on Postsecondary Attainment and Degree Completion. NBER Working Paper No. 17533

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Hyman, Joshua M.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of early childhood investments on college enrollment and degree completion. We use the random assignment in the Project STAR experiment to estimate the effect of smaller classes in primary school on college entry, college choice, and degree completion. We improve on existing work in this area with unusually detailed…

  17. 40 CFR 458.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Carbon Black Lamp Process Subcategory § 458.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants into navigable waters. [60 FR 33972, June 29...

  18. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.32 Section 406.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.42 Section 406.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.52 Section 406.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 418.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 418.73 Section 418.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  2. 40 CFR 424.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 424.73 Section 424.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Chromium Subcategory § 424.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 417.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 417.73 Section 417.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  4. Towards the Education Nation: Revisiting the Impact of Financial Aid, College Experience, and Institutional Context on Baccalaureate Degree Attainment Using a Propensity Score Matching, Multilevel Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Ray

    2012-01-01

    To compete in the global marketplace, the U.S. economy heavily relies on higher education institutions to educate the college graduates and knowledge workers needed to create the innovative products and services of tomorrow. And yet, where once America led the world in educational attainment, recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development indicates that the U.S. now ranks only 15th among major industrialized nations in college completion rates. As a result, increas...

  5. 40 CFR 458.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this paragraph, which may be discharged from the carbon black lamp process by a point source subject to... Lamp Process Subcategory § 458.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... achievable: There shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants to navigable waters. ...

  6. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) For normal liquid...

  7. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... 6.0 and water quality criteria in water quality standards approved under the Act authorize such lower pH, the pH limitation for such discharge may be adjusted downward to the pH water quality...

  8. 40 CFR 436.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Construction Sand and Gravel Subcategory § 436.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... unaltered by man's activities, is or would be less than 6.0 and water quality criteria in water quality... adjusted downward to the pH water quality criterion for the receiving waters. In no case shall a pH...

  9. 40 CFR 463.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... average process water usage flow rate for the cleaning water processes from the permittee. ...

  10. 40 CFR 463.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... technology, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the contact... usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  11. 40 CFR 463.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... technology currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate... process water usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  12. 40 CFR 463.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... of 6.0 to 9.0 at all times. The permit authority will obtain the average process water usage flow...

  13. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available (BPT): (a) For normal operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values... operation of a spray drying tower, but only when a high rate of wet scrubbing is in operation which produces... CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  14. The Effects of the Introduction of Bachelor Degrees on College Enrollment and Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstschräer, Julia; Sprietsma, Maresa

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the short-term effects of the introduction of the Bachelor degree system in Germany, a change in degree regulations such that students need less time to earn a first degree, on college enrollment and dropout rates. We use variation in the timing of the reform at the university department level to identify the effects of the reform…

  15. Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates--Fall 2010 Cohort (Signature Report No. 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Wakhungu, Phoebe Khasiala; Yuan, Xin; Nathan, Angel; Hwang, Youngsik

    2016-01-01

    This fifth annual report on national college completion rates offers a look at the six-year outcomes for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2010, toward the end of the Great Recession. It looks at the various pathways students took toward degree completion, as well as the completion rates through May 2016 for the different student…

  16. Exploring the Effect of Mentoring in the Degree Attainment and Career Paths of First Generation Mexican American Women Employed in Senior Administrative Leadership Roles at Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Vivian A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the effect of mentoring in the degree attainment and career paths of first generation Mexican American women who are employed in senior administrative leadership roles at Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs). Methodology: This exploratory study employed a phenomenological research…

  17. Influence of the method of optimizing adjustments of ARV-SD on attainable degree of system stability. Vliyaniye metoda optimizatsii nastroyek ARV-SD na dostizhimuyu stepen ustoychivosti sistemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Trudospekova, G.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of the efficiency of the methods of successive and simultaneous optimization of adjustments of ARV-SD (ARV of strong action) of several PP. It is shown that with the use of the method of simultaneous optimization for an idealized model of complex EPS, it is possible to attain absolute controllability of the degree of stability.

  18. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  19. Studies on the Pulse Rate, Pedometer Count and Satisfactoin Degree at Various Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    小原, 史朗

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined whether free exercise of students became good stimulation of breathing circulation function from relation of pulse rate and pedometer count. And, I examined it on satisfaction degree after exercise. Object person was 432 man students (total of 1391) and 94 woman students (total of 472). As for relation of pulse rate and pedometer count, statistical meaning was recognized by man and women. The exercise that a pulse rate and pedometer count were high together seemed ...

  20. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  1. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus......, the irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... exposed to the pulse-delay curing mode were softer than resin composites exposed to continuous cure (Pconversion (P

  2. Influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on puberty attainment of replacement gilts raised in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on age at first observed estrus of the replacement gilts raised in Thailand. In total, 766 gilts were measured for body weight and backfat thickness prior to insemination. Body weight was further calculated for growth rate. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by back pressure test with an existence of mature boars with high libido. The first date of boar exposure and that of first observed estrus were individually recorded. Due to growth rate, they were classified into three groups: high (>700 g/day), moderate (600-700 g/day), and low (<600 g/day). According to onset of boar contact, the gilts were grouped into two categories: early (<150 days) and late (≥150 days). The results revealed that the gilts expressed first observed estrus, averagely, at age 205.1 ± 34.1 days, had a growth rate of 615.5 ± 57.6 g/day, and first contact with boars at 160.7 ± 19.9 days of age. The gilts with low growth rate expressed first estrus later than those with moderate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 198.0 ± 3.2 days, P = 0.033) and high growth rate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 193.9 ± 6.7 days, P = 0.005) groups. Together with the influence of boar exposure, the gilts contacted boar earlier with high growth rate showed first estrus at age 180.3 ± 10.1 days, whereas those with later boar contact with low growth rate showed first estrus at age 197.9 ± 3.2 days. In summary, the replacement gilts should have high growth rate and contact boar early to attain puberty faster and possess decent subsequent reproductive performance.

  3. Cyclic efforts to improve completion rates of masters’ degree students in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Roets

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Supervisors at Higher Education Institutions are challenged to shorten throughput of Master’s degree students in nursing as researchers are needed to improve the art and science of the nursing profession. Globally the completion time for a postgraduate degree in the health sciences varies between 4.7 and 5.5 years. The purpose of the study was to describe strategies that were implemented to shorten completion time and attrition rate of postgraduate students. A cyclic technical, scientific collaborative mode within an action research methodology was used to identify factors impeding completion time in this study. Contrary to other studies, supervision was not an inhibiting factor in this study. Physical, technical, academic and financial aspects were identified by postgraduate students through questionnaires and informal discussion groups with supervisors as well as progress reports. Strategies were implemented to address these. Following implementation of all strategies, 42% of the postgraduate students in the School of Nursing completed their Master’s degree within two years. This implies a 34% improvement. Although the completion rate improved it was still unsatisfactory and new challenges were identified during the second cycle, for example, the number of inexperienced supervisors increased and they needed mentoring. Speed mentoring is a possible solution to the problem.

  4. Effect of the Degree of Polymerization of Inulin on the Rate of Hydrolysis Using Immobilized Inulinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ricca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses two crucial features in the industrial development of fructose production by enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin: the use of immobilized biocatalyst in the hydrolysis of crude extracts of chicory roots and the evaluation of the effect of degree of polymerization of inulin on the overall reaction rate. The immobilized biocatalyst consisted of inulinase covalently bound to Sepabeads® supports. It was demonstrated that its catalytic activity towards crude inulin extract (real substrate was much higher than that exhibited towards pure inulin (synthetic solution. Experiments revealed that, in applications of practical interest with real substrate, the activity of immobilized enzyme was as high as 63 % of that of free enzyme in homogeneous solution. This certainly was a driving force to potential industrial application of this immobilized enzyme preparation. Therefore, the effect of pure and crude substrates on the kinetics of the reaction catalysed by the immobilized enzyme was investigated. The kinetic analysis revealed a Michaelis-Menten dependence of the reaction rate on substrate concentration for both pure (high molecular mass and crude (low molecular mass inulin. Interesting results were derived from the comparison of Km and vmax values in the two cases. In particular, it was found that increasing degree of polymerization of the substrate caused vmax decrease and Km increase. After evaluation of mass transport effects, this was mainly associated with a different substrate/ enzyme affinity when exploiting inulin characterized by different (low or high degree of polymerization.

  5. Surgical Success Rates for Horizontal Concomitant Deviations According to the Type and Degree of Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çaça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.

  6. Extending the performance of single-degree-of-freedom rate integrating gyros in strapdown applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G. N.

    This paper examines the constraints upon a typical manufacturer of gyros and strapdown systems. It describes that while being responsive to exchange and keeping abreast of 'state of the art' technology, there are many reasons why the manufacturer must satisfy the market using existing technology and production equipment. The Single-Degree-of-Freedom Rate Integrating Gyro is a well established product, yet is capable of achieving far higher performances than originally envisaged due to modelling and characterization within digital strapdown systems. The parameters involved are discussed, and a description given of the calibration process undertaken on a strapdown system being manufactured in a production environment in batch quantities.

  7. Exploiting spatial degrees of freedom for high data rate ultrasound communication with implantable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Max L.; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate an ultrasonic communication link using spatial degrees of freedom to increase data rates for deeply implantable medical devices. Low attenuation and millimeter wavelengths make ultrasound an ideal communication medium for miniaturized low-power implants. While a small spectral bandwidth has drastically limited achievable data rates in conventional ultrasonic implants, a large spatial bandwidth can be exploited by using multiple transducers in a multiple-input/multiple-output system to provide spatial multiplexing gain without additional power, larger bandwidth, or complicated packaging. We experimentally verify the communication link in mineral oil with a transmitter and a receiver 5 cm apart, each housing two custom-designed mm-sized piezoelectric transducers operating at the same frequency. Two streams of data modulated with quadrature phase-shift keying at 125 kbps are simultaneously transmitted and received on both channels, effectively doubling the data rate to 250 kbps with a measured bit error rate below 10-4. We also evaluate the performance and robustness of the channel separation network by testing the communication link after introducing position offsets. These results demonstrate the potential of spatial multiplexing to enable more complex implant applications requiring higher data rates.

  8. Statistical evaluation of the degree of nominal convergence of the inflation rate in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai GHEORGHE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nominal convergence is a process that is characterised by the gradual harmonisation, to a relatively high degree, of the national institutions and policies of the Member States with those of the EU, in the monetary and financial fields.The birth of nominal convergence is marked by the Maastricht Treaty, by means of which the criteria required for adopting the euro were established. One of the criteria refers to price stability (inflation rate, which is measured by the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices. A Member State meets this criterion if it has a price performance that is sustainable and an average rate of inflation, observed over a period of one year before the examination,that does not exceed by more than 1.5 percentage point that of, at most, the three best performing Member States in terms of price stability.The article proposes a model for the statistical evaluation of the degree to which the nominal convergence criterion related to price stability is met. The evaluation is based on the following pillars: a theoretical synthesis of the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, a statistical analysis concerning the evolution of inflation in Romania and the gap vis-à-vis the reference value for meeting the nominal convergence criterion.

  9. Sensitization of rat 9L gliosarcoma cells to low dose rate irradiation by long duration 41 degrees C hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Wang, Z H; Corry, P M; Martinez, A

    1991-06-15

    Modification of survival by long duration, 41 degrees C hyperthermia in combination with low dose rate radiation (0.5 Gy/h) was determined in rat 9L gliosarcoma cells. Cells were exposed to radiation in a manner that simulated continuous irradiation at a dose rate relevant to clinical brachytherapy. High dose rate X-irradiation was fractionated in 1.0-Gy fractions at 2-h intervals (FLDRI). Previous studies had demonstrated that 9L cells exposed to FLDRI with these parameters have survival characteristics that are equivalent to continuous low dose rate irradiation. Cells exposed to 41 degrees C throughout FLDRI were sensitized significantly (thermal enhancement ratio of 2.07) compared with cells irradiated at 37 degrees C. Incubation for 24 h at 41 degrees C before and/or after FLDRI at either 37 degrees C or 41 degrees C did not increase the slope of the radiation survival curves but did reduce the shoulder. Similarly, heating at 43 degrees C for 30 or 60 min before and/or after irradiation at 0.5 Gy/h also did not enhance cell sensitivity. Survival of cells after irradiation at high dose rate (60 Gy/h) was independent of the temperature during irradiation. Preheat at 41 degrees C for 24 h did not sensitize cells to high dose rate irradiation by increasing the slope of the survival curve, although a loss of shoulder was observed. Sensitization of cells heated at 43 degrees C for 30 or 60 min before high dose rate irradiation was expressed as classical slope modification. Our results demonstrate that 41 degrees C heating during FLDRI greatly sensitizes cells to radiation-induced killing for exposure durations up to 36 h. Heating 9L cells at 41 degrees C or 43 degrees C adjacent to FLDRI at 0.5 Gy/h resulted in no additional enhancement of terminal sensitivity, although shoulder modification was observed. The sensitization by simultaneous heating described above occurred even though thermotolerance developed during extended incubation at 41 degrees C. These in vitro

  10. Factors Affecting Adult Student Dropout Rates in the Korean Cyber-University Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun; Kim, Byoung Uk

    2018-01-01

    Few empirical studies of adult distance learners' decisions to drop out of degree programs have used large enough sample sizes to generalize the findings or data sets drawn from multiple online programs that address various subjects. Accordingly, in this study, we used a large administrative data set drawn from multiple online degree programs to…

  11. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  12. Benzene Evolution Rates from Saltstone Prepared with 2X ITP Flowsheet Concentrations of Phenylborates and Heated to 85 Degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Saltstone Facility provides the final treatment and disposal of low level liquid wastes streams. At the Saltstone Facility, the waste is mixed with cement, flyash, and slag to form a grout, which is pumped into large concrete vaults where it cures. The facility started radioactive operations in June 1990. High Level Waste Engineering requested Savannah River Technology Center to determine the effect of TPB and its decomposition products (i.e., 3PB, 2PB, and 1PB) on the saltstone process. Previous testing performed by SRTC determined saltstone benzene evolution rates a function of ITP filtrate composition. Testing by the Thermal Fluids Laboratory has shown at design operation, the temperature in the Z-area vaults could reach 85 degrees Celsius. Saltstone asked SRTC to perform additional testing to determine whether curing at 85 degrees Celsius could change saltstone benzene evolution rates. This document describes the test performed to determine the effect of curing temperature on the benzene evolution rates

  13. Thermal decay rate of a metastable state with two degrees of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I I Gontchar

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... expected to agree with the long time limit of the escape rate obtained using ..... distribution with zero averages and variances equal to 2. Although in the fission ... Here (t) is the probability that the metastable state has ..... the (kt)−1/2 dependence and has been adjusted to εR at some intermediate points.

  14. Heart Rate Variability in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Different Degree of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; and 3Novo Nordic A/S, Maaloev, Denmark. Introduction: Modulation of heart rate by the autonomic nervous system can indirectly be measured by heart rate...... variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is seen in dogs with heart failure secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). However, HRV is suggested to increase with disease progression in dogs with early stages of MMVD. Comparable results are found in people with primary mitral valve prolapse, a disease...... resembling canine MMVD. Aim: To associate progression of MMVD in dogs with time and frequency domain HRV, analysed from 24-hour electrocardiography. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) were examined by echocardiography and 24-hour electrocardiography. CKCS were divided...

  15. Estimating Exchange Market Pressure and the Degree of Exchange Market Intervention for Finland during the Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Pösö, Mika; Spolander, Mikko

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we use a fairly simple monetary macro model to calculate the quarterly measures of exchange market pressure and the degree of the Bank of Finland's intervention during the time the markka was floated. Exchange market pressure measures the size of the exchange rate change that would have occurred if the central bank had unexpectedly refrained from intervening in the foreign exchange market. Intervention activity of the central bank is measured as the proportion of exchange marke...

  16. Heart Rate Estimated from Body Movements at Six Degrees of Freedom by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Whang, Mincheol

    2018-05-01

    Cardiac activity has been monitored continuously in daily life by virtue of advanced medical instruments with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. Seismocardiography (SCG) has been considered to be free from the burden of measurement for cardiac activity, but it has been limited in its application in daily life. The most important issues regarding SCG are to overcome the limitations of motion artifacts due to the sensitivity of motion sensor. Although novel adaptive filters for noise cancellation have been developed, they depend on the researcher’s subjective decision. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can extract significant features from data automatically without a researcher’s subjective decision, so that signal processing has been recently replaced as CNNs. Thus, this study aimed to develop a novel method to enhance heart rate estimation from thoracic movement by CNNs. Thoracic movement was measured by six-axis accelerometer and gyroscope signals using a wearable sensor that can be worn by simply clipping on clothes. The dataset was collected from 30 participants (15 males, 15 females) using 12 measurement conditions according to two physical conditions (i.e., relaxed and aroused conditions), three body postures (i.e., sitting, standing, and supine), and six movement speeds (i.e., 3.2, 4.5, 5.8, 6.4, 8.5, and 10.3 km/h). The motion data (i.e., six-axis accelerometer and gyroscope) and heart rate (i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG)) were determined as the input data and labels in the dataset, respectively. The CNN model was developed based on VGG Net and optimized by testing according to network depth and data augmentation. The ensemble network of the VGG-16 without data augmentation and the VGG-19 with data augmentation was determined as optimal architecture for generalization. As a result, the proposed method showed higher accuracy than the previous SCG method using signal processing in most measurement conditions. The three main contributions

  17. Heart Rate Estimated from Body Movements at Six Degrees of Freedom by Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunwoo Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac activity has been monitored continuously in daily life by virtue of advanced medical instruments with microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology. Seismocardiography (SCG has been considered to be free from the burden of measurement for cardiac activity, but it has been limited in its application in daily life. The most important issues regarding SCG are to overcome the limitations of motion artifacts due to the sensitivity of motion sensor. Although novel adaptive filters for noise cancellation have been developed, they depend on the researcher’s subjective decision. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs can extract significant features from data automatically without a researcher’s subjective decision, so that signal processing has been recently replaced as CNNs. Thus, this study aimed to develop a novel method to enhance heart rate estimation from thoracic movement by CNNs. Thoracic movement was measured by six-axis accelerometer and gyroscope signals using a wearable sensor that can be worn by simply clipping on clothes. The dataset was collected from 30 participants (15 males, 15 females using 12 measurement conditions according to two physical conditions (i.e., relaxed and aroused conditions, three body postures (i.e., sitting, standing, and supine, and six movement speeds (i.e., 3.2, 4.5, 5.8, 6.4, 8.5, and 10.3 km/h. The motion data (i.e., six-axis accelerometer and gyroscope and heart rate (i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG were determined as the input data and labels in the dataset, respectively. The CNN model was developed based on VGG Net and optimized by testing according to network depth and data augmentation. The ensemble network of the VGG-16 without data augmentation and the VGG-19 with data augmentation was determined as optimal architecture for generalization. As a result, the proposed method showed higher accuracy than the previous SCG method using signal processing in most measurement conditions. The three main

  18. Current Trends in Adult Degree Programs: How Public Universities Respond to the Needs of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although many adult students turn to online degree programs due to their flexibility and convenience, a majority of prospective adult learners prefer to take classes on traditional brick-and-mortar campuses. This chapter examines how public research universities create pathways to degree attainment and boost degree completion rates among adult…

  19. Strength and Absorption Rate of Compressed Stabilized Earth Bricks (CSEBs Due to Different Mixture Ratios and Degree of Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abd Halid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressed Stabilized Earth Brick (CSEB is produced by compressing a mixture of water with three main materials such as Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, soil, and sand. It becomes popularfor its good strength, better insulation properties, and a sustainable product due to its easy production with low carbon emission and less skilled labour required. Different types of local soils usedwill produce CSEB of different physical properties in terms of its strength, durability, and water absorption rate. This study focuses on laterite soil taken from the surrounding local area in Parit Raja, Johor, and CSEB samples are produced based on prototype brick size 100×50×30 mm. The investigations are based on four different degree of compactions (i.e. 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 Psi and three different mix proportion ratios of cement:sand:laterite soil (i.e. 1:1:9, 1:2:8, 1:3:7. A total of 144 CSEB samples have been tested at 7 and 28 days curing periods to determine the compressive strength (BS 3921:1985 and water absorption rate (MS 76:1972. It was found that maximum compressive strength of CSEB was 14.68 N/mm2 for mixture ratio of 1:3:7 at 2500 Psi compaction. Whereas, the minimum strengthis 6.87 N/mm2 for 1:1:9mixture ratio at 1500 Psi. Meanwhile, the lowest water absorption was 12.35% for mixture ratio of 1:2:8 at 3000 Psi; while the 1:1:9 mixture ratio at 1500 Psi gave the highest rate of 16.81%. This study affirms that the sand content in the mixture and the degree of compaction would affect the value of compressive strength and water absorption of CSEB.

  20. Comparison of the oxidation rate and degree of graphitization of selected IG and NBG nuclear graphite grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Kim, Gen-Chan

    2008-10-01

    The oxidation rate and degree of graphitization (DOG) were determined for some selected nuclear graphite grades (i.e., IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18, NBG-25) and compared in view of their filler coke type (i.e., pitch or petroleum coke) and the physical property of the grades. Oxidation rates were determined at six temperatures between 600 and 960 °C in air by using a three-zone vertical tube furnace at a 10 l/min air flow rate. The specimens were a cylinder with a 25.4 mm diameter and a 25.4 mm length. The DOG was determined based on the lattice parameter c determined from an X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that, even though the four examined nuclear graphite grades showed a highly temperature-sensitive oxidation behavior through out the test temperature range of 600-950 °C, the differences between the grades were not significant. The oxidation rates determined for a 5-10% weight loss at the six temperatures were nearly the same except for 702 and 808 °C, where the pitch coke graphites showed an apparent decrease in their oxidation rate, more so than the petroleum coke graphites. These effects of the coke type reduced or nearly disappeared with an increasing temperature. The average activation energy determined for 608-808 °C was 161.5 ± 7.3 kJ/mol, showing that the dominant oxidation reaction occurred by a chemical control. A relationship between the oxidation rate and DOG was not observed.

  1. Comparison of the oxidation rate and degree of graphitization of selected IG and NBG nuclear graphite grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Kim, Gen-Chan

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation rate and degree of graphitization (DOG) were determined for some selected nuclear graphite grades (i.e., IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18, NBG-25) and compared in view of their filler coke type (i.e., pitch or petroleum coke) and the physical property of the grades. Oxidation rates were determined at six temperatures between 600 and 960 deg. C in air by using a three-zone vertical tube furnace at a 10 l/min air flow rate. The specimens were a cylinder with a 25.4 mm diameter and a 25.4 mm length. The DOG was determined based on the lattice parameter c determined from an X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that, even though the four examined nuclear graphite grades showed a highly temperature-sensitive oxidation behavior through out the test temperature range of 600-950 deg. C, the differences between the grades were not significant. The oxidation rates determined for a 5-10% weight loss at the six temperatures were nearly the same except for 702 and 808 deg. C, where the pitch coke graphites showed an apparent decrease in their oxidation rate, more so than the petroleum coke graphites. These effects of the coke type reduced or nearly disappeared with an increasing temperature. The average activation energy determined for 608-808 deg. C was 161.5 ± 7.3 kJ/mol, showing that the dominant oxidation reaction occurred by a chemical control. A relationship between the oxidation rate and DOG was not observed

  2. Fuzzy time series forecasting model with natural partitioning length approach for predicting the unemployment rate under different degree of confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nazirah; Mutalib, Siti Musleha Ab; Mohamad, Daud

    2017-08-01

    Fuzzy time series forecasting model has been proposed since 1993 to cater for data in linguistic values. Many improvement and modification have been made to the model such as enhancement on the length of interval and types of fuzzy logical relation. However, most of the improvement models represent the linguistic term in the form of discrete fuzzy sets. In this paper, fuzzy time series model with data in the form of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and natural partitioning length approach is introduced for predicting the unemployment rate. Two types of fuzzy relations are used in this study which are first order and second order fuzzy relation. This proposed model can produce the forecasted values under different degree of confidence.

  3. The effect of red wine extract, resveratrol, on the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Alex C Urriquia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An animal trial, its protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.P. National Institutes of Health (IACUC Protocol No. 2010-008, was employed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement in guinea pigs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male adult guinea pigs were randomly allocated into 3 groups: low dose, high dose, and control groups. A 0.016" titanium molybdenum alloy wire formed into a helical torsion spring with a coil, with the loops cemented onto the maxillary incisors of the animals, served as the orthodontic appliance. Daily oral administration of resveratrol was provided to the low dose (0.047 mg/kg and high dose (0.47 mg/kg groups, while water was provided to the control group. Measurements were taken everyday at the interproximal area at the level of the incisal edge using a measuring caliper. Results: The results of the ANOVA showed no statistically significant differences in the mean measurements of tooth separation among the three groups from day 2 (P=0.966 to day 8 (P=0.056. However, starting from day 9 (P=0.049 until day 18 (P=0.000, there was a significant difference in the mean tooth separation among the test groups. Conclusion: Using the LSD, it was noted that the low dose and the high dose groups have similar degrees of mean tooth separation, with the control group being significantly different from the two.

  4. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and educational attainment predict the rate of cognitive decline in normal aging? A 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, P.W.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Bekers, O.; Ausems, E.E.B.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Method: Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were

  5. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  6. Ice-based altitude distribution of natural radiation annual exposure rate in the Antarctica zone over the latitude range 69 degrees S-77 degrees S using a pair-filter thermoluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Kamiyama, T; Fujii, Y; Motoyama, H; Esumi, S

    1995-12-01

    Both ice-based altitude distributions of natural ionizing radiation exposure and the quasi-effective energy of natural radiation over Antartica over the latitude range 69 degrees S - 77 degrees S during approx. 500 days were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results shows that dependence on altitude above sea level of the exposure rate increases by almost three-fold with each increase of 2000 m of altitude, thus deviating from the general rule stating that the exposure rate should double with each 2000 m. Although the exposure rate shows a dependence on altitude, altitude dependence of the quasi-effective energy of natural radiation over Antartica is not observed. In the present study it is observed that natural radiation occurring over the ice base of Antartica consists mainly of cosmic rays.

  7. Do apolipoprotein E genotype and educational attainment predict the rate of cognitive decline in normal aging? A 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Ausems, Eleonora E B; Bekers, Otto; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-07-01

    We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were performed with four measurement time points: baseline, 3-year, 6-year, and 12-year follow-up. Covariates included age at baseline, sex, and self-perceived physical and mental health. Dependent measures were global cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), Stroop performance (Stroop Color-Word Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006a), set-shifting performance (Concept Shifting Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006b), cognitive speed (Letter-Digit Substitution Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006c), verbal learning (Verbal Learning Test: Sum of five trials; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2005), and long-term memory (Verbal Learning Test: Delayed recall). We found only faint evidence that older, high-educated carriers of the APOE-ε4 allele (irrespective of zygosity) show a more pronounced decline than younger, low-educated carriers and noncarriers (irrespective of educational attainment). Moreover, this outcome was confined to concept-shifting performance and was especially observable between 6- and 12-year follow-ups. No protective effects of higher education were found on any of the six cognitive measures. We conclude that the combination of APOE-ε4 allele and high educational attainment may be a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline in older age, as has been reported before, but only to a very limited extent. Moreover, we conclude that, within the cognitive reserve framework, education does not have significant protective power against age-related cognitive decline.

  8. The crystal zero degree detector at BESIII as a realistic high rate environment for evaluating PANDA data acquisition modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    The BESIII experiment located in Beijing, China, is investigating physics in the energy region of the charm-quark via electron positron annihilation reactions. A small detector to be placed in the very forward/backward region around θ=0 at BESIII is foreseen to measure photons from the initial state. This is especially interesting, because it opens the door for various physics measurements over a wide range of energies, even below the experiment's designated energy threshold, which is fixed by the accelerator. This thesis is investigating the capabilities of a crystal zero degree detector (cZDD) consisting of PbWO 4 crystals placed in that region of BESIII. Detailed Geant4-based simulations have been performed, and the energy resolution of the detector has been determined to be σ/μ=0.06+0.025/√(E[GeV]). The determination of the center-of-mass energy √(s) isr after the emission of the photon is of great importance for the study of such events. Preliminary simulations estimated the resolution of the reconstructed √(s) isr using the cZDD information to be significantly better than 10 % for appropriate photon impacts on the detector. Such events can only be investigated, when data from the cZDD and other detectors of BESIII can be correlated. A fast and powerful Data Acquisition (DAQ) capable of performing event correlation in real time is needed. DAQ modules capable of performing real time event correlation are being developed for the PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Investigating these modules in a realistic high-rate environment such as provided at BESIII, offers a great opportunity to gain experience in real time event correlation before the start of PANDA. Developments for the cZDD's DAQ using prototype PANDA DAQ modules have been done and successfully tested in experiments with radioactive sources and a beamtest with 210 MeV electrons at the Mainz Microtron.

  9. The effect of hydroxyapatite presence on the degree of conversion and polymerization rate in a model self-etching adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective The effect of hydroxyapatite (HAp) content on photopolymerization of a model self-etching adhesive was studied by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) spectroscopy. Materials and methods The model adhesive contained two monomers: bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) using a 1:1 mass ratio, representing an acidic formulation. Camphorquinone and ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate were added to enable visible light photopolymerization in a constant concentration of 0.022 mmol per gram monomer. HAp [Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6] powder were added to the test solutions to obtain mass fraction of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 wt%. The degree of conversion (DC) and the polymerization rate (PR) with/without HAp were determined using ATR/FT-IR with a time-based spectrum analysis. Results Monomer DC and PR were significantly enhanced by addition of HAp. Incorporation of 4 wt% of HAp increased DC from 20.8 (±0.3) % to 93.4 (±1.1) %, and PR from 0.42 (±0.01) %/s to 3.21 (±0.07) %/s. The pH of adhesive solutions was measured and correlated with DC and PR. The pH of test solutions was also controlled using a base (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) to similar values as when using HAp. Results indicated that both the DC and PR increased with increasing pH, regardless of additive, confirming the role of pH on polymerization. From the IR spectral comparison, changes in molecular structures of the self-etching adhesive after the addition of HAp were observed, which were correlated with the specific interaction between 2MP and HAp. The effect of viscosity was also proposed to be another possible reason for the improved polymerization. Significance The photopolymerization of a self-etching adhesive was enhanced / accelerated in the presence of HAp. The results provide the critical information for understanding the interactions/bonding between self-etching adhesives and tooth substrates. PMID:22032933

  10. Fiber Bragg grating based notch filter for bit-rate-transparent NRZ to PRZ format conversion with two-degree-of-freedom optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hui; Zuo, Jun; Xiong, Bangyun; Cheng, Jianqun; Shu, Xuewen; Shen, Fangcheng; Liu, Xin; Atai, Javid

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel notch-filtering scheme for bit-rate transparent all-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format conversion. The scheme is based on a two-degree-of-freedom optimally designed fiber Bragg grating. It is shown that a notch filter optimized for any specific operating bit rate can be used to realize high-Q-factor format conversion over a wide bit rate range without requiring any tuning. (paper)

  11. Do We Need Multiple Informants When Assessing Autistic Traits? The Degree of Report Bias on Offspring, Self, and Spouse Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degree of report bias in assessing autistic traits. Both parents of 124 preschoolers completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Acceptable agreement existed between mother and father reports of children's mean scores of autistic traits, but interrater reliability for rank-order…

  12. Rate of inactivation of cytomegalovirus in raw banked milk during storage at -20 degrees C and pasteurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andersen, H K

    1982-01-01

    Samples of milk from 23 mothers attending the department of obstetrics and gynaecology and 36 who donated milk to the department's milk bank were cultured for cytomegalovirus. Virus was isolated from samples from 12 of the milk donors but none of the mothers attending the department; follow......-up studies during lactation in seven of these 12 women showed that five continued to excrete the virus. Samples were taken on three occasions from one woman who regularly excreted high titres of the virus. Storage at -20 degrees C for over three days reduced the titre by over 99%; after pasteurisation at 63...... degrees C for eight minutes the milk did not contain any viable virus. It is recommended that raw banked milk used for feeding preterm babies should be kept frozen for at least 72 hours before feeding....

  13. Accelerated second-degree nursing students: predictors of graduation and NCLEX-RN first-time pass rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, Barbara B; Harris, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand and identify factors that affect students' academic performance before entry into a nursing program and as they progress through the program. The authors discuss a study, and its outcomes, that assessed accelerated second-degree nursing students' prenursing and core nursing grades that served to predict their success at completing the nursing program and passing NCLEX-RN on first attempt. Strategies were identified to help at-risk students to be successful in the program and with first-time passage of NCLEX-RN.

  14. Effects of Degree-Biased Transmission Rate and Nonlinear Infectivity on Rumor Spreading in Complex Social Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimi, Y.; Roshani, F.

    2010-12-01

    We introduce the generalized rumor spreading model and analytically investigate the epidemic spreading for this model on scale-free networks. To generalize the standard rumor spreading model (rumor model in which each node's infectivity equals its degree and all links have a uniform connectivity strength), we introduce not only the infectivity function to determine the simultaneous contacts that a given node (individual) establishes to its connected neighbors but also the connectivity strength function (CSF) for the direct link between two connected nodes that lead to degree-biased propagation of rumors. In the case of nonlinear functions, the generalization enters the infectivity's exponent α and the CSF's exponent β into the analytical rumor model. We show that one can adjust the exponents α and β to control the epidemic threshold which is absent for the standard rumor spreading model. In addition, we obtain the critical threshold for the generalized model on the finite scale-free network and compare our results with the standard model on the same network. We show that the generalized model has a greater threshold than the standard model. (author)

  15. Early Engagement in Course-Based Research Increases Graduation Rates and Completion of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbusch, Stacia E.; Hernandez, Paul R.; Simmons, Sarah L.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    National efforts to transform undergraduate biology education call for research experiences to be an integral component of learning for all students. Course-based undergraduate research experiences, or CUREs, have been championed for engaging students in research at a scale that is not possible through apprenticeships in faculty research laboratories. Yet there are few if any studies that examine the long-term effects of participating in CUREs on desired student outcomes, such as graduating from college and completing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major. One CURE program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), has engaged thousands of first-year undergraduates over the past decade. Using propensity score–matching to control for student-level differences, we tested the effect of participating in FRI on students’ probability of graduating with a STEM degree, probability of graduating within 6 yr, and grade point average (GPA) at graduation. Students who completed all three semesters of FRI were significantly more likely than their non-FRI peers to earn a STEM degree and graduate within 6 yr. FRI had no significant effect on students’ GPAs at graduation. The effects were similar for diverse students. These results provide the most robust and best-controlled evidence to date to support calls for early involvement of undergraduates in research. PMID:27252296

  16. Study of resistance to deformation dependence on temperature and strain degree during working with different rates for ABM-1 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, V.V.; Dvinskij, V.M.; Vashlyaev, Eh.V.; Dyblenko, Z.A.; Khamatov, R.I.; Zverev, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of approximation of the experimental curves partial differential equations relating ABM-1 alloy deformation resistance to the deformation parameters are obtained. Using statistical processing of the experimental data the regression equations of the dependence of the deformation resistance on temperature rate and relative reduction of the samples are found. In the 2.1-23.6 1/c deformation rate range hardening and weakening rates of the AMB-1 alloy increases with the increase of the latter. The data obtained permit to calculate the deformation parameters of the studied alloy for different processes of metal plastic working in the studied temperature range [ru

  17. Early Engagement in Course-Based Research Increases Graduation Rates and Completion of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Hernandez, Paul R; Simmons, Sarah L; Dolan, Erin L

    2016-01-01

    National efforts to transform undergraduate biology education call for research experiences to be an integral component of learning for all students. Course-based undergraduate research experiences, or CUREs, have been championed for engaging students in research at a scale that is not possible through apprenticeships in faculty research laboratories. Yet there are few if any studies that examine the long-term effects of participating in CUREs on desired student outcomes, such as graduating from college and completing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major. One CURE program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), has engaged thousands of first-year undergraduates over the past decade. Using propensity score-matching to control for student-level differences, we tested the effect of participating in FRI on students' probability of graduating with a STEM degree, probability of graduating within 6 yr, and grade point average (GPA) at graduation. Students who completed all three semesters of FRI were significantly more likely than their non-FRI peers to earn a STEM degree and graduate within 6 yr. FRI had no significant effect on students' GPAs at graduation. The effects were similar for diverse students. These results provide the most robust and best-controlled evidence to date to support calls for early involvement of undergraduates in research. © 2016 S. Rodenbusch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Prediction of Basic Math Course Failure Rate in the Physics, Meteorology, Mathematics, Actuarial Sciences and Pharmacy Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rojas-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2013 with the purpose of predicting the failure rate of math courses taken by Pharmacy, Mathematics, Actuarial Science, Physics and Meteorology students at Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR. Using the Logistics Regression statistical techniques applied to the 2010 cohort, failure rates were predicted of students in the aforementioned programs in one of their Math introductory courses (Calculus 101 for Physics and Meteorology, Math Principles for Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Applied Differential Equations for Pharmacy. For these models, the UCR admission average, the student’s genre, and the average correct answers in the Quantitative Skills Test were used as predictor variables. The most important variable for all models was the Quantitative Skills Test, and the model with the highest correct classification rate was the Logistics Regression. For the estimated Physics-Meteorology, Pharmacy and Mathematics-Actuarial Science models, correct classifications were 89.8%, 73.6%, and 93.9%, respectively.

  19. The rate of urinary tract abnormalities and the functional state of kidneys in relation to the degree of connective tissue dysplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kryganova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the rate of urinary tract abnormalities and kidney functions in children with mild, moderate, and severe connective tissue dysplasia. Severe connective tissue dysplasia was found to prevail in children with urinary tract abnormalities and to be characterized by a variety of urodynamic urinary tract abnormalities. Urinary system infection occurred equally frequently in both patient groups and its rate did not depend on the degree of the dysplasia. Some children with severe connective dysplasia were noted to have diminished renal filtration function. High-grade vesicoureteral reflux, tubular disorders as nocturias, and lowered urine osmolarity were more common in children with severe dysplasia. Hypertension was seen equally often in both patient groups, no matter what the degree of connective tissue dysplasia.

  20. Mechanical property, degradation rate, and bone cell growth of chitosan coated titanium influenced by degree of deacetylation of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youling; Chesnutt, Betsy M; Wright, Lee; Haggard, Warren O; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2008-07-01

    Chitosan has shown promise as a coating for dental/craniofacial and orthopaedic implants. However, the effects of degree of deacetylation (DDA) of chitosan on coating bond strength, degradation, and biological performance is not known. The aim of this project was to evaluate bonding, degradation, and bone cell growth on titanium coated with chitosans of different DDA and from different manufacturers. Three different chitosans, 80.6%, 81.7%, and 92.3% DDA were covalently bonded to titanium coupons via silane-glutaraldehyde molecules. Bond strengths were evaluated in mechanical tensile tests, and degradation, over 5 weeks, was conducted in cell culture medium with and without 100 microg/mL lysozyme. Cytocompatibility was evaluated for 10 days using UMR 106 osteoblastic cells. Results showed that mean chitosan coating bond strengths ranged from 2.2-3.8 MPa, and that there was minimal affect of DDA on coating bond strengths. The coatings exhibited little dissolution over 5 weeks in medium with or without lysozyme. However, the molecular weight (MW) of the chitosan coatings remaining on the titanium samples after 5 weeks decreased by 69-85% with the higher DDA chitosan coatings exhibiting less percent change in MW than the lower DDA materials. The growth of the UMR 106 osteoblast cells on the 81.7% DDA chitosan coating was lower on days 3 and 5, as compared with the other two coatings, but by day 10, there were no differences in growth among three coatings or to the uncoated titanium controls. Differences in growth were attributed to differences in manufacturer source material, though all coatings were judged to be osteocompatible in vitro. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An Enhanced Method to Estimate Heart Rate from Seismocardiography via Ensemble Averaging of Body Movements at Six Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunwoo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous cardiac monitoring has been developed to evaluate cardiac activity outside of clinical environments due to the advancement of novel instruments. Seismocardiography (SCG is one of the vital components that could develop such a monitoring system. Although SCG has been presented with a lower accuracy, this novel cardiac indicator has been steadily proposed over traditional methods such as electrocardiography (ECG. Thus, it is necessary to develop an enhanced method by combining the significant cardiac indicators. In this study, the six-axis signals of accelerometer and gyroscope were measured and integrated by the L2 normalization and multi-dimensional kineticardiography (MKCG approaches, respectively. The waveforms of accelerometer and gyroscope were standardized and combined via ensemble averaging, and the heart rate was calculated from the dominant frequency. Thirty participants (15 females were asked to stand or sit in relaxed and aroused conditions. Their SCG was measured during the task. As a result, proposed method showed higher accuracy than traditional SCG methods in all measurement conditions. The three main contributions are as follows: (1 the ensemble averaging enhanced heart rate estimation with the benefits of the six-axis signals; (2 the proposed method was compared with the previous SCG method that employs fewer-axis; and (3 the method was tested in various measurement conditions for a more practical application.

  2. Meeting the 2020 American Graduation Initiative (AGI) Goal of Increasing Postsecondary Graduation Rates and Completions: A Macro Perspective of Community College Student Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotamraju, Pradeep; Blackman, Orville

    2011-01-01

    The paper uses the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data system (IPEDS) data to simulate the 2020 American Graduation Initiative (AGI) goal introduced by President Obama in the summer of 2009. We estimate community college graduation rates and completion numbers under different scenarios that include the following sets of variables: (a) internal…

  3. How participants report their health status: cognitive interviews of self-rated health across race/ethnicity, gender, age, and educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Dykema, Jennifer; Croes, Kenneth D; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2017-10-04

    Self-rated health (SRH) is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants' explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian), gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants' answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes) and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned-corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health status and highlights potential differences in these processes across

  4. How participants report their health status: cognitive interviews of self-rated health across race/ethnicity, gender, age, and educational attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Garbarski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants’ explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Methods Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian, gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants’ answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Results Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned—corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. Conclusion This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health

  5. Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability are Correlated with Purpose in Life and Degree of Optimism in Anxiety Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihoon; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Although heart rate variability (HRV) may be a crucial marker of mental health, how it is related to positive psychological factors (i.e. attitude to life and positive thinking) is largely unknown. Here we investigated the correlation of HRV linear and nonlinear dynamics with psychological scales that measured degree of optimism and happiness in patients with anxiety disorders. Results showed that low- to high-frequency HRV ratio (LF/HF) was increased and the HRV HF parameter was decreased in subjects who were more optimistic and who felt happier in daily living. Nonlinear analysis also showed that HRV dispersion and regulation were significantly correlated with the subjects' optimism and purpose in life. Our findings showed that HRV properties might be related to degree of optimistic perspectives on life and suggests that HRV markers of autonomic nervous system function could reflect positive human mind states.

  6. HRD Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the growing movement toward accreditation for human resources development professionals. She covers the issue of diversity, undergraduate versus graduate degrees, and future trends. (CH)

  7. Strain rate dependence of twinning at 450 Degree-Sign C and its effect on microstructure of an extruded magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q., E-mail: qma@cavs.msstate.edu [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Li, B.; Oppedal, A.L.; Whittington, W.R.; Horstemeyer, S.J.; Marin, E.B.; Wang, P.T. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Horstemeyer, M.F. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Deformation twinning in magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures has received relatively little attention because it is generally deemed that dislocation slip dominates plastic deformation. In this work, twinning at 450 Degree-Sign C in an extruded Mg-Al-Mn magnesium alloy (AM30) was studied by interrupted compression tests at various strain rates within a practical range for lab-scale extrusion (<1.0 s{sup -1}). Microstructure and texture evolution were examined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) at different strain levels. The results show that sporadic twins started to appear at strain rate of 0.1 s{sup -1}, whereas profuse twinning was activated at strain rates of 0.5 and 0.8 s{sup -1}. The deformation twins quickly lost original morphology because of dynamic recrystallization. These results show that deformation twinning has a significant effect on microstructural and texture evolution of wrought Mg alloys at elevated temperatures within practical strain rate range.

  8. The fiscal impacts of college attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Philip A. Trostel

    2007-01-01

    This study quantifies one important part of the economic return to public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates generally pay much more in taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also generally much less for college graduates than for those without a college education. Indeed, over an average lifetime, total government spending per college degree is negative. That is, direct savings...

  9. Decision-Tree Analysis for Predicting First-Time Pass/Fail Rates for the NCLEX-RN® in Associate Degree Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Bennett, Sean

    2016-08-01

    Little evidence shows the use of decision-tree algorithms in identifying predictors and analyzing their associations with pass rates for the NCLEX-RN(®) in associate degree nursing students. This longitudinal and retrospective cohort study investigated whether a decision-tree algorithm could be used to develop an accurate prediction model for the students' passing or failing the NCLEX-RN. This study used archived data from 453 associate degree nursing students in a selected program. The chi-squared automatic interaction detection analysis of the decision trees module was used to examine the effect of the collected predictors on passing/failing the NCLEX-RN. The actual percentage scores of Assessment Technologies Institute®'s RN Comprehensive Predictor(®) accurately identified students at risk of failing. The classification model correctly classified 92.7% of the students for passing. This study applied the decision-tree model to analyze a sequence database for developing a prediction model for early remediation in preparation for the NCLEXRN. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(8):454-457.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Closing the gaps to eliminate mothertochild transmission of HIV MTCT in South Africa: Understanding MTCT case rates factors that hinder the monitoring and attainment of targets and potential game changers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Feucht

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ninety percent of the world’s HIV-positive pregnant women live in 22 countries. These 22 countries, including South Africa (SA have prioritised the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT. Since 2016 all 22 countries recommend lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women. To measure South African national, provincial and district-level progress towards attaining EMTCT, we analysed the number of in utero (IU paedatric HIV infections per 100 000 live births (IU case rate, and synthesised factors hindering the monitoring of EMTCT progress and attainment from the viewpoint of provincial and district-level healthcare managers and implementers. We highlight potential innovations to strengthen health systems and improve EMTCT programme delivery. Methods. We reviewed national-, provincial- and district-level birth HIV testing data from routine National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS records between April 2016 and March 2017. To obtain a qualitative perspective from healthcare managers and implementers, we synthesised information from the nine 2016 provincial-level EMTCT stock-taking workshops. These workshops involve key provincial and district-level staff, mentors and supporting partners. Lastly, we highlight potential innovations presented at these workshops to overcome operational challenges. Results. The national IU mother-to-child transmission (MTCT rate was 0.9%, which translated to an IU case rate of 245 HIV-positive neonates per 100 000 live births. Provincial IU percent MTCT risk ranged from 0.6% to 1.3%, with IU case rates ranging between 168 and 325 cases per 100 000 live births. District-level IU percent MTCT risk ranged from 0.4% to 1.9%. Potential game changers include: pre-conception counselling to optimise maternal-partner health, weekly dissemination of HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR and viral load reports from the NHLS to specific individuals who

  11. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The era of Open Access (OA publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. Design: We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF are calculated. After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication, we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Results: Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts. The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both. The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45. Conclusion : We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the

  12. Individual differences in heart rate variability predict the degree of slowing during response inhibition and initiation in the presence of emotional stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos-Miltiadis eKrypotos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is a hallmark of executive control and crucial to support flexible behaviour in a constantly changing environment. Recently, it has been shown that response inhibition is influenced by the presentation of emotional stimuli (Verbruggen and De Houwer, 2007. Healthy individuals typically differ in the degree to which they are able to regulate their emotional state, but it remains unknown whether individual differences in emotion regulation (ER may alter the interplay between emotion and response inhibition. Here we address this issue by testing healthy volunteers who were equally divided in groups with high and low Heart Rate Variability (HRV during rest, a physiological measure that serves as proxy of emotion regulation. Both groups performed an emotional stop-signal task, in which negative high arousing pictures served as negative emotional stimuli and neutral low arousing pictures served as neutral non-emotional stimuli. We found that individuals with high HRV activated and inhibited their responses faster compared to individuals with low HRV, but only in the presence of negative stimuli. No group differences emerged for the neutral stimuli. Thus, individuals with low HRV are more susceptible to the adverse effects of negative emotion on response initiation and inhibition. The present research corroborates the idea that the presentation of emotional stimuli may interfere with inhibition and it also adds to previous research by demonstrating that the aforementioned relationship varies for individuals differing in HRV. We suggest that focusing on individual differences in HRV and its associative ER may shed more light on the dynamic interplay between emotion and cognition.

  13. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  14. A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Temple, Judy A

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services. To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level. This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015. The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years). Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher. A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1

  15. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…

  16. The Effect of Community College Enrollment on Bachelor's Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Rouse [Rouse, C. E. (1995). "Democratization or diversion--the effect of community-colleges on educational-attainment." "Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 13"(2), 217-224] finds that enrollment in a community college may divert students from attaining a bachelor's degree. However, this result may be due to selection…

  17. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Shi

    Full Text Available The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years.We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78, social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3 and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8. We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009 and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders.In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease, consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.

  18. Polygenic Influence on Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Domingue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to uncover the genetic architecture of educational attainment. We build on this work using genome-wide data from siblings in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health. We measure the genetic predisposition of siblings to educational attainment using polygenic scores. We then test how polygenic scores are related to social environments and educational outcomes. In Add Health, genetic predisposition to educational attainment is patterned across the social environment. Participants with higher polygenic scores were more likely to grow up in socially advantaged families. Even so, the previously published genetic associations appear to be causal. Among pairs of siblings, the sibling with the higher polygenic score typically went on to complete more years of schooling as compared to their lower-scored co-sibling. We found subtle differences between sibling fixed-effect estimates of the genetic effect versus those based on unrelated individuals.

  19. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...

  20. Reduced temperature (22 degrees C) results in enhancement of cell killing and neoplastic transformation in noncycling HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells irradiated with low-dose-rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of reduced temperature (22 degrees C) or serum deprivation during low-dose-rate (0.66 cGy/min) γ irradiation on cell killing and neoplastic transformation has been examined using the HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cell system. The reduced temperature stops progression of these cells through the cell cycle while serum deprivation slows down cell turnover markedly. The data demonstrate an enhancement in both of the end points when cells are held at 22 degrees C compared to parallel experiments done at 37 degrees C. In operational terms, the decreased survival and increased neoplastic transformation are consistent with our earlier hypothesis of a higher probability of misrepair at reduced temperature. The interpretation that this damage enhancement was associated with the reduced temperature, and not the fact that the cells were noncycling, was supported by the results of experiments performed with cells cultured at 37 degrees C in serum-free medium for 35 h prior to and then during the 12.24 h low-dose-rate radiation exposure. Under these conditions, cell cycle progression, as shown by reduction in growth rate and dual-parameter flow cytometric analysis, was considerable inhibited (cell cycle time increased from 20 h to 40 h), and there was no significant enhancement of cell killing or neoplastic transformation. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography in a population unselected for degree of coronary artery calcification and without heart rate modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-J.; Hsu, J.-C.; Lai, Y.-J.; Wang, K.-L.; Lee, J.-Y.; Li, A.-H.; Chu, S.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To assess the ability of coronary angiography performed using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) to evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population with unselected heart rates and extensive coronary calcification. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients at intermediate to high risk for CAD underwent both DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) within 30 days. No beta blockers were administered prior to imaging. Image quality and quantitatively stenosis of all coronary segments with a diameter ≥1.5 mm were accessed. Patients were stratified according to mean heart rate (<70 versus ≥70 bpm) and heart rate variability (<10 versus ≥10 bpm). DSCT detection of coronary stenosis by segment, vessel, and patient characteristics were compared to the reference standard of ICA. Results: Diagnostic accuracy for all patients was high regarding sensitivity (97%), positive predictive value (PPV, 84.2%), and negative predictive value (NPV, 83.3%) but low regarding specificity (45.5%) with a moderate interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.50). The accuracy for vessel-based diagnosis was high regarding sensitivity (96.6%), specificity (80.8%), PPV (80.3%), and NPV (96.7%). The segment-based diagnostic results revealed a moderate interobserver agreement for image quality and sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for all segments of 66.9, 97.8, 90.8, and 89.9%, respectively. Conclusion: DSCT coronary angiography has high diagnostic accuracy in assessing CAD among patients at intermediate to high risk without using heart rate-modulating premedication. DSCT is not superior to ICA for diagnosis of calcified segments.

  2. Tiotropium improves lung function, exacerbation rate, and asthma control, independent of baseline characteristics including age, degree of airway obstruction, and allergic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstjens, Huib A M; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Tashkin, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    performed in parallel in patients with severe symptomatic asthma. Exploratory subgroup analyses of peak forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), trough FEV1, time to first severe exacerbation, time to first episode of asthma worsening, and seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire responder rate were......BACKGROUND: Many patients with asthma remain symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium add-on to ICS plus a LABA has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbation risk in patients with symptomatic...... asthma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the efficacy of tiotropium add-on therapy is dependent on patients' baseline characteristics. METHODS: Two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, twin trials (NCT00772538 and NCT00776984) of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to ICS plus a LABA were...

  3. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  4. Targeting the Real Exchange Rate; Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Végh Gramont; Guillermo Calvo; Carmen Reinhart

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of policies aimed at setting a more depreciated level of the real exchange rate. An intertemporal optimizing model suggests that, in the absence of changes in fiscal policy, a more depreciated level of the real exchange can only be attained temporarily. This can be achieved by means of higher inflation and/or higher real interest rates, depending on the degree of capital mobility. Evidence for Brazil, Chile, and Colombia supports the mo...

  5. The Heterogeneous Impacts of Business Cycles on Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffy-Ramirez, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fluctuations in the unemployment rate before high school graduation on educational attainment measured 30 years later. I find evidence that important heterogeneity is masked by estimating average effects across the ability distribution. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this analysis…

  6. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal) compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nora K; Nathan, Romil; Ahmed, Yasin K; Shidham, Vinod B

    2014-01-01

    The era of Open Access (OA) publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal) were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology) using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF) are calculated). After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication), we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts). The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P citation than the publications in the traditional non-OA journals in the field of cytopathology over a 5 year period (2007-2011). However, this increase was statistically insignificant if the meeting abstracts were excluded from the analysis. Overall, the rates of citation for OA and non-OA were slightly higher to comparable.

  7. The impact of attaining the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma on academic performance in bioscience higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Yhnell, E; Wood, H; Baker, M.D; Amici-Dargan, S; Taylor, C; Randerson, P; Shore, A

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact of attaining the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels on overall university degree performance in comparison to attaining four GCE A-Levels, in th...

  8. Implications of Educational Attainment Trends for Labor Market Outcomes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Well-educated workers have higher wages, higher wage growth, and lower unemployment rates than workers with lower levels of educational attainment. While earnings have traditionally grown with educational attainment, the gaps have become more pronounced in recent years. While returns to education have increased, this research shows that…

  9. Postsecondary Educational Attainment among Whites and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfle, Lee M.

    Interracial differences in the educational attainment process between whites and blacks were examined, using Joreskog and Sorbom's (1981) general method for the analysis of covariance structures. The basic model of educational attainment considers education to be a function of father's occupational status and education, mother's education,…

  10. Inequality and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…

  11. Educational attainment and health outcomes: Data from the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M; Fang, Zhengyi; Kirby, James

    2017-06-01

    Using data from the nationally representative Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), we explored the extent to which health care utilization and health risk-taking, together with previously examined mediators, can explain the education-health gradient above and beyond what can be explained by previously examined mediators such as age, race, and poverty status. Health was measured using the Physical Component Score (PCS) from the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form (SF-12). Educational attainment was self-reported and categorized as 1 (less than high school), 2 (high school graduate or GED), 3 (some college), 4 (bachelor's degree), and 5 (graduate degree). In bivariate analysis, we found systematic graded relationships between educational attainment and health including, SF-12 PCS scores, self-rated health, and activity limitations. In addition, education was associated with having more office visits and outpatient visits and less risk tolerance. Those with less education were also more likely to be uninsured throughout the year. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that adjustment for age, race, poverty status and marital status explained part, but not nearly all, of the relationship between education and health. Adding a variety of variables on health care and attitudes to the models provided no additional explanatory power. This pattern of results persisted even after stratifying on the number of self-reported chronic conditions. Our findings provide no evidence that access to and use of health care explains the education-health gradient. However, more research is necessary to conclusively rule out medical care as a mediator between education and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    , empirical data relevant to the development of the degree adverb function is presented and possible relevant constructions identified. It is argued that the degree adverb function of that possibly occurs later than the historical dictionaries indicate. The degree adverb function of this is challenging...

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Factors Related to Educators' Pursuit of Doctoral Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Reid, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors for professional doctoral degree attainment among educators. The researcher examined the following intrinsic motivating factors: personal attainment, skill and ability enhancement, and goals. The researcher also included the following extrinsic factors:…

  14. Women of lower educational attainment have lower food involvement and eat less fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, M.; Lawrence, W.; Woadden, J.

    2008-01-01

    Women who leave school with few or no educational qualifications are less likely to have diets that meet current recommendations than women who attain more qualifications at school. We hypothesise that lower 'food involvement', meaning that food has a lower level of importance in their lives......, explains the poorer quality diets of women of lower educational attainment. We administered Bell and Marshall [(2003). The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: Scale development and validation. Appetite, 40, 235-244.] Food Involvement scale to 242 women of varied educational attainment......, of whom 127 were also asked how often they ate fruit and vegetables. Women's food involvement decreased with decreasing educational attainment. Forty-two percent of women who had no educational qualifications were in the lowest quarter of the food involvement score, compared with 12% of women with degrees...

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  16. Attaining Success for Beginning Special Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marjorie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)

  17. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives

  18. Gender Matters: An Examination of Differential Effects of the College Experience on Degree Attainment in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayles, Joy Gaston; Ampaw, Frim D.

    2011-01-01

    Although more women than men are enrolled in college within the United States, women remain underrepresented in critical areas of study such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This is particularly concerning given that STEM fields of study are vital to the economic growth and workforce development within the United…

  19. 40 CFR 471.52 - Effluent limitations representating the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.051 Fluoride 8.09 3.59 Molybdenum 0.684 0.303 (i) Metal powder production wastewater. Subpart E... Fluoride 16.7 7.42 Molybdenum 1.42 0.627 (j) Metal powder production floor wash wastewater—Subpart E—BAT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (k) Metal powder pressing spent lubricants...

  20. The conditions for attaining the greatest degree of system stability with strict generator excitation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Ekimova, M.M.; Truspekova, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Expressions are derived for an idealized model of a complex electric power system; these expressions define the greatest level of stability of an electric power system and the optimum combination of stabilization factors with automatic excitation control in a single power system. The possibility of increasing the level of stability of an electric power system with simultaneous strict automatic excitation control of the synychronous generators in several power systems is analyzed.

  1. Does Sibship Size Affect Educational Attainment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper implements a test of the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH) stating that sibship size has a negative causal effect on educational attainment. Most existing studies using conventional methods support the RDH. This paper implements an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach to testing...... the claim of a negative causal relationship between sibship size and educational attainment. Analyzing data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the empirical analysis demonstrates, first, that conventional OLS regression estimates sibship size to have a negative effect on educational attainment equal...... to about one-tenth of a year of schooling per sibling. Second, when applying the IV method to account for potential endogeneity, the negative effect of sibship size increases substantially to about one-third of a year of schooling per sibling....

  2. Groundwater arsenic and education attainment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael P; Sharmin, Raisa

    2015-10-26

    Thousands of groundwater tube wells serving millions of Bangladeshis are arsenic contaminated. This study investigates the effect of these wells on the education attainment and school attendance of youths who rely on those wells for drinking water. The analysis combines data from the 2006 Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2006 MICS) and the National Hydrochemical Survey (NHS) of Bangladeshi tube wells' contamination conducted between 1998 and 2000. The study uses multiple regression analysis to estimate the differences in education attainment and school attendance among the following: (i) youths who live where tube wells are safe, (ii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who report drinking from an arsenic-free source, and (iii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source. Controlling for other determinants of education attainment and school attendance, young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe (by Bangladeshis standards) but who report drinking from arsenic-free sources are found to have the same education attainment (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and school attendance (among 6- to 10-year-olds), on average, as corresponding young Bangladeshi males who live where wells are safe. But young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe and who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source attain, on average, a half-year less education (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and attend school, on average, five to seven fewer days a year (among 6- to 10-year-olds) than do other Bagladeshi males of those ages. The estimated effects for females are of the same sign but much smaller in magnitude. Bangladeshi public health measures to shift drinking from unsafe to safe wells not only advance good health but also increase males' education attainment.

  3. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  4. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  5. National Differences in Intelligence and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    We examine the correlations between the national IQs of Lynn and Vanhanen (Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations". Westport, CT: Praeger. Westport, CT: Praeger, Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2006). "IQ and global inequality". Athens, GA: Washington Summit Books.) and educational attainment scores in math and science for 10-…

  6. Educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on this, the study examines educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives practices among working women in Lagos State University. Survey design was adopted for the study. Using Stratified and simple random sampling techniques, quantitative data was gathered through the administration of ...

  7. Educational Attainment: Success to the Successful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Peter; Gould, David; Smith, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Systems archetypes are patterns of structure found in systems that are helpful in understanding some of the dynamics within them. The intent of this study was to examine educational attainment data using the success-to-the-successful archetype as a model to see if it helps to explain the inequality observed in the data. Data covering 1990 to 2009…

  8. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  9. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  10. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  11. The Fiscal Impacts of College Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study quantifies one part of the return to U.S. public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates pay much more taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also much less for college graduates than for those without a college education.…

  12. On educational attainment in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duczynski, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2001), s. 163-173 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies * educational attainment Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  13. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  14. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  15. Pathways to Science and Engineering Bachelor's Degrees for Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A

    2014-02-18

    Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in educational attainment and the near-gender parity in math performance, women pursue science and engineering (S/E) degrees at much lower rates than their male peers do. Current efforts to increase the number of women in these fields focus on different life-course periods but lack a clear understanding of the importance of these periods and how orientations toward S/E fields develop over time. In this article, we examine the gendered pathways to a S/E bachelor's degree from middle school to high school and college based on a representative sample from the 1973 to 1974 birth cohort. Using a counterfactual decomposition analysis, we determine the relative importance of these different life-course periods and thereby inform the direction of future research and policy. Our findings confirm previous research that highlights the importance of early encouragement for gender differences in S/E degrees, but our findings also attest to the high school years as a decisive period for the gender gap, while challenging the focus on college in research and policy. Indeed, if female high school seniors had the same orientation toward and preparation for S/E fields as their male peers, the gender gap in S/E degrees would be closed by as much as 82 percent.

  16. Pathways to Science and Engineering Bachelor’s Degrees for Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscha Legewie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in educational attainment and the near–gender parity in math performance, women pursue science and engineering (S/E degrees at much lower rates than their male peers do. Current efforts to increase the number of women in these fields focus on different life-course periods but lack a clear understanding of the importance of these periods and how orientations toward S/E fields develop over time. In this article, we examine the gendered pathways to a S/E bachelor’s degree from middle school to high school and college based on a representative sample from the 1973 to 1974 birth cohort. Using a counterfactual decomposition analysis, we determine the relative importance of these different life-course periods and thereby inform the direction of future research and policy. Our findings confirm previous research that highlights the importance of early encouragement for gender differences in S/E degrees, but our findings also attest to the high school years as a decisive period for the gender gap, while challenging the focus on college in research and policy. Indeed, if female high school seniors had the same orientation toward and preparation for S/E fields as their male peers, the gender gap in S/E degrees would be closed by as much as 82 percent.

  17. The Influence of the Pell Grant on Four Year Degree Production: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David S., II

    2014-01-01

    An increased amount of energy and effort has been focused on higher education and degree attainment in the United States. President Obama has recently tied the Pell grants into the discussion as a central point in his proposed system of higher education accountability. However, the influence of the Pell grant on degree production has not been…

  18. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  19. Personality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: Evidence from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Renee; Bauldry, Shawn; Schultz, Michael A.; Steinhoff, Annekatrin; Shanahan, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Research based in the United States, with its relatively open educational system, has found that personality mediates the relationship between parents’ and child’s educational attainment and this meditational pattern is especially beneficial to students from less-educated households. Yet in highly structured, competitive educational systems, personal characteristics may not predict attainment or may be more or less consequential at different points in the educational career. We examine the salience of personality in the educational attainment process in the German educational system. Data come from a longitudinal sample of 682 seventeen to twenty-five year-olds (54% female) from the 2005 and 2015 German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Results show that adolescent personality traits — openness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness — are associated with educational attainment, but personality plays a negligible role in the intergenerational transmission of education. Personality is influential before the decision about the type of secondary degree that a student will pursue (during adolescence). After that turning point, when students have entered different pathways through the system, personality is less salient. Cross-national comparisons in a life course framework broaden the scope of current research on non-cognitive skills and processes of socioeconomic attainment, alerting the analyst to the importance of both institutional structures and the changing importance of these skills at different points in the life course. PMID:28707154

  20. Personality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: Evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Renee; Bauldry, Shawn; Schultz, Michael A; Steinhoff, Annekatrin; Shanahan, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Research based in the United States, with its relatively open educational system, has found that personality mediates the relationship between parents' and child's educational attainment and this mediational pattern is especially beneficial to students from less-educated households. Yet in highly structured, competitive educational systems, personality characteristics may not predict attainment or may be more or less consequential at different points in the educational career. We examine the salience of personality in the educational attainment process in the German educational system. Data come from a longitudinal sample of 682 17 to 25 year-olds (54% female) from the 2005 and 2015 German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Results show that adolescent personality traits-openness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness-are associated with educational attainment, but personality plays a negligible role in the intergenerational transmission of education. Personality is influential before the decision about the type of secondary degree that a student will pursue (during adolescence). After that turning point, when students have entered different pathways through the system, personality is less salient. Cross-national comparisons in a life course framework broaden the scope of current research on non-cognitive skills and processes of socioeconomic attainment, alerting the analyst to the importance of both institutional structures and the changing importance of these skills at different points in the life course.

  1. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W; Damian, Rodica

    2016-01-01

    People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health-including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents' attractiveness-and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds than for people from advantaged

  3. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Monique de Haan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  4. Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    John Cawley; C. Katharina Spiess

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate...

  5. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  6. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Booth; Hiau Joo Kee

    2005-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their childr...

  8. Identification of Gene Loci That Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hellard, Stéphanie; Wang, Yunpeng; Witoelar, Aree

    2017-01-01

    . Here we investigated the shared genetic architecture between SCZ and educational attainment, which is regarded as a "proxy phenotype" for cognitive abilities, but may also reflect other traits. We applied a conditional false discovery rate (condFDR) method to GWAS of SCZ (n = 82 315), college...... completion ("College," n = 95 427), and years of education ("EduYears," n = 101 069). Variants associated with College or EduYears showed enrichment of association with SCZ, demonstrating polygenic overlap. This was confirmed by an increased replication rate in SCZ. By applying a condFDR threshold ... of these loci had effects in opposite directions. Our results provide evidence for polygenic overlap between SCZ and educational attainment, and identify novel pleiotropic loci. Other studies have reported genetic overlap between SCZ and cognition, or SCZ and educational attainment, with negative correlation...

  9. Impact of Self-Regulatory Influences on Writing Course Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Bandura, Albert

    1994-01-01

    Using path analysis, studied the role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards in writing-course attainment of 95 college freshmen. Different facets of perceived self-efficacy played a key role in writing-course attainment. (SLD)

  10. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  11. Degrees of democraticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bergström

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342

  12. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-03-01

    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  13. 75 FR 67303 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM 10... proposes to determine that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur/Douglas nonattainment areas in Arizona... Hayden, Nogales and Paul Spur/Douglas nonattainment areas are not currently attaining the PM 10 standard...

  14. Ways and means of attaining minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, D.

    1993-01-01

    Means for attaining minimum nuclear deterrence include negotiations, unilateral measures, changes of doctrines, priorities with respect to armaments concerned, co-management of deterrence. Deterrence is a positive relationship related to non-proliferation. It is helpful because it has to be seen in the context of overall international security. Nuclear weapons have a significance which is real. The treat they pose should be dealt with in order to develop a better and safer world, and in that context the security needs of the nations should be provided, meaning truly improved security situation

  15. Relation of Opportunity to Learn Advanced Math to the Educational Attainment of Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew; Byun, Soo-yong; Smiley, Whitney S.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined the relation of advanced math course taking to the educational attainment of rural youth. We used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002. Regression analyses demonstrated that when previous math achievement is accounted for, rural students take advanced math at a significantly lower rate than urban students.…

  16. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  17. The long-term consequences of parental divorce for children's educational attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bernardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper we study the long-term consequences of parental divorce in a comparative perspective. Special attention is paid to the heterogeneity of the consequences of divorce for children's educational attainment by parental education. Objective: The study attempts to establish whether the parental breakup penalty for tertiary education attainment varies by socioeconomic background, and whether it depends on the societal context. Methods: Data are drawn from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey, covering 14 countries. We estimate multi-level random-slope models for the completion of tertiary education. Results: The results show that parental divorce is negatively associated with children's tertiary education attainment. Across the 14 countries considered in this study, children of separated parents have a probability of achieving a university degree that is on average seven percentage points lower than that of children from intact families. The breakup penalty is stronger for children of highly educated parents, and is independent of the degree of diffusion of divorce. In countries with early selection into educational tracks, divorce appears to have more negative consequences for the children of poorly educated mothers. Conclusions: For children in most countries, parental divorce is associated with a lower probability of attaining a university degree. The divorce penalty is larger for children with highly educated parents. This equalizing pattern is accentuated in countries with a comprehensive educational system. Comments: Future research on the heterogeneous consequences of parental divorce should addressthe issue of self-selection into divorce, which might lead to an overestimation of the negative effect of divorce on students with highly educated parents. It should also further investigate the micro mechanisms underlying the divorce penalty.

  18. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouda, Jan C; van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2013-12-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives and teaching methods for the attainment of professional expertise in patient education. Firstly, we propose to use functional learning objectives derived from the goals and strategies of clinical communication. Secondly, we recommend using teaching and assessment methods which: (1) contain stimulating learning tasks with opportunities for immediate feedback, reflection and corrections, and (2) give ample opportunity for repetition, gradual refinements and practice in challenging situations. Video-on-the-job fits these requirements and can be used to improve the competency in patient education of residents and medical staff in clinical practice. However, video-on-the-job can only be successful if the working environment supports the teaching and learning of communication and if medical staff which supervises the residents, is motivated to improve their own communication and didactic skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Adolescents’ Motivation for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  20. DNA methylation signatures of educational attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jenny; Bonder, Marc Jan; Dekkers, Koen F.; Nivard, Michel G.; van Iterson, Maarten; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beekman, Marian; van der Spek, Ashley; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Franke, Lude; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.; BIOS consortium

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment is a key behavioural measure in studies of cognitive and physical health, and socioeconomic status. We measured DNA methylation at 410,746 CpGs (N = 4152) and identified 58 CpGs associated with educational attainment at loci characterized by pleiotropic functions shared with neuronal, immune and developmental processes. Associations overlapped with those for smoking behaviour, but remained after accounting for smoking at many CpGs: Effect sizes were on average 28% smaller and genome-wide significant at 11 CpGs after adjusting for smoking and were 62% smaller in never smokers. We examined sources and biological implications of education-related methylation differences, demonstrating correlations with maternal prenatal folate, smoking and air pollution signatures, and associations with gene expression in cis, dynamic methylation in foetal brain, and correlations between blood and brain. Our findings show that the methylome of lower-educated people resembles that of smokers beyond effects of their own smoking behaviour and shows traces of various other exposures.

  1. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.; Litvak, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  2. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  3. Higher education attainment does not improve the adult employment outcomes of adolescents with ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to  not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024.  The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.

  4. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2017-05-01

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  5. Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.

  6. Exploring the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors: Motivators and strategies for achieving baccalaureate attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, Sandy C.

    Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.

  7. Mexican Ancestry, Immigrant Generation, and Educational Attainment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Morgan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After introducing alternative perspectives on assimilation and acculturation, we use the 2002-2012 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study to model differences in educational attainment for students sampled as high school sophomores in 2002. We focus on patterns observed for the growing Mexican immigrant population, analyzing separately the trajectories of 1st, 1.5th, 2nd, and 3rd+ generation Mexican immigrant students, in comparison to 3rd+ generation students who self-identify as non-Hispanic whites and students who self-identify as non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans. The results suggest that the dissonant acculturation mechanism associated with the segmented assimilation perspective is mostly unhelpful for explaining patterns of educational attainment, especially for the crucial groups of 1.5th and 2nd generation Mexican immigrant students. Instead, standard measures of family background can account for large portions of group differences in bachelor’s degree attainment, with or without additional adjustments for behavioral commitment to schooling, occupational plans, and educational expectations. The broad structure of inequality in the United States, as well as the rising costs of bachelor’s degrees, should be the primary source of concern when considering the prospects for the incorporation of the children of recent Mexican immigrants into the mainstream.

  8. Academic Attainment in Students with Dyslexia in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T E

    2015-11-01

    This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  10. Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-06-01

    Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women

  11. Der Einfluss von Anonymität in der Lehrevaluation durch Studierende [The Effects of Anonymity on Student Ratings of Teaching and Course Quality in a Bachelor Degree Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner, Noemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Research Question: Are there any clear differences between the outcomes of anonymous and personalised student evaluations of teaching quality?Methods: During a two-year period students were randomly divided into two separate groups, “anonymous” and “personalised”, for end-of-module evaluations. The quality of the module was assessed using a standardised questionnaire. Additionally, students were given the option to add “further comments” if they wanted to highlight specifics.These optional comments were independently assessed by three people, using a five-dimensional rating instrument: positive/negative; differentiated/absolute; naming a person/general; containing an order/neutral; visually accentuated/blank.The database consisted of 615 evaluation forms, of which 306 were completed anonymously. In order to identify whether there were any differences between the anonymous and personalised data, a multivariate variance analysis was performed. Based on the scale, the answers to the questions and the quality of the comments were evaluated. Furthermore, an assessment was made to determine if there were any differences in the number of optional comments between the two groups. Results: No significant differences were identified in the informative quality of data between the anonymous and personalised student evaluations. However, students in the personalised group had a tendency to include more details in their written answers.Conclusion: Personalised evaluations do not generate more biased results in terms of social desirability, as long as the evaluation concept is characterised by a closed-circle process and is transparent. In other words, it is imperative that the outcomes of the evaluation are reported back to the students. Moreover, there has to be an opportunity for students to discuss any further suggestions and/or future desires in an open environment. In this way the students respect and understand that their feedback

  12. Progress of African Americans in higher education attainment: The widening gender gap and its current and future implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadu J. Kaba

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research argues that despite all of the obstacles that African Americans have confronted in the history of the United States, they have made substantial progress in higher education attainment from the 1970s to the beginning of the 21st century. It reveals that the rise in attainment of college and university degrees has resulted in a substantial increase in living standards and that African Americans are making important economic, social and political contributions to the United States. I present several reasons why black males are not performing as well as black females in higher education attainment. Analyses are also presented regarding the current and future implications of the growing gap between black males and black females.

  13. Glassceramics frits attainment from industrial solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Matheus Chianca

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the residue obtained from the process of aluminum metal extraction activities, a great interest process, because of Brazil own some of the biggest bauxite mineral reserves in all the world. As a useful choice for no residue generation, and a support for environmentally friendly technologies, this work studies the white dross residue (WDR), from the process of aluminum metal reduction by thermal plasma. The phase equilibrium diagram of Al 2 O 3 -Ca O-SiO 2 system was used to calculate the compositions. The WDR were incorporated in a ceramic product without modifying its principal characteristics. The fusion and devitrification treatments were studied. XRD (X-ray diffractometry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (transformed Fourier infrared) were used to investigate the glass and glassceramic samples. These techniques showed that is possible to get glassceramic with up to 30 mass% of WDR after molten at 1300 deg C and annealed at 900 deg C. In addition, the WDR showed to be a promising material in attainment of crystalline phases in less times of heat treatment for annealing. (author)

  14. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  15. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  16. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003. Population Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    The population in the United States is becoming more educated, but significant differences in educational attainment remain with regard to age, sex, race, and origin. Nevertheless, the educational attainment of young adults (25 to 29 years), which provides a glimpse of our country's future, indicates dramatic improvement by groups who have…

  17. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to

  18. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  19. 76 FR 1532 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM 10... making final determinations that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur/Douglas nonattainment areas in... the Clean Air Act, that three Arizona ``moderate'' PM 10 nonattainment areas (Hayden, Nogales, and...

  20. 75 FR 67220 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM 10...: EPA has determined that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur/ Douglas nonattainment areas in Arizona... of a review of more recent ambient monitoring data, EPA has determined that the Hayden, Nogales, and...

  1. 75 FR 72964 - Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [R09-OAR-2010-0718; FRL-9233-1] Determinations of Attainment by the Applicable Attainment Date for the Hayden, Nogales, Paul Spur/Douglas PM10 Nonattainment... November 2, 2010 (75 FR 67220), direct final rule determining that the Hayden, Nogales, and Paul Spur...

  2. Maternal thyroid function and child educational attainment: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Haig, Caroline; McConnachie, Alex; Sattar, Naveed; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lindsay, Robert S

    2018-02-20

    To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. Prospective cohort study. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12). Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function. Five age-specific national curriculum assessments in 3580 children at entry stage assessment at 54 months, increasing up to 4461 children at their final school assessment at age 15. No strong evidence of clinically meaningful associations of first trimester free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels with entry stage assessment score or Standard Assessment Test scores at any of the key stages was found. Associations of maternal free thyroxine or thyroid stimulating hormone with the total number of General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs) passed (range 0-16) were all close to the null: free thyroxine, rate ratio per pmol/L 1.00 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.01); and thyroid stimulating hormone, rate ratio 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02). No important relationship was observed when more detailed capped scores of GCSEs allowing for both the number and grade of pass or when language, mathematics, and science performance were examined individually or when all educational assessments undertaken by an individual from school entry to leaving were considered. 200 (4.3%) mothers were newly identified as having hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism and 97 (2.1%) subclinical hyperthyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction attained an equivalent number of GCSEs and equivalent grades as children of mothers with euthyroidism. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy does not have a

  3. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Set our Master's degrees free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Rachael

    2010-04-01

    Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.

  5. RABR Analysis - Rating Degrees of Openness in Experimental Repertory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2017-01-01

    "Openness" in experimental music is an imprecise notion. Works may be characterised according to Random Access and Broadness. The first describes whether, and how much, elements may be played independently of a fixed sequence. The second, how much latitude can exist in the interpretation...

  6. Occupational Attainment as Risk Factor for Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease: A CREDOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Chunsoo; Park, Jin Hong; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seonwoo; Kim, Sangha; Chung, Jae Won; Kang, Hyo Shin; Lim, Shinn-Won; Choi, Junbae; Na, Duk L; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Hong; Han, Seol-Heui; Choi, Seong Hye; Kim, Sang Yun; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2017-01-01

    High occupational attainment has been known as a marker of cognitive reserve. Previous studies in the general population have shown that high occupational attainment is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, few studies have assessed the effect of occupational attainment on the clinical course of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we evaluated whether individuals with high occupational attainment show more frequent progression from MCI to AD. Participants (n = 961) with MCI were recruited from a nationwide, hospital-based multi-center cohort, and were followed for up to 60 months (median: 17.64, interquartile range [12.36, 29.28]). We used Cox regression for competing risks to analyze the effect of occupational attainment on development of AD, treating dementia other than AD as a competing risk. Among the 961 individuals with MCI, a total of 280 (29.1%) converted to dementia during the follow-up period. The risk of progression to AD was higher in the individuals with high occupational attainment after controlling for potential confounders (hazard ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.25-2.69, p = 0.002). High occupational attainment in individuals with MCI is an independent risk factor for higher progression rate of MCI to AD. This result suggests that the protective effect of high occupational attainment against cognitive decline disappears in the MCI stage, and that careful assessment of occupational history can yield important clinical information for prognosis in individuals with MCI.

  7. Educational Attainment and Gestational Weight Gain among U.S. Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K; Kazi, Chandni; Headen, Irene; Rehkopf, David H; Hendrick, C Emily; Patil, Divya; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Education is an important social determinant of many health outcomes, but the relationship between educational attainment and the amount of weight gained over the course of a woman's pregnancy (gestational weight gain [GWG]) has not been established clearly. We used data from 1979 through 2010 for women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) cohort (n = 6,344 pregnancies from 2,769 women). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the association between educational attainment and GWG adequacy (as defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), controlling for diverse social factors from across the life course (e.g., income, wealth, educational aspirations and expectations) and considering effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and prepregnancy overweight status. In most cases, women with more education had increased odds of gaining a recommended amount of gestational weight, independent of educational aspirations and educational expectations and relatively robust to sensitivity analyses. This trend manifested itself in a few different ways. Those with less education had higher odds of inadequate GWG than those with more education. Among those who were not overweight before pregnancy, those with less education had higher odds of excessive GWG than college graduates. Among women who were White, those with less than a high school degree had higher odds of excessive GWG than those with more education. The relationship between educational attainment and GWG is nuanced and nonlinear. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lian-Ming; Wu Xiang-Sheng; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS) level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the k min -degree (minimum degree) nodes and the k max -degree (maximum degree) nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links) in the hands of the richer (top best-connected) nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the k min -degree nodes is larger for larger λ and smaller k min or k max . The ratio of the k max -degree ones is larger for smaller λ and k max or larger k min . The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the k min -degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of k min . The ratio of the k max -degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k max , and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the ‘73/27 rule’). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  10. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelli

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  11. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  12. Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne McDougall

    1982-01-01

    According to March 1981 statistics from the Current Population Survey: (1) college graduates had the highest labor force participation rates, and high school dropouts, the lowest, and (2) computerization of the workplace supported this proportion. (CT)

  13. The system Cu-Rh-S at 900 degrees, 700 degrees, 540 degrees and 500 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2007-01-01

    Phase relations in the dry condensed system Cu-Rh-S were determined at 900, 700, 540 and 500 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, the system contains digenite, four rhodium sulfides (Rh17S15, Rh3S4, Rh2S3 and RhS similar to 3), three ternary sulfides (CuRh2S4, CuxRhS3+x and a fibrous sulfide in the range...

  14. Assessing the Factors Influencing Women Attainment of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the factors influencing the attainment of household food security in Ikwuano ... Data analysis utilized descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, ... had no access to credits, 71.7% had no contact with extension service.

  15. Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study investigated the strategies for ensuring effective delivery of Biology Education at the secondary school level ...

  16. Competencies to Attain a Joint, Interagency, Intergovernmental, and Multinational Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Ricky L

    2009-01-01

    .... With additional training and education in executive competencies and interpersonal skills, the FA 53 officer attains a JIIM perspective and is prepared to operate in the complex JIIM environment...

  17. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  18. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  19. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  20. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  1. Mengembangkan Self Concept Siswa Melalui Model Pembelajaran Concept Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumartini, Tina Sri

    2015-01-01

    Dalam pembelajaran matematika, siswa masih kurang memiliki self concept yang positif. Salah satu model pembelajaran yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengembangkan self concept siswa adalah model concept attainment. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perkembangan self concept siswa setelah mendapatkan model pembelajaran concept attainment. Penelitian ini berbentuk one shot case study. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa di salah satu SMK di Kabupaten Garut. Pengambilan sampel d...

  2. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More resea...

  3. 40 CFR 421.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... times. (d) SiCl4 purification wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and...) Sand drying wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and Hafnium... chlorination off-gas wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and Hafnium...

  4. 40 CFR 421.333 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2.387 1.108 Nickel 4.688 3.154 Ammonia (as N) 1,136.000 499.500 (d) SiCl4 purification wet air... air pollution control. BAT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory Pollutant or... 0.159 0.074 Nickel 0.312 0.210 Ammonia (as N) 75.710 33.280 (b) Sand chlorination off-gas wet air...

  5. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). 469.19 Section 469.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... application of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  6. 40 CFR 424.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 424.27 Section 424.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Furnaces and Other Smelting Operations With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.27 Effluent... conventional pollutant control technology. Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point...

  7. 40 CFR 424.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 424.22 Section 424.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Covered Electric Furnaces and Other Smelting Operations With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory... application of the best practicable control technology currently available. Except as provided in §§ 125.30...

  8. 40 CFR 424.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 424.42 Section 424.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.42 Effluent... practicable control technology currently available. Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, and...

  9. 40 CFR 424.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 424.12 Section 424.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.12 Effluent limitations... practicable control technology currently available. Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, and...

  10. 40 CFR 424.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 424.47 Section 424.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.47 Effluent limitations... conventional pollutant control technology. Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point...

  11. 40 CFR 424.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 424.17 Section 424.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.17 Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology. Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 469.29 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). 469.29 Section 469.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... by the application of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT). Except as provided in... of the best conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart B—Electronic Crystals BCT...

  13. 40 CFR 407.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.67 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  14. 40 CFR 407.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.77 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  15. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  16. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 426.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  19. 40 CFR 415.642 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.642 Effluent limitations....32 any existing point source subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Subpart BL—Cadmium Pigments...

  20. 40 CFR 415.342 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.342 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AH—Chrome Pigments Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum...

  1. 40 CFR 415.647 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.647 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  2. 40 CFR 415.643 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.643 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  3. 40 CFR 409.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... design, within the boundaries of all waste water treatment or retention facilities associated with the... a point source where the sugar beet processing capacity of the point source does not exceed 1090 kkg... maximum permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants when the process waste water discharge...

  4. 40 CFR 419.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Process category Process included Weighting factor Crude Atm crude distillationVacuum, crude distillation... 360.0 187.0 Oil and grease 16.2 8.5 Phenolic compounds 0.38 0.184 Ammonia as N 23.4 10.6 Sulfide 0.33... 1,000 bbl of feedstock) BOD5 17.9 9.1 TSS 12.5 8.0 COD 1 127.0 66.0 Oil and grease 5.7 3.0 Phenolic...

  5. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... units (q/sq m of products) Phosphorus 0.30 .30 English units (lb/1,000 sq ft of product) Phosphorus 0.06...

  6. 40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 TSS 150 50 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the... values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 pH...

  7. 40 CFR 418.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which may be discharged by a... exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 TSS 150 50 The total suspended solid limitation set...) Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus...

  8. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, which may be... pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which may be discharged by a point source subject to the... values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 (d...

  9. 40 CFR 422.52 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 TSS 150 50 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the... values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 pH...

  10. 40 CFR 418.13 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attained by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties which may be discharged by..., the following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties...) Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus...

  11. 40 CFR 426.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... units (g/kg of product) Phosphorus 0.05 .05 English units (lb/ton of product) Phosphorus 0.0001 .0001...

  12. 40 CFR 422.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 0.56 0.28...

  13. 40 CFR 422.53 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or properties, which may be discharged... section, the following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 (d) The concentration of pollutants...

  14. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by... Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— TSS 0.50 0.25 Total phosphorus (as P...

  15. 40 CFR 415.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.112 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. ...

  16. 40 CFR 471.51 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TSS 55.8 26.5 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (i) Metal powder production...) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (j) Metal powder production floor wash wastewater—Subpart E—BPT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (k) Metal powder pressing...

  17. 40 CFR 415.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...): There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. ...

  18. 40 CFR 471.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder atomized Chromium 0.970 0.393 Nickel 1.44 .970 Fluoride 156 69.2 (q) Annealing and solution heat... pollutants. (r) Wet air pollution control scrubber blowdown. Subpart C—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property...

  19. 40 CFR 471.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 51.1 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (q) Annealing and solution heat... wastewater pollutants. (r) Wet air pollution control scrubber blowdown. Subpart C—BPT Pollutant or pollutant...

  20. 40 CFR 420.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....00117 Nickel 0.00263 0.000876 (2) Batch, rod and wire. Subpart H Pollutant or pollutant property BAT... per 1,000 lb) of product Chromium 0.00175 0.000701 Nickel 0.00158 0.000526 (3) Batch, pipe and tube... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product Chromium 0.00709 0.00284 Nickel 0...

  1. 40 CFR 420.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.204 0.0876 Chromium 0.00292 0.00117 Nickel 0.00263 0.000876 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Batch, rod and wire. Subpart H Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...) of product TSS 0.123 0.0526 Chromium 0.00175 0.000701 Nickel 0.00158 0.000526 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the...

  2. 40 CFR 436.382 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Total Fe 2 mg/l 1 mg/l. pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Only that volume of water... capacity level and the normal operating level must be greater than the inches of rain representing the 10...

  3. 40 CFR 407.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....18 0.15 Pineapples 2.13 1.33 0.96 Plums 0.69 0.42 0.29 Raisins 0.43 0.28 0.21 Strawberries 1.79 1.06....33 0.25 Pineapples 3.85 2.76 1.81 Plums 1.24 0.87 0.54 Raisins 0.78 0.57 0.39 Strawberries 3.19 2.20...

  4. 40 CFR 471.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....125 0.055 Copper 0.698 0.367 Cyanide 0.107 0.044 Silver 0.151 0.063 (l) Wet air pollution control....048 Cyanide 0.014 0.006 Silver 0.020 0.008 (e) Drawing spent soap solutions. Subpart D—BAT Pollutant... off-pounds) of precious metals drawn with soap solutions Cadmium 0.001 0.0005 Copper 0.006 0.003...

  5. 40 CFR 471.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-forming wet air pollution control scrubber blowdown. Subpart A—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum... solutions. Subpart A—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/off-kg (pounds per million off-pound) of lead-tin-bismuth rolled with soap solutions Antimony 0...

  6. 40 CFR 471.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Shot-forming wet air pollution control scrubber blowdown. Subpart A—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property... 0.030 Lead 0.010 0.005 (b) Rolling spent soap solutions. Subpart A—BAT Pollutant or pollutant... lead-tin-bismuth rolled with soap solutions Antimony 0.120 0.055 Lead 0.018 0.009 (c) Drawing spent...

  7. 40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (l) Wet air pollution control scrubber... soap solutions. Subpart D—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/off-kg (pounds per million off-pounds) of precious metals drawn with soap solutions Cadmium 0...

  8. 40 CFR 419.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt processes (A) 5 21. Hydrofining 3 Total lube processes (L) 3 8. Catalytic reforming 10 Total... 0.102 Asphalt 0.226 0.055 Lube 1.055 0.257 Reforming and alkylation 0.377 0.092 Total chromium: Crude 0.030 0.011 Cracking and coking 0.340 0.118 Asphalt 0.183 0.064 Lube 0.855 0.297 Reforming and...

  9. 40 CFR 407.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production less than 7,264 kkg (8,000 tons) per year. [Metric units, kg/kkg of raw material; English units....84 0.56 Dehydrated onion/garlic 2.45 1.46 0.98 Dehydrated vegetables 2.98 1.76 1.21 Dry beans 2.50 1.51 1.07 Lima beans 3.68 2.19 1.51 Mushrooms 3.01 1.78 1.22 Onions (canned) 3.09 1.83 1.25 Peas 2.42 1...

  10. 40 CFR 421.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sinter production Lead 594.000 270.000 Zinc 525.000 219.600 Total suspended solids 14,760.000 7,020.000 p... .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 Total suspended solids .000 .000 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Subpart G—Blast Furnace Slag Granulation. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  11. 40 CFR 421.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 (d) Subpart G—Dross Reverberatory Slag Granulation. BAT Effluent... per billion pounds) of slag, speiss, or matte granulated Lead 1,612.000 748.400 Zinc 5,872.000 2,418... produced Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 (g) Subpart G—Hard Lead Refining Slag Granulation. BAT Effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 435.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil No discharge. 2 Diesel oil No discharge. Mercury 1 mg/kg dry weight maximum in the stock barite. Cadmium 3 mg/kg dry weight maximum in the stock barite. Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering... such discharges shall be determined by the NPDES permit issuing authority. 2 As determined by the...

  13. 40 CFR 421.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precipitation for the month that falls within the impoundment and either the evaporation from the pond water... precipitation for that month that falls within the impoundment and the mean evaporation from the pond water...

  14. 40 CFR 420.123 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and other coatings—(1... 0.0000501 1 The limitations for hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewater from the chromate rinse step. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other...

  15. 40 CFR 420.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other... shall apply only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and...

  16. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and miscellaneous products. Subpart L...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire...

  17. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb...) English units (lb/1,000 lb of product) COD 3.12 2.08 BOD5 0.12 .08 TSS 0.24 .16 Oil and grease 0.12 .08 pH...

  18. 40 CFR 418.33 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permissible discharge for urea manufacturing operations in which urea is produced as a solution product... units: Kilogram/1,000 kg of product; English units: Pound/1,000 lb of product. (b) The following... (as N) .86 .46 Note: Metric units: Kilogram/1,000 kg of product; English units: Pound/1,000 lb of...

  19. 40 CFR 418.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solution product: Effluent characteristics Effluent limitations (mg/l) Maximum for any 1 day Average of...) 0.61 0.33 Note: Metric units: Kilogram/1,000 kg of product; English units: Pound/1,000 lb of product....18 0.59 Organic nitrogen (as N) 1.48 0.80 Note: Metric units: Kilogram/1,000 kg of product; English...

  20. 40 CFR 428.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution...) (1) English units (lb/1,000 lb of product) COD 5.91 3.94 BOD5 0.60 .40 TSS 0.98 .65 Oil and grease 0...

  1. 40 CFR 440.43 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines, either open pit or underground, that produce mercury ores... on the treatment facility and the drainage area contributing surface runoff to the treatment facility... falling on the treatment facility and the drainage area contributing surface runoff to the treatment...

  2. 40 CFR 440.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration of pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines, either open-pit or underground, operated for... annual precipitation falling on the treatment facility and the drainage area contributing surface runoff... surface runoff to the treatment facility and annual evaporation may be discharged subject to the...

  3. 40 CFR 440.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum bearing ores or any combination of these ores from open... pollutants discharged from mills that use the froth-flotation process alone, or in conjunction with other...

  4. 40 CFR 440.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold... obtain copper bearing ores, lead bearing ores, zinc bearing ores, gold bearing ores, or silver bearing... which employ the froth flotation process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the...

  5. 40 CFR 417.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30... technology currently available. 417.122 Section 417.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. 40 CFR 406.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (pounds per 1,000 stdbu of corn) BOD5 12.0 4.0 TSS 10.5 3.5 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. [39... technology currently available. 406.22 Section 406.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. Except as provided...

  7. 40 CFR 417.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... technology currently available. 417.132 Section 417.132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  8. 40 CFR 434.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... values for 30 consecutive days Concentration in mg/l Iron, total 7.0 3.5 Manganese, total 4.0 2.0 TSS 70... technology currently available (BPT). 434.32 Section 434.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  9. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... technology currently available. 417.102 Section 417.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  10. 40 CFR 429.162 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). [Reserved] 429.162 Section 429.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wood Furniture and Fixture Production Without Water Wash Spray Booth(s) or Without Laundry Facilities... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). [Reserved] ...

  11. 40 CFR 429.172 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). [Reserved] 429.172 Section 429.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wood Furniture and Fixture Production With Water Wash Spray Booth(s) or With Laundry Facilities... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). [Reserved] ...

  12. 40 CFR 435.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, 703-605-6000... obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA... measurement of the biogas production (1995 edition)” as modified for the marine environment (Appendix 4 of...

  13. 40 CFR 421.262 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of precious metals... day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of precious metal in the granulated raw material Copper... monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold produced by cyanide stripping Copper 7.030 3.700 Cyanide (total) 1...

  14. 40 CFR 421.263 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of precious metals, including silver.../troy ounce of precious metals in the granulated raw material Copper 0.819 0.390 Cyanide (total) 0.128 0... Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold produced by cyanide stripping Copper 4.736 2.257 Cyanide...

  15. 40 CFR 421.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver from film stripping Copper 95.670 50.350 Zinc 73.510 30.720... Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver... Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of...

  16. 40 CFR 421.253 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold and silver... Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver... Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of...

  17. 40 CFR 421.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold and... monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver reduced in solution Lead 0.168 0.080 Mercury 0.100 0.040 Silver 0... property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold refined electrolytically...

  18. 40 CFR 421.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../troy ounce of silver from film stripping Copper 64.450 30.720 Zinc 51.360 21.150 Ammonia (as N) 6,712... pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver from... Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of...

  19. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic...) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For air quality restricted operation of a spray drying tower, but... Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.153 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  20. 40 CFR 421.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE... contained in sodium antimonate product Antimony 44.840 20.000 Arsenic 32.650 14.530 Mercury 3.906 1.562... Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of antimony metal...

  1. 40 CFR 421.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary... sodium antimonate product Antimony 30.150 13.440 Arsenic 21.720 9.687 Mercury 2.344 0.937 (b) Fouled... any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg pounds per million pounds of antimony metal produced by...

  2. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium...

  3. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General...

  4. 40 CFR 440.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic...

  5. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 420.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Increased loadings shall be provided for process wastewaters from other wet air pollution control systems... for water used for the optimization of coke plant biological treatment systems. (b) Cokemaking—non-recovery. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to waters of the U.S. [67 FR 64262...

  7. 40 CFR 426.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Incandescent Lamp Envelope Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...): (a) Any manufacturing plant which produces incandescent lamp envelopes shall meet the following... any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (g/kkg of...

  8. 40 CFR 426.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Incandescent Lamp... technology economically achievable: (a) [Reserved] (b) Any manufacturing plant which frosts incandescent lamp... characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall...

  9. 40 CFR 421.213 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Molybdenum [Reserved] [Reserved] Ammonia (as N) 61.720 27.130 Fluoride 16.210 9.214 (b) Roaster SO2 scrubber...] [Reserved] Ammonia (as N) 223.800 98.390 Fluoride 58.770 33.410 (c) Molybdic oxide leachate. BAT Limitations... [Reserved] [Reserved] Ammonia (as N) 1,544.000 678.800 Fluoride 405.400 230.500 (d) Hydrogen reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 421.212 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Molybdenum [Reserved] [Reserved]. Ammonia (as N) 61.720 27.130 Fluoride 16.210 9.214 Total suspended solids 18.980 9.029 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (b) Roaster SO2 scrubber. BPT...] [Reserved]. Ammonia (as N) 223.800 98.390 Fluoride 58.770 33.410 Total suspended solids 68.840 32.740 pH (1...

  11. 40 CFR 440.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water equal to the difference between annual precipitation falling on the treatment facility and the... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent.... (2) In the event that the annual precipitation falling on the treatment facility and the drainage...

  12. 40 CFR 440.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water equivalent to the difference between annual precipitation falling on the treatment facility and... concentration of pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed.... (2) In the event that the annual precipitation falling on the treatment facility and the drainage...

  13. 40 CFR 421.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade molybdenum plus... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE... technology currently available. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source...

  14. Protograph LDPC Codes with Node Degrees at Least 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present protograph codes with a small number of degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. The iterative decoding threshold for proposed rate 1/2 codes are lower, by about 0.2 dB, than the best known irregular LDPC codes with degree at least 3. The main motivation is to gain linear minimum distance to achieve low error floor. Also to construct rate-compatible protograph-based LDPC codes for fixed block length that simultaneously achieves low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance. We start with a rate 1/2 protograph LDPC code with degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. Higher rate codes are obtained by connecting check nodes with degree-2 non-transmitted nodes. This is equivalent to constraint combining in the protograph. The condition where all constraints are combined corresponds to the highest rate code. This constraint must be connected to nodes of degree at least three for the graph to have linear minimum distance. Thus having node degree at least 3 for rate 1/2 guarantees linear minimum distance property to be preserved for higher rates. Through examples we show that the iterative decoding threshold as low as 0.544 dB can be achieved for small protographs with node degrees at least three. A family of low- to high-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  15. Special Report: Top 100 Degree Producers. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Data on the colleges and universities producing the highest numbers of minority master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees in 1996-1997 are presented. Rankings are organized by degree level, ethnic group (African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, Native American), discipline group, and overall graduation rate. Breakouts are also…

  16. Antecedents and Consequences of Reactions to Developmental 360[degrees] Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Leanne E.; Brett, Joan F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influence leaders' reactions to 360[degrees] feedback and the relationship of feedback reactions to subsequent development activities and changes in leader behavior. For leaders with low ratings, those who agreed with others about their ratings were less motivated than those who received low ratings and…

  17. System Establishment and Method Application for Quantitatively Evaluating the Green Degree of the Products in Green Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengguo Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The government green purchase is widely considered to be an effective means of promoting sustainable consumption. However, how to identify the greener product is the biggest obstacle of government green purchase and it has not been well solved. A quantitative evaluation method is provided to measure the green degree of different products of the same use function with an indicator system established, which includes fundamental indicators, general indicators, and leading indicators. It can clearly show the products’ green extent by rating the scores of different products, which provides the government a tool to compare the green degree of different products and select greener ones. A comprehensive evaluation case of a project purchasing 1635 desk computers in Tianjin government procurement center is conducted using the green degree evaluation system. The environmental performance of the products were assessed quantitatively, and the evaluation price, which was the bid price minus the discount (the discount rate was according to the total scores attained by their environmental performance, and the final evaluation price ranking from low to high in turn is supplier C, D, E, A, and B. The winner, supplier C, was not the lowest bid price or the best environmental performance, but it performed well at both bid price and environmental performance so it deserved the project. It shows that the green extent evaluation system can help classify the different products by evaluating their environment performance including structure and connection technology, selection of materials and marks, prolonged use, hazardous substances, energy consumption, recyclability rate, etc. and price, so that it could help to choose the greener products.

  18. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  19. Special Degree Programs for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuing Education for Adults, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Briefly describes Bachelor of Liberal Studies programs at six colleges and universities, the Master of Liberal Studies program at Boston University, and the Master of Engineering degree at the University of California at Los Angeles, as well as programs being conducted on a graduate level by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for government and industrial…

  20. Astronautics Degrees for Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  1. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  2. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; FAJARDO PEÑA, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263

  3. Development of a medical academic degree system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Wang, Youxin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Song, Manshu; Guo, Xiuhua; Nelson, Hugh; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP). The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. The future education reforms might include: 1) a domestic system of 'credits' that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2) International - a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to the Bologna Accord, setting up a system of easily comparable and

  4. A goal attainment pain management program for older adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gail C; White, Terri L

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a pain management intervention that integrates goal setting with older adults (age > or =65) living independently in residential settings. This preliminary testing of the Goal Attainment Pain Management Program (GAPMAP) included a sample of 17 adults (mean age 79.29 years) with self-reported pain related to arthritis. Specific study aims were to: 1) explore the use of individual goal setting; 2) determine participants' levels of goal attainment; 3) determine whether changes occurred in the pain management methods used and found to be helpful by GAPMAP participants; and 4) determine whether changes occurred in selected pain-related variables (i.e., experience of living with persistent pain, the expected outcomes of pain management, pain management barriers, and global ratings of perceived pain intensity and success of pain management). Because of the small sample size, both parametric (t test) and nonparametric (Wilcoxon signed rank test) analyses were used to examine differences from pretest to posttest. Results showed that older individuals could successfully participate in setting and attaining individual goals. Thirteen of the 17 participants (76%) met their goals at the expected level or above. Two management methods (exercise and using a heated pool, tub, or shower) were used significantly more often after the intervention, and two methods (exercise and distraction) were identified as significantly more helpful. Two pain-related variables (experience of living with persistent pain and expected outcomes of pain management) revealed significant change, and all of those tested showed overall improvement.

  5. Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legramandi, Mario A; Schepens, Bénédicte; Cavagna, Giovanni A

    2013-01-01

    In an ideal elastic bounce of the body, the time during which mechanical energy is released during the push equals the time during which mechanical energy is absorbed during the brake, and the maximal upward velocity attained by the center of mass equals the maximal downward velocity. Deviations from this ideal model, prolonged push duration and lower upward velocity, have found to be greater in older than in younger adult humans. However it is not known how similarity to the elastic bounce changes during growth and whether an optimal elastic bounce is attained at some age. Here we show that similarity with the elastic bounce is minimal at 2 years and increases with age attaining a maximum at 13-16 years, concomitant with a mirror sixfold decrease of the impact deceleration peak following collision of the foot with the ground. These trends slowly reverse during the course of the lifespan.

  6. Education, the Process of Attainment and the Structure of Inequality. Discussion Papers #393-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Aage B.

    This paper analyzes the properties of the process of social and economic attainments in two contrasting situations: (1) when the process of attainment generates the distribution of attainments, and (2) when the structure of attainments is seen as exogenously determined. It is argued that the neoclassical economic theory of earnings determination…

  7. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  8. Degree-based graph construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

    2009-01-01

    Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

  9. A Case Study of Barriers Encountered by Punjabi/Sikh Males in Earning a 4 Year College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Gurpreet

    2017-01-01

    Post-secondary education has been correlated to an individual's self-esteem and quality of life. With this commodity being accessible in a variety of formats, there continue to be discrepancies in attainment for males and females. Current research has documented that the number of females who are earning a college degree has surpassed that of…

  10. Coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and coping strategies with unemployment in a random sample of 37- to 56-year-old Danish men and women in long-term unemployment. METHODS: Data were based on a survey among 575 men and 1......,064 women who had been unemployed at least 70% of the time during a three-year period (October 1996 to October 1999). The outcome measures were two scales for coping with unemployment, one for problem-solving coping, and one for avoidant coping. Educational attainment was measured by years of vocational...

  11. Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Kim, June H; Chen, Lian-Yu; Levin, Deysia; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Storr, Carla L

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about nonmedical use of prescription drugs among non-college-attending young adults in the United States. Data were drawn from 36,781 young adults (ages 18-22 years) from the 2008-2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health public use files. The adjusted main effects for current educational attainment, along with its interaction with gender and race/ethnicity, were considered. Compared to those attending college, non-college-attending young adults with at least and less than a HS degree had a higher prevalence of past-year nonmedical use of prescription opioids [NMUPO 13.1 and 13.2 %, respectively, vs. 11.3 %, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) 1.21 (1.11-1.33) and 1.25 (1.12-1.40)], yet lower prevalence of prescription stimulant use. Among users, regardless of drug type, non-college-attending youth were more likely to have past-year disorder secondary to use [e.g., NMUPO 17.4 and 19.1 %, respectively, vs. 11.7 %, aORs 1.55 (1.22-1.98) and 1.75 (1.35-2.28)]. Educational attainment interacted with gender and race: (1) among nonmedical users of prescription opioids, females who completed high school but were not enrolled in college had a significantly greater risk of opioid disorder (compared to female college students) than the same comparison for men; and (2) the risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids was negligible across educational attainment groups for Hispanics, which was significantly different than the increased risk shown for non-Hispanic whites. There is a need for young adult prevention and intervention programs to target nonmedical prescription drug use beyond college campuses.

  12. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean A P; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-12-01

    Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence.

  13. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707

  14. Robust two degree of freedom vehicle steering control satisfying mixed sensitivity constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Aksun-Güvenc, B.; Güvenc, L.; Odenthal, D.; Bünte, T.

    2001-01-01

    Robust steering control is used here for improving the yaw dynamics of a passenger car. A specific two degree of freedom control structure is adapted to the vehicle yaw dynamics problem and shown to robustly improve performance. The design study is based on six operating conditions for vehicle speed and the coefficient of friction between the tires and the road representing the operating domain of the vehicle. The relevant design specifications are formulated as attaining Hurwitz stability a...

  15. Genome-wide association study of cognitive functions and educational attainment in UK Biobank (N=112 151)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G; Marioni, R E; Liewald, D C; Hill, W D; Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Ritchie, S J; Luciano, M; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Lyall, D; Cullen, B; Cox, S R; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Evans, J; McIntosh, A M; Gallacher, J; Craddock, N; Pell, J P; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2016-01-01

    People's differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal–numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal–numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27046643

  16. Influences to post-graduation career aspirations and attainment in STEM doctoral candidates and recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Deborah S.

    As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.

  17. Increased Educational Attainment among U.S. Mothers and their Children's Academic Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    Existing research provides strong evidence that children with more educated parents have higher academic expectations for themselves, but has yet to consider how an increase in the education of lower educated mothers might alter the expectations of their children. In light of the historic increase in U.S. mothers' pursuit of additional education, this study investigates this timely question using data from a nationally representative, intergenerational sample of U.S. children and mothers participating in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth ( n mothers = 3,265; n children = 8,027). Combining random and fixed effects procedures, the findings revealed that that an increase in mothers' educational attainment is linked to an increase in their children's expectations to earn a Bachelor's degree. Increased maternal education did not, however, buffer against the risk that children will downgrade these expectations upon approaching the end of high school. These results have theoretical importance to traditional models of status attainment, which typically view parental education as a stable feature of family background; extend a small but burgeoning literature that explores whether and why increased maternal education improves the mobility prospects of their children; and speak to current two-generation policy approaches that aim to leverage trends in mothers education to reduce inequality for future generations.

  18. The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany: a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Differences in educational attainment between ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts were linked to education-specific earnings data. Direct and indirect tax rates and social insurance contributions were linked to differences in lifetime, education-specific earnings to derive lost tax revenue in Germany associated with ADHD. For ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts we derived the age-specific discounted net taxes paid by deducting lifetime transfers from lifetime gross taxes paid. The lifetime net tax revenue for a non-ADHD individual was approximately EUR 80,000 higher compared to an untreated ADHD individual. The fiscal burden of untreated ADHD, based on a cohort of n=31,844 born in 2010, was estimated at EUR 2.5 billion in net tax revenue losses compared with an equally-sized non-ADHD cohort. ADHD interventions providing a small improvement in educational attainment resulted in fiscal benefits from increases in lifetime tax gains. ADHD results in long-term financial loss due to lower education attainment and lifetime reduced earnings and resulting lifetime taxes and social contributions paid. Investments in ADHD interventions allowing more children to achieve their educational potential may offer fiscal benefits generating a positive rate of return.

  19. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  20. Steady flow rate to a partially penetrating well with seepage face in an unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz-Koohenjani, Siavash; Samani, Nozar; Kompani-Zare, Mazda

    2011-06-01

    The flow rate to fully screened, partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer is numerically simulated using MODFLOW 2000, taking into account the flow from the seepage face and decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer towards the well. A simple three-step method is developed to find the top of the seepage face and hence the seepage-face length. The method is verified by comparing it with the results of previous predictive methods. The results show that the component of flow through the seepage face can supply a major portion of the total pumping rate. Variations in flow rate as a function of the penetration degree, elevation of the water level in the well and the distance to the far constant head boundary are investigated and expressed in terms of dimensionless curves and equations. These curves and equations can be used to design the degree of penetration for which the allowable steady pumping rate is attained for a given elevation of water level in the well. The designed degree of penetration or flow rate will assure the sustainability of the aquifer storage, and can be used as a management criterion for issuing drilling well permits by groundwater protection authorities.

  1. Three Hundred Sixty Degree Feedback: program implementation in a local health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Schubot, David B; Thomas, Virginia; Baker, Bevan K; Foldy, Seth L; Greaves, William W; Monteagudo, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Three Hundred Sixty Degree Feedback systems, while popular in business, have been less commonly implemented in local public health agencies. At the same time, they are effective methods of improving employee morale, work performance, organizational culture, and attainment of desired organizational outcomes. These systems can be purchased "off-the-shelf," or custom applications can be developed for a better fit with unique organizational needs. We describe the City of Milwaukee Health Department's successful experience customizing and implementing a 360-degree feedback system in the context of its ongoing total quality improvement efforts.

  2. Dependency of Quality Education for Attaining the Health-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Dependency of Quality Education for Attaining the Health-related. Sustainable Development Goals in Africa. Peter A. Okebukola. Chairman of Council, Crawford University, Igbesa,Ogun State, Nigeria; former Executive Secretary, National Universities. Commission, Nigeria; and Special Adviser to the Vice-Chancellor, ...

  3. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2007-01-01

    1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school with educ...

  4. The Gender "Gap" in Attainment: The Scottish Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Val

    2017-01-01

    The "gender gap" in attainment is an issue in Scotland but is also an international phenomenon. In Scotland, this gap continues to be apparent as girls outperform boys in national examinations. This raises challenges for those working in schools and for policymakers in responding to this phenomenon. This article focuses on appraising…

  5. Working Memory and Cognitive Styles in Adolescents' Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packiam Alloway, Tracy; Banner, Gloria E.; Smith, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background: Working memory, the ability to store and process information, is strongly related to learning outcomes. Aims: The aim of the present study is to extend previous research on early learning and investigate the relationship between working memory, cognitive styles, and attainment in adolescents using both national curriculum tests and…

  6. Improving the Postsecondary Educational Attainment of Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines what we know about the disparity in postsecondary educational attainment between youth in foster care and their non-foster care peers, the reasons for it, and the policies and programs that have been developed to address that disparity. It also discusses the unique role that community colleges can play in reducing this…

  7. Status Attainment Through Marriage: The Experience of Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Philip N.

    The literature suggested that marriage provides alternative occupational achievement for women who opt by choice or by circumstance to attain socioeconomic position through their husbands' occupations, and that an advantageous social contact setting is crucial for access to promising mates so that a woman's personal attributes can be beneficial…

  8. Time Use and Educational Attainment: A Study of Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Emily J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A Canadian university study of 308 students' time use in academic areas used a model relating variables of social background, social psychological characteristics, time use, and educational attainment. Findings suggested that, taking into account these other variables, the time students spend on academic activities and paid employment has little…

  9. Using a Design-Orientated Project to Attain Graduate Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalosi, Richie; Molokwane, Shorn; Mothibedi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays universities are required not only to impart knowledge of specific disciplines but also generic graduate attributes such as communication, problem-solving, teamwork, creative thinking, research and inquiry skills. For students to attain these generic skills, educators are encouraged to use learner-centred approaches in teaching.…

  10. Educational attainment: A genome wide association study in 9538 Australians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.W.; Medland, S.E.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Lee, S.H.; Nyholt, D.R.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Correlations between Educational Attainment (EA) and measures of cognitive performance are as high as 0.8. This makes EA an attractive alternative phenotype for studies wishing to map genes affecting cognition due to the ease of collecting EA data compared to other cognitive phenotypes

  11. Sex Differences in Occupational Attainment: A Twelve-Nation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patricia A.

    Differences in the occupational attainment patterns of men and women were investigated by using data from 12 industrial societies. The sample consisted of employed persons 20 to 64 years of age working full- or part-time in the United States, Australia, Denmark, Finland, West Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Sweden,…

  12. The Effect of Migraine Headache on Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…

  13. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  14. The Effect of Public Support on College Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the extent that state financial support for higher education raises college attainment. Despite its manifest importance for policy, this is the first study to estimate this effect directly. Many studies have estimated the effect of college price on attendance, but state support for higher education and college price do not…

  15. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about...

  16. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double recession in international mainstream research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical recession, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical recession, since cultural capital is now seen as a simple...

  17. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years; and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about certain isolated individual resources, disregarding…

  18. Parental media socialization and educational attainment: Resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children's educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level

  19. Parental media socialization and educational attainment : resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level

  20. Contactless Opto-electronic Area and Their Attainable Measuring Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ricny

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of the contactless areameasurement on the principle of video signal processing. This videosignal generates TV camera, which scans the measured object. Basicprinciple of these meters is explained and attainable measurementaccuracy and factors influencing this accuracy are analyzed.

  1. Educational Attainments of Immigrant Offspring: Success or Segmented Assimilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Monica

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational attainments of adult offspring of immigrants age 20-64 years, analyzing data from Canada's 1996 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Contrary to second generation decline and segmented underclass assimilation found in the United States, Canadian adult visible-minority immigrant offspring did not have lower educational…

  2. The Sports Participation Effect on Educational Attainment of Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…

  3. Using the Concept Attainment Strategy to Enhance Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Crow, Mary Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The Concept Attainment Strategy is an instructional technique proposed by Jerome Bruner that targets the "big idea" or concept underlining concrete or abstract examples. This strategy focuses on the developing comprehension of words and ideas associated with a concept rather than on its name or what the concept is called. Specifically it develops…

  4. Curiosity: A Prerequisite for the Attainment of Formal Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Vincent J.

    1982-01-01

    Research on Piaget's four stages of cognitive development has shown that although nearly everyone passes through sensorimotor, preoperational, and concrete operational stages, most do not reach the stage of formal operations. Those people who do attain formal operations seem to have a curiosity factor not operative in those who don't. (Author/BRR)

  5. Teaching Mathematics to Lower Attainers: Dilemmas and Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderton, Julie; Gifford, Sue

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on Foucault's concepts of power and discourse to explore the issues of teaching mathematics to low attainers in primary schools in England. We analyse a data set of interviews, from a larger study, with the mathematics teachers of one child across three years, showing how accountability practices, discourses of ability and…

  6. Attainability of international environmental agreements as a social situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lise, W.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of social situations to study whether international environmental agreements (IEAs), mainly those on greenhouse gas emission reductions, can be attained. A game theoretic model is generally a black box for decision makers, where the mechanisms, which lead to solution(s)

  7. Trajectories of Attaining and Sustaining Quality in E-learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of Attaining and Sustaining Quality in E-learning. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Experts must be employed who will evaluate appropriateness of e-learning procedures, accuracy of e-learning content ...

  8. Mapping local variation in educational attainment across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Nicholas; Friedman, Joseph; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Burstein, Roy; Biehl, Molly H.; Shields, Chloe; Mosser, Jonathan F.; Casey, Daniel C.; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Earl, Lucas; Reiner, Robert C.; Ray, Sarah E.; Fullman, Nancy; Levine, Aubrey J.; Stubbs, Rebecca W.; Mayala, Benjamin K.; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J.; Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J.; Gething, Peter W.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Lim, Stephen S.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment for women of reproductive age is linked to reduced child and maternal mortality, lower fertility and improved reproductive health. Comparable analyses of attainment exist only at the national level, potentially obscuring patterns in subnational inequality. Evidence suggests that wide disparities between urban and rural populations exist, raising questions about where the majority of progress towards the education targets of the Sustainable Development Goals is occurring in African countries. Here we explore within-country inequalities by predicting years of schooling across five by five kilometre grids, generating estimates of average educational attainment by age and sex at subnational levels. Despite marked progress in attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes. These differences have widened in many countries, particularly across the Sahel. These high-resolution, comparable estimates improve the ability of decision-makers to plan the precisely targeted interventions that will be necessary to deliver progress during the era of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  9. Same-Sex Sexuality and Educational Attainment: The Pathway to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.

  10. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  11. The use of Goal Attainment Scaling in a community health promotion initiative with seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloseck, Marita

    2007-07-03

    Evaluating collaborative community health promotion initiatives presents unique challenges, including engaging community members and other stakeholders in the evaluation process, and measuring the attainment of goals at the collective community level. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a versatile, under-utilized evaluation tool adaptable to a wide range of situations. GAS actively involves all partners in the evaluation process and has many benefits when used in community health settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of GAS as a potential means of measuring progress and outcomes in community health promotion and community development projects. GAS methodology was used in a local community of seniors (n = 2500; mean age = 76 +/- 8.06 SD; 77% female, 23% male) to a) collaboratively set health promotion and community partnership goals and b) objectively measure the degree of achievement, over- or under-achievement of the established health promotion goals. Goal attainment was measured in a variety of areas including operationalizing a health promotion centre in a local mall, developing a sustainable mechanism for recruiting and training volunteers to operate the health promotion centre, and developing and implementing community health education programs. Goal attainment was evaluated at 3 monthly intervals for one year, then re-evaluated again at year 2. GAS was found to be a feasible and responsive method of measuring community health promotion and community development progress. All project goals were achieved at one year or sooner. The overall GAS score for the total health promotion project increased from 16.02 at baseline (sum of scale scores = -30, average scale score = -2) to 54.53 at one year (sum of scale scores = +4, average scale score = +0.27) showing project goals were achieved above the expected level. With GAS methodology an amalgamated score of 50 represents the achievement of goals at the expected level. GAS provides a

  12. The use of Goal Attainment Scaling in a community health promotion initiative with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloseck Marita

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating collaborative community health promotion initiatives presents unique challenges, including engaging community members and other stakeholders in the evaluation process, and measuring the attainment of goals at the collective community level. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS is a versatile, under-utilized evaluation tool adaptable to a wide range of situations. GAS actively involves all partners in the evaluation process and has many benefits when used in community health settings. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of GAS as a potential means of measuring progress and outcomes in community health promotion and community development projects. GAS methodology was used in a local community of seniors (n = 2500; mean age = 76 ± 8.06 SD; 77% female, 23% male to a collaboratively set health promotion and community partnership goals and b objectively measure the degree of achievement, over- or under-achievement of the established health promotion goals. Goal attainment was measured in a variety of areas including operationalizing a health promotion centre in a local mall, developing a sustainable mechanism for recruiting and training volunteers to operate the health promotion centre, and developing and implementing community health education programs. Goal attainment was evaluated at 3 monthly intervals for one year, then re-evaluated again at year 2. Results GAS was found to be a feasible and responsive method of measuring community health promotion and community development progress. All project goals were achieved at one year or sooner. The overall GAS score for the total health promotion project increased from 16.02 at baseline (sum of scale scores = -30, average scale score = -2 to 54.53 at one year (sum of scale scores = +4, average scale score = +0.27 showing project goals were achieved above the expected level. With GAS methodology an amalgamated score of 50 represents the achievement of goals at

  13. Education attainment is associated with patient-reported outcomes: findings from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Meridith E; Rolfson, Ola; Nemes, Szilard; Gordon, Max; Malchau, Henrik; Garellick, Göran

    2014-06-01

    Age, sex, and medical comorbidities may be associated with differences in patient-reported outcome scores after THA. Highest level of education may be a surrogate for socioeconomic status, but the degree to which this is associated with patient-reported outcomes after THA is not known. We investigated the national Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register for the association of education attainment on patient-reported outcomes 1 year after THA; specifically, we evaluated level of education attainment against health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain reduction, and satisfaction with treatment 1 year after THA. All THAs for osteoarthritis performed from 2005 through 2007 with complete patient-reported outcome measures (representing 49% of the THAs performed for this diagnosis) were selected from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. These cases were merged with national databases containing education attainment, marital status, and comorbidities (n = 11,464; mean age of patients, 64 years). The patient-reported outcome measure protocol included the HRQoL measure EuroQol five-dimension scale (EQ-5D), a VAS for pain, the Charnley classification survey, and a VAS addressing THA satisfaction. Linear regression analyses determined the association of preoperative patient factors with patient-reported outcomes. High education attainment was associated with higher HRQoL (EQ-5D index ß(high) = 0.03 ± 0.01; EQ VAS ß(high) = 2.6 ± 0.5) after THA, whereas those with low and medium education were at risk for lower HRQoL. High education was associated with less pain after treatment (ß(high) = -3.3 ± 0.05). Individuals with low or medium education were at risk for less satisfaction with THA (p education to a greater extent. Identification of patients who will benefit most from THA and educating those at risk for poorer outcomes, like patients with low and medium education, ultimately may improve patient satisfaction, HRQoL, pain, and the cost utility of THA. Level III

  14. g-boson degree of freedom in vibrational regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yaomin

    1991-01-01

    The g-boson degree of freedom in the vibrational regions is discussed in term of the energies and the electromagnetic transitions. Several closed expressions for the rates of M1, E2 transitions and the E2, M1 mixing ratios are obtained. Some survey is made and it reveals it is meaningful to investigate the g-boson degree of freedom in those regions

  15. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2002 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2003-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between July 1, 2001 and June 30, 2002. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2002. Thirty-six academic programs at 35 different institutions were in the survey universe and all responded (100% response rate). Several of these programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Five programs included in the 2001 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2002 survey

  16. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2003 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2004-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2003. Thirty-four academic programs at 33 different institutions were included in the survey universe with all responding (100% response rate). Several of the programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Two programs included in the 2002 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2003 survey

  17. Access to Four-Year Public Colleges and Degree Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Goodman; Michael Hurwitz; Jonathan Smith

    2015-01-01

    Does access to four-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend two-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s four-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases four-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from two-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking ...

  18. Access to 4-Year Public Colleges and Degree Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Does access to 4-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend 2-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s 4-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases 4-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from 2-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking behavior sugg...

  19. What is the (Real Option) Value of a College Degree?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey R. Stokes

    2013-01-01

    The value of a college degree is often quantified as the difference in earnings between those with and without a degree. The research presented here operationalizes this idea in two important ways. First, since future income and tuition are uncertain, a contingent claims model is developed and the appropriate discount rate for valuing future earnings is, therefore, endogenized given an economy that does not permit arbitrage. Second, the model is sensitive to the valuation of the real option t...

  20. Magnetic field control of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain wall resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Roya, E-mail: royamajidi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.

  1. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  2. Shrinkage Degree in $L_{2}$ -Rescale Boosting for Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Wang, Yao; Xu, Zongben

    2017-08-01

    L 2 -rescale boosting ( L 2 -RBoosting) is a variant of L 2 -Boosting, which can essentially improve the generalization performance of L 2 -Boosting. The key feature of L 2 -RBoosting lies in introducing a shrinkage degree to rescale the ensemble estimate in each iteration. Thus, the shrinkage degree determines the performance of L 2 -RBoosting. The aim of this paper is to develop a concrete analysis concerning how to determine the shrinkage degree in L 2 -RBoosting. We propose two feasible ways to select the shrinkage degree. The first one is to parameterize the shrinkage degree and the other one is to develop a data-driven approach. After rigorously analyzing the importance of the shrinkage degree in L 2 -RBoosting, we compare the pros and cons of the proposed methods. We find that although these approaches can reach the same learning rates, the structure of the final estimator of the parameterized approach is better, which sometimes yields a better generalization capability when the number of sample is finite. With this, we recommend to parameterize the shrinkage degree of L 2 -RBoosting. We also present an adaptive parameter-selection strategy for shrinkage degree and verify its feasibility through both theoretical analysis and numerical verification. The obtained results enhance the understanding of L 2 -RBoosting and give guidance on how to use it for regression tasks.

  3. Heart rate and heart rate variability in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    atrial area using color Doppler mapping) and no murmur, 2) CKCS with mild MR (20%50%) and no clinical signs of HF, 4) CKCS in HF (HF defined as left atrium to aortic root ratio (LA/Ao) >1.5, clinical signs of HF and furosemide responsiveness) and 5) non......-CKCS in HF. Dogs in HF were allowed HF therapy. Both HR and HRV were analysed over a 24-hour period, while HRV were also analysed over a 6-hour nightly period. Analyses of variance were performed with HR or HRV as response variables and the explanatory variables dog group and echocardiographic indices...

  4. Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Hennessy, E; Smith, R; Trikic, R; Wolke, D; Marlow, N

    2009-07-01

    To assess academic attainment and special educational needs (SEN) in extremely preterm children in middle childhood. Of 307 extremely preterm (special school. In mainstream schools, 105 (57%) extremely preterm children had SEN (OR 10; 6 to 18) and 103 (55%) required SEN resource provision (OR 10; 6 to 18). Teachers rated 50% of extremely preterm children as having below average attainment compared with 5% of classmates (OR 18; 8 to 41). Extremely preterm children who entered compulsory education an academic year early due to preterm birth had similar academic attainment but required more SEN support (OR 2; 1.0 to 3.6). Extremely preterm survivors remain at high risk for learning impairments and poor academic attainment in middle childhood. A significant proportion require full-time specialist education and over half of those attending mainstream schools require additional health or educational resources to access the national curriculum. The prevalence and impact of SEN are likely to increase as these children approach the transition to secondary school.

  5. Chemometric, physicomechanical and rheological analysis of the sol-gel dynamics and degree of crosslinking of glycosidic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choonara, Y E; Pillay, V; Singh, N; Ndesendo, V M K; Khan, R A

    2008-01-01

    The influence of calcium (Ca 2+ ), zinc (Zn 2+ ) and barium (Ba 2+ ) ions on the sol-gel interconversion dynamics, degree of crosslinking and the matrix resilience of crosslinked alginate gelispheres was determined. The dependent compositional and operational variables of crosslinking make it a challenging task to optimize the degree of crosslinking and the physicomechanical properties of alginate gelispheres. The combinatory approach of textural profiling, assessing pertinent rheological descriptors and chemometric model analysis of the sol-gel interconversion mechanisms and energy paradigms involved during crosslinking, hydration and erosion of gelispheres was explored. Molecular structural modelling of the gelispheres provided a mechanistic understanding of the sol-gel interconversion phenomena and their influence on the degree of crosslinking, the hydrational dynamics and gelisphere formation. Rheological analysis revealed offset yield point values of 6.1 mg ml -1 and 8.0 mg ml -1 were computed from fitted regression curves for determining the crosslinker concentration required for combinatory crosslinkers such as Ca/Zn/Ba ions and Ba/Zn, respectively. The influence of hydration on the erosion was a direct function of the gelispheres physicomechanical strength. Textural profiling characterized the gelisphere matrices for their resilience. The various crosslinkers interacted with monomeric units at varying intensities. Ba-crosslinked gelispheres were brittle with dense polymeric networks. Zn-crosslinked gelispheres produced permeable resilient matrices when hydrated and Ca-crosslinked gelispheres demonstrated intermediate resilience with greater G/M ratio alginate grades. Chemometrical analysis explicated a potential link between several phenomena such as the type of crosslinkers employed, the static shear-rate viscosity attained, the matrix resilience and the associated sol-gel mechanisms and energy paradigms of crosslinked gelispheres

  6. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  7. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-09-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.

  8. The process of maternal role attainment over the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, R T

    1985-01-01

    A study of the process of maternal role attainment in three age groups (15 to 19 years, 20 to 29 years, and 30 to 42 years) over the first year of motherhood found that the role attainment behaviors of feelings of love for the baby, gratification in the maternal role, observed maternal behavior, and self-reported ways of handling irritating child behaviors did not show a positive linear increase over the year. Behaviors peaked at 4 months postbirth, but declined at 8 months. Interview data suggested that the challenges of the infant's developmental behaviors at 8 and 12 months contributed to feelings of role incompetency. Although age groups functioned at different levels, their patterns of behaviors over the year did not vary, except for gratification in the role, indicating that the maternal role presented similar challenges for all women. There were no significant differences by maternal age in role strain or self-image as a mother over the year.

  9. An intercalated BSc degree is associated with higher marks in subsequent medical school examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Hazel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare medical students on a modern MBChB programme who did an optional intercalated degree with their peers who did not intercalate; in particular, to monitor performance in subsequent undergraduate degree exams. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of medical student assessment outcomes. Data were accessed for graduates, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland, UK, from the years 2003 to 2007 (n = 861. The main outcome measure was marks for summative degree assessments taken after intercalating. Results Of 861 medical students, 154 (17.9% students did an intercalated degree. After adjustment for cohort, maturity, gender and baseline (3rd year performance in matching exam type, having done an IC degree was significantly associated with attaining high (18–20 common assessment scale (CAS marks in three of the six degree assessments occurring after the IC students rejoined the course: the 4th year written exam (p th year OSCE (p = 0.001 and the 5th year Elective project (p = 0.010. Conclusion Intercalating was associated with improved performance in Years 4 and 5 of the MBChB. This improved performance will further contribute to higher academic ranking for Foundation Year posts. Long-term follow-up is required to identify if doing an optional intercalated degree as part of a modern medical degree is associated with following a career in academic medicine.

  10. Grammar Learning Strategies and Language Attainment: Seeking a Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak Mirosław

    2009-01-01

    Despite major advances in research on language learning strategies, there are still areas that have received only scant attention, and one of them is undoubtedly learning grammar. The paper contributes to the paucity of empirical investigations in this domain by presenting the findings of a study which sought to investigate the relationship between the use of grammar learning strategies (GLS) reported by 142 English Department students and target language attainment, operationalized as their ...

  11. FACT SHEET ON EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF NONWHITE WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    NONWHITE WOMEN AND MEN HAVE MADE SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS IN RAISING THEIR LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OVER THE LAST SEVERAL DECADES. THE MEDIAN YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY NONWHITE WOMEN AND MEN 25 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN MARCH 1966 WERE 9.6 YEARS AND 8.8 YEARS RESPECTIVELY. COMPARABLE MEDIANS IN APRIL 1940 WERE 6.1 YEARS AND 5.4 YEARS. MOST…

  12. Sibling Rivalry in Educational Attainment: The German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Thomas Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies exploring sibling rivalry in the allocation of household resources in the U.S. produce conflicting results. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the role of sibling rivalry in educational attainment in Germany. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) we are able to distinguish how the effects of sibling rivalry vary by cultural affiliation, i.e., among families of West German, East German and foreign origin. We also point out and correct for a reference group pro...

  13. Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens

    OpenAIRE

    Legramandi, Mario A.; Schepens, B?n?dicte; Cavagna, Giovanni A.

    2013-01-01

    In an ideal elastic bounce of the body, the time during which mechanical energy is released during the push equals the time during which mechanical energy is absorbed during the brake, and the maximal upward velocity attained by the center of mass equals the maximal downward velocity. Deviations from this ideal model, prolonged push duration and lower upward velocity, have found to be greater in older than in younger adult humans. However it is not known how similarity to the elastic bounce c...

  14. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b

  15. Fertility and the changing female educational attainment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čipin Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the aggregate relationship between cohort fertility and female educational attainment in Croatia. Numerous demographic studies have examined the link between fertility and the level of education. However, newer research indicates that the field of education might also play a role when trying to explain fertility behavior. We contribute to existing literature on macro-level factors related to reproductive outcomes by considering both the level and field of education as possible sources of cohort fertility differentials. The main goal of the present study is to assess the effect of structural changes in educational attainment on cohort fertility decline by means of demographic decomposition techniques. Our analysis is based on detailed 2011 Census data, which provide information on the number of livebirths by mother’s year of birth, birth order, marital status and educational attainment (i.e. the level and field of education. The results of our decomposition analyses reveal the dominance of the structural effect in explaining the overall completed fertility decline in Croatia. We assumed that the changing distribution of women by field of education at least partially accounts for the observed patterns in completed fertility but found no strong evidence in support of the outlined hypothesis.

  16. Articulating nurse practitioner practice using King's theory of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon-Demare, Kathleen; MacDonald, Jane; Gregory, David M; Katz, Alan; Halas, Gayle

    2015-11-01

    To further understand the interactions between nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients, King's nursing theory of goal attainment was applied as the conceptual framework to describe the interactions between NPs and patients in the primary care setting. Six dyads of NPs and their patients were video- and audio-taped over three consecutive clinic visits. For the purposes of this arm of the study, the audio-taped interactions were transcribed and then coded using King's concepts in her theory of goal attainment. King's theory was applicable to describe NP practice. King's concepts and processes of nurse-patient interactions, such as disturbances, mutual goal setting, and transactions, were observed in NP-patient interactions. Disturbances during clinical encounters were essential in the progression toward goal attainment. Elements, such as social exchange, symptom reporting, role explanation, and information around clinical processes facilitated relationship building. NPs as practitioners need to be reflective of their own practice, embrace disturbances in the clinical encounter, and attend to these as opportunities for mutual goal setting. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More research is needed on what is happening to all these young people who do not do well in competitive education systems and uncertain job markets. This article is taken from a study which set out to discuss with school and college principals, local administrators, teachers and others, who they regard as lower attainers, what sort of education and training programmes are offered to the students, and what policies they think are in place to help young people into work or independent living. Discussions were held with respondents in England, Germany, the USA, Finland and Malta. The article takes Rawls' view that social injustice is mainly due to the inequitable distribution of economic and social resources and the State has a responsibility to ensure that all young people can participate in the economy and the society.

  18. Term-time Employment and Student Attainment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Dennis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.

  19. Calculation of attainable superheats and predicted embryonic flux rates in commercial water isotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvord, Charles W.; Ruggles, Arthur E.; West, Colin D.

    2008-01-01

    Phase change in a fluid subject to a large spectrum of radiations is examined. The statistical variation in the fluid energy is considered in concert with the radiation field attributes to establish conditions for spinodal decomposition and bulk nucleation. This approach is developed in general and carried forward for the specific case of 18 O-enriched water used in commercial targets for the production of 18 F. Sensitivities of the outcome to specific attributes of the fluid state model are examined. The possibility for very high bulk nucleation site densities is exposed and may explain the observed thermal-fluid behavior in commercial water targets. These targets operate at elevated pressure and temperatures at and in excess of the saturation temperature. They are also subjected to a large spectrum of radiations, with differing levels of energy deposition. The conditions for spinodal decomposition and bulk nucleation (with and without radiation) in these targets are evaluated. It is likely that some bulk nucleation is occurring, and causing the density reduction locally in the target. Suitable experiments to evaluate this potential are more fully possible

  20. 40 CFR 52.2037 - Control strategy plans for attainment and rate-of-progress: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minimize VOC emissions. (d) NOX RACT determination for the no. 2 glass melting furnace and the four kilns... of steel processed and 11.0 TPY. (f) Pennsylvania Electric Company—Williamsburg Station—VOC and NOX RACT determination for three emission units at Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec)—Williamsburg...

  1. THE VALUE OF EDUCATIONAL DEGREES IN TURBULENT ECONOMIC TIMES: EVIDENCE FROM THE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31–37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor’s and Associate’s degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate’s and Bachelor’s recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. PMID:26973042

  2. The value of educational degrees in turbulent economic times: Evidence from the Youth Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31-37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor's and Associate's degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate's and Bachelor's recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Path Taken: Consequences of Attaining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations in Post-College Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Christopher P; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L

    2009-06-01

    Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The present study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a one-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations related positively to psychological health, attainment of extrinsic aspirations did not; indeed, attainment of extrinsic aspirations related positively to indicators of ill-being. Also as predicted, the association between change in attainment of intrinsic aspirations and change in psychological health was mediated by change in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Discussion focuses on the idea that not all goal attainment is beneficial; rather, attainment of aspirations with different contents relates differentially to psychological health.

  4. Constraints on food choices of women in the UK with lower educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, M.; Lawrence, W. T.; Skinner, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Women of lower educational attainment have less balanced and varied diets than women of higher educational attainment. The diets of women are vital to the long-term health of their offspring. The present study aimed to identify factors that influence the food choices of women with lower...... educational attainment and how women could be helped to improve those choices. Design: We conducted eight focus group discussions with women of lower educational attainment to identify these factors. We contrasted the results of these discussions with those from three focus group discussions with women...... of higher educational attainment. Setting: Southampton, UK. Subjects: Forty-two white Caucasian women of lower educational attainment and fourteen of higher educational attainment aged 18 to 44 years. Results: The dominant theme in discussions with women of lower educational attainment was their sense...

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Physical Activity Guideline Attainment among Participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Hochberg, Marc C.; Chang, Rowland W.; Hootman, Jennifer M.; Manheim, Larry M.; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study examined racial/ethnic differences in meeting the 2008 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines aerobic component (≥ 150 moderate-to-vigorous (MV) minutes/week in bouts ≥ 10 minutes) among persons with or at risk for radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA). Methods We evaluated African American versus White differences in Guideline attainment using multiple logistic regression adjusting for socio-demographic (age, gender, site, income, education) and health factors (comorbidity, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, knee pain). Our analyses included adults aged 49–84 who participated in accelerometer monitoring at the Osteoarthritis Initiative 48-month visit (1142 with and 747 at risk for RKOA). Results 2.0% of African Americans and 13.0% of Whites met Guidelines. For adults with and at risk for RKOA, significantly lower rates of Guideline attainment among African Americans compared to Whites were partially attenuated by health factor differences, particularly overweight/obesity and knee pain (RKOA: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.08, 0.72]; at risk for RKOA: OR = 0.28, 95% CI = [0.07, 1.05]). Conclusion Despite known benefits from physical activity, attainment of Physical Activity Guidelines among persons with and at risk for RKOA was low. African Americans were 72–76% less likely than Whites to meet Guidelines. Culturally-relevant interventions and environmental strategies in the African American community targeting overweight/obesity and knee pain may reduce future racial/ethnic differences in physical activity and improve health outcomes. PMID:22807352

  6. Anomaly in the education-health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacova, Anna; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-12-01

    This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education-health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group) reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS) diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups. Using the restricted 1999-2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: "some college", vocational associate degree (AA), and academic AA. The data show that adults with "some college" or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile. This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling.

  7. Anomaly in the education–health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zajacova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education–health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups.Using the restricted 1999–2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: “some college”, vocational associate degree (AA, and academic AA.The data show that adults with “some college” or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile.This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling. Keywords: Education, Subbaccalaureate, Biomarkers, Health, Gradient, US adults

  8. Schooling or Social Origin? The Bias in the Effect of Educational Attainment on Social Orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2004-01-01

    The strong relationship between educational attainment and social attitudes and behaviour is often explained as an effect of schooling. However, educational attainment also reflects social origins. In order to obtain a view of the unbiased effect of educational attainment on social orientations,

  9. Closing the Attainment Gap--A Realistic Proposition or an Elusive Pipe-Dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Joan Gaynor

    2018-01-01

    The attainment gap associated with socio-economic status is an international problem that is highly resistant to change. This conceptual paper critiques the drive by the Scottish Government to address the attainment gap through the Scottish Attainment Challenge and the National Improvement Framework. It draws upon a range of theoretical…

  10. 78 FR 54835 - Air Quality Implementation Plan; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Troy Area 2008 Lead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... 4] Air Quality Implementation Plan; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Troy Area 2008 Lead... Troy 2008 Lead nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as the ``Troy Area'' or ``Area''). The Troy... submittal regarding the attainment plan based on Alabama's attainment demonstration for the Troy Area. The...

  11. Dual degree partnership in nursing: an innovative undergraduate educational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastable, Susan B; Markowitz, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    We report the success of a unique articulation Dual Degree Partnership in Nursing (DDPN) model. The process used to establish and implement this approach is described. Unlike typical 2+2 agreements between associate degree (AD) and bachelor degree (BS) nursing education programs, the DDPN is designed with a 1+2+1 sequence. Intended to attract high school students, this model provides the opportunity to earn two degrees (AD and BS) while experiencing a 4-year campus living and learning environment. This configuration was accomplished without compromising the integrity of either of the established programs. After collecting data over the past 6 years, this model demonstrates popularity with the traditional-aged student, as well as success from an academic perspective. Statistics on retention, graduation, and NCLEX® pass rates indicate the feasibility and success of the model. Based on the findings, the potential for replication is promising for other colleges interested in a similar collaboration. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Reflux and Belching After 270 Degree Versus 360 Degree Laparoscopic Posterior Fundoplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Joris A.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Hazebroek, Eric J.; Broeders, Ivo A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Smout, André J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in effects of 270 degrees (270 degrees LPF) and 360 degrees laparoscopic posterior fundoplication (360 degrees LPF) on reflux characteristics and belching. Background: Three hundred sixty degrees LPF greatly reduces the ability of the stomach to vent ingested

  13. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies...

  14. How Adult Online Graduates Portray Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…

  15. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components

  16. Measurement of the oxidation of spent fuel between 140/degree/ and 225/degree/C by thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, R.E.; Einziger, R.E.; Buchanan, H.C.

    1988-09-01

    A series of PWR spent fuel samples from Turkey Point Unit 3 have been oxidized at temperatures between 140/degree/ and 225/degree/C in air atmospheres with dew points between 14.5/degree/ and /minus/70/degree/C, using a thermogravimetric analysis system (TGA). Tests lasted between 400 and 2100 hours. At the conclusion of a test, the atmosphere was sampled to determine the release of fission gas during testing, and the fuel samples were analyzed for microstructural changes. It appears that the mechanism for oxidation of spent fuel to U/sub 3/O/sub 7/ takes place in two steps that occur somewhat simultaneously. Oxygen migrates along the grain boundaries, which are oxidized and enlarged. The grains oxidize by the inward progression of a layer of U/sub 4/O/sub 9/ saturated with oxygen. A simplified model of the mechanism, which considers oxygen diffusion through the product layer as the rate-controlling step, yields an activation energy of 27 /plus minus/ 4 kcal/mol. Moisture, between dew points of /minus/70/degree/ to +14.5/degree/C, i.e., water vapor partial pressures varying over four orders of magnitude, had no significant effect on the oxidation rate. 34 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Educational Attainment Influences Levels of Homozygosity through Migration and Assortative Mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Brooks, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a higher education are more likely to migrate, increasing the chance of meeting a spouse with a different ancestral background. In this context, the presence of strong educational assortment can result in greater ancestry differences within more educated spouse pairs, while less educated individuals are more likely to mate with someone with whom they share more ancestry. We examined the association between educational attainment and F roh (= the proportion of the genome consisting of runs of homozygosity [ROHs]) in ~2,000 subjects of Dutch ancestry. The subjects’ own educational attainment showed a nominally significant negative association with F roh (p = .045), while the contribution of parental education to offspring F roh was highly significant (father: p migration rates among more educated parents. Parental education also showed a high spouse correlation (Spearman’s ρ = .66, p = 3 × 10-262). We show that less educated parents are less likely to mate with the more mobile parents with a higher education, creating systematic differences in homozygosity due to ancestry differences not directly captured by ancestry-informative principal components (PCs). Understanding how behaviors influence the genomic structure of a population is highly valuable for studies on the genetic etiology of behavioral, cognitive, and social traits. PMID:25734509

  18. Challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhumulani M. Mulaudzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite progress made by other countries worldwide in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4, 5 and 6, South Africa is experiencing a challenge in attaining positive outcomes for these goals. Objective and setting: To describe the challenges experienced by South Africa regarding the successful implementation of MDGs 4, 5 and 6. Methods: An integrative literature review was used to identify and synthesise various streams of literature on the challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining MDGs 4, 5 and 6. Results: The integrative review revealed the following themes: (1 interventions related to child mortality reduction, (2 implementation of maternal mortality reduction strategies, and (3 identified barriers to zero HIV and TB infections and management. Conclusion: It is recommended that poverty relief mechanisms be intensified to improve the socio-economic status of women. There is a need for sectoral planning towards maternal health, and training of healthcare workers should emphasise the reduction of maternal deaths. Programmes addressing the reduction of maternal and child mortality rates, HIV, STIs and TB need to be put in place. Keywords: Millennium Development Goals; maternal and child morbidity and mortality; HIV and AIDS; STI and TB

  19. The role of partners' educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15-34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25-34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  20. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics. PMID:26902392

  1. Mentoring to Degree Completion: Expanding the Horizons of Doctoral Proteges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Linda; Creighton, Theodore; Parks, David

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this discussion identify one of the most pressing issues facing American universities: the number of graduate students who fail to graduate. We review the literature and further analyze the student and institutional factors most significant in predicting the degree completion rates of graduate students in education. Based on the…

  2. Evaluating Quality in Associate Degree Culinary Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Jean; Ackerman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine which categories and indicators of quality are best suited to evaluating associate degree culinary arts programs (ADCAP). Design/methodology/approach: The researchers surveyed a national sample of culinary educators and industry chefs in the USA. The instrument asked the participants to rate the…

  3. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. BNFL assessment of methods of attaining high burnup MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Hesketh, K.W.; Palmer, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    It is clear that in order to maintain competitiveness with UO 2 fuel, the burnups achievable in MOX fuel must be enhanced beyond the levels attainable today. There are two aspects which require attention when studying methods of increased burnups - cladding integrity and fuel performance. Current irradiation experience indicates that one of the main performance issues for MOX fuel is fission gas retention. MOX, with its lower thermal conductivity, runs at higher temperatures than UO 2 fuel; this can result in enhanced fission gas release. This paper explores methods of effectively reducing gas release and thereby improving MOX burnup potential. (author)

  5. Secular Trends in Mortality From Common Cancers in the United States by Educational Attainment, 1993?2001

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Tracy; Jemal, Ahmedin; Liff, Jonathan; Ward, Elizabeth; Thun, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Death rates for the four major cancer sites (lung, breast, prostate, and colon and rectum) have declined steadily in the United States among persons aged 25?64 years since the early 1990s. We used national data to examine these trends in relation to educational attainment. Methods We calculated age-standardized death rates for each of the four cancers by level of education among 25- to 64-year-old non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black men and women for 1993 through 2001 using d...

  6. Diploma to degree 1976 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The debate on degree education for radiographers began in earnest in the mid-1970s. Initially the debate hinged around whether a degree education was necessary for radiographers. One argument was that it was felt that a degree would separate academic and clinical training but eventually when degrees were introduced practical skills were assessed formally for the first time; something that had not been achieved with the Diploma of the College of Radiographers (DCR). The DCR itself became a barrier to degree education as the College of Radiographers (CoR) insisted that it was the only qualification recognised for state registration and as such would have to remain embedded as a distinct qualification within a degree. A major breakthrough came when the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) recognised the DCR at the same level as an ordinary degree. Around the same time the CoR published its Degree Rationale which announced a change in policy by not insisting that the DCR was sacrosanct. Developments followed rapidly and the first honours degree in radiography was validated in 1989 despite opposition from scientific officers at the Department of Health. Degrees were approved for state registration and radiography became a graduate profession by 1993 following years of debate and after overcoming opposition from both within and external to the profession.

  7. Disparities in Disability by Educational Attainment Across US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    To examine how disparities in adult disability by educational attainment vary across US states. We used the nationally representative data of more than 6 million adults aged 45 to 89 years in the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. We defined disability as difficulty with activities of daily living. We categorized education as low (less than high school), mid (high school or some college), or high (bachelor's or higher). We estimated age-standardized disability prevalence by educational attainment and state. We assessed whether the variation in disability across states occurs primarily among low-educated adults and whether it reflects the socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts. Disparities in disability by education vary markedly across states-from a 20 percentage point disparity in Massachusetts to a 12-point disparity in Wyoming. Disparities vary across states mainly because the prevalence of disability among low-educated adults varies across states. Personal and contextual socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults account for 29% of the variation. Efforts to reduce disparities in disability by education should consider state and local strategies that reduce poverty among low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts.

  8. Educational expectation trajectories and attainment in the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Reynolds, John R

    2013-05-01

    How consequential is family socioeconomic status for maintaining plans to get a bachelor's degree during the transition to adulthood? This article examines persistence and change in educational expectations, focusing on the extent to which family socioeconomic status shapes overtime trajectories of bachelor's degree expectations, how the influence involves the timing of family formation and full-time work vs. college attendance, and how persistence in expectations is consequential for getting a 4-year degree. The findings, based on the high school senior classes of 1987-1990, demonstrate that adolescents from higher socioeconomic status families are much more likely to hold onto their expectations to earn 4-year degrees, both in the early years after high school and, for those who do not earn degrees within that period, on through their 20s. These more persistent expectations in young adulthood, more so than adolescent expectations, help explain the greater success of young people from higher socioeconomic status backgrounds in earning a 4-year degree. Persistence of expectations to earn a bachelor's degree in the years after high school is shaped by stratified pathways of school, work, and family roles in the transition to adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Degrees of competency: the relationship between educational qualifications and adult skills across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Massing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational qualifications and literacy skills are highly related. This is not surprising as it is one aim of educational systems to equip individuals with competencies necessary to take part in society. Because of this relationship educational qualifications are often used as a proxy for “human capital”. However, from a theoretical perspective, there are many reasons why this relationship is not perfect, and to some degree this is due to third variables. Thus, we want to explore the net relationship between educational attainment (harmonized according to the International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED and literacy skills, and how much skills vary within education levels across countries. Methods We use data from 21 countries from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. This paper compares the literacy skills of adults who achieved different levels of educational attainment across countries. Given the high degree of educational differentiation in most countries, we do this using a more differentiated educational attainment variable than what is commonly used.  In our analyses we firstly adjust for factors that are likely to affect access to education and the acquisition of educational qualifications and literacy skills, such as parental education and language and migration background. In a second step, we also take into account factors affecting skill development after initial formal education, such as occupation and skill use at home. Results We firstly find a high degree of heterogeneity of skills across countries for equivalent education categories. Secondly, we find skill similarities for equivalent education categories classified at different broad education levels, sometimes even breaking the hierarchical order of ‘higher education entails higher competencies’. Conclusion We conclude that ISCED levels cannot be taken as a cross-nationally comparable proxy for

  10. Attainment of gross motor milestones in children with Down syndrome in Kosovo - developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqaj, Samire; Jusaj, Njomza; Živković, Vujica

    2017-08-01

    Aim To investigate the age (in months) at which motor skills are developed in children with Down syndrome (DS), and compare it to the age of the development of the same skills in both, children with typical development (TD), and children with DS reported by four other studies. Methods Sixteen children (7 girls and 9 boys) were monthly assessed for the development of nineteen motor skills between 2008 and 2011. The mean ages when the skills were accomplished were presented using descriptive statistics. Independent T-samples test (significance skills. No significant difference was found between developmental age in children from the present study and children with DS from other studies. Conclusion The rate of attainment of motor skills is delayed in children with DS in comparison to children with TD, however, the developmental sequence is the same. The delayed development is more prominent in more complex skills. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  11. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Plaete

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants’ use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC intervention of ‘MyPlan’, an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA, fruit intake, or vegetable intake. Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86, by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5, by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86, and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10. Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59, the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38, selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00 and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54 were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73, whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34. Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into e

  12. Educational attainment has a limited impact on disease management outcomes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Forkner, Emma; Krasuski, Richard A; Galbreath, Autumn Dawn; Freeman, Gregory L

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether educational attainment moderates outcomes in the intervention group in a trial of disease management in heart failure (HF). Data were collected from a sample of 654 patients enrolled in the disease management arm of a community- based study of HF patients. The full sample was used to analyze two primary outcomes- all-cause mortality and cardiac event-free survival. Two other primary outcomes- rates of HF-related emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions-and secondary outcomes (patient self-confidence in managing HF symptoms and daily dietary sodium intake in milligrams) were analyzed in a smaller sample of 602 patients who completed at least 6 months of disease management. One-way analysis of variance and chi (2) tests were used to assess differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Survival analyses were conducted with proportional hazards regression, while negative binomial regression was used to assess educational differences in ED usage and inpatient admissions. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess whether secondary outcomes differed across educational strata and/or over time. All outcome analyses were adjusted for confounders. Patients with the least education fared the poorest for all-cause mortality, but education- related differences failed to achieve statistical significance. No education-related differences were observed for cardiac event-free survival, or for the rates of inpatient admission and ED usage. For secondary outcomes, sodium intake differed significantly by education (p = 0.04), with the largest drop (-838 mg/day) observed in the least well-educated group. Confidence increased an approximately equal amount (2.1-3.0 points on a 100-point scale) across all educational strata (p = ns). Low educational attainment may not be a barrier to effective disease management.

  13. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  14. Attainable region analysis for continuous production of second generation bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Conejeros, Raúl; Aroca, Germán

    2013-11-29

    Despite its semi-commercial status, ethanol production from lignocellulosics presents many complexities not yet fully solved. Since the pretreatment stage has been recognized as a complex and yield-determining step, it has been extensively studied. However, economic success of the production process also requires optimization of the biochemical conversion stage. This work addresses the search of bioreactor configurations with improved residence times for continuous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation operations. Instead of analyzing each possible configuration through simulation, we apply graphical methods to optimize the residence time of reactor networks composed of steady-state reactors. Although this can be easily made for processes described by a single kinetic expression, reactions under analysis do not exhibit this feature. Hence, the attainable region method, able to handle multiple species and its reactions, was applied for continuous reactors. Additionally, the effects of the sugars contained in the pretreatment liquor over the enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were assessed. We obtained candidate attainable regions for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and SSF operations, both fed with pretreated corn stover. Results show that, despite the complexity of the reaction networks and underlying kinetics, the reactor networks that minimize the residence time can be constructed by using plug flow reactors and continuous stirred tank reactors. Regarding the effect of soluble solids in the feed stream to the reactor network, for SHF higher glucose concentration and yield are achieved for enzymatic hydrolysis with washed solids. Similarly, for SSF, higher yields and bioethanol titers are obtained using this substrate. In this work, we demonstrated the capabilities of the attainable region analysis as a tool to assess the optimal reactor network with minimum residence time applied to the SHF and

  15. Population equations for degree-heterogenous neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähne, M.; Sokolov, I. M.; Rüdiger, S.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a statistical framework for studying recurrent networks with broad distributions of the number of synaptic links per neuron. We treat each group of neurons with equal input degree as one population and derive a system of equations determining the population-averaged firing rates. The derivation rests on an assumption of a large number of neurons and, additionally, an assumption of a large number of synapses per neuron. For the case of binary neurons, analytical solutions can be constructed, which correspond to steps in the activity versus degree space. We apply this theory to networks with degree-correlated topology and show that complex, multi-stable regimes can result for increasing correlations. Our work is motivated by the recent finding of subnetworks of highly active neurons and the fact that these neurons tend to be connected to each other with higher probability.

  16. THE ROLE OF IMAGINATION IN ATTAINING THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA BORODAI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author wishes to defend a fundamental point: most ancient and early Christian thinkers (from Augustine to Thomas Aquinas thought that the human imagination as a cognitive faculty was a hindrance to metaphysical thinking, to theology, and therefore to the beatifi c vision and salvation. Today, on the contrary, this cognitive faculty is considered to be a positive and very valuable one. The turning-point in the process of this re-evaluation is located in the fourteenth century, when a new literary genre of spiritual literature appeared — the meditationes vitae Christi. For the fi rst time, imagination was seen as a most effi cient tool for attaining a knowledge of God and the fi nal goal of man’s life.

  17. The neural basis of attaining conscious awareness of sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Braden, B Blair; Chen, Kewei; Ponce, Francisco A; Lane, Richard D; Baxter, Leslie C

    2015-09-01

    The neural processes associated with becoming aware of sad mood are not fully understood. We examined the dynamic process of becoming aware of sad mood and recovery from sad mood. Sixteen healthy subjects underwent fMRI while participating in a sadness induction task designed to allow for variable mood induction times. Individualized regressors linearly modeled the time periods during the attainment of self-reported sad and baseline "neutral" mood states, and the validity of the linearity assumption was further tested using independent component analysis. During sadness induction the dorsomedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, and anterior insula exhibited a linear increase in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal until subjects became aware of a sad mood and then a subsequent linear decrease as subjects transitioned from sadness back to the non-sadness baseline condition. These findings extend understanding of the neural basis of conscious emotional experience.

  18. Non-attainment policy: A viable approach for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javandel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The National Research Council recently completed a three-year study entitled open-quotes Alternatives for Groundwater Cleanupclose quotes. One of the conclusions of this study indicated that for sites with a complex geologic and hydrologic set up, existing technologies may not be able to restore contaminated aquifers to health-based standards. Therefore, the most logical approach in these cases, perhaps, could be to adopt the open-quotes non-attainment zoneclose quotes policy. The essence of this policy is to first contain the plume and stop any further migration of contaminated groundwater, and then to remove the source of contamination. This paper briefly discusses some of the problems encountered with this approach for a contaminated area at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory

  19. Effects of Educational Attainment on Climate Risk Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of still uncertain specific effects of climate change in specific locations, this paper examines whether education significantly increases coping capacity with regard to particular climatic changes, and whether it improves the resilience of people to climate risks in general. Our hypothesis is that investment in universal primary and secondary education around the world is the most effective strategy for preparing to cope with the still uncertain dangers associated with future climate. The empirical evidence presented for a cross-country time series of factors associated with past natural disaster fatalities since 1980 in 125 countries confirms this overriding importance of education in reducing impacts. We also present new projections of populations by age, sex, and level of educational attainment to 2050, thus providing an appropriate tool for anticipating societies' future adaptive capacities based on alternative education scenarios associated with different policies.

  20. Attainment of barium hexaferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, S.B.; Timoteo, Jr.J.F.; Melo, G.M.; Souto, K.K.O.; Florioto, N.T.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexaferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  1. Attainment of barium hexa ferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Sheila B.; Timoteo, Flavio Junior J.; Machado, Tercio G.; Souto, Kesia K.O.; Floreoto, Neide T.; Paskocimas, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexa ferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  2. Preference for Boys, Family Size, and Educational Attainment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Adriana D; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to be enrolled in school, with larger effects for rural, poorer, and low-caste families as well as for families with illiterate mothers.

  3. Degrees of polarization for a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Soto, L L; Soederholm, J; Yustas, E C; Klimov, A B; Bjoerk, G

    2006-01-01

    Unpolarized light is invariant with respect to any SU(2) polarization transformation. Since this fully characterizes the set of density matrices representing unpolarized states, we introduce the degree of polarization of a quantum state as its distance to the set of unpolarized states. We discuss different candidates of distance, and show that they induce fundamentally different degrees of polarization

  4. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  5. Current Trends in Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Elaine Grant

    This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…

  6. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  7. Meson degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)

  8. Delirium in elderly patients: association with educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sónia; Paiva, José Artur; Simões, Mário R; Fernandes, Lia

    2017-04-01

    Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment. The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20-9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication. Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.

  9. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  10. Passion and coping: relationships with changes in burnout and goal attainment in collegiate volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Gaudreau, Patrick; Crocker, Peter R E

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season.

  11. All roads lead to Rome: the impact of multiple attainment means on motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Chi; Zhang, Ying

    2013-02-01

    Individuals have different concerns before and after they become relatively certain about a goal's attainability; hence, we propose that the presence of alternative means of goal attainment will have a distinctive impact on motivation, depending on their stage of goal pursuit. In the initial stage of goal pursuit, people are concerned about whether the goal is attainable. The presence of multiple attainment means (vs. a single means) makes the goal seem more easily attainable and thus leads to greater motivation. Conversely, when people have made substantial progress on the goal and its attainment is relatively secured, they focus more on how they can race to the end and complete the pursuit. At these times, a single means (vs. multiple means) provides a more straightforward action plan and in turn leads to greater motivation. Two field studies and 3 lab experiments support this theorizing. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Why women of lower educational attainment struggle to make healthier food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational...... attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women...... of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about...

  13. Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Neyer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  14. An Approximate Method for Solving Optimal Control Problems for Discrete Systems Based on Local Approximation of an Attainability Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Baturin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal control problem for discrete systems is considered. A method of successive improvements along with its modernization based on the expansion of the main structures of the core algorithm about the parameter is suggested. The idea of the method is based on local approximation of attainability set, which is described by the zeros of the Bellman function in the special problem of optimal control. The essence of the problem is as follows: from the end point of the phase is required to find a path that minimizes functional deviations of the norm from the initial state. If the initial point belongs to the attainability set of the original controlled system, the value of the Bellman function equal to zero, otherwise the value of the Bellman function is greater than zero. For this special task Bellman equation is considered. The support approximation and Bellman equation are selected. The Bellman function is approximated by quadratic terms. Along the allowable trajectory, this approximation gives nothing, because Bellman function and its expansion coefficients are zero. We used a special trick: an additional variable is introduced, which characterizes the degree of deviation of the system from the initial state, thus it is obtained expanded original chain. For the new variable initial nonzero conditions is selected, thus obtained trajectory is lying outside attainability set and relevant Bellman function is greater than zero, which allows it to hold a non-trivial approximation. As a result of these procedures algorithms of successive improvements is designed. Conditions for relaxation algorithms and conditions for the necessary conditions of optimality are also obtained.

  15. Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Above 100-Degrees-C in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; ISAKSEN, MF; JANNASCH, HW

    1992-01-01

    -reducing bacteria was done in hot deep-sea sediments at the hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin tectonic spreading center in the Gulf of California. Radiotracer studies revealed that sulfate reduction can occur at temperatures up to 110-degrees-C, with an optimum rate at 103-degrees to 106-degrees......-C. This observation expands the upper temperature limit of this process in deep-ocean sediments by 20-degrees-C and indicates the existence of an unknown groUp of hyperthermophilic bacteria with a potential importance for the biogeochemistry of sulfur above 100-degrees-C....

  16. There is variability in the attainment of developmental milestones in the CDKL5 disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Stephanie; Leonard, Helen; Ho, Gladys; Williams, Simon; de Klerk, Nick; Forbes, David; Christodoulou, John; Downs, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with the CDKL5 disorder have been described as having severely impaired development. A few individuals have been reported having attained more milestones including walking and running. Our aim was to investigate variation in attainment of developmental milestones and associations with underlying genotype. Data was sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database, and individuals were included if they had a pathogenic or probably pathogenic CDKL5 mutation and information on early development. Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses investigated the occurrence of developmental milestones. Mutations were grouped by their structural/functional consequence, and Cox regression was used to investigate the relationship between genotype and milestone attainment. The study included 109 females and 18 males. By 5 years of age, only 75% of the females had attained independent sitting and 25% independent walking whilst a quarter of the males could sit independently by 1 year 3 months. Only one boy could walk independently. No clear relationship between mutation group and milestone attainment was present, although females with a late truncating mutation attained the most milestones. Attainment of developmental milestones is severely impaired in the CDKL5 disorder, with the majority who did attain skills attaining them at a late age. It appears as though males are more severely impaired than the females. Larger studies are needed to further investigate the role of genotype on clinical variability.

  17. 76 FR 40262 - Determination of Attainment, Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This action corrects an omission in the regulatory text of the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Doty, Environmental Scientist, Attainment Planning and...

  18. Water Quality attainment Information from Clean Water Act Statewide Statistical Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated uses assessed by statewide statistical surveys and their state and national attainment categories. Statewide statistical surveys are water quality...

  19. Goal conflicts, attainment of new goals, and well-being among managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Hugo M

    2003-07-01

    Researchers widely understand that conflicts among goals inhibit the attainment of these goals. However, this notion comes close to tautological reasoning. To avert this problem, this study examined whether preexisting goal conflict also inhibits success in newly set goals. Using the context of management training, in which managers collectively set new goals, the study variables were assessed at 3 testing periods covering 5 months. Results indicate that goal conflicts that persevere over time were associated with inhibited attainment of new goals but not with decreased subjective well-being (SWB). Goal attainment, however, was positively related to SWB. Interactions of residual changes in goal conflict and goal attainment were associated with positive affect.

  20. Identifying the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain minimum porosity and maximum hardness in iron based amorphous metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vignesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow based Erosion – corrosion problems are very common in fluid handling equipments such as propellers, impellers, pumps in warships, submarine. Though there are many coating materials available to combat erosion–corrosion damage in the above components, iron based amorphous coatings are considered to be more effective to combat erosion–corrosion problems. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF spray process is considered to be a better process to coat the iron based amorphous powders. In this investigation, iron based amorphous metallic coating was developed on 316 stainless steel substrate using HVOF spray technique. Empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and micro hardness of iron based amorphous coating incorporating HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen flow rate, fuel flow rate, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spray distance. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to identify the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain coating with minimum porosity and maximum hardness.

  1. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  2. Career Paths for Physics Degree Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick

    Physics degree holders have a diverse set of career opportunities open to them. So what are these opportunities? Where are they employed? How much do they earn? What skills will they need? Physics degrees make up a small proportion of the degrees conferred in the US but they play an important role in meeting workforce needs at many levels. This talk will give an overview of the employment outcomes of physics bachelors, masters and PhDs. It will discuss the diverse set fields they work in and the skills they use.

  3. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 73 US institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented here are historical data for the last decade, which provide information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students

  4. Subnuclear degrees of freedom in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.

    1985-03-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.

    1994-01-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)

  6. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-10-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.

  7. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seletskiy, Sergey M.; Rochester U.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the first cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cooling. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Tevatron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV carrying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 (micro)rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible. Chapter 1 is an introduction where I describe briefly the theory and the history of electron cooling, and derive the requirements to the quality of electron beam and requirements to the basic parameters of the Recycler Electron Cooler. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theoretical consideration of the motion of electrons in the cooling section, description of the cooling section and of the measurement of the magnetic fields. In Chapter 3 I consider different factors that increase the effective electron angle in the cooling section and suggest certain algorithms for the suppression of parasitic angles. Chapter 4 is devoted to the measurements of the energy of the electron beam. In the concluding Chapter 5 I review

  8. Chemistry teaching in the new degrees of Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The academic year 2011-12 is the second one implementing Bologna process in ETSI at the subjects of Agricultural Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate Environmental and engineering Graduate in Biotechnology, for it has been necessary to design and implement new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, implement new evaluation systems that promote continued participation active student and the development of educational materials to support the subjects of chemistry designed new degrees within the EEES. In addition to the above actions, an assessment test prior chemistry knowledge has been made to all students who enter into Agricultural Grades, improving laboratory practices and the comparative study of academic obtained by the students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the year 2011-12 compared to the 2010-11 academic year. More than 15,000 data have showed a good correlation between the student's prior knowledge, the level test performed, test scores, the overall success rate of the course and the abandonment of the different degrees. Academic results show a higher percentage of students enrolled and presented on a greater number of passes on students enrolled in the 2011-12 academic year for students enrolled in the previous academic year. The improved results have influenced the actions taken and the level of knowledge with students entering. Finally, we propose possible solutions to fix these results in future courses, aiming to improve the degree of efficiency, success and significant absenteeism in the first year as it will condition the dropout rate of these new degrees. Acknowledgements: Proyecto de Innovación Educativa N° IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012.

  9. Attaining high luminosity in linear e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1990-11-01

    The attainment of high luminosity in linear colliders is a complex problem because of the interdependence of the critical parameters. For instance, changing the number of particles per bunch affects the damping ring design and thus the emittance; it affects the wakefields in the linac and thus the momentum spread; the momentum spread affects the final focus design and thus the final β*; but the emittance change also affects the final focus design; and all these come together to determine the luminosity, disruption and beamstrahlung at the intersection. Changing the bunch length, or almost any other parameter, has a similar chain reaction. Dealing with this problem by simple scaling laws is very difficult because one does not know which parameter is going to be critical, and thus which should be held constant. One can only maximize the luminosity by a process of search and iteration. The process can be facilitated with the aid of a computer program. Examples can then be optimized for maximum luminosity, and compared to the optimized solutions with different approaches. This paper discusses these approaches

  10. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); A. M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics RAS, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.

  11. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  12. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  13. Career Maturity and Job Attainment: The Moderating Roles of Emotional Intelligence and Social Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Peng, Kelly; Wong, Chi-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Despite the well-recognized importance of career maturity in job searching, little research has been done on the influence of career maturity on job attainment. Drawing on the extant literature, this study examined the relationship between career maturity and job attainment, and explored the boundary conditions that maximize this relationship.…

  14. Scholastic Attainment Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: A Study of Children Adopted from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between severe early institutional deprivation and scholastic attainment at age 11 in 127 children (68 girls and 59 boys) adopted from institutions in Romania was compared to the attainment of 49 children (17 girls and 32 boys) adopted within the UK from a non-institutional background. Overall, children adopted from Romania had…

  15. Sibling Composition and Child Educational Attainment: Evidence from Native Amazonians in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Rubio-Jovel, Karla; Reyes-Garcia; Victoria; Godoy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from industrial nations suggests that sibling composition is associated with children's educational attainment, particularly if parents face resource constraints. If sibling composition is associated with educational attainment, then those associations should be stronger in poor societies of developing nations. We use data from a…

  16. 78 FR 27161 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Ozone Attainment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... CFR 51.908(a) and (c), 51.910, 51.912). In addition, moderate nonattainment areas were also required..., or June 15, 2010. See 40 CFR 51.903. In order to demonstrate attainment by June 2010, the area must... determination that the New York City area had attained the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. Pursuant to 40 CFR 51.918...

  17. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena M. Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.

  18. The Interactive Effects of Gender and Mentoring on Career Attainment: Making the Case for Female Lawyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Aarti; Dreher, George F.; Bretz, Robert; Wiethoff, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The moderating effects of biological gender on the relationships between mentoring and career attainment were explored among legal professionals. Research results indicated that male and female lawyers were equally likely to have senior male mentors. However, senior male mentors were associated with higher career attainment only for female…

  19. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-578

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Camille L.; Bauman, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The report examines educational attainment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and disability status, as well as differences in…

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Okbay (Aysu); J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); J.J. Lee (James J.); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A.); P. Turley (Patrick); Chen, G.-B. (Guo-Bo); V. Emilsson (Valur); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Oskarsson, S. (Sven); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Thom, K. (Kevin); Timshel, P. (Pascal); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); A. Abdellaoui (Abdel); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); J. Bacelis (Jonas); C. Baumbach (Clemens); Bjornsdottir, G. (Gyda); J.H. Brandsma (Johan); Pina Concas, M. (Maria); J. Derringer; Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A.); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); S. Girotto; Gupta, R. (Richa); L.M. Hall (Leanne M.); S.E. Harris (Sarah); E. Hofer; Horikoshi, M. (Momoko); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); Kaasik, K. (Kadri); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); R. Karlsson (Robert); A. Kong (Augustine); J. Lahti (Jari); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); Deleeuw, C. (Christiaan); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Lindgren, K.-O. (Karl-Oskar); Liu, T. (Tian); M. Mangino (Massimo); J. Marten (Jonathan); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); A. Payton (Antony); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); Qian, Y. (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); Rueedi, R. (Rico); Salvi, E. (Erika); Schmidt, B. (Börge); Schraut, K.E. (Katharina E.); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R.A. Poot (Raymond); B. St Pourcain (Beate); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); N. Verweij (Niek); D. Vuckovic (Dragana); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); Yang, J. (Jingyun); Zhao, W. (Wei); Zhu, Z. (Zhihong); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); G. Biino (Ginevra); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); H. Campbell (Harry); Cappuccio, F.P. (Francesco P.); G. Davies (Gail); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); I. Demuth (Ilja); Ding, J. (Jun); Eibich, P. (Peter); Eisele, L. (Lewin); N. Eklund (Niina); D.M. Evans (David); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); I. Gandin (Ilaria); Gunnarsson, B. (Bjarni); B.V. Halldorsson (Bjarni); T.B. Harris (Tamara); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); L.J. Hocking; G. Homuth (Georg); M. Horan (Mike); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Juqessur (Astanand); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M. Kähönen (Mika); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); Keltigangas-Järvinen, L. (Liisa); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Koskinen, S. (Seppo); A. Kraja (Aldi); Kroh, M. (Martin); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); A. Latvala (Antti); L.J. Launer (Lenore); Lebreton, M.P. (Maël P.); D.F. Levinson (Douglas F.); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P. Lichtner (Peter); D.C. Liewald (David C.); A. Loukola (Anu); P.A. Madden (Pamela); R. Mägi (Reedik); Mäki-Opas, T. (Tomi); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); P. Marques-Vidal; Meddens, G.A. (Gerardus A.); G. Mcmahon (George); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); Milaneschi, Y. (Yusplitri); L. Milani (Lili); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); R. Myhre (Ronny); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); W.E.R. Ollier (William); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); K. Petrovic (Katja); D.J. Porteous (David J.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); Ring, S.M. (Susan M.); A. Robino (Antonietta); O. Rostapshova (Olga); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Rustichini (Aldo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Sanders, A.R. (Alan R.); A.-P. Sarin; R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R.J. Scott (Rodney); B.H. Smith (Blair); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J.A. Staessen (Jan); E. Steinhagen-Thiessen (Elisabeth); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Terracciano; M.D. Tobin (Martin); S. Ulivi (Shelia); S. Vaccargiu (Simona); L. Quaye (Lydia); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); C. Venturini (Cristina); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); U. Völker (Uwe); Völzke, H. (Henry); J.M. Vonk (Judith); D. Vozzi (Diego); J. Waage (Johannes); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); H. Bisgaard (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); U. Bültmann (Ute); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hagen (Knut); B. Franke (Barbara); L. Franke (Lude); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); C. Gieger (Christian); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J. Gratten (Jacob); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); D.A. Hinds (David A.); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.G. Iacono (William); B. Jacobsson (Bo); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lehrer, S.F. (Steven F.); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); A. Metspalu (Andres); N. Pendleton (Neil); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Pirastu (Mario); O. Polasek (Ozren); D. Posthuma (Danielle); C. Power (Christopher); M.A. Province (Mike); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); Schlessinger, D. (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A.R. Thurik (Roy); Timpson, N.J. (Nicholas J.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); J.Y. Tung (Joyce Y.); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Vitart, V. (Veronique); P. Vollenweider (Peter); D.R. Weir (David); J.F. Wilson (James F.); A.F. Wright (Alan); Conley, D.C. (Dalton C.); R.F. Krueger; G.D. Smith; Hofman, A. (Albert); D. Laibson (David); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); J. Yang (Joanna); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.M. Visscher (Peter); T. Esko (Tõnu); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); D. Cesarini (David); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEducational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that