WorldWideScience

Sample records for degree attainment rates

  1. The Impact of Dual Enrollment Participation on Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Peggy Anne

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs continue to grow in the United States; however, little empirical research examines the relationship between this high school experience and future college success and degree attainment. This study examines degree attainment for first-time beginning students who began their postsecondary education at a Virginia Community…

  2. Predicting Bachelor's Degree Attainment for Developmental Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Anderson, Connie Wilson; Siwatu, Kamau Oginga

    2009-01-01

    This study used the National Educational Longitudinal Study: 88 /2000 (NELS 88: /2000) dataset to explore characteristics associated with college degree attainment. The study was informed by Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. The sample size was 6,832 postsecondary students. The findings revealed that developmental math students were less…

  3. Dual Credit, College Type, and Enhanced Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenberger, Bob; Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed data for the Illinois high school class of 2003 to determine the impact of dual credit participation on postsecondary attainment. We matched 8,095 dual credit participants to an equal number of nonparticipants within the same high school at the point of postsecondary enrollment using propensity scores calculated through…

  4. 40 CFR 420.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  5. Understanding Racial Differences in the Effects of Loans on Degree Attainment: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent trends in the financing of higher education have increased the urgency of understanding how financial aid affects degree attainment among college students. Specifically, increased reliance on loans in the composition of financial aid packages renders it critical for policymakers and institutional leaders to understand the impact of…

  6. 40 CFR 469.14 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Semiconductor Subcategory § 469.14 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart A—Semiconductor...

  7. Factors related to the persistence and attainment of graduate degrees in the sciences by women science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Janet E.

    Researchers have shown that women remain underrepresented in the sciences particularly in doctorate degree attainment. This investigator aimed to extend previous research by examining possible causes of gender disparity in science graduate education using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, B&B.:93/03. Variables in categories of demographics, academic achievement, financial resources, degree expectations and attitudes toward educational experiences, future study and employment were analyzed by t tests and hierarchical regression to determine gender differences in graduate degree expectations and attainment by male and female science majors. Findings supported gender disparity in undergraduate and graduate fields of study. Women dominated health areas and earned terminal master's degrees, whereas men dominated the physical science field and attained a higher proportion of doctorate degrees. Results also showed no gender differences in master's degree attainment in other fields thus confirming that these graduates did not persist in science fields. Graduate degree expectation was a strong predictor for master's and doctorate degree attainment. Parent education had a significant effect on degree expectations but not on graduate degree attainment. Women tended to have lower degree expectations and earned fewer science and math credits than men. Results showed that unemployment and loans predicted doctorate degree attainment by men and women showed higher levels of employment in graduate school.

  8. Educational Attainment and Mortality in the United States: Effects of Degrees, Years of Schooling, and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Zajacova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented a strong and consistent education gradient for mortality, with more highly educated individuals living longer than those with less education. This study contributes to our understanding of the education-mortality relationship by determining the effects of years of education and degree attainment on mortality, and by including nondegree certification, an important but understudied dimension of educational attainment. We use data from the mortality-linked restricted-use files of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) sample (N=9,821) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk among U.S. adults. Results indicate that more advanced degrees and additional years of education are associated with reduced mortality risk in separate models, but when included simultaneously, only degrees remain influential. Among individuals who have earned a high school diploma only, additional years of schooling (beyond 12) and vocational school certification (or similar accreditation) are both independently associated with reduced risks of death. Degrees appear to be most important for increasing longevity; the findings also suggest that any educational experience can be beneficial. Future research in health and mortality should consider including educational measures beyond a single variable for educational attainment. PMID:27482124

  9. 40 CFR 405.127 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Whey Subcategory § 405.127 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  10. 40 CFR 405.117 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.117 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  11. 40 CFR 420.113 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). The Agency...

  12. 40 CFR 420.137 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best control technology for... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional...

  13. 40 CFR 420.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  14. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  15. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  16. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  17. 40 CFR 420.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). The Agency has determined...

  18. 40 CFR 405.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For whey condensing... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  19. 40 CFR 405.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For whey drying plants... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Whey Subcategory § 405.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  20. Early Determinants of Postsecondary Education Participation and Degree Attainment: Findings from an Inner-City Minority Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n = 1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born in 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods…

  1. 40 CFR 420.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  2. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid Pickling... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  3. 40 CFR 420.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sintering... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as...

  4. 40 CFR 420.97 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid Pickling Subcategory § 420... of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  5. 40 CFR 420.87 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  6. 40 CFR 420.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  7. 40 CFR 420.123 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  8. 40 CFR 420.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  9. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.127... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  10. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  11. 40 CFR 420.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as...

  12. 40 CFR 420.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  13. 40 CFR 420.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  14. 40 CFR 420.43 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  15. 40 CFR 420.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  16. 40 CFR 417.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.22 Effluent limitations guidelines... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  17. 40 CFR 417.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available...

  18. 40 CFR 421.282 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Leaching wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Tantalum Subcategory Pollutant or... CATEGORY Secondary Tantalum Subcategory § 421.282 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable technology currently available: (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 421.333 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....674 5.835 Ammonia (as N) 2,102.000 895.000 (q) Leaching rinse water from zirconium metal production... Ammonia (as N) 7,856.000 3,453.000 (r) Leaching rinse water from zirconium alloy production. BAT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  20. Early Determinants of Postsecondary Education Participation and Degree Attainment: Findings from an Inner-City Minority Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n = 1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born in 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods…

  1. Stymied Mobility or Temporary Lull? The Puzzle of Lagging Hispanic College Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Sigal; Domina, Thurston; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We assess the intergenerational educational mobility of recent cohorts of high school graduates to consider whether Hispanics' lagging postsecondary attainment reflects a temporary lull due to immigration of low education parents or a more enduring pattern of unequal transmission of social status relative to whites. Using data from three national…

  2. Nonlinearity degree of short-term heart rate variability signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Chunhua; NING Xinbao

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) model is built to model the heartbeat interval time series and the optimum model degree is proposed to be taken to evaluate the nonlinearity degree of heart rate variability (HRV). A group of healthy persons are studied and the results indicate that this method can effectively get nonlinear information from short (6-7 min) heartbeat series and consequently reflect the degree of heart rate variability, which supplies convenience in clinical application. Finally, a comparison with the traditional time domain method shows that the NAR model method can reflect the complexity of the whole signal and lessen the influence of noise and instability in the signal.

  3. Consequences of Delay in Postsecondary Education: Degree Attainment for 1972, 1980, and 1982 High School Graduates. E.D. TABS. National Longitudinal Study 1972. High School and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Eva; Schmitt, Carl

    This Department of Education (ED) Tabulation provides data in six tables on the effect of delay in entering postsecondary education (PE) on degree attainment for 1972, 1980, and 1982 high school graduates. The data compare the patterns of delay in PE among these three cohorts by pattern of enrollment, type of institution, and selected student…

  4. Persistence and Degree Attainment: The Role of Individual Decision Making, Various Forms of Capital, and Institutional Factors among Mexican-American Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Eliza Aguirre

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research was to analyze a nationally representative dataset of first-year beginning students to examine the factors that affect Mexican-origin Latinos undergraduate students' persistence and degree attainment outcomes. Several theoretical perspectives are used in this research in order to address the complex…

  5. Theoretical Limits of Damping Attainable by Smart Beams with Rate Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1997-01-01

    Using a generally accepted model we present a comprehensive analysis (within the page limitation) of an Euler- Bernoulli beam with PZT sensor-actuator and pure rate feedback. The emphasis is on the root locus - the dependence of the attainable damping on the feedback gain. There is a critical value of the gain beyond which the damping decreases to zero. We construct the time-domain response using semigroup theory, and show that the eigenfunctions form a Riesz basis, leading to a 'modal' expansion.

  6. Attaining the rate-independent limit of a rate-dependent strain gradient plasticity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The existence of characteristic strain rates in rate-dependent material models, corresponding to rate-independent model behavior, is studied within a back stress based rate-dependent higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity model. Such characteristic rates have recently been observed...... for steady-state processes, and the present study aims to demonstrate that the observations in fact unearth a more widespread phenomenon. In this work, two newly proposed back stress formulations are adopted to account for the strain gradient effects in the single slip simple shear case, and characteristic...

  7. Changes in college attainment and the economic returns to a college degree in urban China, 2003-2010: implications for social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anning; Hibel, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Expansion of higher education is expected to reduce social inequality under the conditions that (1) higher education should become increasingly egalitarian; (2) educational attainment should be the main determinant of class destinations; and (3) individuals from different social backgrounds should benefit from higher education homogeneously. Using representative data collected in mainland China from 2003 to 2010, we find (1) social background factors, especially parents' education, are significantly associated with the opportunity of completing college across periods; (2) the economic returns to a college degree have been longitudinally increasing; and (3) for both 2003 and 2010, people from different social origins benefit from higher education attainment in a homogeneous way. An overall assessment of the findings suggests that changes in college attainment and the returns to higher education in urban China are not in favor of the promotion of general social equality, but maintain the existing extent of inequality.

  8. 40 CFR 420.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available (BPT). 420.22 Section 420.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available...

  9. 40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best practicable technology currently available: (a) Subpart M—Battery... Lead .283 .135 Zinc .983 .411 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 Total suspended solids 27.600 13.130 pH (1) (1... Furnace Wet Air Pollution Control BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for...

  10. 40 CFR 421.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../troy ounce of silver production Copper .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 Total... technology currently available. 421.122 Section 421.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  11. Impact of Community-Based Dental Education on Attainment of ADEA Competencies: Students' Self-Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kimberly K; Nayar, Preethy; Ojha, Diptee; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Lange, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Fourth-year dental students at the College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center participate in a community-based dental education (CBDE) program that includes a four-week rotation in rural dental practices and community health clinics across Nebraska and nearby states. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the CBDE program on the self-rated competencies of these students. A retrospective survey was administered to students who participated in extramural rotations in two academic years. The survey collected demographic data and asked students to rate themselves on a scale from 1=not competent at all to 5=very competent on attainment of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Competencies for the New General Dentist for before and after the rotations. A total of 92 responses were obtained: 43 students for 2011-12 and 49 students for 2012-13 (95% response rate for each cohort). The results showed that the students' mean pre-program self-ratings ranged from 3.28 for the competency domain of Practice Management and Informatics to 3.93 for Professionalism. Their mean post-program self-ratings ranged from 3.76 for Practice Management and Informatics to 4.31 for Professionalism. The students showed a statistically significant increase in self-ratings for all six competency domains. The increase was greatest in the domain of Critical Thinking and least in Communication and Interpersonal Skills. Overall, these results suggest that the CBDE program was effective in improving the students' self-perceptions of competence in all six domains and support the idea that a competency-based evaluation of CBDE programs can provide valuable information to dental educators about program effectiveness.

  12. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  13. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 430.93 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.93 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  15. 40 CFR 430.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 424.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  17. 40 CFR 424.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  18. The Educational Attainment of Chicago Public Schools Students: A Focus on Four-Year College Degrees. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kaleen; Nagaoka, Jenny; Michelman, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    A four-year college degree increases a student's employment prospects and earning potential. Given this importance, it is not surprising that 75 percent of Chicago Public Schools (CPS) high school students aspire to obtain at least a four-year college degree. Yet, prior research showed that few achieved this goal: a 2006 University of Chicago…

  19. 40 CFR 430.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.102 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 430.104 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.104 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 421.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Molybdenum filtrate solvent extraction raffinate. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium... Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.223 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of.... BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...

  2. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tonisha B

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation.

  3. Heart rate and heart rate variability in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth;

    2011-01-01

    HEART RATE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DOGS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF MYXOMATOUS MITRAL VALVE DISEASE. CE Rasmussen1, T Falk1, NE Zois1, SG Moesgaard1, HD Pedersen2, J Häggström3 and LH Olsen1. 1. Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University...... of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. 2. Novo Nordic A/S, Maaloev, Denmark. 3. Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indirect measurement of the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR). Reduced HRV measured from short......-time electrocardiography is seen in dogs with heart failure (HF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). However, HRV is suggested to increase with disease severity at early stages of MMVD. The aims of this study were 1) to associate HR and HRV with severity of MMVD in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS...

  4. 40 CFR 421.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver produced from leaching Copper... produced from leaching or silver precipitated Copper 5.671 2.703 Zinc 4.519 1.861 Ammonia (as N) 590.500... Silver Subcategory § 421.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  5. 40 CFR 421.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (h) Tin hydroxide supernatant from plating solutions and sludges. BPT... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of tin metal recovered from plating solutions... CATEGORY Secondary Tin Subcategory § 421.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  6. 40 CFR 421.322 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... times. (c) Solvent extraction raffinate filtrate. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Uranium Subcategory... CATEGORY Secondary Uranium Subcategory § 421.322 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... filtrate. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Uranium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum...

  7. 40 CFR 421.323 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 90.860 (c) Solvent extraction raffinate filtrate. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Uranium... Uranium Subcategory § 421.323 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... Limitations for the Secondary Uranium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  8. 40 CFR 422.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharge of process waste water pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste water pollutants from a... to the runoff from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event may be discharged, after treatment to...

  9. 40 CFR 471.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (k) Tube reducing spent lubricants—Subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 471.91 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.91 Effluent limitations representing the degree of... Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (g) Tube Reducing Spent Lubricant—Subpart I—BPT. (1)...

  11. 40 CFR 471.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... 0.006 Cyanide 0.010 0.004 Nickel 0.066 0.044 Ammonia 4.57 2.01 Fluoride 2.04 0.906 (g) Tube...

  12. 40 CFR 421.283 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....214 Lead 0.098 0.046 Nickel 0.193 0.130 Zinc 0.357 0.147 Tantalum 0.158 (e) Leaching wet air pollution... Tantalum Subcategory § 421.283 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) Tantalum alloy leach and rinse....

  13. 40 CFR 415.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 435.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxicity ratio (Footnote 6), biodegradation rate ratio (Footnote 7), PAH, mercury, and cadmium stock.... Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) PAH mass ratio 5 shall not exceed 1×10−5. Sediment toxicity Base fluid sediment toxicity ratio 6 shall not exceed 1.0. Biodegradation rate Biodegradation rate ratio 7 shall...

  15. Examining educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting as predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    We investigated three potential predictors (educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting [DD]) of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers. These predictors were examined alone and in combination with other potential predictors using study-intake assessments from controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Data from 349 pregnant women (231 continuing smokers and 118 spontaneous quitters) recruited from the greater Burlington, VT, area contributed to this secondary analysis, including psychiatric/sociodemographic characteristics, smoking characteristics, and performance on a computerized DD task. Educational attainment, smoking rate, and DD values were each significant predictors of spontaneous quitting in univariate analyses. A model examining those three predictors together retained educational attainment as a main effect and revealed a significant interaction of DD and smoking rate (i.e., DD was a significant predictor at lower but not higher smoking rates). A final model considering all potential predictors, included education, the interaction of DD and smoking rate, and five additional predictors (i.e., stress ratings, the belief that smoking during pregnancy will "greatly harm my baby," age of smoking initiation, marital status, and prior quit attempts during pregnancy). The study presented here contributes new knowledge on predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers with substantive practical implications for reducing smoking during pregnancy.

  16. 40 CFR 421.293 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fluoride 1,947.000 1,107.000 Tin 21.140 21.240 (h) Tin hydroxide supernatant from plating solutions and... plating solutions and sludges Lead 32.20 14.95 Cyanide (total) 23.00 9.20 Fluoride 4,025.00 2,289.00 Tin... Tin Subcategory § 421.293 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. Strategy When Faced with Failure: Persistence and Degree Attainment of Course Repeaters versus Non-Repeaters. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen S.

    Graduation and persistence rates were compared for 184 students, 92 of whom had repeated multiple courses or at least 1 course 3 times. A control group of 92 nonrepeating students was drawn from the remaining 303 students of the entire 1996 cohort. There was no difference between the graduation rate of repeaters and nonrepeaters. The persistence…

  18. 40 CFR 466.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nickel 56.46 11.43 40.05 8.11 Zinc 53.26 10.78 22.43 4.54 Aluminum 182.20 36.87 74.47 15.07 Iron 112.12....40 0.29 Lead 1.23 0.25 1.07 0.22 Nickel 11.57 2.34 8.20 1.66 Zinc 10.91 2.21 4.60 0.93 Aluminum 37.32... effluent limitations for metal preparation operations and for coating operations representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available (BPT): (a) For normal operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values... operation of a spray drying tower, but only when a high rate of wet scrubbing is in operation which produces... CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152 Effluent limitations...

  20. The critical size is set at a single-cell level by growth rate to attain homeostasis and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Colomina, Neus; Palmisano, Alida; Garí, Eloi; Gallego, Carme; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Aldea, Martí

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast cells are assumed to trigger Start and enter the cell cycle only after they attain a critical size set by external conditions. However, arguing against deterministic models of cell size control, cell volume at Start displays great individual variability even under constant conditions. Here we show that cell size at Start is robustly set at a single-cell level by the volume growth rate in G1, which explains the observed variability. We find that this growth-rate-dependent sizer is intimately hardwired into the Start network and the Ydj1 chaperone is key for setting cell size as a function of the individual growth rate. Mathematical modelling and experimental data indicate that a growth-rate-dependent sizer is sufficient to ensure size homeostasis and, as a remarkable advantage over a rigid sizer mechanism, it reduces noise in G1 length and provides an immediate solution for size adaptation to external conditions at a population level.

  1. Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates--Fall 2008 Cohort (Signature Report No. 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Yuan, Xin; Harrell, Autumn T.; Wakhungu, Phoebe Khasiala

    2014-01-01

    This third annual report on national college completion rates offers the first look at the six-year outcomes for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2008, the cohort that entered college during the Great Recession. It looks at the various pathways students took toward degree completion, as well as the completion rates through May…

  2. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Photosynthetic Rate of Leymus chinensis in Grassland of Different Degrading Degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming WANG; Yajing BAO; Zhenghai LI; Shaohuan YANG; Jingping JIAO; Yanyu GUO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic rate of Leymus chinensis in the grasslands of different degrading degrees. [Method] With the L. chinensis in Inner Mongolia Baiyinxile Ranch as the research object, different rations of nitrogen fertilizer were applied to the grassland (0, 30, 50, 80 g/m^2). The effect of different gradients of nitrogen fertilizer on photo- synthetic rate of Leymus chinensis, and the effect on grasslands of different degrading degrees were analyzed. [Result] The photosynthetic rate of L. chinensis in- creased with the increase of nitrogen gradients; in the grassland communities with different degrading degrees, the responses of the photosynthetic rate of L. chinensis to nitrogen fertilizer were different, and the response in the grassland with severe degradation was the best. [Conclusion] Nitrogen fertilizer played an important role in enhancing the restoration degree of grassland.

  3. Degree of Rate Control: How Much the Energies of Intermediates and Transition States Control Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegelmann, Carsten; Andreasen, Anders; Campbell, Charles T.

    2009-01-01

    For many decades, the concept of a “rate-determining step” has been of central importance in understanding chemical kinetics in multistep reaction mechanisms and using that understanding to advantage. Yet a rigorous method for identifying the rate-determining step in a reaction mechanism was only...... model for any reaction mechanism. Thus, it is very important to identify these rate-controlling transition states and rate-controlling intermediates for both applied and basic research. Here, we present a method for doing that....

  4. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target goal attainment rate and related factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)target goal attainment rate and related factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS)after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI).Methods From March 2011 to March 2012,a total of832 ACS patients were retrospectively evaluated in the Cardiology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University.The target goal attainment

  5. ATTAINMENT OF HIGHER ENROLLMENT RATES IN PAKISTAN: A MACROECONOMIC AND ECONOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furrukh Bashir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is always considered as the major determinant for the development of any economy. Enrollment at various levels also shows that how much education is common within the citizens of the country. Considering the importance of enrollment, the current study examines the influence of some macroeconomic variables on various levels i.e. primary, secondary, higher, college, professional and university enrollment in Pakistan. Time series data has been gathered on consumer price index, government revenue, employed labor force, government expenditure, and health expenditure for the period from 1972 to 2010. For long run estimates, Johansen Co integration test is used and short run estimates are taken through error correction model. The results of the study exhibit positive association of employed labor force, government expenditure and health expenditure with primary, secondary, higher, college, professional and university enrollment in Pakistan. On the other side, consumer price index and government revenue have been found to be inversely influencing enrollment at various levels. Short run results are also much favorable for the economy and reveals convergence towards long run equilibrium due to any disturbances in the short run period. At the end study gives some policy implications that government should decrease consumer price index and tax rate and to increase government expenditure in terms of education and health for higher enrollment rates in Pakistan.

  6. Correlation between deceleration capacity of rate and myocardial injury degree in children with viral myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yang Zhang; Hui Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To find the correlation between deceleration capacity of rate and myocardial injury degree in children with viral myocarditis.Methods:A total of 90 children with viral myocarditis and 86 healthy children were selected as the research subjects, differences in rate deceleration capacity of rate and myocardial damage degree indexes were compared between two groups of children, and the correlation between deceleration capacity of rate and myocardial injury degree was further analyzed.Results:Mean DC level as well as heart rate variability indexes SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, LF and HF levels of observation group was lower than those of control group; serum myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes CK, CK-MB, cTnⅠ, LDH, AST and ALT content were higher than those of control group; serum apoptosis indexes GRBS, sFasL, Bax and caspase-3 content were higher than those of control group while Bcl-2 content was lower than that of control group; heart rate indexes MSV1, MSV2, MSV3, PFVe and PFVa levels were lower than those of control group. Deceleration capacity of rate in children with viral myocarditis was directly correlated with myocardial injury-related indexes such as heart rate variability, myocardial enzyme spectrum, myocardial apoptosis and heart rate.Conclusions: The change of deceleration capacity of rate in children with viral myocarditis is directly correlated with myocardial injury, and can be used as a reliable medium for disease severity judgment and clinical treatment guidance.

  7. Degree of Rate Control: How Much the Energies of Intermediates and Transition States Control Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegelmann, Carsten; Andreasen, Anders; Campbell, Charles T.

    2009-01-01

    electronic or steric control on the relative energies of the key species. Since these key species are the ones whose relative energies most strongly influence the net reaction rate, they also identify the species whose energetics must be most accurately measured or calculated to achieve an accurate kinetic...

  8. Convergence rate of Bézier variant of an operator involving Laguerre polynomials of degree n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öksüzer, Özlem; Karslı, Harun; Yeşildal, Fatma Taşdelen

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we consider the Bézier variant of an operator (Pn,αf) which is involving Laguerre polynomial of degree n and estimate the rate of convergence of (Pn,αf)(x,t) to bounded variation functions To prove our main result, we have used some methods and techniques of probability theory.

  9. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  10. Towards the Education Nation: Revisiting the Impact of Financial Aid, College Experience, and Institutional Context on Baccalaureate Degree Attainment Using a Propensity Score Matching, Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ray

    2012-01-01

    To compete in the global marketplace, the U.S. economy heavily relies on higher education institutions to educate the college graduates and knowledge workers needed to create the innovative products and services of tomorrow. And yet, where once America led the world in educational attainment, recent data from the Organization for Economic…

  11. Interpreting Changes over Time in High School Average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark Attainment Rates. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Education officials and journalists frequently track changes over time in the average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark attainment rates of individual high schools. Using standard statistical methods, I examined how often changes in these statistics are unambiguously positive or negative, rather…

  12. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus......, the irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... spectroscopy (FTIR). Wear was assessed by a three-body test. Data were submitted to Levene's test, one and three-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD test (alpha = 0.05). Results: Immersion in ethanol, curing mode, and material all had significant effects on Wallace hardness. After ethanol storage, resin composites...

  13. Effect of the Degree of Polymerization of Inulin on the Rate of Hydrolysis Using Immobilized Inulinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ricca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses two crucial features in the industrial development of fructose production by enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin: the use of immobilized biocatalyst in the hydrolysis of crude extracts of chicory roots and the evaluation of the effect of degree of polymerization of inulin on the overall reaction rate. The immobilized biocatalyst consisted of inulinase covalently bound to Sepabeads® supports. It was demonstrated that its catalytic activity towards crude inulin extract (real substrate was much higher than that exhibited towards pure inulin (synthetic solution. Experiments revealed that, in applications of practical interest with real substrate, the activity of immobilized enzyme was as high as 63 % of that of free enzyme in homogeneous solution. This certainly was a driving force to potential industrial application of this immobilized enzyme preparation. Therefore, the effect of pure and crude substrates on the kinetics of the reaction catalysed by the immobilized enzyme was investigated. The kinetic analysis revealed a Michaelis-Menten dependence of the reaction rate on substrate concentration for both pure (high molecular mass and crude (low molecular mass inulin. Interesting results were derived from the comparison of Km and vmax values in the two cases. In particular, it was found that increasing degree of polymerization of the substrate caused vmax decrease and Km increase. After evaluation of mass transport effects, this was mainly associated with a different substrate/ enzyme affinity when exploiting inulin characterized by different (low or high degree of polymerization.

  14. Therapeutic leukapheresis in hyperleucocytic leukaemias: lack of correlation between degree of cytoreduction and early mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, P; Danielson, C F; Orazi, A; Heerema, N A; Gabig, T G; McCarthy, L J

    1997-08-01

    The clinical and laboratory data of 48 leukapheresis-treated patients with hyperleucocytic leukaemia (HL) was reviewed to assess the correlation between the degree of leucoreduction and early mortality. Leukapheresis resulted in > 50% leucoreductions and postapheresis WBC counts < 100 x 10(9)/l in most patients (64.5%). Patients presenting with neurological, respiratory or renal complications had higher early mortality rates than patients without such complications, despite similar initial WBC counts and comparable leucoreductions. Thus, in these patients, more efficient leucoreduction was not associated with improved early survival.

  15. Sublimation rate of molecular crystals - role of internal degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Gee, R H; Burnham, A

    2007-01-19

    It is a common practice to estimate site desorption rate from crystal surfaces with an Arrhenius expression of the form v{sub eff} exp(-{Delta}E/k{sub B}T), where {Delta}E is an activation barrier to desorb and v{sub eff} is an effective vibrational frequency {approx} 10{sup 12} sec{sup -1}. However, such a formula can lead to several to many orders of magnitude underestimation of sublimation rates in molecular crystals due to internal degrees of freedom. We carry out a quantitative comparison of two energetic molecular crystals with crystals of smaller entities like ice and Argon (solid) and uncover the errors involved as a function of molecule size. In the process, we also develop a formal definition of v{sub eff} and an accurate working expression for equilibrium vapor pressure.

  16. Statistical evaluation of the degree of nominal convergence of the inflation rate in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai GHEORGHE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nominal convergence is a process that is characterised by the gradual harmonisation, to a relatively high degree, of the national institutions and policies of the Member States with those of the EU, in the monetary and financial fields.The birth of nominal convergence is marked by the Maastricht Treaty, by means of which the criteria required for adopting the euro were established. One of the criteria refers to price stability (inflation rate, which is measured by the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices. A Member State meets this criterion if it has a price performance that is sustainable and an average rate of inflation, observed over a period of one year before the examination,that does not exceed by more than 1.5 percentage point that of, at most, the three best performing Member States in terms of price stability.The article proposes a model for the statistical evaluation of the degree to which the nominal convergence criterion related to price stability is met. The evaluation is based on the following pillars: a theoretical synthesis of the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, a statistical analysis concerning the evolution of inflation in Romania and the gap vis-à-vis the reference value for meeting the nominal convergence criterion.

  17. Heart Rate Variability in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Different Degree of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth;

    2010-01-01

    variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is seen in dogs with heart failure secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). However, HRV is suggested to increase with disease progression in dogs with early stages of MMVD. Comparable results are found in people with primary mitral valve prolapse, a disease......Heart Rate Variability in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Different Degree of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease Rasmussen, C.E. 1, Falk, T. 1, Zois, N.E. 1, Moesgaard, S.G. 1, Häggström, J. 2, Pedersen, H.D. 3 and Olsen, L.H1. 1Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life......age. Discussion and conclusion: Most HRV variables decreased with progression of MMVD in dogs; even prior to the development of overt congestive heart failure....

  18. New York City Goes to College: A First Look at Patterns of College Enrollment, Persistence, and Degree Attainment for New York City High School Students. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, in New York City and across the country, expectations for high schools--and high school students--have changed dramatically. Increasingly, high schools are being asked not only to reduce dropout rates and boost graduation rates, but also to impart knowledge, skills, and experiences that will prepare students to succeed in…

  19. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  20. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  1. Curriculum of Attainments. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.

    The final report describes a project at the Florida State University at the end of its third year and an assessment of the degree to which project goals were attained. The project goals were to: (1) establish mastery standards for degree programs; (2) create open, time-variable educational programs; (3) verify that the program product can serve as…

  2. Educational Attainment as Process: Using Hierarchical Discrete-Time Event History Analysis to Model Rate of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2009-01-01

    Variables that address student enrollment patterns (e.g., persistence, enrollment inconsistency, completed credit hours, course credit load, course completion rate, procrastination) constitute a longstanding fixture of analytical strategies in educational research, particularly research that focuses on explaining variation in academic outcomes.…

  3. Attaining the Steady State of the Nitriding Potential after a Change of NH3 Atmosphere Flow Rate during the Gas Nitriding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerzy Michalski; Jan Tacikowski; Piotr Wach; Tomasz Babul; Nabil Tarfa

    2004-01-01

    In single and multi-stage nitriding processes, each stage is characterized by the following parameters:temperature and time, type and composition of incoming atmosphere, as well as the set value of the nitriding potential. In the case of an atmosphere composed of raw ammonia and dissociated ammonia (NH3- NH3diss), the set value of the nitriding potential can be achieved by a change of the incoming atmosphere make-up, while in the case of atmospheres comprising NH3 and NH3 - N2 - by a change of the atmosphere flow rate. The time needed to reach a stabilized state, after the initiation of a change in the atmosphere gas mix can be assessed relatively easily. The problem is much more complex if we want to predict the time of reaching a new stabilized state following a change in atmosphere flow rate. The time of reaching stabilized state is, in this case, a complex function of the flow rate of the atmosphere which forces the potential change, and of temperature. This problem, in the case of the NH3 type atmosphere, is the subject of investigation in this work. Factors are discussed, affecting the rate at which stabilized state is reached by the system after the introduction of a disturbance, necessary to attain the required nitriding potential.

  4. Using the Internal Rate of Return Method to Consider the Potential Degree Offerings of a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, D. Adrian; Troxel, Stacy; Sumrall, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This paper considered the case of a liberal arts institution of higher learning that is hoping to improve its market competitiveness through the addition of either a graduate certificate program in human resources or the addition of a full graduate degree in human resources. An examination of internal rate of return financial value capital…

  5. Brain atrophy rates in first degree relatives at risk for Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Erika J; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hostage, Christopher A; Rathakrishnan, Bharath; Weiner, Michael; Petrella, Jeffrey R; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2014-01-01

    A positive family history (FH) raises the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease though, other than the known risk conferred by apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE4), much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. We examined the effect of family history on longitudinal regional brain atrophy rates in 184 subjects (42% FH+, mean age 79.9) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) enrolled in a national biomarker study. An automated image analysis method was applied to T1-weighted MR images to measure atrophy rates for 20 cortical and subcortical regions. Mixed-effects linear regression models incorporating repeated-measures to control for within-subject variation over multiple time points tested the effect of FH over a follow-up of up to 48 months. Most of the 20 regions showed significant atrophy over time. Adjusting for age and gender, subjects with a positive FH had greater atrophy of the amygdala (p atrophy rates was numerically greater in ε3 homozygotes than in E4 carriers, but this difference was not significant. FH+ subjects had numerically greater 4-year cognitive decline and conversion rates than FH- subjects but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for ApoE and other variables. We conclude that a positive family history of AD may influence cortical and temporal lobe atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, but it does not have a significant additional effect beyond the known effect of the E4 genotype.

  6. Estimating the designated use attainment decision error rates of US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed numeric total phosphorus criteria for Florida, USA, colored lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    The utility of numeric nutrient criteria established for certain surface waters is likely to be affected by the uncertainty that exists in the presence of a causal link between nutrient stressor variables and designated use-related biological responses in those waters. This uncertainty can be difficult to characterize, interpret, and communicate to a broad audience of environmental stakeholders. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a systematic planning process to support a variety of environmental decisions, but this process is not generally applied to the development of national or state-level numeric nutrient criteria. This article describes a method for implementing such an approach and uses it to evaluate the numeric total P criteria recently proposed by USEPA for colored lakes in Florida, USA. An empirical, log-linear relationship between geometric mean concentrations of total P (a potential stressor variable) and chlorophyll a (a nutrient-related response variable) in these lakes-that is assumed to be causal in nature-forms the basis for the analysis. The use of the geometric mean total P concentration of a lake to correctly indicate designated use status, defined in terms of a 20 µg/L geometric mean chlorophyll a threshold, is evaluated. Rates of decision errors analogous to the Type I and Type II error rates familiar in hypothesis testing, and a 3rd error rate, E(ni) , referred to as the nutrient criterion-based impairment error rate, are estimated. The results show that USEPA's proposed "baseline" and "modified" nutrient criteria approach, in which data on both total P and chlorophyll a may be considered in establishing numeric nutrient criteria for a given lake within a specified range, provides a means for balancing and minimizing designated use attainment decision errors.

  7. Brain atrophy rates in first degree relatives at risk for Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J. Lampert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A positive family history (FH raises the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease though, other than the known risk conferred by apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE4, much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. We examined the effect of family history on longitudinal regional brain atrophy rates in 184 subjects (42% FH+, mean age 79.9 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI enrolled in a national biomarker study. An automated image analysis method was applied to T1-weighted MR images to measure atrophy rates for 20 cortical and subcortical regions. Mixed-effects linear regression models incorporating repeated-measures to control for within-subject variation over multiple time points tested the effect of FH over a follow-up of up to 48 months. Most of the 20 regions showed significant atrophy over time. Adjusting for age and gender, subjects with a positive FH had greater atrophy of the amygdala (p < 0.01, entorhinal cortex (p < 0.01, hippocampus (p < 0.053 and cortical gray matter (p < 0.009. However, when E4 genotype was added as a covariate, none of the FH effects remained significant. Analyses by ApoE genotype showed that the effect of FH on amygdala atrophy rates was numerically greater in ε3 homozygotes than in E4 carriers, but this difference was not significant. FH+ subjects had numerically greater 4-year cognitive decline and conversion rates than FH− subjects but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for ApoE and other variables. We conclude that a positive family history of AD may influence cortical and temporal lobe atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, but it does not have a significant additional effect beyond the known effect of the E4 genotype.

  8. Multi-Cell Random Beamforming: Achievable Rate and Degrees of Freedom Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hieu Duy; Hui, Hon Tat

    2012-01-01

    Random beamforming (RBF) is a practically favorable transmission scheme for multiuser multi-antenna downlink systems since it requires only partial channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. Under the conventional single-cell setup, RBF is known to achieve the optimal sum-capacity scaling law as the number of users goes to infinity, thanks to the multiuser diversity effect that eliminates the inter-user interference. In this paper, we extend the study on RBF to a more practical multi-cell downlink system subject to the additional inter-cell interference (ICI). First, we consider the case of finite user's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We derive a closed-form expression of the achievable sum rate with the multi-cell RBF, based upon which we show the asymptotic sum-rate scaling law as the number of users goes to infinity. Next, we consider the high-SNR regime and for a tractable analysis assume that the number of users in each cell scales in a certain order with the per-cell SNR. Under this setup, we cha...

  9. Educational Attainment: Understanding the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Cunningham, Alisa; Tanenbaum, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The level of educational attainment in the United States is a central focus of public policy. The Obama administration, some states, large national foundations, and other organizations have set near-term goals to increase the number of Americans with college degrees. Achieving these goals is likely to involve a combination of increasing…

  10. Dehydration rate determines the degree of membrane damage and desiccation tolerance in bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; Catalá, Myriam; Branquinho, Cristina; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Barreno, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Desiccation tolerant (DT) organisms are able to withstand an extended loss of body water and rapidly resume metabolism upon rehydration. This ability, however, is strongly dependent on a slow dehydration rate. Fast dehydration affects membrane integrity leading to intracellular solute leakage upon rehydration and thereby impairs metabolism recovery. We test the hypothesis that the increased cell membrane damage and membrane permeability observed under fast dehydration, compared with slow dehydration, is related to an increase in lipid peroxidation. Our results reject this hypothesis because following rehydration lipid peroxidation remains unaltered, a fact that could be due to the high increase of NO upon rehydration. However, in fast-dried samples we found a strong signal of red autofluorescence upon rehydration, which correlates with an increase in ROS production and with membrane leakage, particularly the case of phenolics. This could be used as a bioindicator of oxidative stress and membrane damage.

  11. Current Trends in Adult Degree Programs: How Public Universities Respond to the Needs of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although many adult students turn to online degree programs due to their flexibility and convenience, a majority of prospective adult learners prefer to take classes on traditional brick-and-mortar campuses. This chapter examines how public research universities create pathways to degree attainment and boost degree completion rates among adult…

  12. The DalHouses: 100 new photographs of houses with ratings of typicality, familiarity, and degree of similarity to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filliter, Jillian H; Glover, Jacqueline M; McMullen, Patricia A; Salmon, Joshua P; Johnson, Shannon A

    2016-03-01

    Houses have often been used as comparison stimuli in face-processing studies because of the many attributes they share with faces (e.g., distinct members of a basic category, consistent internal features, mono-orientation, and relative familiarity). Despite this, no large, well-controlled databases of photographs of houses that have been developed for research use currently exist. To address this gap, we photographed 100 houses and carefully edited these images. We then asked 41 undergraduate students (18 to 31 years of age) to rate each house on three dimensions: typicality, likeability, and face-likeness. The ratings had a high degree of face validity, and analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between typicality and likeability. We anticipate that this stimulus set (i.e., the DalHouses) and the associated ratings will prove useful to face-processing researchers by minimizing the effort required to acquire stimuli and allowing for easier replication and extension of studies. The photographs of all 100 houses and their ratings data can be obtained at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1279430.

  13. Fuzzy time series forecasting model with natural partitioning length approach for predicting the unemployment rate under different degree of confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nazirah; Mutalib, Siti Musleha Ab; Mohamad, Daud

    2017-08-01

    Fuzzy time series forecasting model has been proposed since 1993 to cater for data in linguistic values. Many improvement and modification have been made to the model such as enhancement on the length of interval and types of fuzzy logical relation. However, most of the improvement models represent the linguistic term in the form of discrete fuzzy sets. In this paper, fuzzy time series model with data in the form of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and natural partitioning length approach is introduced for predicting the unemployment rate. Two types of fuzzy relations are used in this study which are first order and second order fuzzy relation. This proposed model can produce the forecasted values under different degree of confidence.

  14. The effect of red wine extract, resveratrol, on the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Alex C Urriquia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An animal trial, its protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.P. National Institutes of Health (IACUC Protocol No. 2010-008, was employed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement in guinea pigs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male adult guinea pigs were randomly allocated into 3 groups: low dose, high dose, and control groups. A 0.016" titanium molybdenum alloy wire formed into a helical torsion spring with a coil, with the loops cemented onto the maxillary incisors of the animals, served as the orthodontic appliance. Daily oral administration of resveratrol was provided to the low dose (0.047 mg/kg and high dose (0.47 mg/kg groups, while water was provided to the control group. Measurements were taken everyday at the interproximal area at the level of the incisal edge using a measuring caliper. Results: The results of the ANOVA showed no statistically significant differences in the mean measurements of tooth separation among the three groups from day 2 (P=0.966 to day 8 (P=0.056. However, starting from day 9 (P=0.049 until day 18 (P=0.000, there was a significant difference in the mean tooth separation among the test groups. Conclusion: Using the LSD, it was noted that the low dose and the high dose groups have similar degrees of mean tooth separation, with the control group being significantly different from the two.

  15. 360-degree 3D transvaginal ultrasound system for high-dose-rate interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy needle guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jessica R.; Surry, Kathleen; D'Souza, David; Leung, Eric; Fenster, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    Treatment for gynaecological cancers often includes brachytherapy; in particular, in high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy, hollow needles are inserted into the tumour and surrounding area through a template in order to deliver the radiation dose. Currently, there is no standard modality for visualizing needles intra-operatively, despite the need for precise needle placement in order to deliver the optimal dose and avoid nearby organs, including the bladder and rectum. While three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging has been proposed for 3D intra-operative needle guidance, anterior needles tend to be obscured by shadowing created by the template's vaginal cylinder. We have developed a 360-degree 3D transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) system that uses a conventional two-dimensional side-fire TRUS probe rotated inside a hollow vaginal cylinder made from a sonolucent plastic (TPX). The system was validated using grid and sphere phantoms in order to test the geometric accuracy of the distance and volumetric measurements in the reconstructed image. To test the potential for visualizing needles, an agar phantom mimicking the geometry of the female pelvis was used. Needles were inserted into the phantom and then imaged using the 3D TVUS system. The needle trajectories and tip positions in the 3D TVUS scan were compared to their expected values and the needle tracks visualized in magnetic resonance images. Based on this initial study, 360-degree 3D TVUS imaging through a sonolucent vaginal cylinder is a feasible technique for intra-operatively visualizing needles during HDR interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy.

  16. Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer's disease case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Kadir, Ahmadul; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality.

  17. The crystal zero degree detector at BESIII as a realistic high rate environment for evaluating PANDA data acquisition modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Marcel

    2015-03-15

    The BESIII experiment located in Beijing, China, is investigating physics in the energy region of the charm-quark via electron positron annihilation reactions. A small detector to be placed in the very forward/backward region around θ=0 at BESIII is foreseen to measure photons from the initial state. This is especially interesting, because it opens the door for various physics measurements over a wide range of energies, even below the experiment's designated energy threshold, which is fixed by the accelerator. This thesis is investigating the capabilities of a crystal zero degree detector (cZDD) consisting of PbWO{sub 4} crystals placed in that region of BESIII. Detailed Geant4-based simulations have been performed, and the energy resolution of the detector has been determined to be σ/μ=0.06+0.025/√(E[GeV]). The determination of the center-of-mass energy √(s){sub isr} after the emission of the photon is of great importance for the study of such events. Preliminary simulations estimated the resolution of the reconstructed √(s){sub isr} using the cZDD information to be significantly better than 10 % for appropriate photon impacts on the detector. Such events can only be investigated, when data from the cZDD and other detectors of BESIII can be correlated. A fast and powerful Data Acquisition (DAQ) capable of performing event correlation in real time is needed. DAQ modules capable of performing real time event correlation are being developed for the PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Investigating these modules in a realistic high-rate environment such as provided at BESIII, offers a great opportunity to gain experience in real time event correlation before the start of PANDA. Developments for the cZDD's DAQ using prototype PANDA DAQ modules have been done and successfully tested in experiments with radioactive sources and a beamtest with 210 MeV electrons at the Mainz Microtron.

  18. Faculty Student Mentoring of First Year Traditional Baccalaureate Degree Nursing Students to Increase Retention and Decrease Attrition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Melissa S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a faculty mentoring program of first year traditional baccalaureate degree nursing students at a university in the mid-west with multiple campuses, including three nursing campuses. One campus site was chosen for this project. The students were asked to participate in the project and informed…

  19. Differences by Degree: Evidence of the Net Financial Rates of Return to Undergraduate Study for England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the impact of higher education qualifications on the earnings of graduates in the U.K. by subject studied. We use data from the recent U.K. Labour Force Surveys which provide a sufficiently large sample to consider the effects of the subject studied, class of first degree, and postgraduate qualifications. Ordinary…

  20. Do We Need Multiple Informants When Assessing Autistic Traits? The Degree of Report Bias on Offspring, Self, and Spouse Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degree of report bias in assessing autistic traits. Both parents of 124 preschoolers completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Acceptable agreement existed between mother and father reports of children's mean scores of autistic traits, but interrater reliability for rank-order…

  1. Do We Need Multiple Informants When Assessing Autistic Traits? The Degree of Report Bias on Offspring, Self, and Spouse Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degree of report bias in assessing autistic traits. Both parents of 124 preschoolers completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Acceptable agreement existed between mother and father reports of children's mean scores of autistic traits, but interrater reliability for rank-order…

  2. Hydrography - Integrated List Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  3. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  4. Educational Attainment of the Public Health Workforce and Its Implications for Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Educational attainment is a critical issue in public health workforce development. However, relatively little is known about the actual attainment of staff in state health agencies (SHAs). Objective: Ascertain the levels of educational attainment among SHA employees, as well as the correlates of attainment. Design: Using a stratified sampling approaching, staff from SHAs were surveyed using the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) instrument in late 2014. A nationally representative sample was drawn across 5 geographic (paired adjacent HHS) regions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using balanced repeated replication weights to account for complex sampling. A logistic regression was conducted with attainment of a bachelor's degree as the dependent variable and age, region, supervisory status, race/ethnicity, gender, and staff type as independent variables. Setting and Participants: Web-based survey of SHA central office employees. Main Outcome Measure: Educational attainment overall, as well as receipt of a degree with a major in public health. Results: A total of 10 246 permanently-employed SHA central office staff participated in the survey (response rate 46%). Seventy-five percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 74-77) had a bachelor's degree, 38% (95% CI, 37-40) had a master's degree, and 9% (95% CI, 8%-10%) had a doctoral degree. A logistic regression showed Asian staff had the highest odds of having a bachelor's degree (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% CI, 2.2-3.7) compared with non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanic/Latino staff had lower odds (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Women had lower odds of having a bachelor's degree than men (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.6). About 17% of the workforce (95% CI, 16-18) had a degree in public health at any level. Conclusions: Educational attainment among SHA central office staff is high, but relatively few have formal training of any sort in public health. This makes efforts to increase

  5. Thermal decay rate of a metastable state with two degrees of freedom: Dynamical modelling versus approximate analytical formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I I GONTCHAR; M V CHUSHNYAKOVA

    2017-06-01

    Accuracy of the Kramers approximate formula for the thermal decay rate of the metastable state is studied for the two-dimensional potential pocket. This is done by comparing with the quasistationary rate resulting from the dynamical modelling. It is shown that the Kramers rate is in agreement with the quasistationary rate within the statistical errors provided the absorptive border is far enough from the potential ridge restricting the metastable state. As the absorptive border (or its part) gets closer to the ridge, the Kramers formula underestimates the quasistationary rate. The difference reaches approximately the factor of 2 when the absorptive border coincides with the ridge.

  6. Thermal decay rate of a metastable state with two degrees of freedom: dynamical modeling versus approximate analytical formula

    CERN Document Server

    Gontchar, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy of the Kramers approximate formula for the thermal decay rate of the metastable state is studied for the two-dimensional potential pocket. This is done by the comparison with the quasistationary rate resulting from the dynamical modeling. It is shown that the Kramers rate is in agreement with the quasistationary rate within the statistical errors provided the absorptive border is far enough from the potential ridge restricting the metastable state. As the absorptive border (or its part) gets closer to the ridge the Kramers formula underestimate the quasistationary rate. The difference reaches approximately the factor of 2 when the absorptive border coincides with the ridge.

  7. Beyond the growth rate of cosmic structure: Testing modified gravity models with an extra degree of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare; Seery, David

    2015-01-01

    In 'modified' gravity the observed acceleration of the universe is explained by changing the gravitational force law or the number of degrees of freedom in the gravitational sector. Both possibilities can be tested by measurements of cosmological structure formation. In this paper we elaborate the details of such tests using the Galileon model as a case study. We pay attention to the possibility that each new degree of freedom may have stochastically independent initial conditions, generating different types of potential well in the early universe and breaking complete correlation between density and velocity power spectra. This 'stochastic bias' can confuse schemes to parametrize the predictions of modified gravity models, such as the use of the growth parameter f alone. Using data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey we show that it will be possible to obtain constraints using information about the cosmological-scale force law embedded in the multipole power spectra of redshift-space distortions. As an examp...

  8. Rate of inactivation of cytomegalovirus in raw banked milk during storage at -20 degrees C and pasteurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andersen, H K

    1982-01-01

    Samples of milk from 23 mothers attending the department of obstetrics and gynaecology and 36 who donated milk to the department's milk bank were cultured for cytomegalovirus. Virus was isolated from samples from 12 of the milk donors but none of the mothers attending the department; follow...... degrees C for eight minutes the milk did not contain any viable virus. It is recommended that raw banked milk used for feeding preterm babies should be kept frozen for at least 72 hours before feeding....

  9. Accelerated second-degree nursing students: predictors of graduation and NCLEX-RN first-time pass rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, Barbara B; Harris, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand and identify factors that affect students' academic performance before entry into a nursing program and as they progress through the program. The authors discuss a study, and its outcomes, that assessed accelerated second-degree nursing students' prenursing and core nursing grades that served to predict their success at completing the nursing program and passing NCLEX-RN on first attempt. Strategies were identified to help at-risk students to be successful in the program and with first-time passage of NCLEX-RN.

  10. Beyond the growth rate of cosmic structure: Testing modified gravity models with an extra degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Parkinson, David; Seery, David

    2017-08-01

    In "modified" gravity the observed acceleration of the universe is explained by changing the gravitational force law or the number of degrees of freedom in the gravitational sector. Both possibilities can be tested by measurements of cosmological structure formation. In this paper we elaborate the details of such tests using the Galileon model as a case study. We pay attention to the possibility that each new degree of freedom may have stochastically independent initial conditions, generating different types of potential well in the early universe and breaking complete correlation between density and velocity power spectra. This "stochastic bias" can confuse schemes to parametrize the predictions of modified gravity models, such as the use of the growth parameter f alone. Using data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey we show that it will be possible to obtain constraints using information about the cosmological-scale force law embedded in the multipole power spectra of redshift-space distortions. As an example, we obtain an upper limit on the strength of the conformal coupling to matter in the cubic Galileon model, giving |1 /M |≲200 /MP . This allows the fifth-force to be stronger than gravity, but is consistent with zero coupling.

  11. Early Engagement in Course-Based Research Increases Graduation Rates and Completion of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Hernandez, Paul R; Simmons, Sarah L; Dolan, Erin L

    2016-01-01

    National efforts to transform undergraduate biology education call for research experiences to be an integral component of learning for all students. Course-based undergraduate research experiences, or CUREs, have been championed for engaging students in research at a scale that is not possible through apprenticeships in faculty research laboratories. Yet there are few if any studies that examine the long-term effects of participating in CUREs on desired student outcomes, such as graduating from college and completing a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major. One CURE program, the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI), has engaged thousands of first-year undergraduates over the past decade. Using propensity score-matching to control for student-level differences, we tested the effect of participating in FRI on students' probability of graduating with a STEM degree, probability of graduating within 6 yr, and grade point average (GPA) at graduation. Students who completed all three semesters of FRI were significantly more likely than their non-FRI peers to earn a STEM degree and graduate within 6 yr. FRI had no significant effect on students' GPAs at graduation. The effects were similar for diverse students. These results provide the most robust and best-controlled evidence to date to support calls for early involvement of undergraduates in research.

  12. Interpreting the Influence of Community College Attendance upon Baccalaureate Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    National quantitative studies examining the impact of community college attendance upon educational attainment conclude that initial attendance at a community college (as opposed to a 4-year institution) reduces the likelihood of attaining a bachelor's degree. Yet these studies, which suggest that initial attendance at a community college is not a…

  13. The acetylation degree of alginates in Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC9046 is determined by dissolved oxygen and specific growth rate: studies in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Tania; Galindo, Enrique; Peña, Carlos F

    2013-07-01

    Alginates are polysaccharides that may be used as viscosifiers and gel or film-forming agents with a great diversity of applications. The alginates produced by bacteria such as Azotobacter vinelandii are acetylated. The presence of acetyl groups in this type of alginate increases its solubility, viscosity, and swelling capability. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations of A. vinelandii ATCC9046, the influence of dissolved oxygen tension (DO) and specific growth rate (μ) on the degree of acetylation of alginates produced by this bacterium. In glucose-limited chemostat cultivations, the degree of alginate acetylation was evaluated under two conditions of DO (1 and 9 %) and for a range of specific growth rates (0.02-0.15 h⁻¹). In addition, the alginate yields and PHB production were evaluated. High DO in the culture resulted in a high degree of alginate acetylation, reaching a maximum acetylation degree of 6.88 % at 9 % DO. In contrast, the increment of μ had a negative effect on the production and acetylation of the polymer. It was found that at high DO (9 %) and low μ, there was a reduction of the respiration rate, and the PHB accumulation was negligible, suggesting that the flux of acetyl-CoA (the acetyl donor) was diverted to alginate acetylation.

  14. School Choice, School Quality and Postsecondary Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David J.; Hastings, Justine S.; Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of a public school choice lottery in Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools on college enrollment and degree completion. We find a significant overall increase in college attainment among lottery winners who attend their first choice school. Using rich administrative data on peers, teachers, course offerings and other inputs, we show that the impacts of choice are strongly predicted by gains on several measures of school quality. Gains in attainment are concentrated among girls. Girls respond to attending a better school with higher grades and increases in college-preparatory course-taking, while boys do not. PMID:27244675

  15. Prediction of Basic Math Course Failure Rate in the Physics, Meteorology, Mathematics, Actuarial Sciences and Pharmacy Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rojas-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2013 with the purpose of predicting the failure rate of math courses taken by Pharmacy, Mathematics, Actuarial Science, Physics and Meteorology students at Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR. Using the Logistics Regression statistical techniques applied to the 2010 cohort, failure rates were predicted of students in the aforementioned programs in one of their Math introductory courses (Calculus 101 for Physics and Meteorology, Math Principles for Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Applied Differential Equations for Pharmacy. For these models, the UCR admission average, the student’s genre, and the average correct answers in the Quantitative Skills Test were used as predictor variables. The most important variable for all models was the Quantitative Skills Test, and the model with the highest correct classification rate was the Logistics Regression. For the estimated Physics-Meteorology, Pharmacy and Mathematics-Actuarial Science models, correct classifications were 89.8%, 73.6%, and 93.9%, respectively.

  16. Principles of establishing material cycling with a high degree of closure in the experimental model of a BTLSS intended for a rated "fraction of a human"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Shikhov, Valentin; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    2016-07-01

    A promising way to develop future biotechnical life support systems (BTLSS) is to construct experimental models and establish the cycling intended for a fraction of a human. Being of relatively low cost, such models provide an opportunity to test effectively closed process that could be further transferred to the real BTLSS with humans. Researchers of the IBP SB RAS are developing an adequate BTLSS model with the loops closed to a high degree. To attain high closure of mass exchange processes, plants in the phototrophic compartment are cultivated under intensive lighting conditions, created by using modern LED irradiators of enhanced power, equipped with lens optics. The higher plant compartment has been renewed and broadened by including soybean plants, which improve the vegetable part of the human diet and make it more diverse. It is very important that the operation of the physicochemical installation for waste mineralization fully matches the composition of the atmosphere of plant growth chambers: the purified gaseous components of this installation enter the common atmosphere of the system, without causing any deviations from the norm in the gaseous composition. This proves the eco-friendliness of the developed physicochemical method of waste mineralization and shows that the gaseous components resulting from waste mineralization can be included in the system mass exchange. A system for including human respiration into the gas exchange of the BTLSS has been developed and tested; the associated gas exchange and water exchange dynamics have been analyzed. Results of the functioning of the experimental model of the BTLSS for several months are proposed for discussion in order to get insight into the formation of dynamic characteristics of cycling processes and factors determining them. The study was supported by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation (Project 14-14-00599) and carried out at the IBP SB RAS.

  17. PREVALENCE RATE OF PSYCHOGENIC RISK FACTORS AMONG PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION OF VARIOUS DEGREES ACCORDING TO CRITERIA OF EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Fishman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study an interrelation of anxiety and depression with arterial hypertension (HT of various degrees taking into account gender distinctions.Material and methods. One-stage (cardiology and psychometric screening epidemiology study was carried out in 1% sample of the Novgorod Region adult population. The program of screening included the standard epidemiological record of HT detection and psychometric testing in 1607 respondents with the Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS. Risk calculation was performed by logistical regress model using disagreement criterion (odds ratio.Results. HT prevalence rate was 52.1% among men and 49.8% among women of Novgorod Region. The highest prevalence rate of HT was observed at the age ≥70 years: 88.9% among women and 83.6% among men. Relationship between subclinical and clinical types of the anxiety, depression and HT degrees 2-3 was revealed with some gender peculiar properties. Patients with isolated systolic HT had high association with anxiety and depression irrespective of gender.Conclusion. Revealed relationship between anxiety, depression and HT, especially in patients with HT degree 3, required an interdisciplinary approach to the therapy of this group of patients.

  18. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianguo; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Feihu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Junhui; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs) were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78), social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3) and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8). We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009) and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease), consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.

  19. Has Exchange Rate System Reform Improved the Misalignment Degree of RMB Exchange Rate?%汇率制度改革改善了人民币汇率的失调程度吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏

    2012-01-01

    人民币汇率制度改革是否在一定程度上已经改善了人民币汇率的失调程度?为此,本文首先构建人民币实际均衡汇率模型,然后对人民币实际汇率的失调程度进行测算。研究结果显示,汇改之前我国采取的严格管理的浮动汇率制度对调整实际汇率使之趋近于均衡汇率有较大的约束,由此造成汇率一定程度的失调,而2005年及2010年的汇改使得人民币汇率的失调状况慢慢得到缓解,为人民币汇率调整到均衡汇率附近提供了一个良好的基础。%Has the reform of RMB exchange rate system, to a certain extent, improved the RMB exchange rate misalignment degree.9 To answer this question will contribute to evaluate if the current RMB exchange rate system reform is successful or not, and to rise the next reform suggestions. Therefore, this paper firstly builds up the RMB equilibrium exchange rate model, and then measures and calculates the RMB real exchange rate misalignment degree. The results show that, the strictly--managed floating exchange rate system has greatly constrained the adjustment of the real exchange rate to converge to the equilibrium exchange rate, and to some extent, it results in the exchange rate disorder. But in 2005 and 2010 the reform of RMB exchange rate has gradually eased the misalignment situation. This provides a good basis for RMB exchange rate adjustment reaching to near equilibrium rate.

  20. [The effect of attainability on envy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yumi; Murata, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Envy is an unpleasant emotion caused by comparison with a person who possesses something we desire. We conducted two studies to test our prediction that less envy would be felt when the person could attain what others had. In Study 1, participants read scenarios in which their friend could achieve a goal which they could not, and rated their emotions toward the friend. We manipulated the attainability according to whether the goal could be achieved by effort. In Study 2, participants competed with a confederate, and were informed that their performance was worse than that of the confederate. Afterwards the attainability was manipulated by either informing the participants that the possibility of improving their ability was very low or high. Then participants rated their emotions toward the confederate, and we also checked whether the participants had helped the confederate. As predicted, our findings demonstrated that those in the high attainability condition felt envy less than those in the low attainability condition, but showed no significant differences in helping behavior.

  1. Teacher MA Attainment Rates, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S. Eric

    2010-01-01

    The share of female teachers in the U.S. with an MA more than doubled between 1970 and 2000. This increase is puzzling, as it is much larger than that of other college-educated women, and it occurred over a period of declining teacher aptitude. I estimate the contribution of changes in teacher demographic characteristics, increases in the returns…

  2. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

  3. Denudation rates and the degree of chemical weathering in the Ganga River basin from ratios of meteoric cosmogenic 10Be to stable 9Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Waliur; Wittmann, Hella; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2017-07-01

    The ratio of the meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, precipitated from the atmosphere, to the stable nuclide 9Be, released by silicate weathering, was measured in suspended sediment of the Ganga River basin to determine denudation rates, degrees of weathering, and sediment storage in the floodplain. The 10Be precipitated and the 9Be released are carried to ca. 90% by amorphous and to 10% by crystalline Fe-hydroxides, as revealed by chemical extractions, whereas the dissolved Be transport is negligible due to the river pH of 8. Resulting 10Be/9Be ratios increase from 0.75 ×10-9 for the northern and Himalaya-draining rivers to 1.7 ×10-9 in the downstream basin. The increase in 10Be/9Be ratios results from two compounding effects: with 1) average denudation rates decrease from 0.5 mm yr-1 in the Himalayas to 0.17 mm yr-1 for the Ganga main stem in the lowlands, 2) the southern tributaries draining the low-relief craton contribute sediment with a ratio of 2.0 ×10-9, corresponding to a denudation rate of 0.03 mm yr-1. We find that at the spatial scale of the entire basin, the atmospheric delivery flux of 10Be equals its sedimentary export flux. Hence fluxes can be considered to be at steady state and radioactive decay of 10Be during sediment storage is not discernible. The lack of a resolvable increase in 10Be concentration during sediment transfer along the floodplain stretch furthermore suggests that the sediment transfer time is indeed short. We also cannot resolve any additional release of silicate-bound 9Be there, testifying to the lower degree of weathering there. When multiplied with the basin area the 10Be/9Be-derived denudation rate of 0.14 mm yr-1 corresponds to a sediment flux of 350 Mt yr-1 which is in good agreement with gauging-derived sediment fluxes (ca. 400 Mt yr-1). Because they integrate over the entire basin, denudation rates from 10Be/9Be are lower than floodplain-corrected denudation rates from in situ cosmogenic 10Be that reflect the rates of the

  4. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  5. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  6. Attendance and attainment in a Calculus course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75% of the classes) is much higher than the pass rate of students attending fewer classes. We use a logistic model to investigate whether this correlation is significant. We will argue why we believe that this correlation between attendance and attainment is causal, i.e. why it is necessary for most students to attend classes in order to (improve their chances to) pass the exam.

  7. The [OII]3727 Luminosity function and Star Formation Rate at z~1.2 in the COSMOS 2 Square-degree Field and the Subaru Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, M I; Taniguchi, Y; Murayama, T; Ajiki, M; Sasaki, S S; Koizumi, O; Nagao, T; Scoville, N Z; Mobasher, B; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Ellis, Richard S; Garilli, B; Giavalisco, M; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kitzbichler, M G; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S J; MacCagni, D; Renzini, A; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Shopbell, P; Smolcic, V; Tribiano, S; Ideue, Y; Mihara, S

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a wide-field imaging survey for [OII]3727 emitting galaxies at z~1.2 in the HST COSMOS 2 square degree field using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The survey covers a sky area of 6700 arcmin^2 in the COSMOS field, and a redshift range between 1.17 and 1.20 (Delta_z = 0.03), corresponding to a survey volume of 5.56*10^5 Mpc^3. We obtain a sample of 3176 [OII] emitting galaxies with observed emission-line equivalent widths greater than 26 AA. Since our survey tends to sample brighter [OII]3727 emitting galaxies, we also analyze a sample of fainter [OII]3727 emitting galaxies found in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). We find an extinction-corrected [OII] luminosity density of 10^{40.35^+0.08_-0.06} ergs s^-1 Mpc-3, corresponding to star formation rate density of 0.32^+0.06_-0.04 M_sun yr-1 Mpc^-3 in the COSMOS field at z~1.2. This is the largest survey for [OII]3727 emitters beyond z=1 currently available.

  8. Using degrees of rate control to improve selective n-butane oxidation over model MOF-encapsulated catalysts: sterically-constrained Ag 3 Pd(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dix, Sean T. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Clemson University; Clemson, USA; Scott, Joseph K. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Clemson University; Clemson, USA; Getman, Rachel B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Clemson University; Clemson, USA; Campbell, Charles T. [Department of Chemistry; University of Washington; Seattle, USA

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles encapsulated within metal organic frameworks (MOFs) offer steric restrictions near the catalytic metal that can improve selectivity, much like in enzymes. A microkinetic model is developed for the regio-selective oxidation ofn-butane to 1-butanol with O2over a model for MOF-encapsulated bimetallic nanoparticles. The model consists of a Ag3Pd(111) surface decorated with a 2-atom-thick ring of (immobile) helium atoms which creates an artificial pore of similar size to that in common MOFs, which sterically constrains the adsorbed reaction intermediates. The kinetic parameters are based on energies calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The microkinetic model was analysed at 423 K to determine the dominant pathways and which species (adsorbed intermediates and transition states in the reaction mechanism) have energies that most sensitively affect the reaction rates to the different products, using degree-of-rate-control (DRC) analysis. This analysis revealed that activation of the C–H bond is assisted by adsorbed oxygen atoms, O*. Unfortunately, O* also abstracts H from adsorbed 1-butanol and butoxy as well, leading to butanal as the only significant product. This suggested to (1) add water to produce more OH*, thus inhibiting these undesired steps which produce OH*, and (2) eliminate most of the O2pressure to reduce the O* coverage, thus also inhibiting these steps. Combined with increasing butane pressure, this dramatically improved the 1-butanol selectivity (from 0 to 95%) and the rate (to 2 molecules per site per s). Moreover, 40% less O2was consumed per oxygen atom in the products. Under these conditions, a terminal H in butane is directly eliminated to the Pd site, and the resulting adsorbed butyl combines with OH* to give the desired 1-butanol. These results demonstrate that DRC analysis provides a powerful approach for optimizing catalytic process conditions, and

  9. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  10. Measurement of six degrees of freedom head kinematics in impact conditions employing six accelerometers and three angular rate sensors (6aω configuration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun-Seok; Moorhouse, Kevin; Bolte, John H

    2011-11-01

    The ability to measure six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) head kinematics in motor vehicle crash conditions is important for assessing head-neck loads as well as brain injuries. A method for obtaining accurate 6 DOF head kinematics in short duration impact conditions is proposed and validated in this study. The proposed methodology utilizes six accelerometers and three angular rate sensors (6aω configuration) such that an algebraic equation is used to determine angular acceleration with respect to the body-fixed coordinate system, and angular velocity is measured directly rather than numerically integrating the angular acceleration. Head impact tests to validate the method were conducted using the internal nine accelerometer head of the Hybrid III dummy and the proposed 6aω scheme in both low (2.3 m/s) and high (4.0 m/s) speed impact conditions. The 6aω method was compared with a nine accelerometer array sensor package (NAP) as well as a configuration of three accelerometers and three angular rate sensors (3aω), both of which have been commonly used to measure 6 DOF kinematics of the head for assessment of brain and neck injuries. The ability of each of the three methods (6aω, 3aω, and NAP) to accurately measure 6 DOF head kinematics was quantified by calculating the normalized root mean squared deviation (NRMSD), which provides an average percent error over time. Results from the head impact tests indicate that the proposed 6aω scheme is capable of producing angular accelerations and linear accelerations transformed to a remote location that are comparable to that determined from the NAP scheme in both low and high speed impact conditions. The 3aω scheme was found to be unable to provide accurate angular accelerations or linear accelerations transformed to a remote location in the high speed head impact condition due to the required numerical differentiation. Both the 6aω and 3aω schemes were capable of measuring accurate angular displacement while the

  11. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…

  12. Low rate of cardiac events in first-degree relatives of diagnosis-negative young sudden unexplained death syndrome victims during follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christian; Stiekema, Lotte; Tan, Hanno L.; Hofman, Nynke; Alders, Marielle; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden unexplained death syndrome (SUDS) in young individuals often results from inherited cardiac disease. Accordingly, comprehensive examination in surviving first-degree relatives unmasks such disease in approximately 35% of the families. It is unknown whether individuals from diagnos

  13. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78, social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3 and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8. We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009 and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease, consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.

  14. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...

  15. Measuring Developmental Differences With an Age-of-Attainment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren O. Eaton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitive measurement of variation in rate of attainment is an underutilized but useful indicator of individual differences in development. To assess such individuality, we used longitudinal parental diary checklists of infant attainments to estimate the ages at which ubiquitous developmental milestones like sitting and walking were reached. Parents using this diary checklist have been shown to be valid reporters of milestone attainments. Present analyses show that multiple definitions of milestone onset have high reliability as well. Babies differ considerably in their rates of development, and such individual differences in rates may be predicted from other variables with survival (event history analysis. Ages of attainment for sustained sitting, crawling, and walking were calculated for 519 infants and predicted using 11 common covariates. Our discovery that babies of younger mothers reach these milestones sooner than those of older mothers reveals the value of an age-of-attainment (AOA approach. A framework with a SAS program for collecting and analyzing AOA data is presented.

  16. Top Gap Closers: Some Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities Have Made Good Progress in Closing Graduation-Rate Gaps. College Results Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jennifer; Theokas, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all high school seniors today aspire to pursue higher education because they know that a college degree offers them the best opportunity to realize the American Dream. Indeed, college-going rates are up considerably for all students over the last 30 years. At the same time, however, racial gaps in degree attainment actually have grown, even…

  17. Closing the BME attainment gap

    OpenAIRE

    Nortcliffe, Anne; Pink-Keech, Cathy; Evans, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    The national British Minority Ethnic (BME) attainment gap is 16% (Berry and Loke, 2011). BME students frequently report being isolated and lonely (Cotton et al, 2011), and experience derisory support (NUS, 2011). At Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) a pilot Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) programme on an engineering course to aid inclusivity, as at UCL PAL has increased student retention (Angelini, 2011). The initial results at SHU are positive: "They [Mentors] kept me on a course and ...

  18. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  19. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite Utilizing a Micromechanics Approach. Degree awarded by Cincinnati Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    Potential gas turbine applications will expose polymer matrix composites to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under extreme conditions. Specifically, analytical methods designed for these applications must have the capability of properly capturing the strain rate sensitivities and nonlinearities that are present in the material response. The Ramaswamy-Stouffer constitutive equations, originally developed to analyze the viscoplastic deformation of metals, have been modified to simulate the nonlinear deformation response of ductile, crystalline polymers. The constitutive model is characterized and correlated for two representative ductile polymers. Fiberite 977-2 and PEEK, and the computed results correlate well with experimental values. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented in a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics model to predict the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of a composite ply. Uniform stress and uniform strain assumptions are applied to compute the effective stresses of a composite unit cell from the applied strains. The micromechanics equations are successfully verified for two polymer matrix composites. IM7/977-2 and AS4/PEEK. The ultimate strength of a composite ply is predicted with the Hashin failure criteria that were implemented in the composite micromechanics model. The failure stresses of the two composite material systems are accurately predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The composite deformation model is implemented in LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic explicit finite element code. The matrix constitutive equations are converted into an incremental form, and the model is implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of a user defined material subroutine. The deformation response of a bulk polymer and a polymer matrix composite are predicted by finite element analyses. The results

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography in a population unselected for degree of coronary artery calcification and without heart rate modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-J., E-mail: bcjlin@gmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, J.-C. [National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao City, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lai, Y.-J. [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-L. [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.-Y. [Department of Medical Imaging, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, A.-H. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao City, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu, S.-H. [Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao City, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: To assess the ability of coronary angiography performed using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) to evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population with unselected heart rates and extensive coronary calcification. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients at intermediate to high risk for CAD underwent both DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) within 30 days. No beta blockers were administered prior to imaging. Image quality and quantitatively stenosis of all coronary segments with a diameter >=1.5 mm were accessed. Patients were stratified according to mean heart rate (<70 versus >=70 bpm) and heart rate variability (<10 versus >=10 bpm). DSCT detection of coronary stenosis by segment, vessel, and patient characteristics were compared to the reference standard of ICA. Results: Diagnostic accuracy for all patients was high regarding sensitivity (97%), positive predictive value (PPV, 84.2%), and negative predictive value (NPV, 83.3%) but low regarding specificity (45.5%) with a moderate interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.50). The accuracy for vessel-based diagnosis was high regarding sensitivity (96.6%), specificity (80.8%), PPV (80.3%), and NPV (96.7%). The segment-based diagnostic results revealed a moderate interobserver agreement for image quality and sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for all segments of 66.9, 97.8, 90.8, and 89.9%, respectively. Conclusion: DSCT coronary angiography has high diagnostic accuracy in assessing CAD among patients at intermediate to high risk without using heart rate-modulating premedication. DSCT is not superior to ICA for diagnosis of calcified segments.

  1. Academic Attainment Findings in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Amanda S.; Myrvik, Matthew P.; Newby, Robert F.; Panepinto, Julie A.; Brandow, Amanda M.; Scott, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) demonstrate deficits in cognitive and academic functioning. This study compared the academic attainment of children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with SCD was completed and…

  2. Effect of air pollution on respiratory tract diseases in small children. Morbidity rate in residential areas with varying degrees of severe pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, P.; Bory, J.; Haupt, H.

    1984-09-13

    In a retrospective study of hospitalized patients (children aged between 0 and 4 years) covering four years the dependence of the incidence of croup (infectious laryngitis) and obstructive bronchitis on air pollution was investigated. For this reason the incidence of morbidity in residential areas with various levels of SO/sub 2/ and sedimenting dust were compared. The results show a definitive connection between a high level of SO/sub 2/ and dust, respectively and a high rate of morbidity. This connection was particularly marked in areas with simultaneous high levels of both SO/sub 2/ and dust. The effects of confounding factors, such as infection incidence, meteorological influences, distances from hospital, social status, especially the percentage of foreign guest worker families and population density were investigated and separated from air pollution effects.

  3. Attainment Rather Than Competence: A Legitimate Basis for the Certification of Learning Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.

    The certification of learning outcomes required for degrees is identified as a crucial issue in outcome-oriented educational programs. Attainment is contrasted with competence as a basis on which to award college degrees in terms of their respective characteristics, assessment practices, and accountability for standards. A case is made that…

  4. Implications of Educational Attainment Trends for Labor Market Outcomes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Well-educated workers have higher wages, higher wage growth, and lower unemployment rates than workers with lower levels of educational attainment. While earnings have traditionally grown with educational attainment, the gaps have become more pronounced in recent years. While returns to education have increased, this research shows that…

  5. Sex, Class, and Physical Science Educational Attainment: Portions due to Achievement Versus Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M.; Farkas, George

    Nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study are used to investigate why males (rather than females) and children of parents with advanced degrees (rather than those from less-educated parents) are more highly represented among physical science bachelor's degrees and graduate students. Parental education is measured by three categories: neither parent has a bachelor's degree, at least one parent has a bachelor's degree, or at least one parent has a degree beyond the bachelor's. Physical science is defined as students majoring in physics, engineering, mathematics, or computer science. The effects of mathematics achievement and effects not accounted for by mathematics achievement (what the authors call "recruitment" effects) are isolated for parental education categories and for sex, allowing inequality in physical science degree attainment to be decomposed into portions due to achievement and portions due to recruitment. Additionally, the results from logistic regressions predicting the attainment of a bachelor's degree in physical science as well as the pursuit of a graduate degree in physical science are presented. It is found that for parental education categories, the gaps in physical science educational attainment are nearly entirely accounted for by differences in mathematics achievement, suggesting that if achievement could be equalized, physical science educational attainment differences among parental education categories would disappear. However, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment operates almost entirely independent of achievement effects, suggesting that if the mathematics achievement distributions of males and females were identical, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment would be unchanged from what it is today.

  6. Does Sibship Size Affect Educational Attainment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper implements a test of the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH) stating that sibship size has a negative causal effect on educational attainment. Most existing studies using conventional methods support the RDH. This paper implements an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach to testing...... the claim of a negative causal relationship between sibship size and educational attainment. Analyzing data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the empirical analysis demonstrates, first, that conventional OLS regression estimates sibship size to have a negative effect on educational attainment equal...

  7. A test of the cosmogenic 10Be(meteoric)/9Be proxy for simultaneously determining basin-wide erosion rates, denudation rates, and the degree of weathering in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, H.; Blanckenburg, F.; Dannhaus, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gaillardet, J.; Guyot, J. L.; Maurice, L.; Roig, H.; Filizola, N.; Christl, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present an extensive investigation of a new erosion and weathering proxy derived from the 10Be(meteoric)/9Be(stable) ratio in the Amazon River basin. This new proxy combines a radioactive atmospheric flux tracer, meteoric cosmogenic 10Be, with 9Be, a trace metal released by weathering. Results show that meteoric 10Be concentrations ([10Be]) and 10Be/9Be ratios increase by >30% from the Andes to the lowlands. We can calculate floodplain transfer times of 2-30 kyr from this increase. Intriguingly however, the riverine exported flux of meteoric 10Be shows a deficit with respect to the atmospheric depositional 10Be flux. Most likely, the actual area from which the 10Be flux is being delivered into the mainstream is smaller than the basin-wide one. Despite this imbalance, denudation rates calculated from 10Be/9Be ratios from bed load, suspended sediment, and water samples from Amazon Rivers agree within a factor of 2 with published in situ 10Be denudation rates. Erosion rates calculated from meteoric [10Be], measured from depth-integrated suspended sediment samples, agree with denudation rates, suggesting that grain size-induced variations in [10Be] are minimized when using such sampling material instead of bed load. In addition, the agreement between erosion and denudation rates implies minor chemical weathering intensity in most Amazon tributaries. Indeed, the Be-specific weathering intensity, calculated from mobilized 9Be comprising reactive and dissolved fractions that are released during weathering, is constant at approximately 40% of the total denudation from the Andes across the lowlands to the Amazon mouth. Therefore, weathering in the Amazon floodplain is not detected.

  8. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HanJu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of is dense in .

  9. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ju Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space X is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of A(BX:X is dense in A(BX:X.

  10. The Effect of Nursing Intervention on the Success Rate and Degree of Satisfaction of Pediatric Venous Puncture%护理干预对小儿静脉穿刺成功率及满意度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨护理干预对小儿静脉穿刺成功率及满意度的影响。方法将600例静脉输液的患儿分成两组,对照组患儿采取常规护理方式,观察组患儿采取优质护理,对比两组患儿的穿刺效果。结果观察组的穿刺成功率及家属满意度均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论优质护理干预能有效提升小儿静脉穿刺成功率及满意度。%Objective To investigate the effect of nursing intervention on the success rate and satisfaction degree of pediatric venous puncture. Methods 600 patients with intravenous infusion were divided into two groups, the control group was given routine nursing, the observation group was taken with high quality care, compared with the two groups of patients with puncture effect.ResultsThe success rate of the observation group and family satisfaction were significantly higher than the control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion The high quality nursing can effectively improve the success rate and satisfaction of pediatric venous puncture.

  11. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  12. Hydrography - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  13. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives a

  14. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  16. Robustness of the Probabilistic damage Stability Concept to the Degree of Details in the Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Erik Sonne; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Baatrup, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of the Attained Index A to the degree of details in the modeling of the internal subdivision and for differences in software. The calculations are performed within the framework of the SOLAS, Part B.1 for cargo ships. The different software gives fairly equal...... simplifications can be taken without changing the Attained Index A significantly....

  17. Expectations of Achievement and Perceptions of Talent: Child and Parent Influence on Academic Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The influences of parental expectations, self-expectations and academic achievement on eventual educational attainment were investigated in a longitudinal study utilising twin pairs from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS). Expectations and current school performance were recorded by twins and their parents at twins’ age 11, 14 and 17. Level of education attained by age 24 was used as the key outcome variable. Parents also rated their self-perceived talents at the intake assessment. ...

  18. Predictors of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, P A; Hopkins, W G; Robinson, D M; Robinson, S M; Hollings, S C

    1993-12-01

    Correlates of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics (RSG) were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 106 female gymnasts aged 7-27 years. Physical attributes were obtained by anthropometry and from tests of flexibility, leg power, maximum oxygen uptake and visuo-motor proficiency. Training and psychological measures were derived from self-administered questionnaires that included the Leadership Scale for Sport, Psychological Skills Inventory for Sport, General Health Questionnaire, Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and several questions on sport motivation and enjoyment. Attainment was expressed as competition grade level and mean performance score in 4 competitions. The best correlates of attainment were cumulative and current training time (r = 0.84-0.53). Age, lean body mass and composite measures of flexibility, leg power and visuo-motor proficiency were also significant correlates of attainment (r = 0.69-0.29), as were coach democratic and coach social behaviours (r = 0.41-0.28). The significant positive psychometric correlates of attainment were mental preparation, motivation by creativity, and several dimensions of enjoyment (r = 0.35-0.26); significant negative correlates were recent anxiety-depression and enjoyment of training (r = -0.34-(-)0.32). No previous study has identified the relative contributions of such a comprehensive range of physical, psychological and training measures to performance of a sport.

  19. 40 CFR 434.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.43 Effluent limitations guidelines... Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Concentration in mg/l Iron, total 7...

  20. 40 CFR 434.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 434.53 Section 434.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS...

  1. The Effect of Articulation Agreements on Community College Transfers and Bachelor's Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century, community colleges have provided a postsecondary education alternative to the traditional, 4-year university. Enrolling disproportionate numbers of both disadvantaged and nontraditional students, the community college sector has seen unparalleled gains in enrollment over the past few decades. Along with these increases in…

  2. 40 CFR 471.52 - Effluent limitations representating the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representating... economically achievable (BAT). 471.52 Section 471.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  3. National Differences in Intelligence and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    We examine the correlations between the national IQs of Lynn and Vanhanen (Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations". Westport, CT: Praeger. Westport, CT: Praeger, Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2006). "IQ and global inequality". Athens, GA: Washington Summit Books.) and educational attainment scores in math and science for 10-…

  4. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  5. Private Schooling and the Status Attainment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lionel S.; Wanner, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Examines effects of a private school education on educational, occupational, and earnings attainments. Using subsamples of respondents who attended private schools only and public schools only, the so-called private school advantage and its function in transmitting background related advantages is analyzed. (Author/DB)

  6. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  7. Genetic and Environmental Transactions Underlying Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report used a population-representative longitudinal twin study with two birth cohorts to explore the association between intelligence and education by understanding how genetic and environmental influences on intelligence moderate genetic and environmental influences on school grades and educational attainment. Nonshared environmental…

  8. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  9. Does Sibship Size Affect Educational Attainment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper implements a test of the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH) stating that sibship size has a negative causal effect on educational attainment. Most existing studies using conventional methods support the RDH. This paper implements an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach to testing the cl...

  10. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  11. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  12. Institutions, Social Norms, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Informal institutions are defined as socially shared rules that guide individuals' behaviors outside of officially sanctioned channels. This paper investigates the link between individual educational attainment and education-related informal institutions by examining second-generation immigrants in the USA. I measure the education-related informal…

  13. Academic Attainment in Students with Dyslexia in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T E

    2015-11-01

    This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours).

  14. Editorial: Sustainability needs to be attained, not managed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Ehrenfeld

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and its derivatives fall into the same class as a few of the key concepts underlying liberal democracies everywhere—like equality, freedom, and liberty—that are explicitly written into the founding documents of the United States. Such terms have been called “essentially contested concepts” (ECCs, signifying that there is an ongoing, never-ending dispute about both the meaning and the degree to which one can attain whatever is named by the concept (Gallie, 1956. I recall a recent allusion to some 300 or more definitions regarding sustainability. Sustainability is confused or conflated with “green” in many places. It is used more-or-less interchangeably in this publication and others focused on the notion of “sustainable development.”

  15. Closer to the Finish Line? Compulsory Attendance, Grade Attainment, and High School Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Wael S.

    2017-01-01

    High school graduation rates are a central policy topic in the United States and have been shown to be stagnant for the past three decades. Using student-level administrative data from New York City Public Schools, I examine the impact of compulsory school attendance on high school graduation rates and grade attainment, focusing the analysis on…

  16. Closer to the Finish Line? Compulsory Attendance, Grade Attainment, and High School Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Wael S.

    2017-01-01

    High school graduation rates are a central policy topic in the United States and have been shown to be stagnant for the past three decades. Using student-level administrative data from New York City Public Schools, I examine the impact of compulsory school attendance on high school graduation rates and grade attainment, focusing the analysis on…

  17. Effort in emotion work and well-being: The role of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elena; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that regulating one's emotion display in social settings entails psychological costs such as lower well-being. However, regulating emotion display may also help achieving goals, and goal attainment is known to enhance well-being. We therefore investigated the hypothesis that success in attaining goals during social interactions would reduce the negative impact of regulatory effort on well-being. In an experience sampling study, 115 Swiss employees reported their social encounters for 7 consecutive days. For each interaction, participants were asked to report their effort in regulating their emotions, their level of goal attainment, and their momentary well-being after the interaction. Data being nested (Level 1: interactions; Level 2: person), multilevel analyses were conducted. Continuous level 1 predictors were group mean centered, implying that their effects on well-being were strictly intraindividual. Gender, age, extraversion, and neuroticism were controlled on the person level, the context of the interaction (private vs. work) as well as positive and negative emotions felt during the social encounter were controlled on the situation level. Analysis of 1,674 social interactions containing a goal confirmed that regulatory effort predicted lower well-being after social interactions (Hypothesis 1), that degree of goal attainment predicted better well-being after these interactions (Hypothesis 2), and that degree of goal attainment buffered the negative effect of effort (Hypothesis 3). Research and theory should pay more attention to the fact that emotions often are regulated in the service of goals, and that attaining these goals may, at least partially, compensate for the effort invested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change.

  19. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi

    2013-01-01

    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  20. Attaining High Performance Communications A Vertical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilovska, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Technological Advances and Problems of High Performance Communications. An ecosystem of solutions along a stack of technology layers. Cohesively collecting state-of-the-art contributions from leading researchers in industry, national laboratories, and academia, Attaining High Performance Communications: A Vertical Approach discusses various issues pertaining to high performance communications in a particular layer of a vertical stack. It explores efficient interconnection hardware, the architectural aspects of network adapters and their integration with processor cores, the design of scalable

  1. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  2. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  3. Degree by Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  4. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. Identification of Gene Loci That Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hellard, Stéphanie; Wang, Yunpeng; Witoelar, Aree

    2017-01-01

    . Here we investigated the shared genetic architecture between SCZ and educational attainment, which is regarded as a "proxy phenotype" for cognitive abilities, but may also reflect other traits. We applied a conditional false discovery rate (condFDR) method to GWAS of SCZ (n = 82 315), college...... completion ("College," n = 95 427), and years of education ("EduYears," n = 101 069). Variants associated with College or EduYears showed enrichment of association with SCZ, demonstrating polygenic overlap. This was confirmed by an increased replication rate in SCZ. By applying a condFDR threshold ... of these loci had effects in opposite directions. Our results provide evidence for polygenic overlap between SCZ and educational attainment, and identify novel pleiotropic loci. Other studies have reported genetic overlap between SCZ and cognition, or SCZ and educational attainment, with negative correlation...

  6. Attainable superheat of argon-helium, argon-neon solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidakov, Vladimir G; Kaverin, Aleksey M; Andbaeva, Valentina N

    2008-10-16

    The method of lifetime measurement has been used to investigate the kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated argon-helium and argon-neon solutions. Experiments were made at a pressure of p = 1.5 MPa and concentrations up to 0.33 mol% in the range of nucleation rates from 10 (4) to 10 (8) s (-1) m (-3). The homogeneous nucleation regime has been distinguished. With good agreement between experimental data and homogeneous nucleation theory in temperature and concentration dependences of the nucleation rate, a systematic underestimation by 0.25-0.34 K has been revealed in superheat temperatures over the saturated line attained by experiment as compared with theoretical values calculated in a macroscopic approximation. The revealed disagreement between theory and experiment is connected with the dependence of the properties of new-phase nuclei on their size.

  7. Impact of Self-Regulatory Influences on Writing Course Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Bandura, Albert

    1994-01-01

    Using path analysis, studied the role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards in writing-course attainment of 95 college freshmen. Different facets of perceived self-efficacy played a key role in writing-course attainment. (SLD)

  8. 75 FR 41379 - Finding of Attainment for PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Finding of Attainment for PM 10 for the Mendenhall Valley PM 10 Nonattainment Area... the Mendenhall Valley nonattainment area in Alaska attained the National Ambient Air Quality Standard... determinations? D. What is the attainment date for the Mendenhall PM 10 nonattainment area? E. What PM 10...

  9. The Influence of the Pell Grant on Four Year Degree Production: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David S., II

    2014-01-01

    An increased amount of energy and effort has been focused on higher education and degree attainment in the United States. President Obama has recently tied the Pell grants into the discussion as a central point in his proposed system of higher education accountability. However, the influence of the Pell grant on degree production has not been…

  10. Near concavity of the growth rate for coupled LDPC chains

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, S Hamed; Mori, Ryuhei

    2011-01-01

    Convolutional Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) ensembles have excellent performance. Their iterative threshold increases with their average degree, or with the size of the coupling window in randomized constructions. In the later case, as the window size grows, the Belief Propagation (BP) threshold attains the maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) threshold of the underlying ensemble. In this contribution we show that a similar phenomenon happens for the growth rate of coupled ensembles. Loosely speaking, we observe that as the coupling strength grows, the growth rate of the coupled ensemble comes close to the concave hull of the underlying ensemble's growth rate. For ensembles randomly coupled across a window the growth rate actually tends to the concave hull of the underlying one as the window size increases. Our observations are supported by the calculations of the combinatorial growth rate, and that of the growth rate derived from the replica method. The observed concavity is a general feature of coupled mean field g...

  11. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  12. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  13. Early cannabis initiation and educational attainment: is the association causal? Data from the French TEMPO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Bolze, Camille; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J; Pryor, Laura; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie

    2017-05-18

    : Adolescent cannabis use has been reported to predict later educational attainment; however, results of past studies may be confounded by inappropriate control for factors that make some youths more likely to use cannabis precociously than others. We aimed to test the possibility of a causal relationship between early cannabis initiation and later academic achievement. : Analyses are based on data collected among TEMPO cohort study participants (France, 2009, n  = 1103, 22-35 years). Participants were previously assessed in childhood (1991) and adolescence (1999); additionally, their parents had taken part in a longitudinal epidemiological cohort study (GAZEL). Early cannabis initiation was defined as use at age 16 or earlier. Educational attainment was defined as the completion of a high-school degree ('Baccalauréat'). Early (up to and including age 16 years) and late (after age 16 years) cannabis-use initiators were compared with non-users using logistic regression models controlled for inverse probability weights (IPWs) of exposure calculated based on participants' socio-demographic, juvenile and parental characteristics. : In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, early cannabis initiators were more likely than non-users to have low educational attainment [odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.55]. In IPWs-controlled analyses, this association somewhat decreased (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.40). Late cannabis initiators did not have lower educational attainment than non-users. Early cannabis use and educational attainment appeared more strongly associated in young women than in young men. : Early cannabis can cause low educational attainment. Youths who initiate cannabis use early require attention from addiction and education specialists to reduce their odds of poor long-term outcomes.

  14. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  15. One Degree of Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  16. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharis, R P; Hellmers, H; Schuurmans, E

    1967-04-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23 degrees day, and 19 degrees night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3 degrees , 7 degrees or 11 degrees day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3 degrees . Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11 degrees day and pines kept at a 7 degrees day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO(2) level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3 degrees day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered.

  17. Relation of Opportunity to Learn Advanced Math to the Educational Attainment of Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew; Byun, Soo-yong; Smiley, Whitney S.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined the relation of advanced math course taking to the educational attainment of rural youth. We used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002. Regression analyses demonstrated that when previous math achievement is accounted for, rural students take advanced math at a significantly lower rate than urban students.…

  18. Assessment of adolescents' motivation for educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-06-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed.

  19. Assessment of Adolescents’ Motivation for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  20. Expectation and attainment of nursing careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, J E; Aadland, S C

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to replicate and extend an investigation completed 15 years ago, which was related to recruitment into the nursing profession. The data are provided by the National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of youths followed from high school through young adulthood. The design involved classification of the NLS sample into three groups based on career interest in nursing and ultimate occupational attainment: (1) those who expected to become nurses when in high school and did so; (2) those who expected to become nurses in high school but did not; and (3) those who had other occupational expectations in high school but became nurses. These three recruitment types were analyzed relative to four demographic variables. Only 34% of those who planned to become nurses did so. Those who did not attain their goal were more often from low socioeconomic backgrounds, had lower aptitudes, and were more often nonwhites than were other nursing recruits. Youth in the other two groups were very similar on all variables. Findings were generally consistent with those found in the earlier study although several differences were noted in the composition of the typologies used, indicating that the pattern of recruitment is changing.

  1. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2016-09-20

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.

  2. Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.

  3. The long-term consequences of parental divorce for children's educational attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bernardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper we study the long-term consequences of parental divorce in a comparative perspective. Special attention is paid to the heterogeneity of the consequences of divorce for children's educational attainment by parental education. Objective: The study attempts to establish whether the parental breakup penalty for tertiary education attainment varies by socioeconomic background, and whether it depends on the societal context. Methods: Data are drawn from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey, covering 14 countries. We estimate multi-level random-slope models for the completion of tertiary education. Results: The results show that parental divorce is negatively associated with children's tertiary education attainment. Across the 14 countries considered in this study, children of separated parents have a probability of achieving a university degree that is on average seven percentage points lower than that of children from intact families. The breakup penalty is stronger for children of highly educated parents, and is independent of the degree of diffusion of divorce. In countries with early selection into educational tracks, divorce appears to have more negative consequences for the children of poorly educated mothers. Conclusions: For children in most countries, parental divorce is associated with a lower probability of attaining a university degree. The divorce penalty is larger for children with highly educated parents. This equalizing pattern is accentuated in countries with a comprehensive educational system. Comments: Future research on the heterogeneous consequences of parental divorce should addressthe issue of self-selection into divorce, which might lead to an overestimation of the negative effect of divorce on students with highly educated parents. It should also further investigate the micro mechanisms underlying the divorce penalty.

  4. Higher education attainment does not improve the adult employment outcomes of adolescents with ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to  not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024.  The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.

  5. The active bioindication method based on the fertility rate of collembola possibility and chance to diagnose soil conditions and the degree of soil burden; Die aktive Bioindikationsmethode mit Collembolen. Moeglichkeit der Diagnose von Bodenzustand und -belastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeszki, H. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Zoologisches Inst.

    1999-07-01

    Fertility, population growth and population dynamics of the collembolan species Folsomia candida and Heteromurus nitidus in exposed microcontainers are the zoological criteria of the active bioindication method discussed in this paper. With these criteria, it is easy to diagnose respective soil conditions and the degree of soil burden with pollutants. The zoological criteria are a direct indication for the degree of pollutant deposition and soil water contamination. The more a soil ecosystem is contaminated by acids, heavy metals, fertilizers or pesticides, the less successful is the breeding of the springtails in the exposed microcontainers. Thus population dynamics and abundance function as a good measure for the pollution stress of soil ecosystems. (orig.) [German] Bei der hier vorgestellten aktiven Bioindikationsmethode sind Fortpflanzungsrate, Populationsgroesse (Jahresmittelwert) und Populationsentwicklung der Collembolenarten Folsomia candida und Heteromurus nitidus in exponierten Mikrocontainern zoologische Kriterien, an Hand derer der Bodenzustand und Ausmass einer moeglichen Bodenbelastung klar diagnostiziert werden koennen. Diese zoologischen Parameter sind unmittelbare Indizien fuer das Ausmass von Schadstoffdepositionen und Bodenwasserkontaminationen mit Schadstoffen. Je staerker ein Bodenoekosystem mit Saeuren, Schwermetallen, Duengern oder Pestiziden verunreinigt ist, umso geringer sind die Zuchterfolge mit den Collembolen in exponierten Mikrocontainern. So werden Populationsdynamik und Abundanz zu Messeinheiten fuer den Belastungsstress von Bodenoekosystemen. (orig.)

  6. Interlaboratory study of the reproducibility of the single-pass flow-through test method : measuring the dissolution rate of LRM glass at 70 {sup {degree}}C and pH 10.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-28

    An international interlaboratory study (ILS) was conducted to evaluate the precision with which single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests can be conducted by following a method to be standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials - International. Tests for the ILS were conducted with the low-activity reference material (LRM) glass developed previously for use as a glass test standard. Tests were conducted at 70 {+-} 2 C using a LiCl/LiOH solution as the leachant to impose an initial pH of about 10 (at 70 C). Participants were provided with LRM glass that had been crushed and sieved to isolate the -100 +200 mesh size fraction, and then washed to remove fines. Participants were asked to conduct a series of tests using different solution flow rate-to-sample mass ratios to generate a range of steady-state Si concentrations. The glass dissolution rate under each test condition was calculated using the steady-state Si concentration and solution flow rate that were measured in the test. The glass surface area was estimated from the mass of glass used in the test and the Si content of LRM glass was known. A linear relationship between the rate and the steady-state Si concentration (at Si concentrations less than 10 mg/L) was used to estimate the forward dissolution rate, which is the rate in the absence of dissolved Si. Participants were asked to sample the effluent solution at least five times after reaction times of between 3 and 14 days to measure the Si concentration and flow rate, and to verify that steady-state was achieved. Results were provided by seven participants and the data sets provided by five participants were sufficient to determine the forward rates independently.

  7. Mexican Ancestry, Immigrant Generation, and Educational Attainment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Morgan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After introducing alternative perspectives on assimilation and acculturation, we use the 2002-2012 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study to model differences in educational attainment for students sampled as high school sophomores in 2002. We focus on patterns observed for the growing Mexican immigrant population, analyzing separately the trajectories of 1st, 1.5th, 2nd, and 3rd+ generation Mexican immigrant students, in comparison to 3rd+ generation students who self-identify as non-Hispanic whites and students who self-identify as non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans. The results suggest that the dissonant acculturation mechanism associated with the segmented assimilation perspective is mostly unhelpful for explaining patterns of educational attainment, especially for the crucial groups of 1.5th and 2nd generation Mexican immigrant students. Instead, standard measures of family background can account for large portions of group differences in bachelor’s degree attainment, with or without additional adjustments for behavioral commitment to schooling, occupational plans, and educational expectations. The broad structure of inequality in the United States, as well as the rising costs of bachelor’s degrees, should be the primary source of concern when considering the prospects for the incorporation of the children of recent Mexican immigrants into the mainstream.

  8. On the mishandling of probabilities in Lamotte & Wells' commentary on J.P. Michaud, G. Moreau, Predicting the visitation of carcasses by carrion-related insects under different rates of degree-day accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Gaétan; Michaud, J-P

    2017-01-01

    LaMotte and Wells re-analyzed and criticized one of our articles in which we proposed a novel statistical test for predicting postmortem interval from insect succession data. Using simple mathematical examples, we demonstrate that LaMotte and Wells erred because their analyses are based on an erroneous interpretation of the nature of probabilities that disregards more than 300 years of scientific literature on probability combination. We also argue that the methods presented in our article, more specifically the use of degree-day-based logistic regression analysis to model succession, was a positive contribution to the fields of forensic entomology and carrion ecology, which LaMotte and Wells forgot to mention by instead focusing on issues that were either trivial or did not exist.

  9. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  10. Assessment of anaerobic power to verify VO2max attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; White, Ailish C

    2010-07-01

    Across various populations, verification testing is used to confirm VO(2)max attainment and has repeatedly shown similar VO(2)max values to those obtained from incremental exercise. Yet, many individuals show meaningful differences in VO(2)max between protocols, and an explanation for this is unknown. The aim of the study was to elucidate this phenomenon in 30 men and women of similar age, fitness, and physical activity using assessment of anaerobic power. On day 1, they completed the Wingate test, and returned at least 48 h later to complete incremental cycle ergometry followed by a verification protocol. During exercise, ventilation, pulmonary gas exchange data, and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. Mean VO(2)max was similar (P > 0.05) between protocols (42.05 +/- 5.88 ml kg(-1) per min versus 42.03 +/- 5.75 ml kg(-1) per min, respectively), although seven subjects (23%) revealed a VO(2)max that was not 'verified' by the supramaximal protocol. Indices of power output and gas exchange data were similar (P > 0.05) between subjects who revealed a 'true' VO(2)max compared to those who did not, although peak and mean power was consistently higher in persons whose VO(2)max was not 'verified.' A previously established HRmax criterion for verification testing was not met in 17% of subjects. Additional study is merited to identify alternate determinants of VO(2)max, such as muscle activation via assessment of motor unit recruitment, and to investigate utility of verification testing to confirm VO(2)max attainment in elite athletes and the elderly.

  11. Physics Bachelor's Degrees: Results from the 2010 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2012-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census of all degree-granting physics departments in the United States and Puerto Rico. The survey had a 95% response rate from the 751 departments that granted physics bachelor's degrees in the class of 2010. Results show that the number of physics bachelor's…

  12. Quantification of modulation degree for VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Ye, Sung Joon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Carkson, Joel [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to quantify the degree of modulation by presenting a modulation index (MI) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the speed and acceleration analysis of modulating-parameters such as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotation and dose-rate, comprehensively, as well as by performing texture analysis on fluence maps. The MIt showed good performance for the evaluation of the modulation-degree of VMAT plans showing highest correlations to the plan deliverability.

  13. Decoherence of rotational degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of decoherence for a mesoscopic quantum system with rotational degrees of freedom is studied. From a simple model of elastic scattering, we show that the nondiagonal density-matrix elements of the system exponentially decay. The decay rate depends on the difference of scattering amplitudes for different rotational configurations, leading to the gradual loss of quantum coherence between the pointer states in the orientational space. For a dielectric ellipsoid immersed in a photon-gas environment (assuming no absorption), the decay rate is found to be proportional to the seventh power of the temperature. For an ellipsoidal object interacting with massive particles, the decay rate is proportional to the 5/2 power of the temperature. Both are different from the case of translational decoherence induced by the same environment scattering. For photon scattering, the coherence time in the rotational degrees of freedom is shown to be much shorter than that in the translational degrees of freedom.

  14. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  15. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation. IZA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  16. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  17. Children's Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment: Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Walsh, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model of children's conceptions of two key career development processes: career choice and career attainment. The model of children's understanding of career choice and attainment was constructed with developmental research and theory into children's understanding of allied phenomena such as their understanding of illness,…

  18. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  19. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were b

  20. 75 FR 41421 - Finding of Attainment for PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Finding of Attainment for PM10 for the Mendenhall Valley PM10 Nonattainment Area... Mendenhall Valley nonattainment area in Alaska attained the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for...

  1. Degree-degree dependencies in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar degre

  2. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  3. Income Inequality by Highest Attained Education in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Brázdilová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Income distribution strongly affects the value of risk-of poverty, what could explain small values of poverty rate in the Czech Republic. Therefore it is important to examine the level of income inequality in society and find out the socio-economic characteristics of people affecting the overall income inequality. The factor showing the biggest influence on the income level is education, so it is meaningful to examine the relationship between income inequality and poverty rate of each group of people by their highest attained education. One appropriate approach is quantification of each group’s contribution to the overall income differentiation by decomposition of some income inequality indicators. This decomposition enables also to identify the reason the value of each contribution according to various aspects, such as the group size or total volume of groups incomes. The development of overall income inequality in the last year is a necessary condition for the prediction in the future, so the trends of time series of some inequality indicators were analyzed. The whole analysis enables to complete a view on income level and its inequality in the society, which are important indicators measuring the living standards of people.

  4. Quantitative modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niño, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks. Thus, a simple function, \\Delta(k', k), describing specific degree-to- degree correlations is considered. The function is well suited to graphically depict assortative and disassortative variations within networks. To quantify degree correlation variations, the joint probability distribution between nodes with arbitrary degrees, P(k', k), is used. Introduction of the end-degree probability function as a basic variable allows using group theory to derive mathematical models for P(k', k). In this form, an expression, representing a family of seven models, is constructed with the needed normalization conditions. Applied to \\Delta(k', k), this expression predicts a nonuniform distribution of degree correlation in networks, organized in two assortative and two disassortative zones. This structure is actually observed in a set of four modeled, technological, social, and biological networks. A regression study performed...

  5. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rethinking the Bachelor Degree Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  7. The impact of attaining the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma on academic performance in bioscience higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact of attaining the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels on overall university degree performance in comparison to attaining four GCE A-Levels, in three cohorts of undergraduate students (Year 1 = 318, Year 2 = 280, Year 3 = 236) studying Biosciences from 2005 to 2011 at a UK HEI. Binary logistic regression was used to compare the academic attainment of students who had achieved four GCE A-Levels to those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. Comparisons were also made between students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels and those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. The results suggest that students who achieved the WBQ qualification in its current form, in addition to three GCE A-Levels, performed less well academically in undergraduate studies than those who achieved four GCE A-Levels. Furthermore, this effect was still present when the balance between coursework and examination was considered, and when students who had achieved the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels were compared to students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels.

  8. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  9. Building Bridges: Higher Degree Student Retention and Counselling Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on increasing retention rates in higher degree students. It presents evidence from the literature on the value of increasing counselling and mentoring care for higher degree research students. The creation of, and rationale for, a designated higher degree student counsellor-mentor role is described.…

  10. Robustness of the Probabilistic damage Stability Concept to the Degree of Details in the Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Erik Sonne; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Baatrup, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of the Attained Index A to the degree of details in the modeling of the internal subdivision and for differences in software. The calculations are performed within the framework of the SOLAS, Part B.1 for cargo ships. The different software gives fairly equal...

  11. Predictors of Bachelor's Degree Completion among Rural Students at Four-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Meece, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study explored various factors that predicted bachelor's degree attainment among rural youth attending a four-year institution. Results showed that Hispanic origin, family income, parental educational expectations, the rigor of the high school curriculum, timing and intensity of college…

  12. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  13. Educational attainment and adult literacy: A descriptive account of 31 Sub-Saharan Africa countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Smith-Greenaway

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 60 years ago the international community declared literacy a basic human right. Recognition of its intrinsic value and evidence of its social and economic benefits have motivated an expansive international effort to estimate the percentage of adults that can read, especially in low-income countries where educational opportunities are limited. Population data on adults' educational attainment is commonly used to approximate adult literacy rates. Though increasing evidence from school-based studies of pupils confirm literacy achievement is not universal - even at advanced grades - it remains unclear whether adults' educational attainment is reflective of their literacy. Objective: This study leverages population-based data that include direct assessments of adults' literacy skills to provide a descriptive account of the proportion of adults that can read at each level of educational attainment. The study focuses on the Sub-Saharan African context, a world region where school participation has expanded rapidly in the last three decades. Because many African adults have discontinued their education at the primary level, the study focuses on basic reading skills at each level of primary school. The study focuses specifically on women, whose literacy has garnered extensive international interest. Results: Demographic and Health Survey data from 31 African countries confirm that there are many instances in which women have several years of primary school but cannot read. In fact, in some countries, large proportions of African women who never went to school can read, even as some of their peers who have completed primary school cannot. The weak correlation between educational attainment and literacy is not specific to older cohorts of women, but is also observed among younger women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that educational attainment is generally a poor proxy for literacy, highlighting the need to measure, theorize

  14. Der Einfluss von Anonymität in der Lehrevaluation durch Studierende [The Effects of Anonymity on Student Ratings of Teaching and Course Quality in a Bachelor Degree Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner, Noemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Research Question: Are there any clear differences between the outcomes of anonymous and personalised student evaluations of teaching quality?Methods: During a two-year period students were randomly divided into two separate groups, “anonymous” and “personalised”, for end-of-module evaluations. The quality of the module was assessed using a standardised questionnaire. Additionally, students were given the option to add “further comments” if they wanted to highlight specifics.These optional comments were independently assessed by three people, using a five-dimensional rating instrument: positive/negative; differentiated/absolute; naming a person/general; containing an order/neutral; visually accentuated/blank.The database consisted of 615 evaluation forms, of which 306 were completed anonymously. In order to identify whether there were any differences between the anonymous and personalised data, a multivariate variance analysis was performed. Based on the scale, the answers to the questions and the quality of the comments were evaluated. Furthermore, an assessment was made to determine if there were any differences in the number of optional comments between the two groups. Results: No significant differences were identified in the informative quality of data between the anonymous and personalised student evaluations. However, students in the personalised group had a tendency to include more details in their written answers.Conclusion: Personalised evaluations do not generate more biased results in terms of social desirability, as long as the evaluation concept is characterised by a closed-circle process and is transparent. In other words, it is imperative that the outcomes of the evaluation are reported back to the students. Moreover, there has to be an opportunity for students to discuss any further suggestions and/or future desires in an open environment. In this way the students respect and understand that their feedback

  15. Lumbar disc herniation in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial: does educational attainment impact outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Patrick R; Lurie, Jon D; Frymoyer, John; Walsh, Thomas; Zhao, Wenyan; Morgan, Tamara S; Abdu, William A; Weinstein, James N

    2011-12-15

    Randomized trial with concurrent observational cohort. A total of 1171 patients were divided into subgroups by educational attainment: high school or less, some college, and college degree or above. To assess the influence of education level on outcomes for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Educational attainment has been demonstrated to have an inverse relationship with pain perception, comorbidities, and mortality. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial enrolled surgical candidates (imaging-confirmed disc herniation with at least 6 weeks of persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy) from 13 multidisciplinary spine clinics in 11 US states. Treatments were standard open discectomy versus nonoperative treatment. Outcomes were changes from baseline for 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), bodily pain (BP), and physical function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly through 4 years. Substantial improvement was seen in all patient cohorts. Surgical outcomes did not differ by level of education. For nonoperative outcomes, however, higher levels of education were associated with significantly greater overall improvement over 4 years in BP (P = 0.007), PF (P = 0.001), and ODI (P = 0.003). At 4 years a "dose-response" type relationship was shown for BP (high school or less = 25.5, some college = 31, and college graduate or above = 36.3, P = 0.004) and results were similar for PF and ODI. The success of nonoperative treatment in the more educated cohort resulted in an attenuation of the relative benefit of surgery. Patients with higher educational attainment demonstrated significantly greater improvement with nonoperative treatment while educational attainment was not associated with surgical outcomes.

  16. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity

  17. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity coe

  18. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  19. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  20. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  1. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  2. Child Abuse And The Educational Attainment Of Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The Educational Attainment Of Secondary School Students In Science Subjects. ... parents opinions were sampled through the use of validated questionnaire. ... chances of active participation and high performance in the science lessons ...

  3. Structural change and occupational attainment in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Solis; Billari, Francesco C.

    2002-01-01

    Latin American societies have experienced profound economic transformations in recent years. Yet, little is known about the effects of these transformations on occupational attainment and mobility. We study these effects in Monterrey, the third largest city of Mexico. We analyze two stages of men’s process of occupational attainment: the entry into the labor force and subsequent job shifts. Despite short-term negative effects in the 1980s, Monterrey’s labor market upgrading has continued, fac...

  4. Can Anomalous Amplification be Attained Without Postselection?

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Viza, Gerardo I; Howell, John C

    2015-01-01

    We present a parameter estimation technique based on performing joint measurements of a weak interaction away from the weak-value-amplification approximation. Two detectors are used to collect full statistics of the correlations between two weakly entangled degrees of freedom. Without the need of postselection, the protocol resembles the anomalous amplification of an imaginary-weak-value-like response. The amplification is induced in the difference signal of both detectors allowing robustness to different sources of technical noise, and offering in addition the advantages of balanced signals for precision metrology. All of the Fisher information about the parameter of interest is collected, and a phase controls the amplification response. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed technique by measuring polarization rotations in a linearly polarized laser pulse. The effective sensitivity and precision of a split detector is increased when compared to a conventional continuous-wave balanced detection technique...

  5. Ethnic Differences in Educational Attainment among the Children of Canadian Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Abada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey, this article examines the ethnic differences in university education attainment among the children of immigrants in Canada. We found that most groups achieve clear upward mobility across generations, while such upward pattern is not observed among Blacks and Filipinos. Asians (with the exception of Filipinos attain higher academic achievements than most groups of European origins even when accounting for group variations in family background, and social and ethnic capital. Parental education was important in explaining the relatively low university completion rates among the second generation Portuguese and Italians. Rural residence of the father’s generation was an important factor for the second generation Dutch and German youth, reflecting the different settlement patterns of these various groups. Our findings suggest that race/ethnicity has become a salient factor in educational stratification.

  6. Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplass, James A.

    1976-01-01

    The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…

  7. Relationship between Rate of Eating and Degree of Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Kellen, Michael J.; Brooks, Jeannie; Ehle, Chris; Vinas, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral psychologists have developed effective methods of treatment for overeating and weight control, including mealtime regulation, avoidance of taboo foods, and removal of identified precursors to the bingeing behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between speed of eating and levels of satiation in weight conscious…

  8. Relationship between Rate of Eating and Degree of Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Kellen, Michael J.; Brooks, Jeannie; Ehle, Chris; Vinas, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral psychologists have developed effective methods of treatment for overeating and weight control, including mealtime regulation, avoidance of taboo foods, and removal of identified precursors to the bingeing behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between speed of eating and levels of satiation in weight conscious…

  9. A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010. NBER Working Paper No. 15902

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Robert J.; Lee, Jong-Wha

    2010-01-01

    Our panel data set on educational attainment has been updated for 146 countries from 1950 to 2010. The data are disaggregated by sex and by 5-year age intervals. We have improved the accuracy of estimation by using information from consistent census data, disaggregated by age group, along with new estimates of mortality rates and completion rates…

  10. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  11. The mappings of degree 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The maps of the form f( x = ∑ i=1 n a i ⋅x⋅ b i , called 1-degree maps, are introduced and investigated. For noncommutative algebras and modules over them 1-degree maps give an analogy of linear maps and differentials. Under some conditions on the algebra 𝒜 , contractibility of the group of 1-degree isomorphisms is proved for the module l 2 ( 𝒜 . It is shown that these conditions are fulfilled for the algebra of linear maps of a finite-dimensional linear space. The notion of 1-degree map gives a possibility to define a nonlinear Fredholm map of l 2 ( 𝒜 and a Fredholm manifold modelled by l 2 ( 𝒜 . 1-degree maps are also applied to some problems of Markov chains.

  12. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge. 2 Non-aqueous drilling... Free Oil No discharge. 2 Well Treatment, Workover and Completion Fluids Free Oil No discharge. 2... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 40 CFR 419.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not exceed 110 mg/l total organic carbon... commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of contaminated runoff which exceeds 110 mg/l TOC is not commingled or treated with any other type of wastewater, the...

  14. 40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not exceed 15 mg/l... runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of...). (c) The provisions of § 419.14(c) apply to discharges of process wastewater pollutants...

  15. 40 CFR 419.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not exceed 110 mg/l total organic carbon... commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of contaminated runoff which exceeds 110 mg/l TOC is not commingled or treated with any other type of wastewater, the...

  16. 40 CFR 419.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not... 110 mg/l TOC is not commingled or treated with any other type of wastewater, the quantity of... provisions of § 419.12(c) apply to discharges of process wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast...

  17. 40 CFR 419.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solely of contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be... composite sample. (2) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if... treated with any other type of wastewater, the quantity of pollutants discharged shall not exceed...

  18. 40 CFR 419.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater consists solely of contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater... commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of contaminated runoff... discharges of process wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point source subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 419.54 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solely of contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be... composite sample. (2) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if... treated with any other type of wastewater, the quantity of pollutants discharged shall not exceed...

  20. 40 CFR 418.17 - Effluent limitations quidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Process wastewater must be treated and discharged whenever the water level equals or exceeds the midpoint of the surge capacity. (c) The concentration of pollutants discharged in process wastewater pursuant... wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process wastewater pollutants from a calcium sulfate...

  1. 40 CFR 419.24 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does...) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting... wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point source subject to the provisions of...

  2. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not exceed 110 mg/l total organic carbon... commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of contaminated runoff which exceeds 110 mg/l TOC is not commingled or treated with any other type of wastewater, the...

  3. 40 CFR 419.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not exceed 15 mg/l oil and grease and 110... contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of...) apply to discharges of process wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point...

  4. 40 CFR 419.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does...) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting... wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point source subject to the provisions of...

  5. 40 CFR 407.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production less than 7,264 kkg (8,000 tons) per year. Commodity (vegetables) BOD5 effluent limitations... shall not exceed— Beets 1.01 0.71 0.57 Broccoli 3.83 2.21 1.47 Carrots 1.76 1.11 0.82 Corn: Canned 0.71... processing plants with total annual raw material production less than 7,264 kkg (8,000 tons) per...

  6. 40 CFR 469.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... best available technology economically achievable (BAT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BAT...

  7. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant...

  8. 40 CFR 468.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copper or copper alloy cold rolled English units—pounds per 1,000,000 off-pounds of copper or copper alloy cold rolled Chromium 0.166 0.068 Copper 0.720 0.379 Lead 0.056 0.049 Nickel 0.727 0.481 Zinc 0.553... Metric units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy hot rolled English units—pounds......

  9. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly average Metric units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy cold rolled English units—pounds per 1,000,000 off-pounds of copper or copper alloy cold rolled Chromium 0.166 0.068 Copper 0.720 0.379 Lead... 1 day Maximum for monthly average Metric units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy hot......

  10. 40 CFR 434.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.42 Effluent... days Concentration in mg/l Iron, total 7.0 3.5 TSS 70. 35. pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0 at...

  11. 40 CFR 440.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration of pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore... iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average...

  12. 40 CFR 440.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440... chemical methods to beneficiate iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations...

  13. 40 CFR 434.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage § 434.32... values for 30 consecutive days Concentration in mg/l Iron, total 7.0 3.5 Manganese, total 4.0 2.0 TSS 70...

  14. 40 CFR 415.512 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Iodide Production Subcategory § 415.512 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AY—Potassium Iodide Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 435.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exploration, drilling, well completion, or well treatment (i.e., produced water, drilling muds, drill cuttings... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  16. 40 CFR 435.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... located beyond 3 miles from shore: Water-based drilling fluids and associated drill cuttings Free Oil No... fluids Free Oil No discharge. 2 Well treatment, completion and workover fluids Free oil No discharge. 2... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  17. 40 CFR 440.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold... obtain copper bearing ores, lead bearing ores, zinc bearing ores, gold bearing ores, or silver bearing... which employ the froth flotation process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the...

  18. 40 CFR 440.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum bearing ores or any combination of these ores from open... pollutants discharged from mills that use the froth-flotation process alone, or in conjunction with other...

  19. 40 CFR 471.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater pollutants. (b) Extrusion tool contact cooling water. Subpart G—BPT Pollutant or pollutant... 38 22.8 TSS 77.9 37.1 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (d) Forging...

  20. 40 CFR 471.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Subpart G—BAT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (b) Extrusion tool contact....017 0.012 Fluoride 1.86 0.827 Molybdenum 0.158 0.070 (d) Forging spent lubricants—Subpart G—BAT....

  1. 40 CFR 467.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... off-lbs) of aluminum cast Chromium 0.0009 0.0004 Cyanide 0.0006 0.0003 Zinc 0.0029 0.001 Aluminum 0... off-lbs) of aluminum cast Chromium 0.684 0.28 Cyanide 0.450 0.187 Zinc 2.27 0.949 Aluminum 10.00 4.976... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions...

  2. 40 CFR 464.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plants that are casting primarily ductile or gray iron and to plants that are casting primarily malleable...) Applicable to plants that are casting primarily steel and to plants that are casting primarily malleable iron... gray iron and to plants that are casting primarily malleable iron where greater than 3,557 tons...

  3. 40 CFR 421.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leachate from zirconium alloy production. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory... CATEGORY Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory § 421.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...) Sand drying wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and Hafnium...

  4. A Call for More Diploma Nurses to Attain a Baccalaureate Degree: Advancing the nursing profession in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Joy K. Kamanyire; Susan Achora

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare needs of the Omani population are evolving, particularly with regards to changes in disease complexity, advances in technology and the enhanced delivery of healthcare services. Nurses now need to adapt to a fundamental shift in the provision of patient-centred care. In line with lifelong learning goals, registered nurses in Oman at the diploma level should seek to obtain a more advanced qualification, for instance a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, to ensure they pos...

  5. 40 CFR 440.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acid leach, alkaline leach or combined acid and alkaline leach process for the extraction of uranium... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium... or underground, from which uranium, radium and vanadium ores are produced excluding mines using...

  6. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized...

  7. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  8. 40 CFR 407.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Potato 3.46 2.17 1.58 Tortilla 2.41 1.50 1.09 Ethnic foods 2.39 1.41 0.96 Jams/jellies 0.42 0.26 0.19 Mayonnaise and dressings 0.37 0.24 0.17 Soups 4.14 2.46 1.69 Tomato-starch-cheese canned specialties 1.87 1... 0.00 Baby food 2.23 1.55 0.95 Chips: Corn 2.90 2.17 1.53 Potato 6.25 4.49 2.97 Tortilla 4.34 3.11...

  9. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming Subcategory § 420...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming...) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent... for lead and zinc when cold forming wastewaters are treated with descaling or combination...

  11. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming.... (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant of pollutant property BPT effluent... and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold forming wastewaters...

  12. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.77... Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (d) Pipe and tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant...

  14. A Call for More Diploma Nurses to Attain a Baccalaureate Degree; Advancing the nursing profession in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy K. Kamanyire

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare needs of the Omani population are evolving, particularly with regards to changes in disease complexity, advances in technology and the enhanced delivery of healthcare services. Nurses now need to adapt to a fundamental shift in the provision of patient-centred care. In line with lifelong learning goals, registered nurses in Oman at the diploma level should seek to obtain a more advanced qualification, for instance a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, to ensure they possess the requisite skills and knowledge to keep abreast of new developments in healthcare management. Challenges involved in this transition and suggestions to overcome these potential obstacles are discussed in this article in order to inform nursing education stakeholders. Recommendations to ensure the success of bridging programmes are also suggested.

  15. 40 CFR 420.03 - Alternative effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 420.03... technology currently available, best available technology economically achievable, best available demonstrated control technology, and best conventional pollutant control technology (the âwater bubbleâ)....

  16. 40 CFR 420.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) By-product cokemaking—iron and steel... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40...

  17. 40 CFR 420.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 420.47 Section 420.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking... by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). (a) Electric...

  18. 40 CFR 420.33 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ironmaking Subcategory... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant...

  19. 40 CFR 420.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ironmaking... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant...

  20. 40 CFR 420.17 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking Subcategory § 420.17... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...-product cokemaking—iron and steel. Subpart A Pollutant or pollutant property BCT effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 430.124 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.124 Effluent limitations... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Non-continuous dischargers shall not be... limitations. Concentration limitations are only applicable to non-continuous dischargers. Permittees not...

  2. 40 CFR 430.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.122 Effluent limitations... available (BPT), except that non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average... Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Non-continuous...

  3. 40 CFR 421.233 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cobalt in the crushed raw material Copper 0.099 0.047 Nickel 0.042 0.028 Ammonia (as N) 10.260 4.512... pounds) of nickel powder washed Copper 0.043 0.021 Nickel 0.019 0.013 Ammonia (as N) 4.515 1.985 Cobalt 0... pounds) of nickel produced Copper 16.250 7.744 Nickel 6.982 4.697 Ammonia (as N) 1,692.000 743.900...

  4. 40 CFR 421.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., nickel, and cobalt in the crushed raw material Copper 0.146 0.077 Nickel 0.148 0.098 Ammonia (as N) 10.../kg (pounds per million pounds) of cobalt produced Copper 40.660 21.400 Nickel 41.080 27.180 Ammonia... CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.232 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  5. 40 CFR 421.313 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tungsten scrap washed Copper 0.250 0.119 Nickel 0.107 0.072 Ammonia (as N) 25.990 11.430 Cobalt 0.538 0.236... scrap leached Copper 2.241 1.068 Nickel 0.963 0.648 Ammonia (as N) 233.400 102.600 Cobalt 4.833 2.119... produced from cobalt sludge Copper 45.80 21.83 Nickel 19.68 13.24 Ammonia (as N) 4,770.00 2,097.00...

  6. 40 CFR 421.312 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced Copper 15.830 8.333 Nickel 16.000 10.580 Ammonia (as N) 1,111.000 488.300 Cobalt 32.832 14.416... sludge Copper 67.990 35.780 Nickel 68.700 45.440 Ammonia (as N) 4,770.000 2,097.000 Cobalt 140.977 61.901... monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of cobalt produced Copper 79.140 41.650 Nickel 79.970...

  7. 40 CFR 454.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Rosin-Based Derivatives Subcategory § 454.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the...): (a) The following limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this paragraph, which may be discharged from the manufacture of rosin-based derivatives by...

  8. 40 CFR 415.302 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart and using the recovery process from Solvay process wastes, must achieve... Solvay Recovery Process Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of...

  9. 40 CFR 415.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart and using the recovery process from Solvay...): Subpart X—Ammonium Chloride Solvay Process Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any...

  10. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic...) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For air quality restricted operation of a spray drying tower, but... Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.153 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  11. 40 CFR 415.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point... product TSS 2.4 1.2 Flouride (T) 1.3 0.63 Chromium (T) 0.015 0.0045 Nicket (T) 0.0079 0.0024 pH (1) (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 421.212 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source... 678.800 Flouride 405.400 230.500 Total suspended solids 474.900 225.900 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the...

  13. 40 CFR 417.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap... TSS 0.80 .40 Oil and grease 0.10 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.80 0.40 COD 2.10 1.05 TSS 0.80 .40 Oil and grease 0.10 .05 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...

  14. 40 CFR 417.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap... 0.04 .02 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.02 0.01 COD 0.10 .05 TSS 0.04 .02 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to...

  15. 40 CFR 417.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the... 0.02 .01 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous...

  16. 40 CFR 417.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.62 Effluent limitations guidelines...) BOD5 0.03 0.01 COD 0.15 .05 TSS 0.03 .01 Oil and grease 0.03 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per...

  17. 40 CFR 417.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.12 Effluent limitations guidelines...) BOD5 1.80 0.60 COD 4.50 1.50 TSS 1.20 .40 Oil and grease 0.30 .10 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds...

  18. 40 CFR 417.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.32 Effluent limitations... anhydrous product) BOD5 0.03 0.01 COD 0.15 .05 TSS 0.06 .02 Oil and grease 0.03 .01 pH (1) (1) English...

  19. 40 CFR 415.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Hydrogen Peroxide Organic Process Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any 1 day... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Peroxide Production Subcategory § 415.92 Effluent limitations guidelines... point source subject to this subpart and manufacturing hydrogen peroxide by the oxidation of...

  20. 40 CFR 430.54 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ammonium-based sulfite pulp segment with respect to each fiber line that uses exclusively TCF bleaching... effluent limitations apply to dischargers in the specialty grade pulp segment with respect to each fiber...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Papergrade...

  1. 40 CFR 430.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...). (b) For secondary fiber non-deink facilities where paperboard from wastepaper is produced,...

  2. 40 CFR 430.24 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade... (b) of this section— (1) The following effluent limitations apply with respect to each fiber line... to each fiber line that uses exclusively TCF bleaching processes, as disclosed by the discharger...

  3. 40 CFR 421.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to 10.0 at all times. (i) Subpart K—Reduction of Tantalum Salt to Metal Wet Air Pollution Control... CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the... K—Concentrate Digestion Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  4. 40 CFR 434.54 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology (BCT). 434.54 Section 434.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS...

  5. 40 CFR 434.52 - Effluent limitations quidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations quidelines... technology currently available (BPT). 434.52 Section 434.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT,...

  6. 40 CFR 435.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced water) associated with production, field exploration, drilling, well completion, or well treatment (i.e., drilling muds, drill cuttings, and produced sands). (b) Produced water discharges shall...

  7. 40 CFR 405.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.976 0.488 TSS 1.462 .731 pH (1) (1) English units... for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.716 0.290 TSS 1.088 .435 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 100 lb of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.073...

  8. 40 CFR 471.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder production atomization wastewater. Subpart C—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1... and ultrasonic testing wastewater—Subpart C—BAT. There shall be no allowance for the discharge...

  9. 40 CFR 471.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder production atomization wastewater. Subpart C—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (bb) Hydrostatic tube testing and ultrasonic...

  10. 40 CFR 415.547 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 415.547 Section 415.547 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Sodium Bisulfite Production Subcategory § 415.547 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  11. A Call for More Diploma Nurses to Attain a Baccalaureate Degree: Advancing the nursing profession in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanyire, Joy K; Achora, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The healthcare needs of the Omani population are evolving, particularly with regards to changes in disease complexity, advances in technology and the enhanced delivery of healthcare services. Nurses now need to adapt to a fundamental shift in the provision of patient-centred care. In line with lifelong learning goals, registered nurses in Oman at the diploma level should seek to obtain a more advanced qualification, for instance a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, to ensure they possess the requisite skills and knowledge to keep abreast of new developments in healthcare management. Challenges involved in this transition and suggestions to overcome these potential obstacles are discussed in this article in order to inform nursing education stakeholders. Recommendations to ensure the success of bridging programmes are also suggested.

  12. 40 CFR 415.652 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.652 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart BM—Cobalt Salts Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum... product TSS 0.0023 0.0014 Cobalt (T) 0.0003 0.00012 Copper (T) 2.7×10−4 8.3×10−5 Nickel (T) 2.7×10−4...

  13. 40 CFR 461.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2.96 Zinc 3.40 1.42 Cobalt 0.49 0.21 (6) Subpart A—Cadmium Powder Production. BAT Effluent... Cadmium 2.23 0.99 Nickel 12.61 8.34 Zinc 9.59 4.01 Cobalt 1.38 0.59 (7) Subpart A—Silver Powder Production....44 Cobalt 7.38 3.16 (2) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  14. 40 CFR 415.653 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.653 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the... limitations for cobalt (T), copper (T), and nickel (T), are the same as specified in § 415.652....

  15. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fluoride 78,610.000 44,700.000 (b) Solvent extraction raffinate from beryl ore. BAT Limitations for the... average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of beryllium carbonate produced from beryl ore as beryllium....000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium...

  16. 40 CFR 421.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times (b) Solvent Extraction Raffinate from Beryl Ore. BPT Limitations... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of beryllium carbonate produced from beryl ore... 0.000 0.000 pH 1 1 1Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (k) Beryl Ore Gangue...

  17. 40 CFR 421.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aluminum .000 .000 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 (c) Subpart C—Dross Washing. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant... pounds) of dross washed Lead 3.043 1.413 Zinc 11.090 4.565 Aluminum 66.410 29.450 Ammonia (as N) 1,449...

  18. 40 CFR 421.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Dross Reverberatory Slag Granulation. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum...H (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (e) Subpart G—Dross Reverberatory Furnace... day Maximum for monthly average mg/kkg (pounds per billion pounds) of dross reverberatory furnace...

  19. 40 CFR 421.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 (d) Subpart G—Dross Reverberatory Slag Granulation. BAT Effluent....000 (e) Subpart G—Dross Reverberatory Furnace Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations... pounds) of dross reverberatory furnace production Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 (f) Subpart G—Zinc Fuming...

  20. 40 CFR 421.253 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achievable. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this... Silver 0.015 0.006 Zinc 0.051 0.021 Gold 0.005 (e) Calciner Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Limitations... condensed Lead 4.928 2.288 Mercury 2.640 1.056 Silver 5.104 2.112 Zinc 17.950 7.392 Gold 1.760 (g)...

  1. 40 CFR 466.22 - Effluent limitation representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... enameling coating operations shall not exceed the values set forth below: Subpart B—BAT Effluent Limitations... ft2) of area coated Chromium 0.53 (0.11) 0.22 (0.05) Lead 0.19 (0.04) 0.16 (0.03) Nickel 1.78 (0.37) 1.26 (0.26) Zinc 1.68 (0.35) 0.71 (0.15) Aluminum 5.74 (1.18) 2.35 (0.48) Iron 1.55 (0.32) 0.79 (0.16)...

  2. 40 CFR 466.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....19 5.06 0.16 Nickel 54.85 1.78 38.90 1.26 Zinc 51.74 1.68 21.79 1.71 Aluminum 176.98 5.74 72.35 2.35... 3.35 0.11 1.36 0.05 Lead 1.20 0.04 1.04 0.03 Nickel 11.24 0.37 7.97 0.26 Zinc 10.60 0.35 4.46 0.35... Maximum for any 1 day Metal preparation Coating operation Maximum for monthly average Metal...

  3. 40 CFR 466.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....19 5.21 0.16 Nickel 56.50 1.78 40.05 1.26 Zinc 53.30 1.68 22.43 0.71 Aluminum 182.00 5.74 74.48 2.35... 3.45 0.11 1.4 0.05 Lead 1.23 0.04 1.07 0.03 Nickel 11.57 0.37 8.20 0.26 Zinc 10.91 0.35 4.60 0.15... Maximum for any 1 day Metal preparation Coating operation Maximum for monthly average Metal...

  4. 40 CFR 466.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Metal preparation Coating operation Maximum for monthly average Metal preparation Coating operation Metric units—mg/m2 of area processed or coated Chromium 16.34 6.32 6.63 2.56 Lead 5.84 2.26 5.06 1.96 Nickel 54.85 21.21 38.90 15.04 Zinc 51.73 20.01...

  5. 40 CFR 421.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all times. (b) Molybdenum filtrate solvent extraction raffinate. BPT Limitations for the Secondary... CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.222 Effluent limitations guidelines...) Leach tailings. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory Pollutant...

  6. 40 CFR 418.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from nitric acid production in which all the raw material ammonia is in the gaseous form: Effluent... acid production in which all the raw material ammonia is in the shipped liquid form: Effluent... technology currently available. 418.52 Section 418.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  7. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— TSS 0.046 0.023 Total fluoride... contain or treat the volume of waste water which would result from a 10-year 24-hour precipitation event...

  8. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precipitation events cause the water level in the pond to rise into the surge capacity. Process waste water must... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 (d) The concentration of pollutants... consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 ...

  9. 40 CFR 418.13 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attained by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation events cause the water level... (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 (d) The concentration of pollutants discharged in contaminated non... exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 ...

  10. 40 CFR 422.53 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation events...— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 (d) The concentration of pollutants discharged in... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 ...

  11. 40 CFR 422.52 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation events cause the water level... (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 TSS 150 50 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.5. The total...— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.5. ...

  12. 40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation events cause the...— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 TSS 150 50 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.5... not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as F) 75 25 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to...

  13. 40 CFR 421.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... .251 .103 Ammonia (as N) 32.790 14.420 Fluoride 8.610 4.920 (d) Subpart K—Precipitation and Filtration... Ammonia (as N) 1,825.000 802.200 Fluoride 479.100 273.800 (e) Subpart K—Precipitation and Filtration Wet... .635 .261 Ammonia (as N) 82.910 36.450 Fluoride 21.770 12.440 (b) Subpart K—Solvent Extraction...

  14. 40 CFR 418.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... catastrophic precipitation events cause the water level to rise into the surge capacity. Process wastewater... exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 TSS 150 50 The total suspended solid limitation set... (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 ...

  15. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.32 Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  16. 40 CFR 424.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.47 Effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 424.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.43 Effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 471.46 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... technology (BCT). 471.46 Section 471.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE...

  19. 40 CFR 471.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... achievable (BAT). 471.102 Section 471.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  20. 40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... technology (BCT). 471.26 Section 471.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE...

  1. 40 CFR 421.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 421.252 Section 421.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT...

  2. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... technology (BCT). 471.66 Section 471.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE...

  3. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... technology (BCT). 471.56 Section 471.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE...

  4. 40 CFR 471.51 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... currently available (BPT). 471.51 Section 471.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  5. 40 CFR 471.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... currently available (BPT). 471.81 Section 471.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  6. 40 CFR 471.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... achievable (BAT). 471.22 Section 471.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE...

  7. 40 CFR 471.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... achievable (BAT). 471.42 Section 471.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE...

  8. 40 CFR 421.263 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 421.263 Section 421.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  9. 40 CFR 471.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... achievable (BAT). 471.62 Section 471.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE...

  10. 40 CFR 471.106 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... technology (BCT). 471.106 Section 471.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  11. 40 CFR 421.262 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 421.262 Section 421.262 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT...

  12. 40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... currently available (BPT). 471.41 Section 471.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  13. 40 CFR 471.101 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... currently available (BPT). 471.101 Section 471.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  14. Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lian-Ming; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping; Wu Xiang-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS)level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the kmin-degree (minimum degree)nodes and the km.-degree (maximum degree)nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links)in the hands of the richer (top best-connected)nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the kmin-degree nodes is larger for larger a and smaller kmin or kmax. The ratio of the kmax-degree ones is larger for smaller λ and kn,ax or larger kmin. The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the kmin-degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of kmin. The ratio of the km.-degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k, and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the'73/27 rule'). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology.

  15. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  16. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  17. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  18. Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl Lizondo

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the economy to the target, under certain conditions. However, this policy could also lead the economy to a process of accelerating inflation.

  19. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  20. Killing horizons kill horizon degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Bergamin, L

    2006-01-01

    Frequently it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this Essay we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  1. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  2. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2007-01-01

    1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school with educ......1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school...... with educational expectations that change minimally from that point onward. Moreover, their findings reveal that there is a strong correspondence among gender, socioeconomic background of parents, and educational attainment. They conclude with direct implications for K-12 and postsecondary policy and practice....

  3. Educational attainment and health transitions over the life course: testing the potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Rosenström, Tom; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Josefsson, Kim; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that higher education associates with health outcomes, but the less is known about the specific mechanisms mediating this association. We examined whether higher education would associate with long-term health transitions from childhood to adulthood and whether health behaviors, self-esteem, social support and work-related health hazards could mediate or confound this association. The participants were from a population-based sample of 3596 men and women from the Young Finns study aged 3-18 years at the beginning of the study in 1980, and who responded to repeated surveys of educational attainment and self-rated health in four study phases from 1997 to 2012. The associations were tested using multistate Markov models for the health-state transition intensities. Our results suggested that a 1-year difference in education was related to a 16% higher transition probability from mediocre to good self-rated health over the 5-year follow-up. Depressive symptoms and job strain seemed to partly mediate or confound the association, but self-esteem and social support did not. These results suggest that educational attainment is associated with good self-rated health transitions from childhood to adulthood, and multiple processes rather than a single underlying mechanism are likely to drive the educational differences in self-rated health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Nuclear Engineering Enrollment and Degree Survey: Enrollments - Fall 1972; Degrees Granted - July 1965-June 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewning, June S.

    The Atomic Energy Commission's survey of nuclear engineering degrees granted during the 1971-72 academic year shows a continuing increase in bachelor's recipients, a slight increase in the number of master's, but a continuing decline in new Ph.D.'s. If the present rate of decline persists, by 1974 the number of new Ph.D.'s in the field will be…

  5. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707

  6. System Establishment and Method Application for Quantitatively Evaluating the Green Degree of the Products in Green Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengguo Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The government green purchase is widely considered to be an effective means of promoting sustainable consumption. However, how to identify the greener product is the biggest obstacle of government green purchase and it has not been well solved. A quantitative evaluation method is provided to measure the green degree of different products of the same use function with an indicator system established, which includes fundamental indicators, general indicators, and leading indicators. It can clearly show the products’ green extent by rating the scores of different products, which provides the government a tool to compare the green degree of different products and select greener ones. A comprehensive evaluation case of a project purchasing 1635 desk computers in Tianjin government procurement center is conducted using the green degree evaluation system. The environmental performance of the products were assessed quantitatively, and the evaluation price, which was the bid price minus the discount (the discount rate was according to the total scores attained by their environmental performance, and the final evaluation price ranking from low to high in turn is supplier C, D, E, A, and B. The winner, supplier C, was not the lowest bid price or the best environmental performance, but it performed well at both bid price and environmental performance so it deserved the project. It shows that the green extent evaluation system can help classify the different products by evaluating their environment performance including structure and connection technology, selection of materials and marks, prolonged use, hazardous substances, energy consumption, recyclability rate, etc. and price, so that it could help to choose the greener products.

  7. Genome-wide association study of cognitive functions and educational attainment in UK Biobank (N=112 151)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G; Marioni, R E; Liewald, D C; Hill, W D; Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Ritchie, S J; Luciano, M; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Lyall, D; Cullen, B; Cox, S R; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Evans, J; McIntosh, A M; Gallacher, J; Craddock, N; Pell, J P; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2016-01-01

    People's differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal–numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal–numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27046643

  8. The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany: a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Differences in educational attainment between ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts were linked to education-specific earnings data. Direct and indirect tax rates and social insurance contributions were linked to differences in lifetime, education-specific earnings to derive lost tax revenue in Germany associated with ADHD. For ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts we derived the age-specific discounted net taxes paid by deducting lifetime transfers from lifetime gross taxes paid. The lifetime net tax revenue for a non-ADHD individual was approximately EUR 80,000 higher compared to an untreated ADHD individual. The fiscal burden of untreated ADHD, based on a cohort of n=31,844 born in 2010, was estimated at EUR 2.5 billion in net tax revenue losses compared with an equally-sized non-ADHD cohort. ADHD interventions providing a small improvement in educational attainment resulted in fiscal benefits from increases in lifetime tax gains. ADHD results in long-term financial loss due to lower education attainment and lifetime reduced earnings and resulting lifetime taxes and social contributions paid. Investments in ADHD interventions allowing more children to achieve their educational potential may offer fiscal benefits generating a positive rate of return.

  9. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  10. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  11. Influences to post-graduation career aspirations and attainment in STEM doctoral candidates and recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Deborah S.

    As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.

  12. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  13. Educational Expectations and Attainment. NBER Working Paper No. 15683

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian A.; Wilder, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of educational expectations in the educational attainment process. We utilize data from a variety of datasets to document and analyze the trends in educational expectations between the mid-1970s and the early 2000s. We focus on differences across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups and examine how young people…

  14. THE ATTAINABILITY OF THE PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION UNDER TRANSACTION COSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shimeng; ZHANG Yuzhong

    2000-01-01

    We propose the concepts of normalized market and average hedging strategies, and discuss the attainability of the portfolio optimization under transaction costs and multiple stocks, by the extended forms of the martingale approach and the duality methods. Incidentally, we give an upper bound of the expectation of the portfolio at terminal investing time.

  15. The Effect of Migraine Headache on Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…

  16. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  17. Parental media socialization and educational attainment : resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level effec

  18. Parental media socialization and educational attainment: Resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children's educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level effec

  19. Coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and coping strategies with unemployment in a random sample of 37- to 56-year-old Danish men and women in long-term unemployment. METHODS: Data were based on a survey among 575 men and 1...

  20. Employment freeze management: an approach to attaining retrenchment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, S J

    1987-11-01

    This article describes a management philosophy for retrenchment and down-sizing within a major health care institution. The author focuses on an unique approach for reducing staff to attain retrenchment goals in light of ever decreasing operating budgets, increased cost containment and accountability, and increased demands for productivity enhancement and service in a competitive customer-oriented health care market.

  1. Importance of Grades and Placement for Math Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Will; Roksa, Josipa

    2017-01-01

    Research on high school math course taking documents the advantages of starting high school at or beyond Algebra 1. Fewer studies examine differentiation into remedial, general, and honors Algebra 1 course types by course rigor. This study examines how course grades and course rigor are associated with math attainment among students with similar…

  2. Parental media socialization and educational attainment : resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level effec

  3. The Concept Attainment Strategy: Inductive Lessons on Arachnids and Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The concept attainment lesson, recommended by Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2004), is designed to give students practice in analyzing data and developing critical-thinking skills--without a complicated lab setup. The inductive lesson structure leads students step by step to an in-depth understanding of a new idea and scaffolds their thinking as they…

  4. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  5. Determinants of maximally attained level of pulmonary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, XB; Mensinga, TT; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B; Weiss, ST

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of sex-specific maximally attained levels of FEV1, VC, and the ratio of FEV1 to VC. Subjects were between the ages of 15 and 35 years (1,818 males and 1,732 females), participating in the Vlagtwedde/Vlaardingen study in The Netherlands. The subjects were foll

  6. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

  7. Educational Attainment and Child Abuse Potential: Implications for Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…

  8. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  9. Using the Concept Attainment Strategy to Enhance Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Crow, Mary Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The Concept Attainment Strategy is an instructional technique proposed by Jerome Bruner that targets the "big idea" or concept underlining concrete or abstract examples. This strategy focuses on the developing comprehension of words and ideas associated with a concept rather than on its name or what the concept is called. Specifically it develops…

  10. Parental media socialization and educational attainment: Resource or disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children's educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level

  11. Using the Concept Attainment Strategy to Enhance Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Crow, Mary Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The Concept Attainment Strategy is an instructional technique proposed by Jerome Bruner that targets the "big idea" or concept underlining concrete or abstract examples. This strategy focuses on the developing comprehension of words and ideas associated with a concept rather than on its name or what the concept is called. Specifically it develops…

  12. The black gender gap in educational attainment: historical trends and racial comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Anne; DiPrete, Thomas A; Buchmann, Claudia; Shwed, Uri

    2011-08-01

    It is often asserted that the gender gap in educational attainment is larger for blacks than whites, but historical trends comparing the black and white gender gap have received surprisingly little attention. Analysis of historical data from the U.S. census IPUMS samples shows that the gender gap in college completion has evolved differently for whites and blacks. Historically, the female advantage in educational attainment among blacks is linked to more favorable labor market opportunities and stronger incentives for employment for educated black women. Blacks, particularly black males, still lag far behind whites in their rates of college completion, but the striking educational gains of white women have caused the racial patterns of gender differences in college completion rates to grow more similar over time. While some have linked the disadvantaged position of black males to their high risk of incarceration, our estimates suggest that incarceration has a relatively small impact on the black gender gap and the racial gap in college completion rates for males in the United States.

  13. Educational attainment, occupational history, and stratification: determinants of later-life economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S; Shea, D; Krishnaswami, S

    1992-09-01

    Determinants of economic well-being among men 25-44, 45-64, and 65+ were examined using data from the 1984 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. A path analysis explored race, education, and occupational history effects on income adjusted for annuitized assets, household composition, and underreporting of unearned income. Direct and total education effects were undiminished among elderly persons, whose income derived mainly from benefits and assets, as compared with the nonelderly subjects whose income was dominated by earnings; education explained more of the variance in adjusted income for the elderly group than for the nonelderly. While Social Security income exerts an equalizing effect across educational attainment groups, private pensions and other important retirement income sources were highly education-dependent, producing a high overall degree of stratification on early-established socioeconomic characteristics.

  14. Same-Sex Sexuality and Educational Attainment: The Pathway to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.

  15. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  16. Development of a medical academic degree system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. Purpose: We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Content: Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP. The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. Conclusion: The future education reforms might include: 1 a domestic system of ‘credits’ that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2 International – a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to

  17. Examining Key Factors that Contribute to African Americans' Pursuit of Computing Science Degrees: Implications for Cultivating Career Choice and Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar Jovan

    2010-01-01

    As a result of decreasing degree attainment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the United States is undergoing a shortage in the STEM workforce that it has not encountered since the mid-1950s (ACT, 2006; Gilbert & Jackson, 2007). Moreover, as computer usage cuts across diverse aspects of modern culture, the…

  18. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  19. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.

  20. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  1. Real Analytic Machines and Degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12

    2010-01-01

    We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).

  2. On the Spatial Degrees of Freedom of Multicell and Multiuser MIMO Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Taejoon; Clerckx, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    We study the converse and achievability for the degrees of freedom of the multicellular multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiple access channel (MAC) with constant channel coefficients. We assume L>1 homogeneous cells with K>0 users per cell where the users have M antennas and the base stations are equipped with N antennas. The degrees of freedom outer bound for this L-cell and K-user MIMO MAC is formulated. The characterized outer bound uses insight from a limit on the total degrees of freedom for the L-cell heterogeneous MIMO network. We also show through an example that a scheme selecting a transmitter and performing partial message sharing outperforms a multiple distributed transmission strategy in terms of the total degrees of freedom. Simple linear schemes attaining the outer bound (i.e., those achieving the optimal degrees of freedom) are explores for a few cases. The conditions for the required spatial dimensions attaining the optimal degrees of freedom are characterized in terms of K, L, and th...

  3. Associations of educational attainment, occupation and community poverty with knee osteoarthritis in the Johnston County (North Carolina) osteoarthritis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Leigh F; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Shreffler, Jack; Schwartz, Todd A; Schoster, Britta; Randolph, Randy; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis (OA) Project for independent associations of educational attainment, occupation and community poverty with tibiofemoral knee OA. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 3,591 individuals (66% Caucasian and 34% African American). Educational attainment (poverty rate ( 25%) were examined separately and together in logistic models adjusting for covariates of age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking, knee injury and occupational activity score. Outcomes were presence of radiographic knee OA (rOA), symptomatic knee OA (sxOA), bilateral rOA and bilateral sxOA. When all three socioeconomic status (SES) variables were analyzed simultaneously, low educational attainment was significantly associated with rOA (odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20, 1.73), bilateral rOA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.13, 1.81), and sxOA (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.34, 2.06), after adjusting for covariates. Independently, living in a community of high household poverty rate was associated with rOA (OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.43, 2.36), bilateral rOA (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12, 2.16), and sxOA (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.00, 1.83). Occupation had no significant independent association beyond educational attainment and community poverty. Both educational attainment and community SES were independently associated with knee OA after adjusting for primary risk factors for knee OA.

  4. Degree of vinyl conversion in experimental amorphous calcium phosphate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarle, Z.; Knežević, A.; Matošević, D.; Škrtić, D.; Ristić, M.; Prskalo, K.; Musić, S.

    2009-04-01

    An experimental dental composite, based on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with the potential to arrest caries development and regenerate mineral-deficient tooth structures has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) attained in experimental composites based on zirconia-modified ACP. Photo-activated resins were based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) [ETHM series with varying EBPADMA/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) molar ratios assigned 0.5-ETHM I, 0.85-ETHM II and 1.35-ETHM III], or 2,2-bis[p-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA) [BTHZ series]. To asses a possible effect of filler particle size on DVC, composites containing 60 mass % resin and 40 mass % of either milled ACP (mACP; median diameter d m = 0.9 μm) or coarse ACP (cACP; d m = 6.0 μm) were prepared, and irradiated with LED curing unit for 40 s. The DVC was calculated as the % change in the ratio of the integrated peak areas between the aliphatic and aromatic absorption bands determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The highest DVCs values were attained in mACP-BTHZ, cACP-BTHZ and mACP-ETHM III formulations. DVC of tested ACP composites (on average (76.76 ± 4.43)%) compares well with or exceeds DVCs values reported for the majority of commercial materials.

  5. Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Hennessy, E; Smith, R; Trikic, R; Wolke, D; Marlow, N

    2009-07-01

    To assess academic attainment and special educational needs (SEN) in extremely preterm children in middle childhood. Of 307 extremely preterm (special school. In mainstream schools, 105 (57%) extremely preterm children had SEN (OR 10; 6 to 18) and 103 (55%) required SEN resource provision (OR 10; 6 to 18). Teachers rated 50% of extremely preterm children as having below average attainment compared with 5% of classmates (OR 18; 8 to 41). Extremely preterm children who entered compulsory education an academic year early due to preterm birth had similar academic attainment but required more SEN support (OR 2; 1.0 to 3.6). Extremely preterm survivors remain at high risk for learning impairments and poor academic attainment in middle childhood. A significant proportion require full-time specialist education and over half of those attending mainstream schools require additional health or educational resources to access the national curriculum. The prevalence and impact of SEN are likely to increase as these children approach the transition to secondary school.

  6. Supramaximal testing to confirm attainment of VO2max in sedentary men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, T A; White, A C; Dalleck, L C

    2009-04-01

    Supramaximal testing is widely used to verify VO2max attainment, yet its efficacy in sedentary subjects is unknown. The aim of the study was to test this hypothesis in men and women completing maximal cycle ergometry. Fifteen sedentary subjects (age=22.4+/-3.9 year) completed incremental exercise, and returned at least 24 h later to complete constant load exercise at 105% peak work rate (Wmax). Another group of nine sedentary men and women (age=21.8+/-5 year) completed supramaximal exercise at 115% Wmax 1-1.5 h after incremental exercise. During exercise, gas exchange data and heart rate (HR) were continuously obtained. VO2max was similar (p>0.05) between incremental and supramaximal exercise in subjects in the first (32.32+/-4.81 mL/kg/min vs. 31.80+/-5.35 mL/kg/min) and second subset (40.63+/-3.61 mL/kg/min vs. 41.66+/-5.55 mL/kg/min). Maximal HR was lower (pTest-retest reliability (r=0.81-0.89, pVO2max was high during repeated bouts of supramaximal testing. Findings support use of this protocol to confirm VO2max attainment in healthy, sedentary men and women completing incremental cycle ergometry.

  7. Six degree of freedom sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  8. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  9. Self efficacy measurement and goal attainment after pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Garrod

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Garrod, Johanna Marshall, Fiona JonesSchool of Physiotherapy, St George’s, University of London and Kingston University Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, UKBackground: Little is known about self-efficacy in COPD and its role as a mediator of goal attainment after rehabilitation. We hypothesized that higher baseline self efficacy may facilitate goal attainment.Methods: 48 COPD patients completed pulmonary rehabilitation, self-efficacy was measured using the COPD Self Efficacy Scale (CSES. Personal goals were used as self reported outcome. Relationships were evaluated between CSES and St George’s Hospital Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ; depression; using Brief Assessment Schedule Cards (BASDEC, London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale (LCADL and exercise tolerance; using Six-Minute Walking Distance (6MWD and muscle strength.Results: 74 Stable COPD patients, mean FEV1 1.2 (0.6 l, age 68.1 (10.2 years were recruited. 51 patients completed rehabilitation and 48 of those CSES and reported goal attainment. 94 goals were documented. Baseline self efficacy did not differ according to whether goal was achieved or not. Relationships were evident between CSES and SGRQ (r = –0.53, 6MWD (r = 0.36, BASDEC (r = –0.31, LCADL (r = –0.33 (all p ≤ 0.01, but not FEV1, pack years or muscle strength. There was a significant improvement in CSES scores pre to post rehabilitation, mean difference (95% CI 0. 27 (0.04 to 0.51.Conclusions: Self efficacy, using the CSES, improves with rehabilitation but baseline self efficacy does not appear to influence goal attainment.Keywords: self-efficacy, COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, goal

  10. The effect of parents' employment on children's educational attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Ermisch, John; Francesconi, Marco

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the conditions under which a causal interpretation can be given to the association between childhood parental employment and subsequent education of children. In a model in which parental preferences are separable in own consumption and children's well-being, estimation is complicated by endowment heterogeneity and by the fact that parents may compensate or reinforce children's endowments relevant to education attainment. A sibling difference estimatation strategy is gener...

  11. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents' education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin.

  12. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More research is needed on what is happening to all these young people who do not do well in competitive education systems and uncertain job markets. This article is taken from a study which set out to discuss with school and college principals, local administrators, teachers and others, who they regard as lower attainers, what sort of education and training programmes are offered to the students, and what policies they think are in place to help young people into work or independent living. Discussions were held with respondents in England, Germany, the USA, Finland and Malta. The article takes Rawls' view that social injustice is mainly due to the inequitable distribution of economic and social resources and the State has a responsibility to ensure that all young people can participate in the economy and the society.

  13. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Colodro-Conde

    Full Text Available Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents' education influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67% for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57 between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%. Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin.

  14. Fertility and the changing female educational attainment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čipin Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the aggregate relationship between cohort fertility and female educational attainment in Croatia. Numerous demographic studies have examined the link between fertility and the level of education. However, newer research indicates that the field of education might also play a role when trying to explain fertility behavior. We contribute to existing literature on macro-level factors related to reproductive outcomes by considering both the level and field of education as possible sources of cohort fertility differentials. The main goal of the present study is to assess the effect of structural changes in educational attainment on cohort fertility decline by means of demographic decomposition techniques. Our analysis is based on detailed 2011 Census data, which provide information on the number of livebirths by mother’s year of birth, birth order, marital status and educational attainment (i.e. the level and field of education. The results of our decomposition analyses reveal the dominance of the structural effect in explaining the overall completed fertility decline in Croatia. We assumed that the changing distribution of women by field of education at least partially accounts for the observed patterns in completed fertility but found no strong evidence in support of the outlined hypothesis.

  15. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More research is needed on what is happening to all these young people who do not do well in competitive education systems and uncertain job markets. This article is taken from a study which set out to discuss with school and college principals, local administrators, teachers and others, who they regard as lower attainers, what sort of education and training programmes are offered to the students, and what policies they think are in place to help young people into work or independent living. Discussions were held with respondents in England, Germany, the USA, Finland and Malta. The article takes Rawls' view that social injustice is mainly due to the inequitable distribution of economic and social resources and the State has a responsibility to ensure that all young people can participate in the economy and the society.

  16. The Path Taken: Consequences of Attaining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations in Post-College Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Christopher P; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L

    2009-06-01

    Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The present study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a one-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations related positively to psychological health, attainment of extrinsic aspirations did not; indeed, attainment of extrinsic aspirations related positively to indicators of ill-being. Also as predicted, the association between change in attainment of intrinsic aspirations and change in psychological health was mediated by change in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Discussion focuses on the idea that not all goal attainment is beneficial; rather, attainment of aspirations with different contents relates differentially to psychological health.

  17. Attainment of multifactorial treatment targets among the elderly in a lipid clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fotios Barkas; Evangelos Liberopoulos; Eleftherios Klouras; Angelos Liontos; Moses Elisaf

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine target attainment of lipid-lowering, antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatment in the elderly in a specialist set-ting of a University Hospital in Greece. Methods This was a retrospective study including consecutive subjects≥65 years old (n=465) with a follow-up ≥ 3 years. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood pressure (BP) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) goal achievement were recorded according to European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS), European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/ESC and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) guidelines. Results The LDL-C targets were attained by 27%, 48%and 62%of very high, high and moderate risk patients, respectively. Those receiving statin+ezetimibe achieved higher rates of LDL-C goal achievement compared with those receiving statin monotherapy (48%vs. 33%, P<0.05). Of the diabetic sub-jects, 71%had BP<140/85 mmHg, while 78%of those without diabetes had BP<140/90 mmHg. A higher proportion of the non-diabetic individuals (86%) had BP<150/90 mmHg. Also, a higher proportion of those with diabetes had HbA1c<8%rather than<7%(88%and 47%, respectively). Of note, almost one out of three non-diabetic individuals and one out of ten diabetic individuals had achieved all three treatment targets. Conclusions Even in a specialist setting of a University Hospital, a high proportion of the elderly remain at suboptimal LDL-C, BP and HbA1c levels. The use of drug combinations could improve multifactorial treatment target attainment, while less strict tar-gets could be more easily achieved in this population.

  18. Spatial Degrees of Freedom of the Multicell MIMO Multiple Access Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Taejoon; Clerckx, Bruno; Hwang, Duckdong

    2011-01-01

    We consider a homogeneous multiple cellular scenario with multiple users per cell, i.e., $K\\geq 1$ where $K$ denotes the number of users in a cell. In this scenario, a degrees of freedom outer bound as well as an achievable scheme that attains the degrees of freedom outer bound of the multicell multiple access channel (MAC) with constant channel coefficients are investigated. The users have $M$ antennas, and the base stations are equipped with $N$ antennas. The found outer bound is general in that it characterizes a degrees of freedom upper bound for $K\\geq 1$ and $L>1$ where $L$ denotes the number of cells. The achievability of the degrees of freedom outer bound is studied for two cell case (i.e., L=2). The achievable schemes that attains the degrees of freedom outer bound for L=2 are based on two approaches. The first scheme is a simple zero forcing with $M=K\\beta+\\beta$ and $N=K\\beta$, and the second approach is null space interference alignment with $M=K\\beta$ and $N=K\\beta+\\beta$ where $\\beta>0$ is a pos...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2037 - Control strategy plans for attainment and rate-of-progress: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., no. 1 open hearth furnace, no. 1 soaking pits, no. 2 soaking pits (units 1-8), no. 2 soaking pits (units 9-16), 80 in. hot strip mill. The NOX RACT determination for all the soaking pits and the 80 in.... (d) NOX RACT determination for the no. 2 glass melting furnace and the four kilns at the...

  20. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  1. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  2. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34 in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results: Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44, but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions: HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  3. Have health insurance reforms in Tunisia attained their intended objectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, Khaled; Ventelou, Bruno; Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    A growing number of developing countries are currently promoting health system reforms with the aim of attaining ' universal health coverage' (UHC). In Tunisia, several reforms have been undertaken over the last two decades to attain UHC with the goals of ensuring financial protection in health and enhancing access to healthcare. The first of these goals has recently been addressed in a companion paper by Abu-Zaineh et al. (Int J Health Care Financ Econ 13(1):73-93, 2013). The present paper seeks to assess whether these reforms have in fact enhanced access to healthcare. The average treatment effects of two insurance schemes, formal-mandatory (MHI) and state-subsidized (MAS) insurance, on the utilization of outpatient and inpatient healthcare are estimated using propensity score matching. Results support the hypothesis that both schemes (MHI and MAS) increase the utilization of healthcare. However, significant variations in the average effect of these schemes are observed across services and areas. For all the matching methods used and compared with those the excluded from cover, the increase in outpatient and inpatient services for the MHI enrollees was at least 19 and 26 %, respectively, in urban areas, while for MAS beneficiaries this increase was even more pronounced (28 and 75 % in the urban areas compared with 27 and 46 % in the rural areas for outpatient and inpatient services, respectively). One important conclusion that emerges is that the current health insurance schemes, despite improving accessibility to healthcare services, are nevertheless incapable of achieving effective coverage of the whole population for all services. Attaining the latter goal requires a strategy that targets the "trees" not the "forest".

  4. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    certain isolated individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field in Bourdieu’s sociology. We (re)emphasize the role of field theory in cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns in international quantitative......This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about...

  5. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status.

  6. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double recession in international mainstream research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical recession, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical recession, since cultural capital is now seen as a simple...... hypothesis about certain individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field, habitus, and strategy in Bourdieu’s sociology. This article reintroduces field theory into cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns...

  7. Development rate and lower temperature threshold in the eggs of Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mujgan Kivan

    2008-01-01

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. has a wide distribution in the Palearctic region. It is the most important pest problem of wheat in Turkey. The objective of this study was to attain better knowledge of the development of the sunn pest eggs. The lower temperature threshold and development rate of eggs were determined at 17, 20, 23, 26 and 32℃ ± 1℃ in the laboratory. A linear model was used to describe the developmental rate and temperature. The egg development required 90.9 degree-days above the theoretical threshold of 11.7 ℃. The development time was 17.6 ± 0.1 days at 17℃, and 4.5 ± 0.01 days at 32℃. Incubation time was inversely related to temperature. The study showed that the eggs of E. integriceps needed shorter periods of time to complete their development than immature stages of their parasitoids Trissolcus spp.

  8. Inlfuence of positional change speed on the recovery rate and discomfort degree in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients%良性阵发性位置性眩晕治疗中体位改变速度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思翔; 彭本刚

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo explore the influence of positional change speed on the recovery rate and discomfort degree of the patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.METHODSPatients with detailed records from September 2012 to September 2015 were reviewed. 358 patients were divided into quick maneuver (0.05). The VAS is 7.70±3.95 and 5.18±3.56 respectively in the quick and slow maneuver group, there is significant differences between the groups (t=3.38,P<0.05).CONCLUSION Positional changing speed does not influence the recovery rate of the BPPV, while the slow maneuver can reduce the discomfort degree.%目的:探讨良性阵发性位置性眩晕(benign paroxysmal positional vertigo,BPPV)诊治过程中体位改变速度对治疗效果及患者不适程度的影响。方法分析2012年9月~2015年9月我科就诊有详细资料的BPPV患者358例,由一名医师进行复位治疗。上述患者随机分为两组,每组179例。一组采取快速复位(体位变换时间<2 s),另外一组采取慢速复位(体位变换时间5~10 s),比较两组患者有效率,并对两组患者复位过程产生的不适感进行视觉模拟量表(visual analog scale,VAS)。结果快速复位组治疗有效率97.7%;慢速复位组有效率为97.2%,两组在治疗有效率上无明显统计学差异(P>0.05)。快速复位组VAS平均分(7.70±3.95),慢速复位组VAS平均分(5.18±3.56),两组比较有明显差异(t=3.38,P<0.05)。结论 BPPV手法复位效果与复位过程中的速度无关,慢速复位组患者复位过程中不适感较快速复位组轻。

  9. 频率适应型双腔起搏器对男性Ⅲ度房室传导阻滞患者运动耐量和性生活质量的影响%Effect of rate adaptive dual-chamber pacemaker on exercise capacity and quality of sexual activity in male patients with third-degree atrioventricular block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫哲; 豆颖; 王明太; 孙福成

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of rate adaptive dual-chamber pacemaker on exercise capacity and quality of sexual activity in male patients with third-degree atrioventricular block.Methods We randomly assigned 170 male patients with third-degree atrioventricular block to DDDR group (n =106) and control group (n =64).At the baseline and post treatment,we assessed the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) and frequency of sexual activity.At the same time,6 min walking test (6MWT) was recorded.The distance and heart rate of 6MWT were measured; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and cardiac output were also calculated.Results Compared with the control group,The IIEF-5 score,sexual satisfaction and frequency of sexual activity [(20 ± 6) scores vs (16 ± 5) scores,(4.6 ± 1.3) scores vs (2.6 ± 1.6) scores,(6.1 ± 2.9) times/month vs (3.4 ± 1.7) times/month] had a significant increase in DDDR group after treatment (P < 0.05).Compared with the control group,the distance and heart rate of 6MWT and cardiac output in DDDR group significant increased [(528±106)m vs (379 ±75)m,(127 ± 9) times/min vs (51 ± 8)times/min,(4.8 ±0.7)times/min vs (3.9 ±0.5)times/min] ; there was a significant difference between the DDDR group and control group (P < 0.05).Conclusions Among male patients with third-degree atrioventricular block,those treated with DDDR have improvements in exercise capacity and quality of sexual activity than control group.These improvements are positively associated with increases in exercise capacity during sexual intercourse.%目的 观察频率适应型双腔起搏器(DDDR型起搏器)对男性Ⅲ度房室传导阻滞患者运动耐量和性生活质量的影响.方法 选择2008年8月至2012年8月在商丘市第一人民医院住院治疗的Ⅲ度房室传导阻滞患者共计170例.根据有无植入DDDR型起搏器分组为对照组(64例)和DDDR组(106例).采用国际男性性功能判断指数(IIEF-5)量表观察治疗前

  10. The value of educational degrees in turbulent economic times: Evidence from the Youth Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31-37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor's and Associate's degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate's and Bachelor's recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 360 DEGREE SUBANNULAR TYMPANOPLASTY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To study the efficacy of underlay tympanoplasty by elevating the annulus by 360 degrees. SUBJECTS AND METHODS : Two hundred patients with chronic otitis media , tubotympanic disease , inactive stage who underwent tympanoplasty by the above technique between the years 2009 to 2013 were selected for the study as and when they were admitted. All the patients were followed up for 6 months fol lowing surgery. Any complications like secondary infection , wound dehiscence , granulations , were looked for and treated appropriately. Status of the neotympanum was evaluated at the end of 3 months. Any anterior blunting , medialisation or lateralisation of the graft was noted. Any residual perforation was considered as failure. Hearing was evaluated in all patients with an intact neotympanum. RESULTS : Our study showed an overall success rate of 96% as far as graft uptake was concerned. Hearing improvement w as seen in 93% of our patients. 6 patients had complete air bone gap closure , 49 had AB gap of 10db or less , 131 had AB gap of 11 - 20db. 14 patients had no improvement in hearing. Overall hearing improvement was seen in 93% of our patients. CONCLUSION : In c onclusion 360 degree sub - annular tympanoplasty is a efficient technique of tympanoplasty with very good results.

  12. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-01-01

    The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD) algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC) algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC) algorithm.

  13. Extended degree functions and monomial modules

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...

  14. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  15. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente

    2014-06-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between U–Mo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary Al–Si alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the Al–Si alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.4–0.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.

  16. Disparities in Disability by Educational Attainment Across US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    To examine how disparities in adult disability by educational attainment vary across US states. We used the nationally representative data of more than 6 million adults aged 45 to 89 years in the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. We defined disability as difficulty with activities of daily living. We categorized education as low (less than high school), mid (high school or some college), or high (bachelor's or higher). We estimated age-standardized disability prevalence by educational attainment and state. We assessed whether the variation in disability across states occurs primarily among low-educated adults and whether it reflects the socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts. Disparities in disability by education vary markedly across states-from a 20 percentage point disparity in Massachusetts to a 12-point disparity in Wyoming. Disparities vary across states mainly because the prevalence of disability among low-educated adults varies across states. Personal and contextual socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults account for 29% of the variation. Efforts to reduce disparities in disability by education should consider state and local strategies that reduce poverty among low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts.

  17. Teenage Childbearing and Educational Attainment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timaeus, Ian M; Moultrie, Tom A

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between teenage childbearing and school attainment is investigated using nationally representative longitudinal data drawn from South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 young women who were aged 15-18 and childless in 2008. Controlling for other factors, girls who went on to give birth had twice the odds of dropping out of school by 2010 and nearly five times the odds of failing to matriculate. Few girls from households in the highest-income quintile gave birth. Girls who attended schools in higher-income areas and were behind at school were much more likely to give birth than those who were in the appropriate grade for their age or were in no-fee schools. New mothers were much more likely to have re-enrolled in school by 2010 if they were rural residents, they belonged to relatively well-off households, or their own mother had attended secondary school. These findings suggest that, in South Africa, interventions that address poor school attainment would also reduce teenage childbearing. © 2015 The Population Council, Inc.

  18. Social status attainment during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Wallace, Steven P; Aneshensel, Carol S

    2014-07-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents' and one's own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n = 8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3 % females and 70.2 % Whites, 15.3 % Blacks, 11.0 % Hispanics, and 3.5 % Asians ages 12-18 at Wave 1 and 25-31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents' social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period.

  19. World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Porat, Idan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a strong potential contribution to understanding of migration as a global phenomenon. In regard to immigration, we found that it is possible to classify destination countries into three classes: global migration hubs with high connectivity and high migration rate; local migration hubs with low connectivity and high migration rate; and local migration hubs with opposite strategy of high connectivity and low migration rate. The different migration strategies of destination countries are emerging from similar and homogenies p...

  20. Supervisor trainees' and their supervisors' perceptions of attainment of knowledge and skills: an empirical evaluation of a psychotherapy supervisor training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Eva C; Ogren, Marie-Louise; Boëthius, Siv Boalt

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the success of a 2-year, part-time training programme for psychotherapy supervisors. A second aim was to examine factors that might contribute to perceived knowledge and skills attainment during the training course. This is a naturalistic, longitudinal study where several measures are used to examine group process and outcome. Supervisor trainees' (N=21) and their facilitators' (N=6) ratings of learning (knowledge and skills), relations to the supervisor and supervision group, usage of the group, and supervisor style were completed at three time points. The findings suggested that both trainees and their supervisors perceived that the trainees attained a substantial amount of knowledge and skills during the course. In accordance with the literature and expectations, the regression analysis suggested a strong negative association between a strong focus on group processes in the initial and middle phases of the training and perceived knowledge and skills attainment in the final phase of the training. The expected, positive role of relations among trainees in the supervision group in the first half of the training and perceived knowledge and skills attainment in the final part of the training was obtained, whilst the hypothesized significance of the relationship between trainee and supervisor did not receive support. The supervisory course seemed to provide a training that allowed trainees to attain knowledge and skills that are necessary for psychotherapy supervisors. The results of this pilot study also emphasize the need of more research on learning in the context of group supervision in psychotherapy.

  1. Educational stratification by ethnicity in China: enrollment and attainment in the early reform years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Emily

    2002-02-01

    Using evidence about educational disparities, this article demonstrates the need for attention to minority populations in studies of social stratification in China. Analyses of data from a 1992 survey of children demonstrate substantial ethnic differences in enrollment among rural 7- to 14 year olds, with rates for ethnic Chinese boys roughly double those for girls from certain ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses indicate that the ethnic gap can be attributed, in part, to compositional differences in geographic location of residence and socioeconomic background. There is no general tendency of a greater gender gap for minorities than for the ethnic Chinese, but significant differences in the gender gap emerge across individual ethnic groups. Together with evidence from census data showing that ethnic disparities in junior high school transitions increased between 1982 and 1990, these results stress the continuing significance of ethnicity as a fundamental factor that conditions status attainment opportunities in China.

  2. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaete, Jolien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Crombez, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants' use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC) intervention of 'MyPlan', an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA), fruit intake, or vegetable intake). Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental) and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86), by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5), by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86), and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10). Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59), the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38), selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00) and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54) were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73), whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34). Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth interventions. To

  3. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Plaete

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants’ use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC intervention of ‘MyPlan’, an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA, fruit intake, or vegetable intake. Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86, by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5, by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86, and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10. Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59, the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38, selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00 and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54 were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73, whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34. Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into e

  4. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, and community poverty with hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Rebecca J; Schwartz, Todd A; Prizer, Lindsay P; Randolph, Randy; Schoster, Britta; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M; Callahan, Leigh F

    2013-06-01

    To examine cross-sectional baseline data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project for the association between individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) measures with hip osteoarthritis (OA) outcomes. We analyzed data on 3,087 individuals (68% white and 32% African American). Educational attainment and occupation were used as individual measures of SES. Census block group household poverty rate was used as a measure of community SES. Hip OA outcomes included radiographic OA and symptomatic OA in one or both hip joints. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of each hip OA outcome with each SES variable separately, and then with all SES measures simultaneously. Associations between hip OA outcomes and SES variables were evaluated for effect modification by race and sex. Living in a community of high household poverty rate showed independent associations with hip radiographic OA in one or both hips (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.18-1.92) and bilateral (both hips) radiographic OA (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.32-2.66). Similar independent associations were found between low educational attainment among those with symptomatic OA in one or both hips (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09-1.91) or bilateral symptomatic OA (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.08-3.39), after adjusting for all SES measures simultaneously. No significant associations were observed between occupation and hip OA outcomes, nor did race or sex modify the associations. Our data provide evidence that hip OA outcomes are associated with both education and community SES measures, associations that remained after adjustment for covariates and all SES measures. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Educational attainment has a limited impact on disease management outcomes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Forkner, Emma; Krasuski, Richard A; Galbreath, Autumn Dawn; Freeman, Gregory L

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether educational attainment moderates outcomes in the intervention group in a trial of disease management in heart failure (HF). Data were collected from a sample of 654 patients enrolled in the disease management arm of a community- based study of HF patients. The full sample was used to analyze two primary outcomes- all-cause mortality and cardiac event-free survival. Two other primary outcomes- rates of HF-related emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions-and secondary outcomes (patient self-confidence in managing HF symptoms and daily dietary sodium intake in milligrams) were analyzed in a smaller sample of 602 patients who completed at least 6 months of disease management. One-way analysis of variance and chi (2) tests were used to assess differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Survival analyses were conducted with proportional hazards regression, while negative binomial regression was used to assess educational differences in ED usage and inpatient admissions. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess whether secondary outcomes differed across educational strata and/or over time. All outcome analyses were adjusted for confounders. Patients with the least education fared the poorest for all-cause mortality, but education- related differences failed to achieve statistical significance. No education-related differences were observed for cardiac event-free survival, or for the rates of inpatient admission and ED usage. For secondary outcomes, sodium intake differed significantly by education (p = 0.04), with the largest drop (-838 mg/day) observed in the least well-educated group. Confidence increased an approximately equal amount (2.1-3.0 points on a 100-point scale) across all educational strata (p = ns). Low educational attainment may not be a barrier to effective disease management.

  6. Educational expectation trajectories and attainment in the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Reynolds, John R

    2013-05-01

    How consequential is family socioeconomic status for maintaining plans to get a bachelor's degree during the transition to adulthood? This article examines persistence and change in educational expectations, focusing on the extent to which family socioeconomic status shapes overtime trajectories of bachelor's degree expectations, how the influence involves the timing of family formation and full-time work vs. college attendance, and how persistence in expectations is consequential for getting a 4-year degree. The findings, based on the high school senior classes of 1987-1990, demonstrate that adolescents from higher socioeconomic status families are much more likely to hold onto their expectations to earn 4-year degrees, both in the early years after high school and, for those who do not earn degrees within that period, on through their 20s. These more persistent expectations in young adulthood, more so than adolescent expectations, help explain the greater success of young people from higher socioeconomic status backgrounds in earning a 4-year degree. Persistence of expectations to earn a bachelor's degree in the years after high school is shaped by stratified pathways of school, work, and family roles in the transition to adulthood.

  7. General N-th Degree Stochastic Dominance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺明

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines N-th degree stochastic dominance which isused to compare the risk factor of risky assets after summarizing the definitions of first degree stochastic dominance and second degree stochastic dominance. The paper defines general N-th degree stochastic dominance, presents a sufficient and necessary condition which is the equivalent theorem of general N-th degree stochastic dominance. The feasible utility form is constructed to explain the economic meaning of N-th degree stochastic dominance in the field of financial economics. The equivalent condition is described by the probability distribution functions of risky assets, which are not related to utility functions (preference relations).

  8. Longitudinal growth attainments of Indian boys with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bimal; Bhalla, Anil K; Singh, Surjit

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to study the pattern of distance and velocity growth in terms of weight and height in adolescent boys with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). This study was conducted on children diagnosed to have JRA (Cassidy and Petty in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 2005) at the Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology Clinic of Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. A total of 203 observations made on 70 boys with JRA, between 9 and 17 years of age, comprised the sample for this prospective mixed-longitudinal growth study. Each subject was measured for body weight and standing height using standardized anthropometric techniques (Eveleth and Tanner in Worldwide variation in human growth, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1990) at half yearly age intervals. All anthropometric measurements were carried out in the Growth Laboratory of Advanced Pediatrics Centre. Boys with polyarticular and systemic onset types of JRA in general measured lighter than their pauciarticular counterparts throughout the period of study. Height attainments in boys with polyarticular and systemic onset JRA measured shorter than their pauciarticular counterparts till 15 years and 12 years, respectively, where-after they became comparable to boys with pauciarticular JRA. As compared to normal Indian (Bhalla and Kumar in Int J Anthropol 18:113-125, 2003; Aggarwal et al. in Indian Pediatr 29:1203-1282, 1992) and American (Ogden et al. in Pediatrics 109:45-60, 2002) counterparts boys representing all categories of JRA remained lighter and shorter. Onset of Peak Height Velocity (PHV) in boys with polyarticular JRA (i.e. 12.5 years) was delayed by 1 year as compared to boys with pauciarticular JRA (i.e. 11.5 years). Attainment of Peak Weight Velocity (PWV) in boys with polyarticular JRA (i.e. 13.5 years) was also delayed by 1 year when compared to those with pauciarticular type (i.e. 12.5 years). In

  9. The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadembo, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…

  10. Effects of Educational Attainment on Climate Risk Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of still uncertain specific effects of climate change in specific locations, this paper examines whether education significantly increases coping capacity with regard to particular climatic changes, and whether it improves the resilience of people to climate risks in general. Our hypothesis is that investment in universal primary and secondary education around the world is the most effective strategy for preparing to cope with the still uncertain dangers associated with future climate. The empirical evidence presented for a cross-country time series of factors associated with past natural disaster fatalities since 1980 in 125 countries confirms this overriding importance of education in reducing impacts. We also present new projections of populations by age, sex, and level of educational attainment to 2050, thus providing an appropriate tool for anticipating societies' future adaptive capacities based on alternative education scenarios associated with different policies.

  11. Preference for Boys, Family Size, and Educational Attainment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Adriana D; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to be enrolled in school, with larger effects for rural, poorer, and low-caste families as well as for families with illiterate mothers.

  12. Radiation Pressure Acceleration: the factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it trans...

  13. Glycemic targets in hospital and barriers to attaining them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David B

    2014-04-01

    The importance of glycemic control in hospitalized patients has been a relatively recent revelation. There is somewhat contradictory evidence concerning the optimal glycemic target in critically ill patients. There is only indirect evidence in non-critically ill patients. This article reviews the evidence for glycemic targets in hospitalized patients. It also investigates which hospital-based treatments can act as barriers to attaining optimal blood glucose levels in hospital and system barriers to attaining those optimal levels. The systematic approach to and evaluation of in-hospital diabetes management has a short history. The first large clinical trial, the DIGAMI trial of peri-myocardial infarction insulin therapy, was published in 1995 (1). The first guideline discussion of in-hospital diabetes management occurred briefly in 2003, more fully in 2008 and 2013 (2-4) by the Canadian Diabetes Association; in 2005 and annually since then by the American Diabetes Association (5,6). Recently, there have been many more publications on the topic. A recent PubMed search, limited to the last 5 years, "hospital" and "diabetes" as a Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) major topic, revealed more than 5000 English-language clinical trials (PubMed.gov; accessed 6 Oct 2013). Still, relatively little is certain about appropriate glycemic targets in hospital. This has left us, in 2014, with consensus recommendations only for glycemic targets in non-critically ill patients from both the Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines (4) and the American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes (6). This article reviews recommended glycemic targets in various in-hospital populations and the barriers to obtaining them.

  14. Delirium in elderly patients: association with educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sónia; Paiva, José Artur; Simões, Mário R; Fernandes, Lia

    2017-04-01

    Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment. The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20-9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication. Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.

  15. Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...

  16. Gender Bias in Educational Attainment in India : The Role of Dowry Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Arun

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the linkages between dowry payments and educational attainment of women. It formulates an unitary household model that captures how these linkages can potentially impact the educational investment decisions within a household. Based on existing literature and the theoretical model, the following three competing hypotheses arise, namely, (i) dowry do not affect educational attainment (ii) dowry favors educational attainment of women (iii) dowry hampers educat...

  17. Water Quality attainment Information from Clean Water Act Statewide Statistical Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated uses assessed by statewide statistical surveys and their state and national attainment categories. Statewide statistical surveys are water quality...

  18. Identifying the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain minimum porosity and maximum hardness in iron based amorphous metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vignesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow based Erosion – corrosion problems are very common in fluid handling equipments such as propellers, impellers, pumps in warships, submarine. Though there are many coating materials available to combat erosion–corrosion damage in the above components, iron based amorphous coatings are considered to be more effective to combat erosion–corrosion problems. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF spray process is considered to be a better process to coat the iron based amorphous powders. In this investigation, iron based amorphous metallic coating was developed on 316 stainless steel substrate using HVOF spray technique. Empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and micro hardness of iron based amorphous coating incorporating HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen flow rate, fuel flow rate, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spray distance. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to identify the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain coating with minimum porosity and maximum hardness.

  19. The Best University Degrees to Get a Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Pertrides, K. V.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 500 members of the public rated 20 university degree subjects in terms of their usefulness for employability. The top three were Law, Maths and English whereas the bottom three were Fine Art, Anthropology and Theology. A factor analysis was conducted to group the 20 subjects into broad academic fields. Five factors were identified,…

  20. Educational attainment influences levels of homozygosity through migration and assortative mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Abdellaoui

    Full Text Available Individuals with a higher education are more likely to migrate, increasing the chance of meeting a spouse with a different ancestral background. In this context, the presence of strong educational assortment can result in greater ancestry differences within more educated spouse pairs, while less educated individuals are more likely to mate with someone with whom they share more ancestry. We examined the association between educational attainment and F roh (= the proportion of the genome consisting of runs of homozygosity [ROHs] in ~2,000 subjects of Dutch ancestry. The subjects' own educational attainment showed a nominally significant negative association with F roh (p = .045, while the contribution of parental education to offspring F roh was highly significant (father: p < 10(-5; mother: p = 9 × 10(-5, with more educated parents having offspring with fewer ROHs. This association was significantly and fully mediated by the physical distance between parental birthplaces (paternal education: pmediation = 2.4 × 10(-4; maternal education: pmediation = 2.3 × 10(-4, which itself was also significantly associated with F roh (p = 9 × 10(-5. Ancestry-informative principal components from the offspring showed a significantly decreasing association with geography as parental education increased, consistent with the significantly higher migration rates among more educated parents. Parental education also showed a high spouse correlation (Spearman's ρ = .66, p = 3 × 10(-262. We show that less educated parents are less likely to mate with the more mobile parents with a higher education, creating systematic differences in homozygosity due to ancestry differences not directly captured by ancestry-informative principal components (PCs. Understanding how behaviors influence the genomic structure of a population is highly valuable for studies on the genetic etiology of behavioral, cognitive, and social traits.