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Sample records for degrades methyl t-butyl

  1. Observation on the biodegradation and bioremediation potential of methyl t-butyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salanitro, J.; Wisniewski, H.; McAllister, P.

    1995-01-01

    There have been few reports documenting evidence for the biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate alkyl ether, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, soils, and biosludges. Partial (or complete) microbial breakdown of MTBE has been observed in an anaerobic subsoil, a river sediment under methanogenic conditions, a cyclohexane-degrading bacterial consortium and a pure culture of the methylotroph, Methylisnus trichosporium OB3b. An aerobic bacterial enrichment (BC-1) isolated from an industrial transient (non-accumulating) metabolic intermediate. The studies suggest that MTBE is cleaved by BC-1 to TBA which is then metabolized via isopropanol and acetone. There is little information on the occurrence of indigenous MTBE-degraders in groundwater, soils and activated sludges. Preliminary evidence has been obtained, however, from a marketing terminal groundwater site that naturally-occurring MTBE-degraders are present in some monitoring wells. Microcosm experiments with groundwater from this aquifer show that MTBE is aerobically degraded (no TBA formed) with a first-order decay rate (0.31/day) similar to BTEX. Also, MTBE did not inhibit the intrinsic biodegradation potential of BTEX in groundwater microcosms. In summary, the data presented indicate that MTBE biodegradation has been observed in some environmental media. Further work is needed to assess the feasibility of using indigenous or derived aerobic and anaerobic MTBE-degrading cultures for treating fuel ethers in groundwaters or wastewater with in-situ or ex-situ bioremediation technologies

  2. Solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianlong, E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  3. Increased radiation degradation in methyl methacrylate copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbert, J.N; Wagner, G.E.; Caplan, P.J.; Poindexter, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of polar substituents at the quaternary carbon on degradation processes in several polymers and 10 to 20 percent copolymers of methyl methacrylate was explored. EPR was used to monitor radiation degradation products and to determine radiation G values. Irradiations were carried out at 77 0 K in a gamma irradiator at a dose rate of 0.3 Mrad/hr. (U.S.)

  4. Accelerated degradation of methyl iodide by agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R

    2003-01-29

    The fumigant methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane) is considered a promising alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for soil-borne pest control in high-cash-value crops. However, the high vapor pressure of MeI results in emissions of a significant proportion of the applied mass into the ambient air, and this may lead to pollution of the environment. Integrating the application of certain agrochemicals with soil fumigation provides a novel approach to reduce excessive fumigant emissions. This study investigated the potential for several agrochemicals that are commonly used in farming operations, including fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors, to transform MeI in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of MeI was approximately 108 d, while the transformation of MeI in aqueous solutions containing selected agrochemicals was more rapid, with t(1/2) agrochemicals on the rate of MeI degradation in soil was also determined. Adsorption to soil apparently reduced the availability of some nitrification inhibitors in the soil aqueous phase and lowered the degradation rate in soil. In contrast, addition of the nitrification inhibitors thiourea and allylthiourea to soil significantly accelerated the degradation of MeI, possibly due to soil surface catalysis. The t(1/2) of MeI was 300 h).

  5. NMR analysis of t-butyl-catalyzed deuterium exchange at unactivated arene localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Douglas E; Eastman, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Regioselective labelling of arene rings via electrophilic exchange is often dictated by the electronic environment caused by substituents present on the aromatic system. Previously, we observed the presence of a t-butyl group, either covalently bond or added as an external reagent, could impart deuterium exchange to the unactivated, C1-position of estrone. Here, we provide nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of this exchange in a solvent system composed of 50:50 trifluoroacetic acid and D 2 O with either 2-t-butylestrone or estrone in the presence of t-butyl alcohol has shed insights into the mechanism of this t-butyl-catalyzed exchange. Fast exchange of the t-butyl group concurrent with the gradual reduction of the H1 proton signal in both systems suggest a mechanism involving ipso attack of the t-butyl position by deuterium. The reversible addition/elimination of the t-butyl group activates the H1 proton towards exchange by a mechanism of t-butyl incorporation, H1 activation and exchange, followed by eventual t-butyl elimination. Density functional calculations are consistent with the observation of fast t-butyl exchange concurrent with slower H1 exchange. The σ-complex resulting from ipso attack of deuterium at the t-butyl carbon was 6.6 kcal/mol lower in energy than that of the σ-complex resulting from deuterium attack at C1. A better understanding of the t-butyl-catalyzed exchange could help in the design of labelling recipes for other phenolic metabolites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Sonochemical Degradation Kinetics of Methyl Violet in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin Guo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sonochemical degradation in aqueous solution of methyl violet, chosen as a model of a basic dye, was studied. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficient is 1.35×10-2 min-1 (R= 0.9934, n=8 at 20±1°C. The influence of the initial concentrations, reaction temperature and the pH of medium on the ultrasonic decomposition of methyl violet were also investigated.

  7. Biosynthesis of t-Butyl in Apratoxin A: Functional Analysis and Architecture of a PKS Loading Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Meredith A; Sikkema, Andrew P; Moss, Nathan A; Lowell, Andrew N; Su, Min; Sturgis, Rebecca M; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H; Sherman, David H; Smith, Janet L

    2018-04-27

    The unusual feature of a t-butyl group is found in several marine-derived natural products including apratoxin A, a Sec61 inhibitor produced by the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii PNG 5-198. Here we determine that the apratoxin A t-butyl group is formed as pivaloyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) by AprA, the polyketide synthase (PKS) loading module of the apratoxin A biosynthetic pathway. AprA contains an inactive "pseudo" GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase domain (ΨGNAT) flanked by two methyltransferase domains (MT1 and MT2) that differ distinctly in sequence. Structural, biochemical, and precursor incorporation studies reveal that MT2 catalyzes unusually coupled decarboxylation and methylation reactions to transform dimethylmalonyl-ACP, the product of MT1, to pivaloyl-ACP. Further, pivaloyl-ACP synthesis is primed by the fatty acid synthase malonyl acyltransferase (FabD), which compensates for the ΨGNAT and provides the initial acyl-transfer step to form AprA malonyl-ACP. Additionally, images of AprA from negative stain electron microscopy reveal multiple conformations that may facilitate the individual catalytic steps of the multienzyme module.

  8. Electrochemical monitoring of methyl parathion degradation based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... been investigated by using carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) as working electrode and acetate buffer pH 5.2 as supporting electrolyte. pnitrophenol (PNP) and p-aminophenol (PAP) recognized as by-products of MP degradation process have been detected and identified in real time using square wave voltammetry.

  9. Molecular recognition study of ethosuximide by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenakshi, C., E-mail: geethu.laxi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Shri Meenakshi Government College for Women (Autonomous), Madurai 625002 (India); Sangeetha, P.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Department of Laser Studies, School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)

    2013-06-15

    The supramolecule, p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene, forms inclusion complex with the antiseizure drug molecule, ethosuximide. This feature is explained on the basis of optical absorption spectroscopy. Here p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene is the host molecule and ethosuximide is the guest molecule. The stoichiometry of the host–guest complex and the binding constant has been determined using Benesi–Hildebrand plot. Based on the result obtained the structure of the inclusion complex has been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Third generation supramolecule, t-butyl calix (8) arene, is used as a host molecule. ► Anti seizure drug molecule is used as a guest molecule. ► Inclusion complex is formed between the host and guest molecule.

  10. Photostabilization of Rhodamine 6G in acetone by β-carotene and t-butyl hydroxyanisole

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Keisuke; Matsuda, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Abe, Yasuhiro; Akutsu, Shinya; Fujita, Koichi; Doi, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    The photostability of Rhodamine 6G is of crucial importance for the organic light-emitting display of mobilephones. Photobleaching of Rhodamine 6G in acetone was not protected by β-carotene, but was efficientlyphotostabilized by t-butyl hydroxyanisole. The results indicate that photobleaching of Rhodamine 6G inacetone was not caused by singlet oxygen but some radical species.

  11. Tri(t-butyl)phosphine-assisted selective hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient and regio-/stereoselective method of hydrosilylating terminal alkynes was developed using Pt(DVDS)-tri(t-butyl) phosphine catalyst system at room temperature.Trans-products or alpha-products were obtained almost exclusively depending on the alkynes and silanes employed.

  12. A thermal lensing study of a photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, K.; Hasegawa, A.; Ueda, M.; Itoh, M.

    1981-11-01

    A photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide (BOOB) was studied by using a thermal lensing technique. This technique is found to be applicable to the determination Of the rate Constants of the decay of t-butoxy radical (BO ) and the hydrogen abstraction reaction.

  13. Subchronic toxicity studies of t-butyl alcohol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindamood, C; Farnell, D R; Giles, H D; Prejean, J D; Collins, J J; Takahashi, K; Maronpot, R R

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of t-butyl alcohol, an important commodity chemical, an additive to unleaded gasoline, and a contaminant of drinking water. Ninety-day toxicity studies were conducted in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 (F344) rats of both sexes using dosed water. Dose levels of t-butyl alcohol were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% (w/v). Lethality was observed at the 4% level of both sexes and species. Weight-gain depression was present in all dose levels of male rats; 4% female rats; 1, 2, and 4% male mice; and 2 and 4% female mice. Water consumption was increased at lower dose levels in male rats and decreased in the higher dose levels of both sexes of rats and female mice. Clinical signs in rats were ataxia in both sexes and hypoactivity in males. Clinical signs in mice were ataxia, abnormal posture, and hypoactivity. In rats, urine volumes were reduced, in association with crystalluria. Gross lesions at necropsy were urinary tract calculi, renal pelvic and ureteral dilatation, and thickening of the urinary bladder mucosa. Microscopic lesions were hyperplasia of transitional epithelia and inflammation of the urinary bladder. In male rats treated with t-butyl alcohol, microscopic renal changes were suggestive of alpha-2 mu-globulin nephropathy. No-effect levels for the urinary tract lesions were 1% in male rats and mice (803.7 mg/kg/day for the male rats and 1565.8 mg/kg/day for the male mice) and 2% in female rats and mice (1451.5 mg/kg/day for the female rats and 4362.9 mg/kg/day for the female mice). The results indicate that in rodents the urinary tract is the target organ for t-butyl alcohol toxicity, and males are more sensitive to t-butyl alcohol toxicity than females.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl red dye by silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Y. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Wahed, M.G. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt); Mahmoud, M.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)], E-mail: mahmoudchem@yahoo.com

    2008-06-15

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2} NPs) were found to be photocatalytically active for degradation of methyl red dye (MR). The SiO{sub 2} NPs and SiO{sub 2} NPs doped with silver (and or) gold nanoparticles were prepared. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images the particle size and particle morphology of catalysts were monitored. Moreover, SiO{sub 2} NPs doped with silver and gold ions were used as a photocatalyst for degradation of MR. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of MR was found to be increased in the order of SiO{sub 2} NPs, SiO{sub 2} NPs coated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), SiO{sub 2} NPs coated with Ag NPs, SiO{sub 2} NPs coated with Au NPs, Ag{sup +}-doped SiO{sub 2} NPs, and Au{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2} NPs. The kinetic and mechanism of photocatalytic reaction were studied and accorded well with experimental results.

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of degradation of rapseed oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampars, V.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of rapseed oil methyl esters by US VIS and FTIR spectroscopy during the heating at 80 deg C were carried out. The degradation begins immediately after beginning of experiment. The main process at first stage is destroying of carotenoids and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by forming conjugated polyenes. Between the formation of conjugated triens and destroying of carotenoids exist definite interconnection, but there isn't evidence for the protective activity of carotenoids. As follows from FTIR spectroscopy the increase of carbonyl compounds concentration begins immediately after the start of experiment and continues all the time. Despite to the complex character the peak at 220 nm is only one spectroscopic characteristic with a sharp alteration point and may be used for the fast and simple detection of storage stability of bio diesels. (authors)

  16. Stereosequence distributions of poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s prepared with butyllithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Yamada, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Takegami, Yoshinobu

    1982-01-01

    13 C NMR spectra of poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s (PBMA) prepared with butyl-lithium (n-BuLi) were studied. Methylene carbon resonances appeared as five overlapped peaks, which were interpreted as a combination of hexad stereosequence distributions. The stereosequence distribution of PBMA prepared with n-BuLi at -78 0 C obeyed the first order Markov chain model even polymerized in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Syndiotactic PBMA was obtained with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator, and the stereosequence distribution of this polymer agreed well with Bernoullian statistics. (author)

  17. Heterologous expression of the methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase MCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Tatheer; Cheesman, Matthew J; Williams, Michelle R; Campbell, Peter M; Ahmed, Safia; Russell, Robyn J; Scott, Colin; Oakeshott, John G

    2009-10-26

    The methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase (MCD) of Achromobacter WM111 has considerable potential as a pesticide bioremediation agent. However this potential has been unrealisable until now because of an inability to express MCD in heterologous hosts such as Escherichia coli. Herein, we describe the first successful attempt to express appreciable quantities of MCD in active form in E. coli, and the subsequent characterisation of the heterologously expressed material. We find that the properties of this material closely match the previously reported properties of MCD produced from Achromobacter WM111. This includes the presence of two distinct forms of the enzyme that we show are most likely due to the presence of two functional translational start sites. The purified enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of a carbamate (carbaryl), a carboxyl ester (alpha-naphthyl acetate) and a phophotriester (dimethyl umbelliferyl phosphate) and it is relatively resistant to thermal and solvent-mediated denaturation. The robust nature and catalytic promiscuity of MCD suggest that it could be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

  18. Separation of Poly(styrene-block-t-butyl methacrylate) Copolymers by Various Liquid Chromatography Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmigovec Ljubič, Tina; Pahovnik, David; Žigon, Majda; Žagar, Ema

    2012-01-01

    The separation of a mixture of three poly(styrene-block-t-butyl methacrylate) copolymers (PS-b-PtBMA), consisting of polystyrene (PS) blocks of similar length and t-butyl methacrylate (PtBMA) blocks of different lengths, was performed using various chromatographic techniques, that is, a gradient liquid chromatography on reversed-phase (C18 and C8) and normal-phase columns, a liquid chromatography under critical conditions for polystyrene as well as a fully automated two-dimensional liquid chromatography that separates block copolymers by chemical composition in the first dimension and by molar mass in the second dimension. The results show that a partial separation of the mixture of PS-b-PtBMA copolymers can be achieved only by gradient liquid chromatography on reversed-phase columns. The coelution of the two block copolymers is ascribed to a much shorter PtBMA block length, compared to the PS block, as well as a small difference in the length of the PtBMA block in two of these copolymers, which was confirmed by SEC-MALS and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:22489207

  19. Effect of anionic surfactants on the process of Fenton degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    Fenton process has been shown to be very successful to remove dyes from water. However, the influence of other constituents in dyeing industry wastewater, such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) surfactants, has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of SDS surfactant on the kinetics of Methyl Orange degradation undergoing Fenton process was investigated. Results show that Methyl Orange degradation rate decreased as SDS concentration increased, which was attributed to the consumption of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by surfactants and the formation of Methyl Orange-SDS complex. No evidence was found that the Methyl Orange degradation pathway was affected by the presence of SDS. The kinetics modelling indicates the reaction was the first-order reaction to Methyl Orange.

  20. Magnetic field assisted Fenton reactions for the enhanced degradation of methyl blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Long Hao; Lu Yi Zou; Guang Sheng Zhang; Yi Bo Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field was tentatively introduced into Fenton reactions system for the degradation and discoloration of methyl blue as the represent of organic chemical dye, which was a bio-refractory organic pollutant in industry wastewater. It was found that under optimal Fenton reaction conditions, with the assistant of magnetic field in Fenton reactions, the degradation rate of methyl blue, the decomposition rate of H2O2 and the conversion rate of Fe2+ were accelerated, the extent of them would be improved by the increase of magnetic field intensity. Meanwhile, the mineralization of methyl blue (CODcr) was improved by over 10% with magnetic fiold.

  1. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henych, Jiří, E-mail: henych@iic.cas.cz [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin [Faculty of the Environment, J.E. Purkyně University, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • Ti–Fe mixed oxides were synthesized via low-temperature one-pot method. • Mixed oxides were used for degradation of parathion methyl. • Pure reference oxide samples showed no degradation ability. • Mixed oxides reached 70% degree of conversion of parathion methyl. - Abstract: Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching <70% was found for the samples with Ti:Fe ratio 0.25:1 and 1:0.25. Contrary, parathion methyl was not degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  2. Activity of cell wall degrading glycanases in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Saniewski; Ewa Gajewska; Henryk Urbanek

    2013-01-01

    It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was shown that JA-Me markedly increased the total activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectinase and xylanase in petioles, but did not affect activities of these enzymes in the blades and apical part of shoots of K. blossfeldiana. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate promotes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides in the abscission zone and in thi...

  3. Preliminary screening oxidative degradation methyl orange using ozone/ persulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqilah Razali, Nur; Zulzikrami Azner Abidin, Che; An, Ong Soon; Ridwan, Fahmi Muhammad; Haqi Ibrahim, Abdul; Nasuha Sabri, Siti; Huan Kow, Su

    2018-03-01

    The present study focusing on the performances of advanced oxidation process by using ozonation method towards Methyl Orange based on the efficiency of colour removal and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal. Factorial design with response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the interaction between operational conditions, such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and persulfate dosage to obtain the optimum range conditions using a semi-batch reactor. The range of independent variables investigated were pH (3-11), initial concentration (100-500mg/L), contact time (10-50min) and persulfate dosage (20-100mM) while the response variables were colour removal and COD removal of Methyl Orange. The experimental results and statistical analysis showed all the parameters were significant. Thus, from this findings, optimization of operational conditions that had been suggested from the ozone/persulfate RSM analysis were (pH 3, 100 mg/L, 50min, 60mM) that would be produced 99% Colour Removal and 80% COD Removal and help in promoting an efficient ozonation process. The effect list data that showed the most contributed effects to increase the percentages of colour removal were pH and persulfate dosage whereas the contact time and initial concentration had the highest positive effects on the COD removal. Other than that, the interaction between pH, contact time and persulfate dosage were found to be the most influencing interaction. Therefore the least influencing interaction was interaction between persulfate dosage and pH. In this study, the correlation coefficient value R2 for colour removal and COD removal of Methyl Orange were R2= 0.9976 and R2= 0.9924 which suggested a good fit of the first-order regression model with the experimental data.

  4. Burkholderia jiangsuensis sp. nov., a methyl parathion degrading bacterium, isolated from methyl parathion contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-Yun; Li, Chun-Xiu; Luo, Xiao-Jing; Lai, Qi-Liang; Xu, Jian-He

    2014-09-01

    A methyl parathion (MP) degrading bacterial strain, designated MP-1(T), was isolated from a waste land where pesticides were formerly manufactured in Jiangsu province, China. Polyphasic taxonomic studies showed that MP-1(T) is a Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and motile bacterium. The bacterium could grow at salinities of 0-1 % (w/v) and temperatures of 15-40 °C. Strain MP-1(T) could reduce nitrate to nitrite, utilize d-glucose and l-arabinose, but not produce indole, or hydrolyse gelatin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that MP-1(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia, showing highest sequence similarity to Burkholderia grimmiae DSM 25160(T) (98.5 %), and similar strains including Burkholderia zhejiangensis OP-1(T) (98.2 %), Burkholderia choica LMG 22940(T) (97.5 %), Burkholderia glathei DSM 50014(T) (97.4 %), Burkholderia terrestris LMG 22937(T) (97.2 %) and Burkholderia telluris LMG 22936(T) (97.0 %). In addition, the gyrB and recA gene segments of strain MP-1(T) exhibited less than 89.0 % and 95.1 % similarities with the most highly-related type strains indicated above. The G+C content of strain MP-1(T) was 62.6 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The predominant polar lipids comprised phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, aminolipid and phospholipid. The principal fatty acids in strain MP-1(T) were C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c (23.3 %), C16 : 0 (16.8 %), cyclo-C17 : 0 (15.0 %), C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6 (8.5 %), cyclo-C19 : 0ω8c (8.1 %), C16 : 1 iso I/C14 : 0 3-OH (5.7 %), C16 : 0 3-OH (5.6 %) and C16 : 02-OH (5.1 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain MP-1(T) and the three type strains (B. grimmiae DSM 25160(T), B. zhejiangensis OP-1(T) and B. glathei DSM 50014(T)) ranged from 24.6 % to 37.4 %. In accordance with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain MP-1(T) represents a novel

  5. A nonaqueous potentiometric titration study of the dissociation of t-butyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Yamashita, Jun; Sekine, Tomomi; Toriumi, Minoru; Itani, Toshiro

    2003-05-01

    The dissociation of t-butyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid copolymers in dimethyl sulfoxide was analyzed by a nonaqueous potentiometric titration technique. The negative logarithm of the dissociation constant of the monomer unit of a methacrylic acid (MAA) monotonously increased with the increasing degree of dissociation corresponding to the titrant/MAA amount ratio, and was highly influenced by the copolymerization ratio. The results are discussed in terms of the suppression of the dissociation of MAA by a neighboring charged methacrylate anion unit.

  6. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, P.; Kuráň, P.; Šťastný, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 344, JUL (2015), s. 9-16 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Titania-iron oxides * Homogeneous hydrolysis * Degradation of organophosphates * Parathion methyl Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  7. Solvent and ion-pairing effects on the chlorine kinetic isotope effect of t-butyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride and 1-adamantyl chloride was measured in mixtures of aqueous 2,2,2-trifluoroethanols and in mixtures of aqueous ethanols. The KIEs for t-butyl chloride at 25 0 C in 94% TFE/water, and 60% ethanol/water (solvent mixtures with similar polarity) were 1.0097 and 1.0104 respectively. Further investigations showed a KIE of 1.0104 in 50% ethanol/water and 1.0105 in 100% ethanol while the isotope effect in the fluorinated ethanols rose from 1.0094 in 99% TFE/water to 1.0101 in 70% ethanol/water. The KIE in all these solvents were shown to be directly proportional to the nucleophilicity of the solvent and indicates nucleophilic attack on an ion pair. The similar KIE of t-butyl chloride in the ethanol/water solvents was found to support the contention that solvent polarity exerts a minimal effect on the chlorine KIE

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Methyl Parathion-degrading Bacteria Based on Microbial Sensor Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENG Fang-fang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion (MP, a kind of typical organophosphates pesticides (OPs, is widely used as agricultural insecticides. However, due to their neurotoxic effects on humans, the elimination of OPs has become increasingly important. Microbial sensors are consisted of biological components and transducers. Owing to their attractive advantages including low cost, easy of miniaturization and excellent selectivity, they have been widely used for environmental analysis. In this paper, four novel bacterial strains capable of utilizing methyl parathion as the sole carbon source were isolated from pesticide contaminated soils. These four isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis, and their capability of degrading methyl parathion were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The highest degrading efficiency strain was selected for further study of degrading mechanism. The results indicated that degradation rate of these four strains were all over 78% after incubation at 30 ℃, pH 7.0 for 7 d with the original concentration of methyl parathion 50 mg·L-1. The highest degradation rate was up to 100%. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MP-6 was affiliated into the genus klebsiella. The LC-MS results indicated that methyl parathion was hydrolyzed to dimethyl thiophosphoric acid and p-nitrophenol by MP-6. A little of p-nitrophenol molecules could be further metabolized to 4-nitrocatechol and 1, 2, 4-benzenetrio. The results indicated that based on detecting the potential signal of intermediate product p-nitrophenol, the strain MP-6 could be used to construct microbial sensors for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in environment.

  9. Radiation degradation of methyl methacrylate grafted natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, M.C.S.

    1998-01-01

    M G rubber is a mixture consisting of the graft copolymer and two home polymers. Natural rubber is known to undergo crosslinking during exposure to high energy radiation where as poly methyl methacrylate is a polymer where high energy radiation causes chain scission. It is interesting to determine how this partially miscible blend of scission and crosslinking polymers will behave under high energy radiation. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study the variations in the glass transition regions during high energy treatment of the polymers. Another techniques that is available to obtain motional information and miscibility of blends is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR).The present study is aimed at understanding the changes in the molecular structure of rubber when exposed to high energy radiation. The changes in the dynamic mechanical properties in the glass transition region and solid state NMR were made used of for this investigation. The data obtained from the DMA results were analysed to calculate the radiation chemical yields. The local dynamics were investigated with measurement of carbon relaxation times and molecular structure was studied with focus on the level of intermolecular mixing by proton relaxation times

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using ZnO/TiO2 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming GE; Changsheng GUO; Xingwang ZHU; Lili MA; Zhefian HAN; Wei HU; Yuqiu WANG

    2009-01-01

    ZnO/TiO2 composites were synthesized by using the solvothermal method and ultrasonic precipitation followed by heat treatment in order to investigate their photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension under UV irradiation. The composi-tion and surface structure of the catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degradation efficiencies of MO at various pH values were obtained. The highest degradation efficiencies were obtained before 30 min and after 60 min at pH 11.0 and pH 2.0, respectively. A sample analysis was conducted using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. Six intermediates were found during the photocatalytic degradation process of quinonoid MO. The degradation pathway of quinonoid MO was also proposed.

  11. PREPARATION OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS OF POLY(STYRENE) AND POLY(T-BUTYL ACRYLATE) OF VARIOUS MOLECULAR WEIGHTS AND ARCHITECTURES BY ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION. (R826735)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block copolymers of polystyrene and poly(t-butyl acrylate) were prepared using atom transfer radical polymerization techniques. These polymers were synthesized with a CuBr/N,N,N,NActivity of cell wall degrading glycanases in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was shown that JA-Me markedly increased the total activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectinase and xylanase in petioles, but did not affect activities of these enzymes in the blades and apical part of shoots of K. blossfeldiana. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate promotes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides in the abscission zone and in this way induces leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  12. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method

  13. Degradation of 14C-malathion and 14C-chlorpyrifos-methyl on stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The degradation of malathion and chlorpyrifos-methyl on wheat stored under laboratory conditions was monitored using radiolabelled compounds. Metabolites of both insecticides were isolated and identified, although the formation of bound residues was the most significant feature in the breakdown pattern in both cases. After 5 months of storage, only 16% of the applied dose of malathion remained intact, the remainder being present as free metabolites (25%) or bound residues (42%). Chlorpyrifos-methyl degraded considerably more slowly than malathion, there being 60% of the applied dose still present after 14 months of storage. The bound residues accounted for 29% of the activity after this time. Attempts to determine the location of the activity within the grain suggested that it was concentrated in the germ by a factor of 10. Unfortunately, it was found not to be feasible to isolate the bran layer where a similar concentration of activity might have been expected. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Enhancement of methyl tert-butyl ether degradation by the addition of readily metabolizable organic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongzhi; Chen Jianmeng; Zhong Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Supplements with readily metabolizable organic substrates were investigated to increase the biomass and enhance degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) due to the low biomass yield of MTBE which has been one of the factors for low-rate MTBE degradation. The influence of various organic substrates on the rate of aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 was investigated, and only yeast extract (YE), beef extract and tryptone exhibited stimulatory effect. With the concentration of each substrate being 100 mg/L, the average MTBE removal rate could increase to 1.29, 1.20 and 1.04 mg/(L h), respectively, in comparison with 0.71 mg/(L h) when carried out in medium without addition. The stimulatory effects of YE addition, as well as induction period required by MTBE degradation, varied dramatically with the storage conditions, pre-culture medium and concentrations of the inoculums. The extent of stimulatory effects of YE might be closely related to the proportion of induction period in the total time of MTBE-degradation. The removal efficiency increased from about 50% to 90.5% with the addition of YE in a packed-bed reactor loaded with calcium alginate immobilized cells.

  15. Potential impact of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) on phenols degradation in an UASB reactor and its degradation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Kai; Sierra, Julian Muñoz; Zhang, Xuedong; Yuan, Shoujun; Hu, Zhenhu

    2017-07-05

    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) as a solvent is extensively used for the phenols extraction from the wastewater, so it is unavoidable to expose in the effluent due to the solubility and leakage problem. The present study evaluated the impact of MIBK on phenols degradation in an UASB reactor and analyzed its degradation properties. The results indicated that the continuous dosing (0.1gL -1 ) and impact (10gL -1 ) of MIBK had limited effect on phenols removal (1-2% reduction) in the UASB reactor, but the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) values of sludge decreased by 45-75% after MIBK exposure. Anaerobic degradation rate of MIBK fitted well to a pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with respect to the initial concentration of 35mgL -1 (k=0.0115h -1 , R 2 =0.9664). Furthermore, the relative methane generation rate constants of MIBK were 0.00816, 0.00613, 0.00273, and 0.00207d -1 at the initial concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 5, and 10gL -1 , respectively. MIBK showed higher inhibitory effect on the methanogenesis than on phenols degradation. This study pointed out that the industrial installations should consider the influence of solvent on anaerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photolytic degradation of methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in ice and water: Implications for cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jan [Lancaster Environment Centre, Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Kurkova, Romana; Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klan, Petr, E-mail: klan@sci.muni.c [Dept of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A8, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Halsall, Crispin J., E-mail: c.halsall@lancaster.ac.u [Lancaster Environment Centre, Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Here we investigate the photodegradation of structurally similar organophosphorus pesticides; methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in water (20 deg. C) and ice (-15 deg. C) under environmentally-relevant conditions with the aim of comparing these laboratory findings to limited field observations. Both compounds were found to be photolyzed more efficiently in ice than in aqueous solutions, with quantum yields of degradation being higher in ice than in water (fenitrothion > methyl-parathion). This rather surprising observation was attributed to the concentration effect caused by freezing the aqueous solutions. The major phototransformation products included the corresponding oxons (methyl-paraoxon and fenitroxon) and the nitrophenols (3-methyl-nitrophenol and nitrophenol) in both irradiated water and ice samples. The presence of oxons in ice following irradiation, demonstrates an additional formation mechanism of these toxicologically relevant compounds in cold environments, although further photodegradation of oxons in ice indicates that photochemistry of OPs might be an environmentally important sink in cold environments. - Photodegradation of methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in water and ice under environmentally-relevant conditions is described.

  17. Mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Oyama, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    ESR and gel permeation chromatographic measurements of poly(methyl methacrylate) γ-irradiated between 77 K and 300 K have been carried out to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of the polymer. It is revealed that the scission of the main chain is not taken place immediately after the absorption of radiation energy but is induced by the intramolecular radical conversion of the side-chain -COOCH 2 radical to the tertiary -CH 2 -C(CH 3 )- radical followed by the main-chain β-scission of the latter radical. The degradation is not taken place below 190 K, because the side-chain radical starts to convert only above 190 K. The residual monomer in the polymer reacts with the side-chain radical below 190 K to generate the stable propagating-type radical, so that the degradation is suppressed even after warming the polymer to the ambient temperature. (author)

  18. Hydrogen bonding in the recovery of phenols and methyl-t-butyl ether : molecular modeling and calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.

    2010-01-01

    The purification of waste water is very important, for clean potable water is a common good and a necessity. Surface water purification is nowadays carried out on a massive industrial scale, and clean water is at our disposal virtually everywhere and always. However, cleaning industrial waste water

  19. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...... bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  1. Degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by gel immobilized Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongzhi; Chen, Jianmeng; Zhong, Weihong; Cheng, Zhuowei

    2008-07-01

    Cells of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 were immobilized in gel beads to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Calcium alginate, agar, polyacrylamide and polyvinvyl alcohol were screened as suitable immobilization matrices, with calcium alginate demonstrating the fastest MTBE-degradation rate. The rate was accelerated by 1.8-fold when the beads had been treated in physiological saline for 24h at 28 degrees C. MTBE degradation in mineral salts medium (MSM) was accompanied by the increase of biomass. The half-life of MTBE-degradation activity for the encapsulated cells stored at 28 degrees C was about 120 h, which was obviously longer than that of free cells (approximately 36 h). Efficient reusability of the beads up to 30 batches was achieved in poor nutrition solution as compared to only 6 batches in MSM. The immobilized cells could be operated in a packed-bed reactor for degradation of 10 mg L(-1) MTBE in groundwater with more than 99% removal efficiency at hydraulic retention time of 20 min. These results suggested that immobilized cells of PM1 in bioreactor might be applicable to a groundwater treatment system for the removal of MTBE.

  2. Application of zinc oxide fiber in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchman, D.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, zinc oxide fibers were obtained by electrospinning using polyvinylbutyral and zinc nitrate as precursors. After the synthesis, the material was heat treated at different temperatures to evaluate the effect of microstructure on its photocatalytic activity. The fibers obtained after heat treatment were characterized for morphology, phases, crystallinity and photocatalytic activity. The photocatalysis reaction was accompanied by the degradation of methyl orange in the presence of zinc oxide under UV illumination. It was observed that the crystallinity of zincite is a fundamental factor for the control of the photocatalytic activity of this material. (author)

  3. Enhancing Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Blue Using PVP-Capped and Uncapped CdSe Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgobudi Frans Chepape

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum confinement of semiconductor nanoparticles is a potential feature which can be interesting for photocatalysis, and cadmium selenide is one simple type of quantum dot to use in the following photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. CdSe nanoparticles capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in various concentration ratios were synthesized by the chemical reduction method and characterized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis of the samples showed that 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles were uniformly distributed in size with an average of 2.7 nm and shape which was spherical-like. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB in water showed efficiencies of 31% and 48% when using uncapped and 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles as photocatalysts, respectively. The efficiency of PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles indicated that a complete green process can be utilized for photocatalytic treatment of water and waste water.

  4. t-Butyl group-substituted triphenylamine-containing orange-red fluorescent emitters for organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Chi Sik [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-30

    Efficient orange-red fluorescent compounds, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-adamantyl-6-(4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl) -N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene)vinyl-4H-pyran (DCATP) and 2,6-bis[4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene] vinyl-4-(dicyanomethylene)-4H-pyran (BDCTP) containing the tert-butylated triphenylamine in donor moieties, were synthesized and characterized. In these red emitters, bulky groups, such as t-butyl group and adamantane were introduced to increase the steric hindrance between the red emitters. In particular, an efficient orange-red device containing the emitter DCATP as a dopant showed a luminous and power efficiency of 6.87 cd/A and 2.70 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} with the CIE coordinates of (0.48, 0.50) at 7.0 V. In addition, an efficient red organic light-emitting diode using BDCTP as a dopant exhibited a luminous and power efficiency of 2.30 cd/A and 1.31 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and CIE coordinates of (0.61, 0.39). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two orange-red emitters with t-butylated triphenylamine derivatives were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in electron D-A and electron D-A-D type in the terminal groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron D-A-D type material shows improved color chromaticity.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, K T; Lovley, D R

    2001-05-01

    The potential for anaerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) was investigated in laboratory incubations of sediments from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer and in aquatic sediments. The addition of humic substances (HS) stimulated the anaerobic degradation of MTBE in aquifer sediments in which Fe(III) was available as an electron acceptor. This is attributed to the fact that HS and other extracellular quinones can stimulate the activity of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms by acting as an electron shuttle between Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms and insoluble Fe(III) oxides. MTBE was not degraded in aquifer sediments without Fe(III) and HS. [14C]-MTBE added to aquatic sediments adapted for anaerobic MTBE degradation was converted to 14CO2 in the presence or absence of HS or the HS analog, anthraquione-2,6-disulfonate. Unamended aquatic sediments produced 14CH4 as well as 14CO2 from [14C]-MTBE. The aquatic sediments also rapidly consumed TBA under anaerobic conditions and converted [14C]-TBA to 14CH4 and 14CO2. An adaptation period of ca. 250-300 days was required prior to the most rapid anaerobic MTBE degradation in both sediment types, whereas TBA was metabolized in the aquatic sediments without a lag. These results demonstrate that, under the appropriate conditions, MTBE and TBA can be degraded in the absence of oxygen. This suggests that it may be possible to design strategies for the anaerobic remediation of MTBE in petroleum-contaminated subsurface environments.

  6. Identification of a Marine Bacillus Strain C5 and Parathion-Methyl Degradation Characteristics of the Extracellular Esterase B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain C5 that can produce new type of marine esterase was isolated and screened from marine sludge. According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical experiments, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis. A single isozyme with a molecular weight of 86 kDa was observed by SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE. On this basis, the mechanism of esterase B1 secreted by strain C5 degrading parathion-methyl was explored, and the effects of temperature and pH on the degradation rate were investigated. From the results, p-nitrophenol was one of the degradation products of B1 degrading parathion-methyl, and the best degradation effect could be achieved at the temperature of 40°C and the neutral pH value.

  7. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic degradation studies of gold nanoparticles against congo red and methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, C; Lakshmanan, A; Nagarajan, N S

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports, novel and greener method for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using 5,7-dihydroxy-6-metoxy-3 ' ,4 ' methylenedioxyisoflavone (Dalspinin), isolated from the roots of Dalbergia coromandeliana was carried out for the first time. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The observed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 532nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectrum indicates the formation of gold nanoparticles. The powder XRD and SAED pattern for synthesized gold nanoparticles confirms crystalline nature. The HR-TEM images showed that the AuNPs formed were small in size, highly monodispersed and spherical in shape. The average particle sizes of the AuNPs are found to be ~10.5nm. The prepared AuNPs were found to be stable for more than 5months without any aggregation. The catalytic degradation studies of the synthesized AuNPs towards degradation of congo red and methyl orange, showed good catalytic in the complete degradation of both the dyes. The reduction catalyzed by gold nanoparticles followed the pseudo-first order kinetics, with a rate constant of 4.5×10 -3 s -1 (R 2 =0.9959) and 1.7×10 -3 s -1 (R 2 =0.9918) for congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO), respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Silver di-t-butyl phosphate, a useful reagent in the synthesis of phospholipids. Synthesis of mixed-acid phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerolphosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, P.P.M.; Haas, Gerard H. de

    The synthesis of silver di-t-butyl phosphate is described. Using this reagent, mixed-acid phosphatidic acid with one unsaturated fatty acid could be prepared by means of a reaction with a 1,2-diacyl glycerol-3-iodohydrin. The blocking groups could be removed easily with dry hydrogen chloride at low

  9. Interaction between t-butyl hydroperoxide (I) and positive halogen compounds. part I. Intermediates in the reaction between I and CI2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J. van; Schors, A.; Kooyman, E.C.

    1973-01-01

    “positive halogen” compounds were found to induce the decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide (I) in the dark. In this Cl2O proved to be particularly effective, liberating oxygen from I instantaneously at 0°. At temperature between −80° and −30°, two oxygen-rich intermediates could be observed with

  10. Synthesis and application of multiple rods gold-zinc oxide nano structures in the photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab Chamjangali, M.; Bagherian, G.; Bahramian, B.; Fahimi Rad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide and gold-zinc oxide (Au-Zn O) nano structures with multiple rods (multi pods) morphology were successfully prepared. Au-Zn O nano structures were synthesized via a simple precipitation route method in the presence of oligo aniline-coated gold nanoparticles. The Au-Zn O catalyst obtained was applied for the degradation of methyl orange in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation Effects of the operational parameters such as the solution p H, amount of photocatalyst, and dye concentration on the photo catalytic degradation and decolorisation of methyl orange were studied. Detailed studies including kinetic study and regeneration of catalyst were carried out on the optimal conditions for the photodegradation of methyl orange by Au-Zn O multi pods in aqueous solution. Effect of foreign species on the photodegradation of methyl orange was also studied. An enhancement of the photo catalytic activities for photodegradation of methyl orange was observed when the gold nanoparticles were loaded on the zinc oxide multi pods. The proposed catalyst was applied for the degradation of methyl orange in synthetic wastewater samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Twofold role of calcined hydrotalcites in the degradation of methyl parathion pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sampieri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion (MP is a very toxic organophosphate pesticide used as a non-systematic insecticide and acaricide on many corps. As MP and its by-products are highly toxic, they have to be retained to avoid pollution of rivers and lakes. Highly efficient sorbents are hydrotalcites (HTs (or anionic clays. We have correlated the degradation of an aqueous solution of MP at room temperature, with the basicity of the adsorbing materials. It was found that the metal composition of hydrotalcites determines both the surface electronic properties (basic or acidic and the sorption capacity. Depending on the basic strength, some calcined hydrotalcites can catalyze the transformation of MP to p-nitrophenol (p-NP and retain its by-products. Such a process has the advantage of being able to be carried out at room temperature and at the pH of the pesticide solution.

  12. Pharmacological characterization of Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/: A potential heart agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Delano, M.L.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Liteplo, M.P.; Camin, L.L.; Subramanyam, V.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have investigated the pharmacological behavior of hexakis (t-butylisonitrile)Tc(I) and evaluated it as a potential myocardial perfusion radiopharmaceutical. This complex produces good to excellent heart images in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, dogs, pigs and baboons. Good heart uptake in guinea pigs, cats and pigs may be predictive of good myocardial imaging in man, since the hearts of these three species extract Tl-201, but not Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/-Cl/sub 2//sup +/ (similar to man, but unlike other animal species). Biodistribution studies reveal initial heart uptake of 1.3 to 2.2% of the injected activity. Imaging and biodistribution show significant initial lung activity which clears substantially during the first hour after injection. Little or no myocardial washout is observed. In rabbits with ischemia induced by coronary artery ligation, the complex distributes as a function of blood flow. Simultaneous injection of Tl-201 and Tc-99m (CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ with subsequent dual isotope imaging shows that their initial distribution is a similar. The complex is extracted 100% by isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts perfused with buffer. When human blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex, myocardial extraction is reduced, but remains high (73-75%). Uptake of the complex by rat myocytes in culture is not inhibited by either ouabain or K/sup +/. These results suggest that this complex may be a promising myocardial perfusion agent and should be tested in man

  13. Multi-branched Cu2O nanowires for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxin; Shu, Yun; Zhou, Xiaowei; Ren, Yang; Liu, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Multi-branched cuprous oxide nanowires (Cu2O NWs) were prepared by one-step hydrothermal method of a facile process. The architecture of these Cu2O NWs was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the resulting crystal nanowire consists of the trunk growing along [100] plane and the branch growing along [110] plane. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in the experiment indicates that pure Cu2O NWs prepared at 150 °C have a higher photocatalytic activity (90% MO were degraded within 20 min without the presence of H2O2) compared with the samples obtained at other temperatures. In the photoelectrochemical test, pure Cu2O NWs had outstanding photoelectric response, which corresponds to the catalytic performance. The superior photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries between the small branches and the nanowire trunk, which is conducive to the transport of photo-generated carriers, and the reduction of Cu impurities to reduce the number of recombination centers.

  14. Detailed Assessment of the Kinetics of Hg-Cell Association, Hg Methylation, and Methylmercury Degradation in Several Desulfovibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M.; Bullock, Allyson L.; Maizel, Andrew C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of inorganic Hg [Hg(II)i] association, methylation, and methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation were examined for a group of Desulfovibrio species with and without MeHg production capability. We employed a detailed method for assessing MeHg production in cultures, including careful control of medium chemistry, cell density, and growth phase, plus mass balance of Hg(II)i and MeHg during the assays. We tested the hypothesis that differences in Hg(II)i sorption and/or uptake rates drive observed differences in methylation rates among Desulfovibrio species. Hg(II)i associated rapidly and with high affinity to both methylating and nonmethylating species. MeHg production by Hg-methylating strains was rapid, plateauing after ∼3 h. All MeHg produced was rapidly exported. We also tested the idea that all Desulfovibrio species are capable of Hg(II)i methylation but that rapid demethylation masks its production, but we found this was not the case. Therefore, the underlying reason why MeHg production capability is not universal in the Desulfovibrio is not differences in Hg affinity for cells nor differences in the ability of strains to degrade MeHg. However, Hg methylation rates varied substantially between Hg-methylating Desulfovibrio species even in these controlled experiments and after normalization to cell density. Thus, biological differences may drive cross-species differences in Hg methylation rates. As part of this study, we identified four new Hg methylators (Desulfovibrio aespoeensis, D. alkalitolerans, D. psychrotolerans, and D. sulfodismutans) and four nonmethylating species (Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans, D. tunisiensis, D. carbinoliphilus, and D. piger) in our ongoing effort to generate a library of strains for Hg methylation genomics. PMID:22885751

  15. Photo Degradation of Methyl Orange by Persulfate Activated with Zero Valent Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkoeva, V. A.; Sizykh, M. R.; Batoeva, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The oxidative degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) subjected to direct photolysis (Solar) and various oxidative systems was studied. The comparative experiments have shown that MO conversion and mineralization increases in the following order: Solar ∼ Solar/Fe0 ∼ Solar/S2O82- influence of the main factors (duration of exposure, the ratio of initial concentrations of MO:S2O82-:Fe0, pH and temperature of the reaction medium) on the degree of MO conversion and mineralization was studied. The optimal pH and temperature of the reaction medium were 5.8 and 25°C, respectively. The rate of MO decomposition and mineralization increased proportionally to the initial concentration of the oxidant at the molar ratios [S2O82-] :[MO] ≤ 12. Judging by the nature of the kinetic curves, a further increase of this ratio is impractical. However, an increase in the oxidant concentration had a positive effect on the degrees of conversion and mineralization of total organic carbon (TOC). Thus, at the ratios of 12:1 and 48:1, the conversion efficiency of TOC was 23 and 60 %, respectively. The optimal concentration of Fe0 was 100 mg/l.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles for degradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmeet; Duklan, Neha; Singh, Pritpal; Sharma, Jeewan

    2018-05-01

    In present study, TiO2 nanoparticles, in anatase form, were successfully synthesized using TiCl4 as precursor. These nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature (298 K). As prepared samples were characterized for phase structure, optical absorption and surface properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles sample was compared with one of the most efficient commercial photocatalyst Degussa TiO2 also known as P(25). The effect of phase composition of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, as compared to P(25), on photocatalytic decomposition of organic dye, methyl orange (MO) was studies under UV light illumination. An enhanced degradation of hazardous dye was observed in the presence of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles as compared to P(25) due to slow recombination rate. Other possible reasons for this enhancement have also been discussed.

  17. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their catalytic activity towards degradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjari Mishra, Pravat; Bihari Pani, Khirod

    2017-11-01

    This paper described the significant effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, substrate concentration, reaction pH and reaction temperature on the size, morphology and yield of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of a medicinal plant Momordica charantia (Bitter guard). By means of UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD analysis, TEM analysis and Fluorescence analysis, it is observed that the reaction solution containing 10-3 M of AgNO3 of pH 5.3  +  10 ml of aqueous leaf extract at normal room temperature, was optimum for synthesis of stable, polydisperse, predominantly spherical AgNPs with average size of 12.15 nm. FT-IR and TEM studies confirmed the stability of AgNPs was due to the capping of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract. The aqueous solution of leaf extract containing AgNPs showed remarkable catalytic activity towards degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous medium.

  18. Enrichment and molecular characterization of a bacterial culture that degrades methoxy-methyl urea herbicides and their aniline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fantroussi, S; Verstraete, W; Top, E M

    2000-12-01

    Soil treated with linuron for more than 10 years showed high biodegradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides. Untreated control soil samples taken from the same location did not express any linuron degradation activity, even after 40 days of incubation. Hence, the occurrence in the field of a microbiota having the capacity to degrade a specific herbicide was related to the long-term treatment of the soil. The enrichment culture isolated from treated soil showed specific degradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides, such as linuron and metobromuron, while dimethyl urea herbicides, such as diuron, chlorotoluron, and isoproturon, were not transformed. The putative metabolic intermediates of linuron and metobromuron, the aniline derivatives 3, 4-dichloroaniline and 4-bromoaniline, were also degraded. The temperature of incubation drastically affected degradation of the aniline derivatives. Whereas linuron was transformed at 28 and 37 degrees C, 3,4-dichloroaniline was transformed only at 28 degrees C. Monitoring the enrichment process by reverse transcription-PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that a mixture of bacterial species under adequate physiological conditions was required to completely transform linuron. This research indicates that for biodegradation of linuron, several years of adaptation have led to selection of a bacterial consortium capable of completely transforming linuron. Moreover, several of the putative species appear to be difficult to culture since they were detectable by DGGE but were not culturable on agar plates.

  19. Degradation of Triazine-2-(14C Metsulfuron-Methyl in Soil from an Oil Palm Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Ismail

    Full Text Available Triazine-2-(14C metsulfuron-methyl is a selective, systemic sulfonylurea herbicide. Degradation studies in soils are essential for the evaluation of the persistence of pesticides and their breakdown products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degradation of triazine-2-(14C metsulfuron-methyl in soil under laboratory conditions. A High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC equipped with an UV detector and an on-line radio-chemical detector, plus a Supelco Discovery column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm, and PRP-1 column (305 x 7.0 mm, 10 μm was used for the HPLC analysis. The radioactivity was determined by a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC in scintillation fluid. The soil used was both sterilized and non-sterilized in order to observe the involvement of soil microbes. The estimated DT50 and DT90 values of metsulfuron-methyl in a non-sterile system were observed to be 13 and 44 days, whereas in sterilized soil, the DT50 and DT90 were 31 and 70 days, respectively. The principal degradation product after 60 days was CO2. The higher cumulative amount of (14CO2 in (14C-triazine in the non-sterilized soil compared to that in the sterile system suggests that biological degradation by soil micro-organisms significantly contributes to the dissipation of the compound. The major routes of degradation were O-demethylation, sulfonylurea bridge cleavage and the triazine "ring-opened."

  20. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  1. Aerobic degradation of N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA by Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357 isolated from soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA, 4-aminophenol (4-AP, and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway.

  2. Degradation of bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Bortolotto, Tiago; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide insecticides are used on wheat grains in storage units but their efficiency is hindered by persistent residues in the grains. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone (O3) gas treatment on the degradation of residual bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides commonly used in storage wheat grains, as well as to evaluate degradation of their by-products. The residues of bifenthrin decreased after 180 min of exposure in a concentration of 60 μmol/mol (a 37.5 ± 7.4% reduction) with 20% moisture content and 0.9 water activity. On the other hand, under the same experimental conditions, the pirimiphos-methyl residues significantly decreased in the wheat grains (71.1 ± 8.6%) after 30 min of exposure. After O3 gas treatment, three by-products of pirimiphos-methyl (m/z=306.1) containing different molecular mass to charge ratios (m/z=278.1, 301.1 and 319.2) were identified by LC-MS. O3 is a strong oxidizer that has shown the potential to reduce pesticide residues in stored grain in order to ensure food quality and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of reaction conditions on methyl red degradation mediated by boron and nitrogen doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galenda, A.; Crociani, L.; Habra, N. El; Favaro, M.; Natile, M.M.; Rossetto, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Boron and/or nitrogen-doped TiO 2 for photocatalytic wastewater treatment. • Methyl red degradation/mineralisation as a function of pH, acids and dopants. • Adsorption time influence on photocatalytic process. • Recovery of worn-out catalyst. - Abstract: Nowadays the employment of renewable and sustainable energy sources, and solar light as main option, becomes an urgent need. Photocatalytic processes received great attention in wastewater treatment due to their cheapness, environmental compatibility and optimal performances. Despite the general low selectivity of the photocatalysts, an accurate optimisation of the operational parameters needs to be carried out in order to maximise the process yield. Because of this reason, the present contribution aims to deepen either the knowledge in boron and/or nitrogen doped TiO 2 -based systems and their employment in methyl red removal from aqueous solutions. The samples were obtained by coprecipitation and characterised by XRD, SEM, BET specific surface area, UV–vis and XPS techniques. The catalytic activity was for the first time carefully evaluated with respect to methyl red photodegradation in different conditions as a function of working pH, counter-ions and pre-adsorption time. An ad-hoc study was performed on the importance of the pre-adsorption of the dye, suggesting that an extended adsorption is useless for the catalyst photoactivity, while a partial coverage is preferable. The photocatalytic tests demonstrate the positive influence of boron doping in photo-activated reactions and the great importance of the operational parameters with respect to the simple methyl red bleaching rather than the overall pollutant mineralisation. It is proved, indeed, that different working pH, acidifying means and substrate pre-adsorption time can enhance or limit the catalyst performances with respect to the complete pollutant degradation rather than its partial breakage

  4. Improved stereoselective bioreduction of t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate by Rhodotorula glutinis through heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Wang, Ya-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    Optically pure t-butyl 6-cyano-(3R, 5R)-dihydroxyhexanoate ((R)-1b) is the key precursor for atorvastatin calcium, the most widely used cholesterol-lowering drug. In this work, a strain ZJB-09224 capable of asymmetrically reducing t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate (1a) to corresponding optically pure (R)-1b was successfully isolated from soil sample, identified belonging to Rhodotorula glutinis based on the morphology, physiological tests, and the 18S rDNA sequence analysis. It was found that heat treatment of cell suspension at 45 °C for 25 Min significantly improved R. glutinis ZJB-09224 stereoselectivity. The asymmetric bioreduction of 1a was most efficient at pH 7.5, 35 °C, 50 mM (15.0 g L -1 ) substrate concentration, 40.0 g DCW L -1 cell loading size, 0.54 M (60.0 g L -1 ) sodium lactate acting as co-substrate. Under these optimal conditions, 0.046 M (R)-1b was produced with de (diastereomeric excess) value of 99.2% after 40 H conversion. Moreover, R. glutinis ZJB-09224 has a broad substrate spectrum, making it a potential tool for some valuable chiral alcohol pharmaceutical intermediates synthesis. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Effect of cropping cycles and repeated herbicide applications on the degradation of diclofop-methyl, bentazone, diuron, isoproturon and pendimethalin in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piutti, Séverine; Marchand, Anne-Laure; Lagacherie, Bernard; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Soulas, Guy

    2002-03-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the ability of four crops (wheat, corn, oilseed rape and soybean) to influence the degradation of bentazone, diclofop-methyl, diuron, isoproturon and pendimethalin in soil. The present study showed that microbial biomass-carbon was significantly higher in planted soils than in bulk soil, especially with wheat and corn, after several cropping cycles. The biomass in corn and soybean planted soils was adversely affected by bentazone but recovered after three cropping cycles. In wheat-planted soils, diclofop-methyl application resulted in persistent increase of the amount of microbial biomass. Bentazone did not show accelerated degradation even after five successive treatments, differing from diclofop-methyl, for which two applications were sufficient to enhance significantly its rate of degradation. Enhanced degradation of diclofop-methyl was even more pronounced in wheat-planted soil. The rates of mineralisation of diuron, isoproturon and pendimethalin were not affected after the first cropping cycle, but were significantly increased in planted soils after five cropping cycles. The results confirm that plants may promote pesticide degradation in soil by stimulating biodegradation processes. In the case of diclofop-methyl, stimulation of accelerated degradation was observed.

  6. Chemically Methylated and Reduced Pectins: Preparation and Characterisation by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy, Enzymatic Degradation and Gelling Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbohm, Christoph; Lundt, Inge; Christensen, T.M.I.E.

    2003-01-01

    with lower DM. A simple method for determination of DM by 1H-NMR spectroscopy is presented. New modified pectins have been prepared by treatment of pectins having different DM’s with NaBH4 to reduce selectively the methyl esters to primary alcohols in the presence of free acids. The degree of reduction (DR......) and the DM of the remaining carboxylic acids could likewise be determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The new reduced pectins can be tolerated by the pectin degrading enzymes polygalacturonase PGI and PGII as well as by pectin lyase, all from Aspergillus niger, but the enzymes exhibit lower specific activities...

  7. Methyl phosphate formation as a major degradation mode of direct methanol fuel cells with phosphoric acid based electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid doped polymer membranes are widely used as electrolytes in hydrogen based fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Such electrolytes have been explored for direct oxidation of methanol to further increase the versatility of the systems, however......, with demonstrated lifetimes of only a few days to weeks. In this work the methyl phosphate formation from the acid and methanol is identified and proposed to be a major mechanism for the cell degradation. Proton conductivity and fuel cell durability tests validate the mechanism at high methanol contents....

  8. Whole-genome analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Staci R; Chakicherla, Anu Y; Chain, Patrick S G; Schmidt, Radomir; Shin, Maria W; Legler, Tina C; Scow, Kate M; Larimer, Frank W; Lucas, Susan M; Richardson, Paul M; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2007-03-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C(5) to C(12)) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an approximately 4-Mb circular chromosome and an approximately 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (approximately 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading Enterobacter sp. strain SE08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin; Hu, Qiulong; Xiong, Xingyao; Su, Xiaojun; Huang, Yanning; Jiang, Ziwei; Zhou, Qingming; Zhao, Songyi; Zeng, Wei-ai

    2013-10-01

    A bacterial strain (SE08) capable of utilizing 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) as the sole carbon and energy source for growth was isolated by continuous enrichment culturing in minimal salt medium (MSM) from a long term MCPA exposed soil. This bacterial strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Its ability to degrade MCPA was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The strain SE08 can tolerate unusually high MCPA concentrations (125-2000mg/L). The influences of culturing factors (initial concentration, pH, and temperature) on the bacterial growth and substrate degradation were studied. The results showed that the optimal MCPA degradation occurred at an MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, 30°C and pH 6.0. Under these conditions, 68.5 percent of MCPA in MSM was degraded by SE08, and the OD600nm reached 0.64 after culturing for 72h. The degradation of MCPA could be enhanced by addition of both carbon and nitrogen sources. At an initial MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, when 5g/L glucose and 2.5g/L yeast extract were added into the MSM media, the MCPA degradation was significantly increased to 83.8 percent, and OD600nm was increased to 1.09 after incubation at 30°C and pH 6.0 for 72h. This is the first study showing that an Enterobacter sp. strain is capable of degrading MCPA, which might provide a new approach for the remediation of MCPA contaminated soil and contribute to the limited knowledge about the function of Enterobacter species. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Degradation of methyl and ethyl mercury into inorganic mercury by other reactive oxygen species besides hydroxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Ikuo; Takahashi, Hitoshi (Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan). Inst. for Medical Immunology)

    1992-01-01

    Degradation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) with reactive oxygens was studied in vitro by using peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-halide and rose bengal-ultraviolet light A systems. For this purpose, the direct determination method for inorganic Hg was employed. Both systems could effectively degrade EtHg, and MeHg to some extent. Degradation of MeHg and EtHg with the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-chloride system was inhibited by MPO inhibitors (cyanide and azide), catalase, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavengers (glycine, alanine, serine and taurine), 1,4-diazabicyclo(2,2,2)octane and 2,5-dimethylfuran, but not by hydroxyl radical scavengers (ethanol and mannitol). Iodide was more effective than chloride as the halide component. Lactoperoxidase (LPO) could substitute for MPO in the iodide, but not the chloride system. With MPO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-chloride, MPO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-iodide and LPO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-iodide systems, we observed the increased degradation of EtHg in deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) medium better than that in H{sub 2}O medium. The D{sub 2}O effect upon MeHg degradation was extremely weak. These results suggested that HOCl (or HOI) might be also capable of degrading MeHg and EtHg, besides the hydroxyl radical already reported by us. Singlet oxygen could degrade EtHg but not MeHg. (orig.).

  11. Enhanced degradation and mineralization of 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol by Zn-CNTs/O3 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Anlan; Liu, Yanlan; Wang, Jianlong

    2018-01-01

    A novel zinc-carbon nanotubes (Zn-CNTs) composite was prepared, characterized and used in O 3 system for the enhanced degradation and mineralization of chlorinated phenol. The Zn-CNTs was characterized by SEM, BET and XRD, and the degradation of 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol (CMP) in aqueous solution was investigated using Zn-CNTs/O 3 system. The experimental results showed that the rate constant of total organic carbon (TOC) removal was 0.29 min -1 , much higher than that of only O 3 system (0.059 min -1 ) because Zn-CNTs/O 2 system could generate H 2 O 2 in situ, the concentration of H 2 O 2 could reach 156.14 mg/L within 60 min at pH 6.0. The high mineralization ratio of CMP by Zn-CNTs/O 3 occurred at wide pH range (3.0-9.0). The increase of Zn-CNTs dosage or gas flow rate contributed to the enhancement of CMP mineralization. The intermediates of CMP degradation were identified and the possible degradation pathway was tentatively proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of DNA degradation in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue on locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Iben; Kjeldsen, Tina E; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Wojdacz, Tomasz K

    2015-12-01

    Readily accessible formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are a highly valuable source of genetic material for molecular analyses in both research and in vitro diagnostics but frequently genetic material in those samples is highly degraded. With locus-specific methylation changes being widely investigated for use as biomarkers in various aspects of clinical disease management, we aimed to evaluate to what extent standard laboratory procedures can approximate the quality of the DNA extracted from FFPE samples prior to methylation analyses. DNA quality in 107 FFPE non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples was evaluated using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis. Subsequently, the quality assessment results were correlated with the results of locus specific methylation assessment with methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). The correlation of template quality with PCR amplification performance and HRM based methylation detection indicated a significant influence of DNA quality on PCR amplification but not on methylation assessment. In conclusion, standard laboratory procedures fairly well approximate DNA degradation of FFPE samples and DNA degradation does not seem to considerably affect locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Photocatalytic methanol assisted production of hydrogen with simultaneous degradation of methyl orange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral Romao, J.I.; Salata, Rafal; Park, Sun-Young; Mul, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Platinized TiO2 prepared by photodeposition was evaluated for activity in the simultaneous conversion of methyl orange (MO), and methanol assisted formation of hydrogen. Low concentrations of MO were found ineffective for generation of hydrogen in measurable quantities upon illumination of Pt/TiO2

  14. Plasmon-resonance-enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag quantum dots/TiO2 microspheres for methyl orange degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Shang, Liwei; Wang, Dongjun; An, Li; Li, Zhonghua; Liu, Jiawen; Shen, Jun

    2018-06-01

    We successfully prepared Ag quantum dots modified TiO2 microspheres by facile solvothermal and calcination method. The as-prepared Ag quantum dots/TiO2 microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The Ag quantum dots/TiO2 photocatalyst showed excellent visible light absorption and efficient photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation. And the sample with the molar ratio of 0.05 (Ag to Ti) showed the best visible light photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation, mainly because of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects of Ag quantum dots to generate electron and hole pairs for enhanced visible light photocatalysis. Finally, possible visible light photocatalytic mechanism of Ag quantum dots/TiO2 microspheres for methyl orange degradation was proposed in detail.

  15. Copolymerization of 1-hexene and 1-dodecene with 1,3-butadiene by a versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Monteiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate an alpha-olefin (1-hexene or 1-dodecene in a high cis polybutadiene chain, using a neodymium versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system. The influence of alpha-olefin on polymerization reaction and polymer characteristics, using different weight ratios of butadiene/α-olefin, was evaluated. The copolymers were characterized by SEC, FTIR, NMR, TGA and viscosimetric analysis. The thermal stability of the polymer tended to increase with incorporation of alpha-olefins, while its microstructure was not affected. The weight average molecular mass (Mw tended to increase and the polymerization conversion tended to decrease with increasing alpha-olefins content. The copolymers showed a lower intrinsic viscosity than for the homopolymer. The results indicated that the alpha-olefins were incorporated in the polybutadiene chain.

  16. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Jiao Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25 surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2 showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO2 catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions.

  17. Characterization of methyl parathion degradation by a Burkholderia zhejiangensis strain, CEIB S4-3, isolated from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoca-Ursino, Elida C; Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Dantán-González, Edgar; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2017-12-01

    Through the use of an enrichment technique, we isolated from the agricultural soils of Morelos in central México a strain of Burkholderia zhejiangensis identified as CEIB S4-3, it's could use the pesticide methyl parathion (MP) as the only source of carbon and degrade completely p-nitrophenol (PNP). For more efficient MP and PNP degradation by the CEIB S4-3 strain, the absence of an extra carbon source, a large inoculum and an MP concentration up to 50 mg/l are required. Sequence and annotation analysis of the draft genome, showed presence of mpd functional gene, which was expressed and its activity on the MP was confirmed. Additionally, the genes coding for enzymes in the benzoquinone pathway (conducted by Gram-negative bacteria) and the benzenotriol pathway (conducted by Gram-positive bacteria) were found, which was corroborated by identification of intermediary metabolites by HPLC. Thus, we propose that B. zhejiangensis CEIB S4-3 uses both degradation pathways.

  18. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H J; Roeren, T; Holstege, A; Raedecke, J

    1987-08-01

    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  19. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  20. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  1. Novel characteristics of horseradish peroxidase immobilized onto the polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads and its methyl orange degradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we report the immobilization of in-house isolated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from Armoracia rusticana with novel characteristics. The HRP was immobilized onto the self-fabricated polyvinyl alcohol-alginate (PVA-alginate) beads using sodium nitrate as a cross-linker. The PVA-alginate beads (2.0mm size) developed using 10% PVA and 1.5% sodium alginate showed maximal immobilization yield. The surface morphologies of the PVA-alginate (control) and immobilized-HRP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The immobilized-HRP retained 64.14% of its initial activity after 10 consecutive substrate-oxidation cycles as compared to the free counterpart. Simultaneously, the thermal stability of the immobilized-HRP was significantly enhanced as compared to the free HRP. The enzyme leakage (E L ) assay was performed by storing the immobilized-HRP in phosphate buffer solution for 30days. Evidently, the leakage of immobilized-HRP was recorded to be 6.98% and 14.82% after 15 and 30days of incubation, respectively. Finally, the immobilized-HRP was used for methyl orange (MO) dye degradation in a batch mode. A noticeable decline in spectral shift accompanied by no appearance of a new peak demonstrated the complete degradation of MO. The degraded fragments of MO were scrutinized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). A plausible degradation pathway for MO was proposed based on the identified intermediates. In conclusion, the study portrays the PVA-alginate-immobilized-HRP as a cost-effective and industrially desirable green catalyst, for biotechnological at large and industrial in particular, especially for the treatment of textile dyes or dye-containing industrial waste effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cube-like Cu2MoS4 photocatalysts for visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cube-like Cu2MoS4 nanoparticles with low-index facets and high crystallinity were fabricated via a hydrothermal method. The as-obtained nanocubes with an average size of 40-60 nm are composed of stacking-Cu2MoS4 layers separated by a weak Van der Waals gap of 0.5 nm. A strong absorption at visible light region is observed in the nanocube aqueous solution, indicating its optical-band gap of 1.78 eV. The photocatalytic measurements reveal that the nanocubes can thoroughly induce the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation with good structural stability. Our finding may provide a way in design and fabrication of transition metal dichalcogenide nanostructures for practical applications.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with W-doped TiO2 synthesized by a hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hua; Ma Junfeng; Li Kang; Li Jinjun

    2008-01-01

    Nanosized W-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method, and characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and BET surface area analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of undoped TiO 2 and W-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst is much higher than that of undoped TiO 2 , and the optimum percentage of W doped is 2.0 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the doped photocatalyst may be attributed to the increase in the charge separation efficiency and the presence of surface acidity

  4. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under the Daylight Irradiation over CN-TiO₂ Modified with OMS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Chen, Jing; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-12-12

    In this study, CN-TiO₂ was modified with cryptomelane octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) by the sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique to enhance its photocatalytic activity under the daylight irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and porosimeter analysis. The results showed that the addition of OMS-2 in the sol lead to higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, pore volume, porosity of particle after heat treatment and the specific surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Compared to the CN-TiO₂-400 sample, CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region due to the OMS-2 coated. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO₂/OMS-2 composite photocatalyst was subsequently evaluated for the degradation of the methyl orange dye under the daylight irradiation in water. The results showed that the methyl orange dye degradation rate reach to 37.8% for the CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 sample under the daylight irradiation for 5 h, which was higher than that of reference sample. The enhancement in daylight photocatalytic activities of the CN-TiO₂/OMS samples could be attributed to the synergistic effects of OMS-2 coated, larger surface area and red shift in adsorption edge of the prepared sample.

  5. Methods for measuring specific rates of mercury methylation and degradation and their use in determining factors controlling net rates of mercury methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlal, P.S.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Hecky, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate specific rates of demethylation of methyl mercury in aquatic samples by measuring the volatile 14 C end products of 14 CH 3 HgI demethylation. This method was used in conjuction with a 203 Hg 2+ radiochemical method which determines specific rates of mercury methylation. Together, these methods enabled us to examine some factors controlling the net rate of mercury methylation. The methodologies were field tested, using lake sediment samples from a recently flooded reservoir in the Southern Indian Lake system which had developed a mercury contamination problem in fish. Ratios of the specific rates of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation occurred in the flooded shorelines of Southern Indian Lake. These results provide an explanation for the observed increases in the methyl mercury concentrations in fish after flooding

  6. Enhancing Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Blue Using PVP-Capped and Uncapped CdSe Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chepape, Kgobudi Frans; Mofokeng, Thapelo Prince; Nyamukamba, Pardon; Mubiayi, Kalenga Pierre; Moloto, Makwena Justice

    2017-01-01

    Quantum confinement of semiconductor nanoparticles is a potential feature which can be interesting for photocatalysis, and cadmium selenide is one simple type of quantum dot to use in the following photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. CdSe nanoparticles capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in various concentration ratios were synthesized by the chemical reduction method and characterized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the samples showed that 50% PVP-capped Cd...

  7. Involvement of a novel enzyme, MdpA, in methyl tert-butyl ether degradation in Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Battaglia, Vince; Scow, Kate; Kane, Staci; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2008-11-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a well-characterized environmental strain capable of complete metabolism of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Using a molecular genetic system which we established to study MTBE metabolism by PM1, we demonstrated that the enzyme MdpA is involved in MTBE removal, based on insertional inactivation and complementation studies. MdpA is constitutively expressed at low levels but is strongly induced by MTBE. MdpA is also involved in the regulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) removal under certain conditions but is not directly responsible for TBA degradation. Phylogenetic comparison of MdpA to related enzymes indicates close homology to the short-chain hydrolyzing alkane hydroxylases (AH1), a group that appears to be a distinct subfamily of the AHs. The unique, substrate-size-determining residue Thr(59) distinguishes MdpA from the AH1 subfamily as well as from AlkB enzymes linked to MTBE degradation in Mycobacterium austroafricanum.

  8. Mechanical, relaxation behavior and thermal degradation of UV irradiated poly(vinyl acetate)/poly( methyl methacrylate) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.A.; Hafez, M.; Hussien, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of different doses of UV- irradiation on the mechanical and relaxation properties of poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends were studied. Films of PVAc/PMMA blend with different contents were prepared using the casting technique. Also, PMMA could be blended with PVAc to improve its impact strength. Moreover UV-irradiation causes degradation of PVAc and formation of ketonic and aldehyde carbonyl groups according to a suggested scheme. Irradiation of PvAc/ PMMA blends causes a higher degree of degradation as compared to the PVAc alone although the PMMA is more susceptible than PVAc to the influence of radiation. Recognizable differences are observed for all parameters between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. Existence of a relaxation mechanism within the first 200s is reported. The shear modulus for all samples is also obtained and discussed. These data are used to calculate the strain energy density using the equation proposed by Blatzetal(1974 trans. Soc.Rheol. 18 145-61), based on the n-measure of Sethe

  9. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of copper-doped titanium oxide–zinc oxide heterojunction for methyl orange degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorraj, Masoumeh, E-mail: masidor20@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alizadeh, Mahdi [UM Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC), Level 4 Wisma R& D, University of Malaya, Jalan Pantai Baharu, 59990 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sairi, Nor Asrina, E-mail: asrina@um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Basirun, Wan Jefrey [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Goh, Boon Tong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • The novel Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO heterojunction nanocomposite was synthesized for the first time via a two-step process. • The Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO heterostructured nanocomposite exhibited an enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for MO degradation. • The heterostructured nanocomposite could be recycled during the degradation of MO in a three-cycle experiment with good stability. - Abstract: A novel Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} coupled with ZnO nanoparticles (Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO) was prepared by sol-gel method and subsequent precipitation for methyl orange (MO) photodegradation under visible light irradiation. The compositions and shapes of the as-prepared Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller adsorption isotherm techniques. The Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanocomposites showed considerably higher photocatalytic activity for MO removal from water under visible light irradiation than that of single-doped semiconductors. The effects of Cu-TiO{sub 2} and ZnO mass ratios on the photocatalytic reaction were also studied. A coupling percentage of 30% ZnO exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanocomposites was mainly attributed to heterojunction formation, which allowed the efficient separation of photoinduced electron−hole pairs at the interface. Moreover, these novel nanocomposites could be recycled during MO degradation in a three-cycle experiment without evident deactivation, which is particularly important in environmental applications.

  10. Formic acid enhanced effective degradation of methyl orange dye in aqueous solutions under UV-Vis irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Bai, Renbi

    2016-09-15

    Developing efficient technologies to treat recalcitrant organic dye wastewater has long been of great research and practical interest. In this study, a small molecule, formic acid (FA), was applied as a process enhancer for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye as a model recalcitrant organic pollutant in aqueous solutions under the condition of UV-Vis light irradiation and air aeration at the ambient temperature of 25 °C. It was found that the decolouration of the dye solutions can be rapidly achieved, reducing the time, for example, from around 17.6 h without FA to mostly about less than 2 h with the presence of FA. The mineralization rate of MO dye reached as high as 81.8% in 1.5 h in the case of initial MO dye concentration at 25 mg L(-1), which is in contrast to nearly no mineralization of the MO dye for a similar system without the FA added. The study revealed that the generation of the H2O2 species in the system was enhanced and the produced OH radicals effectively contributed to the degradation of the MO dye. Process parameters such as the initial concentration of MO dye, FA dosage and solution pH were all found to have some effect on the degradation efficiency under the same condition of UV-Vis light irradiation and air aeration. The MO dye degradation performance was found to follow a first-order reaction rate to the MO dye concentration in most cases and there existed a positive correlation between the reaction rate constant and the initial FA concentration. Compared to the traditional H2O2/UV-Vis oxidation system, the use of FA as a process-enhancing agent can have the advantages of low cost, easy availability, and safe to use. The study hence demonstrates a promising approach to use a readily available small molecule of FA to enhance the degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants, such as MO dye, especially for their pre-treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Redox-initiated poly(methyl methcrylate) emulsion polymerizations stabilized with block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide), e-caprolactone and linoleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, B.H.; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  12. Redox-Initiated Poly(methyl methacrylate) Emulsion Polymerizations Stabilized with Block Copolymers Based on Methoxy-Poly(ethylene glycol), epsilon-Caprolactone, and Linoleic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Boonhua; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  13. Mentha pulegium crude extracts induce thiol oxidation and potentiate hemolysis when associated to t-butyl hydroperoxide in human’s erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHEUS C. BIANCHINI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mentha pulegium (Lamiaceae tea has been used as a traditional medicine; however, the modulatory effect of M. pulegium extracts on damage to human erythrocytes associated to t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP exposure remains to be investigated. Accordingly, we perform this study in order to test the hypothesis that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of M. pulegium could modulate the hemolysis associated to t-BHP exposure, non-protein thiol (NPSH oxidation and lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS in human erythrocytes. Samples were co-incubated with t-BHP (4 mmol/L and/or aqueous or ethanolic extracts (10-1000 mg/mL during 120 min to further analysis. We found that both extracts, when associated to t-BHP, potentiate NPSH oxidation and hemolysis. Moreover, both extracts significantly prevents against t-BHP-induced TBARS production. A significant correlation among hemolysis and NPSH levels was found. Taking together, our data points that the association of M. pulegium extracts with t-BHP culminates in toxic effect to exposed erythrocytes, besides its protective effect against t-BHP-induced TBARS production. So, we infer that the use of this extract may exert negative effect during painful crisis in sickle cell anemia. However, more studies are still necessary to better investigate/understand the mechanism(s involved in the toxic effect resultant from this association.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion by Fe_3O_4@SiO_2@mTiO_2 nanomicrospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lingling; Pi, Fuwei; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient photocatalyst Fe_3O_4@SiO_2@mTiO_2 with high magnetic response and large specific surface area was synthesized. • Photocatalytic efficiency of Fe_3O_4@SiO_2@mTiO_2 on Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion was higher than TiO_2 P-25. • Possible photocatalytic degradation mechanisms for the Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion were proposed. - Abstract: A novel magnetic mesoporous nanomicrospheres Fe_3O_4@SiO_2@mTiO_2 were synthetized and characterized by a series of techniques including FE-TEM, EDS, FE-SEM, PXRD, XPS, BET, TGA as well as VSM, and subsequently tested as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion under UV irradiation. The well-designed nanomicrospheres exhibit a pure and highly crystalline anatase TiO_2 layer, large specific surface area, and high-magnetic-response. Photocatalytic degradation of the three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and the formation intermediates were identified using HPLC, TOC-V_c_p_n, IC, pH meter and GC–MS. Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion disappeared after 45 min, 45 min, and 80 min UV illumination, respectively. At the end of the treatment, the total organic carbon (TOC) of the OPPs was reduced 80–85%. The main mineralization products were SO_4"2"−, NO_3"− and PO_4"3"− and Omethoate additionally formed NO_2"−. Based on the results, we proposed the photocatalytic degradation pathways for Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion.

  15. Influence of a hindered amine stabilizer (HAS) and inorganic salt mixture on degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Williams B. da; Vasconcelos, Henrique M. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da S.; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as medical supplies, which is sterilized by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy dose. However, when the PMMA is exposed to gamma rays it undergoes main chain scissions with changes in its properties. Samples of commercial PMMA containing a Hindered Amine Stabilizer (PMMA-HAS) and samples containing a salt mixture of CuCl 2 /KI (PMMA-salt) both at 0.3wt% concentration were investigated. The PMMA samples were purified by re-precipitation in methanol. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature in air at dose range of 15-100 kGy. The viscosity- average molecular weight (M v ) was analyzed by viscosity technique. Comparison of viscosity results obtained before and after irradiation of PMMA showed a decrease in Mv values on irradiated samples with the increase in dose, reflecting the random scissions that occurred in the main chain. However the decrease on M v is less in PMMA-HAS samples than control PMMA. The G value (scissions/100 eV of energy transferred to the system) obtained by viscosity analysis were used to calculated the protection value of HAS on PMMA matrix. The HAS showed a protection of 61% on PMMA molecules exposed to gamma irradiation. No efficiency action of salt mixture was observed on radiolytic degradation of PMMA. On the other hand the CuCl 2 /KI mixture influenced the mechanical behavior of PMMA and the HAS additive increased the maximum thermal degradation temperature of PMMA matrix. (author)

  16. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of copper-doped titanium oxide-zinc oxide heterojunction for methyl orange degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraj, Masoumeh; Alizadeh, Mahdi; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Goh, Boon Tong; Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah

    2017-08-01

    A novel Cu-doped TiO2 coupled with ZnO nanoparticles (Cu-TiO2/ZnO) was prepared by sol-gel method and subsequent precipitation for methyl orange (MO) photodegradation under visible light irradiation. The compositions and shapes of the as-prepared Cu-TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption isotherm techniques. The Cu-TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites showed considerably higher photocatalytic activity for MO removal from water under visible light irradiation than that of single-doped semiconductors. The effects of Cu-TiO2 and ZnO mass ratios on the photocatalytic reaction were also studied. A coupling percentage of 30% ZnO exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites was mainly attributed to heterojunction formation, which allowed the efficient separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs at the interface. Moreover, these novel nanocomposites could be recycled during MO degradation in a three-cycle experiment without evident deactivation, which is particularly important in environmental applications.

  17. Reaction mechanism for radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) as studied by ESR and ESE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Ichikawa, T.

    1991-01-01

    Reaction mechanism for the radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) has been studied based on the ESR and electron spin echo observations of the free radicals in the polymer irradiated with γ-rays. It is indicated that the side-chain radical, -CH 2 -CCH 3 (COOC-radicalH 2 )-, is the precursor for the main-chain scission. This radical transforms into the propagating-type radical, a fingerprint of the main-chain scission, without loss of the total radical concentration. UV illumination converts the side-chain radical into the acyl-type radical, -CH 2 -CCH 3 (-C-radical=O)-, which thermally transforms into the propagating-type radical. The radical of the type, -CH 2 -C-radicalCH 3 -CH 2 -, is suggested as a common, immediate precursor for the main-chain scission with and without the UV illumination, though it has not been detected because of its short life-time. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Detection and Quantification of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Strain PM1 by Real-Time TaqMan PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Hristova, Krassimira R.; Lutenegger, Christian M.; Scow, Kate M.

    2001-01-01

    The fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a widely distributed groundwater contaminant, shows potential for treatment by in situ bioremediation. The bacterial strain PM1 rapidly mineralizes and grows on MTBE in laboratory cultures and can degrade the contaminant when inoculated into groundwater or soil microcosms. We applied the TaqMan quantitative PCR method to detect and quantify strain PM1 in laboratory and field samples. Specific primers and probes were designed for the 16S ribos...

  19. Extraction/spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum(VI) with 4,6-di-t-butyl-3-methoxycatechol and Malachite Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Mitsuko; Nishizaki, Youko; Motomizu, Shoji

    1988-10-01

    Mo(VI) forms an chelate anion with 4,6-di-t-butyl-3-methoxycatechol (DBMC) and the ion asscoiate between the chelate anion and Malachite Green (MG) is extracted into toluene in the pH range from 1.8 to 3.5. DBMC was synthesized according to our previous work. The standard procedure was as follows: transfer a sample solution /Mo (VI) < 4.8 /mu/g/ into a 25 ml test tube with stopper, and add 0.5 ml each of 5 x 10/sup -2/ M sulfuric acid and 1.0 x 10/sup -3/ M MG solution. If necessary, add masking agent solution (ascorbic acid and tartaric acid). After adding water to make up to 10 ml, add 5 ml of 1.5 x 10/sup -2/ M DBMC toluene solution, then shake for 30 min. Measure the absorbance of the organic phase at 635 nm. Apparent molar absorptivity was 8.0 x 10/sup 4/ l mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ and the absorbance of the reagent blank was 0.01. The relative standard deviation of 10 measurements of 1.92 ..mu..g of Mo(VI) was 0.52 %. The present method was applied to steel samples with satisfactory results. The effect of W(VI) coexisting at concentrations over 1 x 10/sup -6/ M was corrected by the equations using apparent molar absorptivities of Mo(VI) and W(VI) obtained with or without the masking agent (2.5 x 10/sup -3/ M tartaric acid).

  20. Barley seed radiosensitivity following post-hydration in oxygen-, nitrogen- and nitrous oxide-saturated water, 1; Influence of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1990-06-01

    Dry ({approx}3.5 and 4.0 per cent moisture content) barley seeds were exposed to 350 Gy of {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays in vacuo and post-hydrated at 4degC for 8 h in O{sub 2}-, N{sub 2}-, or N{sub 2}O-saturated water. The effect of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) dissolved in the post-hydration medium on the magnitude of damage developing under these three different gaseous circumstances was studied. The post-irradiation damage and its modification by caffeine and t-BuOH was assessed in terms of 8-day-old seedling injury, peroxidase activity and total peroxides in the 8-day-old seedlings. Post-irradiation O{sub 2}-saturated hydration caused maximal 8-day-old seedling injury, and increased peroxidase activity with concomitant reduction in total peroxides. Both caffeine and t-BuOH afforded significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage. Post-irradiation N{sub 2}O-saturated hydration was even more significantly radioprotective than the N{sub 2}-saturated post-hydration. Under these circumstances, t-BuOH exerted no effect whatsoever on the N{sub 2}- and N{sub 2}O-mediated post-irradiation damage. Caffeine, on the other hand, significantly potentiated these two components of damage. A brief consideration of the physicochemical events which possibly account for the observed effects is presented. (author).

  1. CCDC 1061305: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dichloro-(P,P-di-t-butyl-N-(6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridin-2-yl)phosphinous amide)-cobalt dichloro-(P,P-di-t-butyl-N-(6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridin-2-yl)phosphinic amide)-(dimethylformamide)-cobalt dimethylformamide solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Wen; Pan, Weijing; Wang, Peng; Li, Wei; Mu, Jingshan; Weng, Gengsheng; Jia, Xiaoyu; Gong, Dirong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  2. Impact of modified graphene and microwave irradiation on thermal stability and degradation mechanism of poly (styrene-co-methyl meth acrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Mukarram [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Dammam, 31982 Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Shehzad, Farrukh [Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, (Saudi Arabia); Al-Harthi, Mamdouh A., E-mail: mamdouh@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, (Saudi Arabia); Center of Research Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Modified graphene imparts thermal stability to Poly (styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) [P(st-mma)]. • The thermal stability of P(st-mma) decreased with microwave irradiation. • The thermal stability of P(st-mma)/MG nanocomposites increased with irradiation time up to 10 min and decreased subsequently. • The degradation of P(st-mma) and P(st-mma)/MG is governed by random scission model. - Abstract: Poly (styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) [P(st-mma)] composite containing 0.1 wt% modified graphene (MG) was prepared via melt blending. MG was prepared by oxidation method using nitric acid. The P(st-mma) and P(st-mma)MG composite were irradiated using microwave radiation. The degradation mechanism and thermal stability of the irradiated and un-irradiated samples was analyzed by TGA. P(st-mma)MG showed high thermal stability. The average activation energy of thermal degradation was found to be 200 kJ/mol for P(st-mma), 214 kJ/mol for P(st-mma)MG. The activation energy was highest for 10 min irradiated nanocomposites indicating an improvement in stability. The degradation mechanism was investigated by comparing the master plots constructed using the experimental data with theoretical master plots of various kinetic models. The thermal degradation of P(st-mma) and P(st-mma)MG composite before and after irradiation governs the random scission mechanism. SEM and TEM micrographs showed improved interactions and degradation of composites after 10 min and 20 min irradiation respectively.

  3. Aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether in a closed symbiotic system containing a mixed culture of Chlorella ellipsoidea and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weihong; Li, Yixiao; Sun, Kedan; Jin, Jing; Li, Xuanzhen; Zhang, Fuming; Chen, Jianmeng

    2011-01-30

    The contamination of groundwater by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is one of the most serious environmental problems around the world. MTBE degradation in a closed algal-bacterial symbiotic system, containing a mixed culture of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 and Chlorella ellipsoidea, was investigated. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system showed increased MTBE degradation. The MTBE-degradation rate in the mixed culture (8.808 ± 0.007 mg l(-1) d(-1)) was higher than that in the pure bacterial culture (5.664 ± 0.017 mg l(-1) d(-1)). The level of dissolved oxygen was also higher in the mixed culture than that in the pure bacterial culture. However, the improved efficiency of MTBE degradation was not in proportional to the biomass of the alga. The optimal ratio of initial cell population of bacteria to algae was 100:1. An immobilized culture of mixed bacteria and algae also showed higher MTBE degradation rate than the immobilized pure bacterial culture. A mixed culture with algae and PM1 immobilized separately in different gel beads showed higher degradation rate (8.496 ± 0.636 mg l(-1) d(-1)) than that obtained with algae and PM1 immobilized in the same gel beads (5.424 ± 0.010 mg l(-1) d(-1)). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabrication of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiping; Xiao, Xinyan; Zheng, Lili; Wan, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel approach was developed for fabrication of TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite photocatalyst using bulk MoS 2 as a photosensitizer and zeolite as carrier. The as-prepared TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of methyl orange under visible-light irradiation. - Highlights: • Ultrasound-exfoliation and hydrothermal reforming technique were employed for generating nano-MoS 2 from micro-MoS 2 . • The embedded sensitizer composite mode of (TiO 2 /MoS 2 /TiO 2 ) was used in the fabrication of TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite photocatalyst. • The photocatalytic mechanism of TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite photocatalyst was presented. - Abstract: TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite photocatalysts with visible-light activity were fabricated via a simple ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis method, using TiCl 4 as Ti source, MoS 2 as a direct sensitizer, glycerol water solution with certain dispersion agent as hydrolytic agent, and zeolite as carrier. The structure, morphology, composition, optical properties, and specific surface area of the as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM–EDS, TEM, XPS, UV–vis, PL and BET analyzer, respectively. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity and degradation kinetics of as-prepared photocatalysts with xenon lamp as irradiation source. The results indicate that: (1) TiO 2 /MoS 2 @zeolite composite photocatalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for methyl orange (MO) degradation compared to Degussa P25; (2) photocatalytic degradation of MO obeys Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model (pseudo-first order reaction), and its degradation rate constant (k app ) (2.304 h −1 ) is higher than that of Degussa P25 (0.768 h −1 ); (3) the heterostructure consisted of zeolite, MoS 2 and TiO 2 nanostructure could provide synergistic effect for degradation

  5. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}@zeolite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiping; Xiao, Xinyan, E-mail: cexyxiao@scut.edu.cn; Zheng, Lili; Wan, Caixia

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel approach was developed for fabrication of TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}@zeolite photocatalyst using bulk MoS{sub 2} as a photosensitizer and zeolite as carrier. The as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}@zeolite composite exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of methyl orange under visible-light irradiation. - Highlights: • Ultrasound-exfoliation and hydrothermal reforming technique were employed for generating nano-MoS{sub 2} from micro-MoS{sub 2}. • The embedded sensitizer composite mode of (TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}) was used in the fabrication of TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}@zeolite composite photocatalyst. • The photocatalytic mechanism of TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}@zeolite photocatalyst was presented. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}@zeolite composite photocatalysts with visible-light activity were fabricated via a simple ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis method, using TiCl{sub 4} as Ti source, MoS{sub 2} as a direct sensitizer, glycerol water solution with certain dispersion agent as hydrolytic agent, and zeolite as carrier. The structure, morphology, composition, optical properties, and specific surface area of the as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM–EDS, TEM, XPS, UV–vis, PL and BET analyzer, respectively. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity and degradation kinetics of as-prepared photocatalysts with xenon lamp as irradiation source. The results indicate that: (1) TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}@zeolite composite photocatalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for methyl orange (MO) degradation compared to Degussa P25; (2) photocatalytic degradation of MO obeys Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model (pseudo-first order reaction), and its degradation rate constant (k{sub app}) (2.304 h{sup −1}) is higher than that of Degussa P25 (0.768 h{sup −1}); (3) the heterostructure

  6. Effect of benzene and ethylbenzene on the transcription of methyl-tert-butyl ether degradation genes of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Geetika; Schmidt, Radomir; Scow, Kate M; Denison, Michael S; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-09-01

    Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its degradation by-product, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), are widespread contaminants detected frequently in groundwater in California. Since MTBE was used as a fuel oxygenate for almost two decades, leaking underground fuel storage tanks are an important source of contamination. Gasoline components such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) are often present in mixtures with MTBE and TBA. Investigations of interactions between BTEX and MTBE degradation have not yielded consistent trends, and the molecular mechanisms of BTEX compounds' impact on MTBE degradation are not well understood. We investigated trends in transcription of biodegradation genes in the MTBE-degrading bacterium, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 upon exposure to MTBE, TBA, ethylbenzene and benzene as individual compounds or in mixtures. We designed real-time quantitative PCR assays to target functional genes of strain PM1 and provide evidence for induction of genes mdpA (MTBE monooxygenase), mdpJ (TBA hydroxylase) and bmoA (benzene monooxygenase) in response to MTBE, TBA and benzene, respectively. Delayed induction of mdpA and mdpJ transcription occurred with mixtures of benzene and MTBE or TBA, respectively. bmoA transcription was similar in the presence of MTBE or TBA with benzene as in their absence. Our results also indicate that ethylbenzene, previously proposed as an inhibitor of MTBE degradation in some bacteria, inhibits transcription of mdpA, mdpJ and bmoAgenes in strain PM1.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and degradation activity of Methyl orange Azo dye using synthesized CuO/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehdipour Ghazi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the photo-degradation of methyl orange (MO as a type of azo dye using a CuO/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite. A CuO/α-Fe2O3 powder with a crystalline size in the range of 27-49 nm was successfully prepared using simple co-precipitation along with a sonication method. The characterization of the synthesized sample was done via XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, FTIR and DRS analyses. The Tauc equation revealed that the band gap of the nano composite in the direct mood was 2.05 ev, which is in the visible light range. The effect of operating factors containing dye concentration, photocatalyst dosage and pH on dye degradation efficiency was measured. Response Surface Method (RSM was employed to specify the parameter effects. The photocatalytic activity of the CuO/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite was evaluated by degradation of MO under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the pH value played a very effective role in the dye degradation process efficiency. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of MO obtained was equal to 88.47% in the optimal values.

  8. Whole-Genome Analysis of the Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Staci R.; Chakicherla, Anu Y.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Schmidt, Radomir; Shin, Maria W.; Legler, Tina C.; Scow, Kate M.; Larimer, Frank W.; Lucas, Susan M.; Richardson, Paul M.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2007-01-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C5 to C12) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an ∼4-Mb circular chromosome and an ∼600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (∼99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria. PMID:17158667

  9. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange on Bi2O3 and Ag2O-Bi2O3 Nano Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of Bi2O3 and Ag2O-Bi2O3 was evaluated by degradation of aqueous methyl orange as a model dye effluent. Bi2O3 was synthesized using chemical precipitation method. Structural analysis revealed that Bi2O3 contain a unique well-crystallized phase and the average crystallite size of 22.4 nm. The SEM analysis showed that the size of Bi2O3 particles was mainly in the range of 16-22 nm. The most important variables affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes, namely reaction time, initial pH and catalyst dosage were studied, and their optimal amounts were found at 60 min, 5.58 and 0.025 g, respectively. A good correlation was found between experimental and predicted responses, confirming the reliability of the model. Incorporation of Ag2O in the structure of composite caused decreasing band gap and its response to visible light. Because a high percentage of sunlight is visible light, hence Ag2O-Bi2O3 nano-composite could be used as an efficient visible light driven photocatalyst for degradation of dye effluents by sunlight. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 15th August 2016; Revised: 20th December 2016; Accepted: 21st December 2016 How to Cite: Hosseini, S.A., Saeedi, R. (2017. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange on Bi2O3 and Ag2O-Bi2O3 Nano Photocatalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 96-105 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.623.96-105 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.623.96-105

  10. Degradation of Methyl Orange and Congo Red dyes by using TiO2 nanoparticles activated by the solar and the solar-like radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubas, Davor; Smoljanić, Goran; Juretić, Hrvoje

    2015-09-15

    In this study we used TiO2 nanoparticles as semiconductor photocatalysts for the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) and Congo Red (CR) dyes in an aqueous solution. Since TiO2 particles become photocatalytically active by UV radiation, two sources of UV-A radiation were used - natural solar radiation which contains 3-5% UV-A and artificial, solar-like radiation, created by using a lamp. The optimal doses of TiO2 of 500 mg/L for the CR and 1500 mg/L for the MO degradation were determined in experiments with the lamp and were also used in degradation experiments with natural solar light. The efficiency of each process was determined by measuring the absorbance at two visible wavelengths, 466 nm for MO and 498 nm for CR, and the total organic carbon (TOC), i.e. decolorization and mineralization, respectively. In both cases, considerable potential for the degradation of CR and MO was observed - total decolorization of the solution was achieved within 30-60 min, while the TOC removal was in the range 60-90%. CR and MO solutions irradiated without TiO2 nanoparticles showed no observable changes in either decolorization or mineralization. Three different commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were used: pure-phase anatase, pure-phase rutile, and mixed-phase preparation named Degussa P25. In terms of degradation kinetics, P25 TiO2 exhibited a photocatalytic activity superior to that of pure-phase anatase or rutile. The electric energy consumption per gram of removed TOC was determined. For nearly the same degradation effect, the consumption in the natural solar radiation experiment was more than 60 times lower than in the artificial solar-like radiation experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation induces cytoplasmic translocation of the CDKL5 kinase and its proteasomal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Laura; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2011-10-21

    Mutations in the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been found in patients with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by early onset intractable epilepsy, including infantile spasms and other types of seizures, severe developmental delay, and often the development of Rett syndrome-like features. Despite its clear involvement in proper brain development, CDKL5 functions are still far from being understood. In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the endogenous kinase in primary murine hippocampal neurons. CDKL5 was localized both in nucleus and cytoplasm and, conversely to proliferating cells, did not undergo constitutive shuttling between these compartments. Nevertheless, glutamate stimulation was able to induce the exit of the kinase from the nucleus and its subsequent accumulation in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Moreover, we found that sustained glutamate stimulation promoted CDKL5 proteasomal degradation. Both events were mediated by the specific activation of extrasynaptic pool of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Proteasomal degradation was also induced by withdrawal of neurotrophic factors and hydrogen peroxide treatment, two different paradigms of cell death. Altogether, our results indicate that both subcellular localization and expression of CDKL5 are modulated by the activation of extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and suggest regulation of CDKL5 by cell death pathways.

  12. Extrasynaptic N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Stimulation Induces Cytoplasmic Translocation of the CDKL5 Kinase and Its Proteasomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Laura; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been found in patients with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by early onset intractable epilepsy, including infantile spasms and other types of seizures, severe developmental delay, and often the development of Rett syndrome-like features. Despite its clear involvement in proper brain development, CDKL5 functions are still far from being understood. In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the endogenous kinase in primary murine hippocampal neurons. CDKL5 was localized both in nucleus and cytoplasm and, conversely to proliferating cells, did not undergo constitutive shuttling between these compartments. Nevertheless, glutamate stimulation was able to induce the exit of the kinase from the nucleus and its subsequent accumulation in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Moreover, we found that sustained glutamate stimulation promoted CDKL5 proteasomal degradation. Both events were mediated by the specific activation of extrasynaptic pool of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Proteasomal degradation was also induced by withdrawal of neurotrophic factors and hydrogen peroxide treatment, two different paradigms of cell death. Altogether, our results indicate that both subcellular localization and expression of CDKL5 are modulated by the activation of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and suggest regulation of CDKL5 by cell death pathways. PMID:21832092

  13. Cerium dioxide as a new reactive sorbent for fast degradation of parathion methyl and some other organophosphates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Kuráň, P.; Kormunda, M.; Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Došek, M.; Šťastný, M.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2014), s. 360-370 ISSN 1002-0721 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : cerium dioxide * carbonate precursor * lanthanides * organophosphate pesticide * parathion methyl * chemical warfare agents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.261, year: 2014

  14. Limonene dehydrogenase hydroxylates the allylic methyl group of cyclic monoterpenes in the anaerobic terpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes-Cala, Edinson; Liebeke, Manuel; Markert, Stephanie; Harder, Jens

    2018-05-01

    The enzymatic functionalization of hydrocarbons is a central step in the global carbon cycle initiating the mineralization of methane, isoprene and monoterpenes, the most abundant biologically produced hydrocarbons. Also, terpene-modifying enzymes have found many applications in the energy-economic biotechnological production of fine chemicals. Here we describe a limonene dehydrogenase that was purified from the facultatively anaerobic betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grown on monoterpenes under denitrifying conditions in the absence of molecular oxygen. The purified limonene:ferrocenium oxidoreductase activity hydroxylated the methyl group of limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohex-1-ene) yielding perillyl alcohol ([4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl]methanol). The enzyme had a dithiothreitol:perillyl alcohol oxidoreductase activity yielding limonene. Mass spectrometry and molecular size determinations revealed a heterodimeric enzyme comprising CtmA and CtmB. Recently the two proteins had been identified by transposon mutagenesis and proteomics as part of the cyclic terpene metabolism ( ctm ) in Castellaniella defragrans and were annotated as FAD-dependent oxidoreductases of the protein domain family phytoene dehydrogenases and related proteins (COG1233). CtmAB is the first heterodimeric enzyme in this protein superfamily. Flavins in the purified CtmAB are oxidized by ferrocenium and are reduced by limonene. Heterologous expression of CtmA, CtmB and CtmAB in E. coli demonstrated that limonene dehydrogenase activity required both subunits carrying each a flavin cofactor. Native CtmAB oxidized a wide range of monocyclic monoterpenes containing the allylic methyl group motif (1-methyl-cyclohex-1-ene). In conclusion, we have identified CtmAB as a hydroxylating limonene dehydrogenase and the first heteromer in a family of FAD-dependent dehydrogenases acting on allylic methylene or methyl CH-bonds. We suggest a placement in EC 1

  15. Photocatalytic activity of attapulgite–BiOCl–TiO2 toward degradation of methyl orange under UV and visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Jiahui; Zhang, Weiguang; Liu, Jianquan; Zhong, Hui; Zhao, Yijiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Excellent photocatalyst was obtained by introducing BiOCl–TiO 2 onto attapulgite. • 100 mg L −1 methyl orange (MO) was totally decomposed under UV light within 70 min. • 92.6% of 10 mg L −1 MO was decomposed within 120 min under visible light. • ATT–BiOCl–TiO 2 show better activity than P 25 especially under visible light. • Mechanism of photocatalytic activity enhancement was identified. - Abstract: An environmental friendly composite photocatalyst with efficient UV and visible light activity has been synthesized by introducing BiOCl–TiO 2 hybrid oxide onto the surface of attapulgite (ATT) (denoted as ATT–BiOCl–TiO 2 ), using a simple in situ depositing technique. The obtained products were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra measurements. Results showed that BiOCl–TiO 2 composite particles were successfully loaded onto attapulgite fibers' surface without obvious aggregation. The photocatalytic activity of ATT–BiOCl–TiO 2 was investigated by degradation of methyl orange under UV and visible light irradiation. It was found that 100 mg L −1 methyl orange was totally decomposed under UV light within 70 min and 92.57% of 10 mg L −1 methyl orange was decomposed under visible light within 120 min using ATT–BiOCl–TiO 2 as photocatalyst. These results were quite better than that of P 25 , especially under visible light irradiation. Possible mechanism for the enhancement was proposed

  16. The involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the degradation of NAD caused by γ-radiation and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, C.J.; Davies, M.I.; Goodwin, P.M.; Halldorsson, H.; Lewis, P.J.; Shall, S.; Zia'ee, A.

    1979-01-01

    Both N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and γ-radiation lower cellular NAD in mouse leukaemia cells (L1210) in a dose-dependent way. The minimum NAD level is reached 2 h after a brief exposure to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, but within 15 min of γ-irradiation. The cells remain metabolically active; they are able to recover their control NAD levels and are impermeable to trypan blue. Several inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibit the drop in cellular NAD caused by these two agents: 2 mM 5-methylnicotinamide, 1 mM theophylline or 1 mM theobromine inhibit the effect of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on cellular NAD level; 200 μM thymidine, 500 μM 5-methylnicotinaminde, 500 μM thephylline and 500 μM theobromine prevent the lowering of cellular NAD by γ-irradiation. The extent to which the drop in cellular NAD is inhibited is dependent on both the concentration of cytotoxic agent and of polymerase inhibitor. Caffeine will inhibit the drop in NAD but only at 10 mM, while nicotonic acid is ineffictive even at this dose. The activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is permeabilized cells immediately after γ-radiation increases with dose up to 12 krad, giving a maximal 3.4-fold stimulation of the enzyme activity, whereas the degradation of NAD under conditions optimal for NAD glycohydrolase does not change. The activity of the polymerase shows a close temporal correlation with the NAD drop following both γ-radiation and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. The enzyme activity is maximal when the NAD content. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  17. CCDC 1477580: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : bis(mu-(4-t-butyl-2-(((2-oxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)sulfanyl)methyl)-6-(((2-oxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)sulfanyl)methyl)phenolato))-di-iron

    KAUST Repository

    Monica, Francesco Della; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Buonerba, Antonio; De Nisi, Assunta; Monari, Magda; Milione, Stefano; Grassi, Alfonso; Cavallo, Luigi; Capacchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue using silver ion doped titanium dioxide by combination of experimental design and response surface approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, C; Gupta, A K

    2012-05-15

    Photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MYB) was studied using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. Catalytic dose, initial concentration of dye and pH of the reaction mixture were found to influence the degradation process most. The degradation was found to be effective in the range catalytic dose (0.5-1.5g/L), initial dye concentration (25-100ppm) and pH of reaction mixture (5-9). Using the three factors three levels Box-Behnken design of experiment technique 15 sets of experiments were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential parameters. The results of the experiments were fitted to two quadratic polynomial models developed using response surface methodology (RSM), representing functional relationship between the decolorization and mineralization of MYB and the experimental parameters. Design Expert software version 8.0.6.1 was used to optimize the effects of the experimental parameters on the responses. The optimum values of the parameters were dose of Ag(+) doped TiO(2) 0.99g/L, initial concentration of MYB 57.68ppm and pH of reaction mixture 7.76. Under the optimal condition the predicted decolorization and mineralization rate of MYB were 95.97% and 80.33%, respectively. Regression analysis with R(2) values >0.99 showed goodness of fit of the experimental results with predicted values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sono-chemical Synthesis Fe3O4-Mg(OH2 Nanocomposite and Its Photo-catalyst Investigation in Methyl Orange Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nabiyouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work firstly Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via a sono-chemical method. At the second step magnesium hydroxide shell was synthesized on the magnetite-core under ultrasonic waves. For preparation Fe3O4-MgO the product was calcinated at 400 ºC for 2h. Properties of the product were examined by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM shows nanoparticles exhibit super-paramagnetic behavior. The photo-catalytic behavior of Fe3O4-Mg(OH2  nanocomposite was evaluated using the degradation of a methyl orange (MeO aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV light irradiation. The results show that Fe3O4-Mg(OH2 nanocomposites have applicable magnetic and photo-catalytic performance.

  20. Altered methylation and expression of ER-associated degradation factors in long-term alcohol and constitutive ER stress-induced murine hepatic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eHan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from liver cancer in humans is increasingly attributable to heavy or long-term alcohol consumption. The mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its carcinogenic effect are not well understood. In this study, the role of alcohol-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response in liver cancer development was investigated using an animal model with a liver knockout of the chaperone BiP and under constitutive hepatic ER stress. Long-term alcohol and high fat diet (HFD feeding resulted in higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, impaired ER stress response, and higher incidence of liver tumor in older (aged 16 months knockout females than in either middle-aged (6 months knockouts or older (aged 16 months wild type females. In the older knockout females, stronger effects of the alcohol on methylation of CpG islands at promoter regions of genes involved in the ER associated degradation (ERAD were also detected. Altered expression of ERAD factors including derlin 3, Creld2 (cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2, Herpud1 (ubiquitin-like domain member, Wfs1 (wolfram syndrome gene, and Yod1 (deubiquinating enzyme 1 was co-present with decreased proteasome activities, increased estrogen receptor alpha variant (ERa36, and enhanced phosphorylations of ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and STAT3 (the signal transducers and activators of transcription in the older knockout female fed alcohol. Our results suggest that long-term alcohol consumption and ageing may promote liver tumorigenesis in females through interfering with DNA methylation and expression of genes involved in the ER associated degradation.

  1. Synthesis of NiO:V2O5 nanocomposite and its photocatalytic efficiency for methyl orange degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam A. Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium oxide has been largely exploited as a catalyst in many industrial applications. In this article, we show the synthesis of vanadium oxide (V2O5: Nickel Oxide (NiO composite using sol-gel method at optimum conditions. The composite nanomaterials were used to remove methyl orange from waste water via harnessing the photocatalytic activity of it which showed an excellent efficiency of removal at 88%, and 93% after the exposure to the light, and light with heating respectively. This will pave the way into further implementation of these nanomaterials in the removal of some other dyes and contaminants from wastewater. Keywords: Materials chemistry, Physical chemistry, Chemical engineering, Inorganic chemistry

  2. Gene mdpC plays a regulatory role in the methyl-tert-butyl ether degradation pathway of Methylibium petroleiphilum strain PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Geetika; Schmidt, Radomir; Scow, Kate M; Denison, Michael S; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2015-04-01

    Among the few bacteria known to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a sole carbon source, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a well-characterized organism with a sequenced genome; however, knowledge of the genetic regulation of its MTBE degradation pathway is limited. We investigated the role of a putative transcriptional activator gene, mdpC, in the induction of MTBE-degradation genes mdpA (encoding MTBE monooxygenase) and mdpJ (encoding tert-butyl alcohol hydroxylase) of strain PM1 in a gene-knockout mutant mdpC(-). We also utilized quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays targeting genes mdpA, mdpJ and mdpC to determine the effects of the mutation on transcription of these genes. Our results indicate that gene mdpC is involved in the induction of both mdpA and mdpJ in response to MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) exposure in PM1. An additional independent mechanism may be involved in the induction of mdpJ in the presence of TBA. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Involvement of a Novel Enzyme, MdpA, in Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Degradation in Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Battaglia, Vince; Scow, Kate; Kane, Staci; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2008-01-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a well-characterized environmental strain capable of complete metabolism of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Using a molecular genetic system which we established to study MTBE metabolism by PM1, we demonstrated that the enzyme MdpA is involved in MTBE removal, based on insertional inactivation and complementation studies. MdpA is constitutively expressed at low levels but is strongly induced by MTBE. MdpA is also involved in the regulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) removal under certain conditions but is not directly responsible for TBA degradation. Phylogenetic comparison of MdpA to related enzymes indicates close homology to the short-chain hydrolyzing alkane hydroxylases (AH1), a group that appears to be a distinct subfamily of the AHs. The unique, substrate-size-determining residue Thr59 distinguishes MdpA from the AH1 subfamily as well as from AlkB enzymes linked to MTBE degradation in Mycobacterium austroafricanum. PMID:18791002

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanoparticle/functionalized graphene sheet nanocomposites for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shancheng; Wang, Bojun; Shi, Yi; Yang, Fan; Hu, Dong; Xu, Xin; Wu, Jiansheng

    2013-01-01

    CdS nanoparticle/functionalized graphene sheet (CdS NP/FGS) nanocomposites were successfully prepared in a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of CdS NP/FGS composites and pure CdS in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was examined using visible light. Results show that the addition of FGS can enhance the photocatalytic performance of CdS NP/FGS composites with a maximum degradation efficiency of 98.1% under visible light irradiation as compared with pure CdS (60.1%). This finding can be attributed to three reasons. First is the strong redox ability of CdS in the nanocomposite with smaller crystal size. Second is the increase in specific surface area for more adsorbed MO. Third is the reduction in electron–hole pair recombination with the introduction of FGS. Based on their high photocatalytic activity, the CdS NP/FGS composites can be expected to be a practical visible light photocatalyst.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanoparticle/functionalized graphene sheet nanocomposites for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Bojun [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Shi, Yi [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Fan; Hu, Dong; Xu, Xin; Wu, Jiansheng [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2013-11-15

    CdS nanoparticle/functionalized graphene sheet (CdS NP/FGS) nanocomposites were successfully prepared in a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of CdS NP/FGS composites and pure CdS in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was examined using visible light. Results show that the addition of FGS can enhance the photocatalytic performance of CdS NP/FGS composites with a maximum degradation efficiency of 98.1% under visible light irradiation as compared with pure CdS (60.1%). This finding can be attributed to three reasons. First is the strong redox ability of CdS in the nanocomposite with smaller crystal size. Second is the increase in specific surface area for more adsorbed MO. Third is the reduction in electron–hole pair recombination with the introduction of FGS. Based on their high photocatalytic activity, the CdS NP/FGS composites can be expected to be a practical visible light photocatalyst.

  6. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue using silver ion doped titanium dioxide by combination of experimental design and response surface approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, C. [Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Gupta, A.K., E-mail: agupta@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of color removal and COD removal done by response surface approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experiments were designed using Box-Behnken spherical design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two quadratic polynomial models were developed for the responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single point numerical optimization was done considering three constraints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Validation by performing the experiment under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MYB) was studied using Ag{sup +} doped TiO{sub 2} under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. Catalytic dose, initial concentration of dye and pH of the reaction mixture were found to influence the degradation process most. The degradation was found to be effective in the range catalytic dose (0.5-1.5 g/L), initial dye concentration (25-100 ppm) and pH of reaction mixture (5-9). Using the three factors three levels Box-Behnken design of experiment technique 15 sets of experiments were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential parameters. The results of the experiments were fitted to two quadratic polynomial models developed using response surface methodology (RSM), representing functional relationship between the decolorization and mineralization of MYB and the experimental parameters. Design Expert software version 8.0.6.1 was used to optimize the effects of the experimental parameters on the responses. The optimum values of the parameters were dose of Ag{sup +} doped TiO{sub 2} 0.99 g/L, initial concentration of MYB 57.68 ppm and pH of reaction mixture 7.76. Under the optimal condition the predicted decolorization and mineralization rate of MYB were 95.97% and 80.33%, respectively. Regression analysis with R{sup 2} values >0.99 showed goodness of fit of the experimental results with predicted values.

  7. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue using silver ion doped titanium dioxide by combination of experimental design and response surface approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, C.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimization of color removal and COD removal done by response surface approach. ► The experiments were designed using Box–Behnken spherical design. ► Two quadratic polynomial models were developed for the responses. ► Single point numerical optimization was done considering three constraints. ► Validation by performing the experiment under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MYB) was studied using Ag + doped TiO 2 under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. Catalytic dose, initial concentration of dye and pH of the reaction mixture were found to influence the degradation process most. The degradation was found to be effective in the range catalytic dose (0.5–1.5 g/L), initial dye concentration (25–100 ppm) and pH of reaction mixture (5–9). Using the three factors three levels Box–Behnken design of experiment technique 15 sets of experiments were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential parameters. The results of the experiments were fitted to two quadratic polynomial models developed using response surface methodology (RSM), representing functional relationship between the decolorization and mineralization of MYB and the experimental parameters. Design Expert software version 8.0.6.1 was used to optimize the effects of the experimental parameters on the responses. The optimum values of the parameters were dose of Ag + doped TiO 2 0.99 g/L, initial concentration of MYB 57.68 ppm and pH of reaction mixture 7.76. Under the optimal condition the predicted decolorization and mineralization rate of MYB were 95.97% and 80.33%, respectively. Regression analysis with R 2 values >0.99 showed goodness of fit of the experimental results with predicted values.

  8. Titanium Dioxide Supported on Different Porous Materials as Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Methyl Green in Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haithem Bel Hadjltaief

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles were immobilized on two porous materials used as catalyst supports, namely, activated carbon (AC and natural clay (NC, through an impregnation process using TiO2 (P25 as precursor. The so-prepared composite materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transition electron microscopy (TEM, and nitrogen physisorption, that is, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area determination. SEM and TEM observation evidenced that TiO2 was deposited on AC and NC surface. XRD results confirmed that TiO2 existed in a mixture of anatase and rutile phases. The specific surface area of photocatalysts decreased drastically in comparison with the original materials. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was assayed in the oxidation of Methyl Green (MG dye in aqueous medium under UV irradiation. TiO2/AC exhibited higher photocatalytic oxidation activity than TiO2 at neutral pH. Total mineralization of MG was confirmed by means of COD analysis, pointing to these materials as an efficient, cost-effective, and environment friendly alternative for water treatment.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} nanomicrospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lingling, E-mail: zllyslngj@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Pi, Fuwei; Wang, Yifan [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Xu, Hui [Key Laboratory of Healthy & Intelligent Kitchen System Integration, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315336 (China); Zhang, Yinzhi [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Sun, Xiulan, E-mail: sxlzzz@jiangnan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • An efficient photocatalyst Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} with high magnetic response and large specific surface area was synthesized. • Photocatalytic efficiency of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} on Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion was higher than TiO{sub 2} P-25. • Possible photocatalytic degradation mechanisms for the Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion were proposed. - Abstract: A novel magnetic mesoporous nanomicrospheres Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} were synthetized and characterized by a series of techniques including FE-TEM, EDS, FE-SEM, PXRD, XPS, BET, TGA as well as VSM, and subsequently tested as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion under UV irradiation. The well-designed nanomicrospheres exhibit a pure and highly crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} layer, large specific surface area, and high-magnetic-response. Photocatalytic degradation of the three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and the formation intermediates were identified using HPLC, TOC-V{sub cpn}, IC, pH meter and GC–MS. Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion disappeared after 45 min, 45 min, and 80 min UV illumination, respectively. At the end of the treatment, the total organic carbon (TOC) of the OPPs was reduced 80–85%. The main mineralization products were SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and Omethoate additionally formed NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Based on the results, we proposed the photocatalytic degradation pathways for Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion.

  10. Isolate PM1 populations are dominant and novel methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading bacterial in compost biofilter enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, M A; Hanson, J R; Mefford, J; Scow, K M

    2001-03-01

    The gasoline additive MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, is a widespread and persistent groundwater contaminant. MTBE undergoes rapid mineralization as the sole carbon and energy source of bacterial strain PM1, isolated from an enrichment culture of compost biofilter material. In this report, we describe the results of microbial community DNA profiling to assess the relative dominance of isolate PM1 and other bacterial strains cultured from the compost enrichment. Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling approaches were evaluated: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 230 bp 16S rDNA fragments; thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of 575 bp 16S rDNA fragments; and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 300-1,500 bp fragments containing 16S/23S ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Whereas all three DNA profiling approaches indicated that PM1-like bands predominated in mixtures from MTBE-grown enrichments, ITS profiling provided the most abundant and specific sequence data to confirm strain PM1's presence in the enrichment. Moreover, ITS profiling did not produce non-specific PCR products that were observed with T/DGGE. A further advantage of ITS community profiling over other methods requiring restriction digestion (e.g. terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms) was that it did not require an additional digestion step or the use of automated sequencing equipment. ITS bands, excised from similar locations in profiles of the enrichment and PM1 pure culture, were 99.9% identical across 750 16S rDNA positions and 100% identical across 691 spacer positions. BLAST comparisons of nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequences showed 96% similarity between isolate PM1 and representatives of at least four different genera in the Leptothrix subgroup of the beta-Proteobacteria (Aquabacterium, Leptothrix, Rubrivivax and Ideonella). Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of 1,249 nucleotide

  11. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts of Fe3+, Co2+ and Cu2+ for the degradation of methyl parathion in diluted aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy A. Vela-Monroy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of pesticides (plaguicides, herbicides, fungicides, among others in aqueous media is a subject of great importance for ensuring the water quality into numerous hydric sources. This work reports the assessment of homogeneous (metal ion solutions and heterogeneous (oxides supported on alumina systems that are based on Fe3+, Co2+ y Cu2+, which were used as catalysts for oxidation (degradation of methyl parathion (a plaguicide in aqueous solution. Hydrogen peroxide was herein used as oxidizing molecule under mild condition of reaction (25 ºC and atmospheric pressure. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Fe3+/H2O2 (Fenton system was the most active homogeneous catalyst compared to Co2+/H2O2 and Cu2+/H2O2 systems. Solids catalysts such as cobalt, copper or iron oxides as well as mixed oxides supported on alumina were active at pH close to neutrality. Fe-Co-Cu/Al2O3, Co-Cu/Al2O3 and FeCo/Al2O3 mixed systems were solids with the highest catalytic activity. In addition, an important effect of the support (-Al2O3 on the reaction pH was observed, allowing to reach values close to that of the neutrality, and thus increasing the catalytic activity of both cobalt oxide and copper oxide species. These results allow advancing on a new pathway for searching catalysts to remove organophosphorous pesticides from residual waters.

  12. Template-Directed Fabrication of Anatase TiO2 Hollow Nanoparticles and Their Application in Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Chang; Wenjian Zhang; Chunyan Hong

    2017-01-01

    Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) was used to fabricate polymeric nanoparticles via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) using diblock copolymer poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-block-poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PGMMA-PDMAEMA-CTA) as the macro RAFT agent.The dispersion of polymeric nanoparticles with a final concentration of about 210 mg/g (solid content of 21%) was obtained via this efficient method (PISA).The resultant polymeric nanoparticles consisting of corona-shell-core three layers with weak polyelectrolyte PDMAEMA as the shell were used as sacrificial template to fabricate TiO2 hollow nanoparticles.The negatively charged titanium precursor was absorbed into the PDMAEMA shell via the electrostatic interaction,and hydrolyzed to form polymer/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles.Anatase TiO2 hollow nanoparticles were formed after removing the polymeric templates by calcination at 550 ℃.The experiments of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange showed that the resultant anatase TiO2 hollow nanoparticles had high photocatalytic activity and good reusability.

  13. Assessment of the UV/Cl2 advanced oxidation process for the degradation of the emerging contaminants amitriptyline hydrochloride, methyl salicylate and 2-phenoxyethanol in water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Benitez, F; Real, Francisco J; Acero, Juan L; Casas, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride (AH), methyl salicylate (MS) and 2-phenoxyethanol (PE)) frequently found in wastewaters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the advanced oxidation process (AOP) constituted by the combination of UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: AH > MS > PE. A later kinetic study was carried out focused on the evaluation of the first-order rate constants and the determination of the partial contribution to the global reaction of the direct photochemical pathway and the radical pathway. In a second stage, the simultaneous oxidation of mixtures of the selected contaminants in several types of water was also performed by the same combination UV/Cl 2 . The efficiency of this combined system UV/Cl 2 was compared to other oxidants such as the UV/[Formula: see text] and UV/H 2 O 2 AOPs, and the influence of the operating variables was discussed. Results confirmed that the UV/Cl 2 system provides higher elimination efficiencies among the AOPs tested. The presence of dissolved organic matter and bicarbonate ions in the water matrix caused a decrease in the treatment efficiency.

  14. Specific enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase activity in the HPT and HPO axes of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, María del Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Valenzuela, María Teresa; García, María Jesús; Mayas, María Dolores; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, María del Carmen; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2005-01-15

    State and function of breast depend on an endocrinological balance, the upsetting of which can be a factor favorable to the development of cancer. Enkephalins (ENK) have been considered as a particular form of adaptation to defense to the organism against neoplastic processes. However, ENK may modify the endocrine functions of glands such as the ovary or the thyroid through the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, acting direct or indirectly as endocrine, paracrine or autocrine stimulatory growth factors. The present work analyses enkephalin-degrading tyrosyl aminopeptidase (EDA) activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axes in a rat model of breast cancer induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU) to state the relationship between ENK levels modification through EDA activity at different neuroendocrine levels and breast cancer. Results obtained show a decrease in EDA activity in hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary, thyroid and ovary, suggesting increased levels of ENK in all these locations. These ENK may induce breast cancer cell growth and progression not only at breast level, but also acting at several neuroendocrine levels such as the HPT and HPO axes, inducing an unbalance of several other hormones, which could also facilitate the progression of cancer as an undesirable concomitant effect.

  15. Hierarchical structures constructed by BiOX (X = Cl, I) nanosheets on CNTs/carbon composite fibers for improved photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Baicheng, E-mail: baichengweng@gmail.com; Xu, Fenghua; Xu, Jianguang [Yancheng Institute of Technology, Materials Engineering Department (China)

    2014-12-15

    A hierarchical structure (CNTs/CFs-NSs) of BiOX (X = Cl, I) nanosheets (NSs) on carbon fibers (CFs) embedded with aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with improved photocatalytic activities has been developed on a large scale. In the CNTs/CFs obtained by centrifugal spinning, CNTs align along the axis of the CFs, form π–π stacking interactions with CFs and strength the electrical conductivity of CFs, which favors the electron collection and transportation. Cross-flake BiOX NSs were uniformly grown on the surface of CNTs/CFs through a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process. The as-prepared BiOX NSs are less than 20 nm in thickness with dominant reactive (001) facets that are almost fully exposed, promoting the photocatalytic properties. The hierarchical CNTs/CFs-NSs show 3- and 2-fold improved photocatalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange for BiOCl and BiOI compared to corresponding neat NSs, respectively, given the synergistic effects of CNTs/CFs and NSs. Moreover, these novel hierarchical structures with stable performance enhance the recycled ability for the photocatalyst.

  16. Hierarchical structures constructed by BiOX (X = Cl, I) nanosheets on CNTs/carbon composite fibers for improved photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Baicheng; Xu, Fenghua; Xu, Jianguang

    2014-01-01

    A hierarchical structure (CNTs/CFs-NSs) of BiOX (X = Cl, I) nanosheets (NSs) on carbon fibers (CFs) embedded with aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with improved photocatalytic activities has been developed on a large scale. In the CNTs/CFs obtained by centrifugal spinning, CNTs align along the axis of the CFs, form π–π stacking interactions with CFs and strength the electrical conductivity of CFs, which favors the electron collection and transportation. Cross-flake BiOX NSs were uniformly grown on the surface of CNTs/CFs through a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process. The as-prepared BiOX NSs are less than 20 nm in thickness with dominant reactive (001) facets that are almost fully exposed, promoting the photocatalytic properties. The hierarchical CNTs/CFs-NSs show 3- and 2-fold improved photocatalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange for BiOCl and BiOI compared to corresponding neat NSs, respectively, given the synergistic effects of CNTs/CFs and NSs. Moreover, these novel hierarchical structures with stable performance enhance the recycled ability for the photocatalyst

  17. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Zhang Ke; Shi Rongrong; Li Xianwei; Dong Xiaodan; Yu Yongmei

    2006-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles of about 16 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. Thermal treatment of the precursor at 500-600 deg. C results in the formation of different TiO 2 phase compositions. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Effects of the pH value of the solution, H 2 O 2 addition, TiO 2 phase composition and recycled TiO 2 on the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MeO) in TiO 2 suspensions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination were primarily investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value, proper amount of H 2 O 2 and pure anatase TiO 2 will facilitate the photocatalytic oxidation of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value of the solution and varies with different amounts of H 2 O 2 . Pure anatase TiO 2 shows better photocatalytic activity for MeO decolorization than biphase TiO 2 . The photocatalytic mechanism of the as-synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles was discussed

  18. Fabrication of efficient visible light activated Cu–P25–graphene ternary composite for photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheng [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Duan, Wubiao, E-mail: wbduan@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Liu, Bo; Chen, Xidong [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yang, Feihua; Guo, Jianping [State Key Laboratory of Solid Wastes Resource Utilization and Energy Saving Building Materials, Beijing Building Materials Academy of Sciences Research, Beijing 100041 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: This enhanced photocatalytic activity of multi-doped P25 arises due to the synergistic effect of dopants contribution to improve visible light absorption and increase of the lifetime of photo-generated charge carriers. Plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of MB on CPG nanocomposite is illustrated in the figure above. Graphene incooperated with TiO{sub 2} promotes the formation of Ti−C or Ti−O−C bonds that introduced an additional energy level above the valence band of TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, copper and graphene serve as an inhibitor of recombination by trapping electrons to promote charge separation. Simultaneously, doping Cu{sup 2+} ions into TiO{sub 2} could also induce more oxygen vacancies, which can produce more hydroxyl groups. Finally, the enhanced adsorptivity of π–π interaction between MB and the composite catalyst was as well significant for photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal method was proposed to fabricate Cu–P25–graphene ternary composite at relative low temperature. • Degradation efficiency and hydrogen evolution rate of CPG-4 was up to 98% and 1.90 mmol g{sup −1} respectively. • The efficiency of MB removal by CPG-4 was sustainable and consistent. • The particles-on-a-sheet structure and synergistic effects of Cu{sup 2+} ions and GO lead to the improved photocatalytic activity. • The effects of pH values of methyl blue solution for photocatalysts was investigated. - Abstract: Cu–P25–graphene nanocomposite was fabricated through hydrothermal method at relatively low temperature. The technique used is P25–graphene (PG) binary composite was firstly prepared by P25 and graphite oxide (GO), and then Cu{sup 2+} ions were impregnated into PG composite. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance

  19. Remarkable catalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites prepared by hydrothermal method for the degradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malligavathy, M. [Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Department of Physics (India); Iyyapushpam, S. [Thanthai Hans Roever Arts and Science College, PG and Research Department of Physics (India); Nishanthi, S. T. [Central Electro Chemical Research Institute, Electrochemical Materials Division (India); Pathinettam Padiyan, D., E-mail: dppadiyan@msuniv.ac.in [Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Department of Physics (India)

    2017-04-15

    Visible light Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites are successfully prepared with different dosages of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} by hydrothermal process. All the as-prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). XRD and Raman spectra reveal the anatase phase of both TiO{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate that the bismuth ions did not enter into the lattice of TiO{sub 2}, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} is extremely dispersive on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The incorporation of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} in TiO{sub 2} leads to the spectral response of TiO{sub 2} in the visible light region and efficient separation of charge carriers. The enhanced visible light activity is tested by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under light illumination, and the performance of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites are superior than that of pure TiO{sub 2} which is ascribed to the efficient charge separation and transfer across the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} junction. Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite (20 mg) loaded with 0.25 of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersed in 50 ml of 5 ppm methyl orange solution exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity of 98.86% within 240 min of irradiation, which is attributed to the low band gap, high surface area, and the strong interaction between Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}.

  20. Characterisation of the ester-substituted products of the reaction of p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate using LC-UV-MS and LC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Gillian; Wall, Rachel; Nolan, Kieran; Diamond, Dermot

    2002-07-19

    A series of derivatisation reactions between p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate were carried out in order to prepare 1,3 diester substituted calix[4]arene. Mass spectral data, obtained from direct injection of samples, indicated that the reactions were rich in the desired product. Since the ultra violet (UV) spectra of the desired product and possible impurities are very similar, liquid chromatography (LC) chromatographic data seemed to corroborate these results. However, when on-line LC-UV-MS was carried out and each LC peak subjected to MS analysis as it eluted, a very different picture emerged. It was found that many of these reactions actually contained high levels of the monoester product which, having less affinity for sodium in the MS, is therefore seriously underestimated in any direct injection assay. LC-diode array detection (DAD) methods were also used to help successfully identify and characterise the compounds being formed in these complex reactions. The overall results obtained in this paper allowed the optimal reaction conditions to be determined for this reaction. LC-MS analysis of the chromatographic peaks also identified the presence of two isomers of the diester substituted calix[4]arene (1,3 and 1,2 diesters). The combination of LC and UV/MS detection is required for accurate analysis of the products of such reactions.

  1. Effect of a thin layer of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) on the chromaticity of white organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Gang; Zhao Yi; Li Feng; Xie Wenfa; Liu Shiyong

    2004-11-22

    Efficient white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are demonstrated by inserting a thin layer of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq) doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) (DCJTB) into N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) layer. Alq without doping is used as an electron-transporting layer and 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine or BCP) as an exciton-blocking layer. NPB layers are separated by the doped Alq layer, the layer that sandwiched between BCP and doped Alq layers acts as a blue-emitting layer, and the other as a hole-transporting layer. The doped Alq layer acts as a red and green-emitting as well as chromaticity-tuning layer, whose thickness and position as well as the concentration of DCJTB in Alq permit the tuning of the device spectrum to achieve a balanced white emission with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33, 0.33). The device has a maximum luminance of 6745 cd/m{sup 2}, a maximum external efficiency of 1.36 %, corresponding to 2.56 cd/A.

  2. Effect of a thin layer of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) on the chromaticity of white organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Gang; Zhao Yi; Li Feng; Xie Wenfa; Liu Shiyong

    2004-01-01

    Efficient white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are demonstrated by inserting a thin layer of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq) doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) (DCJTB) into N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) layer. Alq without doping is used as an electron-transporting layer and 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine or BCP) as an exciton-blocking layer. NPB layers are separated by the doped Alq layer, the layer that sandwiched between BCP and doped Alq layers acts as a blue-emitting layer, and the other as a hole-transporting layer. The doped Alq layer acts as a red and green-emitting as well as chromaticity-tuning layer, whose thickness and position as well as the concentration of DCJTB in Alq permit the tuning of the device spectrum to achieve a balanced white emission with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33, 0.33). The device has a maximum luminance of 6745 cd/m 2 , a maximum external efficiency of 1.36 %, corresponding to 2.56 cd/A

  3. CCDC 1024818: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 5-(((t-Butyl(dimethyl)silyl)oxy)(diphenyl)methyl)-2-phenyl-2,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazole-3-selenone

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Nelson, David J.; Poater, Albert; Gó mez-Suá rez, Adriá n; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Nolan, Steven P.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. Catabolism of methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE): characterization of the enzymes of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in MTBE degradation; Catabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE): caracterisation des enzymes impliquees dans la degradation du MTBE chez Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferreira, N

    2005-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to meet the octane index requirement. its solubility in water and its poor biodegradability made the use of MTBE a great environmental concern, particularly regarding aquifers. We previously isolated M austroafricanum IFP 2012 able to use MTBE as a sole source of carbon and energy and the MTBE pathway was partially characterized. In the present study, which aimed at isolating the genes involved in MTBE biodegradation in order to use them for estimation of MTBE biodegradation capacities in contaminated environment, we isolated a new M. austroafricanum strain, IFP 2015. A new degradation intermediate, the 2-methyl 1,2-propane-diol (2-M1,2-PD), the product of tert-butanol (TBA) oxidation, was identified. We also determined the enzymes induced during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on MTBF. Then, using the tools of protein analysis and of molecular biology, we isolated and cloned the mpd genes cluster in the plasmid pCL4D. Heterologous expression of the recombinant plasmid in M smegmatis tmc2 155, showed the involvement of an 2-M1,2-PD dehydrogenase (MpdB) and a hydroxy-iso-butyr-aldehyde dehydrogenase (MpdC), encoded by mpdB and mpdC, respectively. Both enzymes were responsible for the conversion of 2-M 1,2-PD to hydroxy-isobutyric acid (HIBA). A further survey of different M austroafricanum strains, including IFP 2012, IFP 2015 and JOBS (ex-M vaccae) showed the link between the ability to grow on C{sub 2} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes and the MTBE and TBA degradation capacities. The alkB gene was partially sequenced in all these strains. Expression of alkB was demonstrated in M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 after growth on propane, hexane, hexadecane and TBA. Finally, we identified 2-propanol as the intermediate of HIBA degradation. The gene encoding the 2-propanol:p-N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitroso-aniline (NDMA) oxidoreductase was detected M austroafricanum IFP 2012. (author)

  5. Catabolism of methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE): characterization of the enzymes of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in MTBE degradation; Catabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE): caracterisation des enzymes impliquees dans la degradation du MTBE chez Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferreira, N.

    2005-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to meet the octane index requirement. its solubility in water and its poor biodegradability made the use of MTBE a great environmental concern, particularly regarding aquifers. We previously isolated M austroafricanum IFP 2012 able to use MTBE as a sole source of carbon and energy and the MTBE pathway was partially characterized. In the present study, which aimed at isolating the genes involved in MTBE biodegradation in order to use them for estimation of MTBE biodegradation capacities in contaminated environment, we isolated a new M. austroafricanum strain, IFP 2015. A new degradation intermediate, the 2-methyl 1,2-propane-diol (2-M1,2-PD), the product of tert-butanol (TBA) oxidation, was identified. We also determined the enzymes induced during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on MTBF. Then, using the tools of protein analysis and of molecular biology, we isolated and cloned the mpd genes cluster in the plasmid pCL4D. Heterologous expression of the recombinant plasmid in M smegmatis tmc2 155, showed the involvement of an 2-M1,2-PD dehydrogenase (MpdB) and a hydroxy-iso-butyr-aldehyde dehydrogenase (MpdC), encoded by mpdB and mpdC, respectively. Both enzymes were responsible for the conversion of 2-M 1,2-PD to hydroxy-isobutyric acid (HIBA). A further survey of different M austroafricanum strains, including IFP 2012, IFP 2015 and JOBS (ex-M vaccae) showed the link between the ability to grow on C{sub 2} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes and the MTBE and TBA degradation capacities. The alkB gene was partially sequenced in all these strains. Expression of alkB was demonstrated in M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 after growth on propane, hexane, hexadecane and TBA. Finally, we identified 2-propanol as the intermediate of HIBA degradation. The gene encoding the 2-propanol:p-N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitroso-aniline (NDMA) oxidoreductase was detected M austroafricanum IFP 2012. (author)

  6. Degradation of kresoxim-methyl in soil: impact of varying moisture, organic matter, soil sterilization, soil type, light and atmospheric CO2 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Ashish; Gupta, Suman; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Varghese, Eldho

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation, persistence of kresoxim-methyl (a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide) was studied in two different soil types of India namely Inceptisol and Ultisol. Results revealed that kresoxim-methyl readily form acid metabolite in soil. Therefore, residues of kresoxim-methyl were quantified on the basis of parent molecule alone and sum total of kresoxim-methyl and its acid metabolite. Among the two soil types, kresoxim-methyl and total residues dissipated at a faster rate in Inceptisol (T1/2 0.9 and 33.8d) than in Ultisol (T1/2 1.5 and 43.6d). Faster dissipation of kresoxim-methyl and total residues was observed in submerged soil conditions (T1/2 0.5 and 5.2d) followed by field capacity (T1/2 0.9 and 33.8d) and air dry (T1/2 2.3 and 51.0d) conditions. Residues also dissipated faster in 5% sludge amended soil (T1/2 0.7 and 21.1d) and on Xenon-light exposure (T1/2 0.5 and 8.0d). Total residues of kresoxim-methyl dissipated at a faster rate under elevated CO2 condition (∼550μLL(-)(1)) than ambient condition (∼385μLL(-)(1)). The study suggests that kresoxim-methyl alone has low persistence in soil. Because of the slow dissipation of acid metabolite, the total residues (kresoxim-methyl+acid metabolite) persist for a longer period in soil. Statistical analysis using SAS 9.3 software and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) revealed the significant effect of moisture regime, organic matter, microbial population, soil type, light exposure and atmospheric CO2 level on the dissipation of kresoxim-methyl from soil (at 95% confidence level p<0.0001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biogenic synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract and its effect on magnetic and Methyl orange dye degradation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Cheera; Yuvaraja, Gutha; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri, E-mail: ponneri.venkateswarlu@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    We have been developed facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using an aqueous extract of Pisum sativum peels (PS) is used as reducing and capping agent. The as synthesized PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs are characterized by diverse techniques such as FTIR, powder XRD, TEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibits high specific surface area (∼17.6 m{sup 2}/g) and agglomerated spherical in shape with the size range of 20–30 nm. The magnetic properties of PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs sample clearly exhibits ferromagnetic nature with a saturation magnetization of 64.2 emu/g. Further, the catalytic properties of PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs for degradation of Methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution have been investigated by UV–visible spectroscopy. The results show that PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs is an efficient catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye than previously reported ones. - Highlights: • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs are synthesized using Pisum sativum peels extract. • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs exhibits high specific surface area 17.6 m{sup 2}/g and ferro magnetic behavior. • PS-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs exhibits good catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye.

  8. Synthesis of ternary g-C3N4/Ag/γ-FeOOH photocatalyst: An integrated heterogeneous Fenton-like system for effectively degradation of azo dye methyl orange under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Donglin; Chen, Yanfeng; Situ, Yue; Zhong, Li; Huang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    g-C3N4/Ag/γ-FeOOH photocatalyst was prepared and the synergy of photocatalysis with heterogeneous Fenton-like process was measured by degrading methyl Orange(MO). g-C3N4 can apply electron for γ-FeOOH to change Fe3+ to Fe2+, and γ-FeOOH can help g-C3N4 to enhance the absorption of visible light. The Ag nanoparticles were photo deposited on the layer of γ-FeOOH and g-C3N4 for the separation of electron-holes. g-C3N4(5%)/Ag/γ-FeOOH showed the great ability to degrade MO, and the optimal concentration of H2O2, the effect of pH and the stability of the photocatalyst and synergistic mechanism of photocatalysity with heterogeneous Fenton-like process were also discussed in this study.

  9. Efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes en la degradación de clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión Inorganic nutrients effect addition over the chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Upegui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes (una sal de fósforo o un fertilizante comercial con N, P y K como alternativa para mejorar la capacidad de degradación de los microorganismos en una matriz sólida, contaminada con los pesticidas organofosforados: clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión, se realizaron experimentos de cultivo bajo condiciones controladas de oscuridad, temperatura y humedad por 30 días. En todos los tratamientos hubo degradación de los pesticidas; sin embargo, en el tratamiento con fósforo los tiempos para degradar el clorpirifos y el metil paratión fueron mayores. La presencia de los pesticidas no generó efectos tóxicos detectables sobre la microflora en ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados. La actividad biológica de las matrices no presentó una relación directa con la capacidad de degradación.In order to evaluate the effect of inorganic nutrient addition (phosphorus or commercial fertilizer over the microbial degradation capacity present in a solid matrix contaminated with chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion, microcosms assays were held under controlled conditions of light, moisture and temperature for 30 days. Results showed that even though three treatments microorganisms were able to degrade the three organophosphorus pesticides, microorganisms of phosphorus-enrichment treatment were less efficient to degrade Chlorpyrifos and Methyl Parathion than microorganisms of Fertilizer-enrichment treatment. It was not observed a direct relation between mineralization and microbial pesticides degradation capacity. The microbial activity was not affected by the presence of organophosphorus pesticides.

  10. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip A., E-mail: Smith.Philip.A@dol.gov [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States); Lepage, Carmela R. Jackson [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada); Savage, Paul B. [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT, 84602 (United States); Bowerbank, Christopher R.; Lee, Edgar D. [Torion Technologies Inc., 796 East Utah Valley Drive, Suite 200, American Fork, UT, 84003 (United States); Lukacs, Michael J. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H]{sup +}) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H]{sup +} ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d{sub 15} provided evidence that [M+H]{sup +} production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H]{sup +} ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  11. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip A.; Lepage, Carmela R. Jackson; Savage, Paul B.; Bowerbank, Christopher R.; Lee, Edgar D.; Lukacs, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H] + ) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H] + ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d 15 provided evidence that [M+H] + production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H] + ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  12. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  13. Water-based synthesis of TiO2/CeO2 composites supported on plasma-treated montmorillonite for parathion methyl degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.; Šťastný, Martin; Janoš, P.; Vomáčka, Petr; Matoušek, J.; Štengl, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, AUG (2017), s. 26-35 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Montmorillonite * Parathion methyl * Plasma treatment * TiO2 /CeO2 composites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  14. Luminol-and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence with rat liver microsomes. Kinetics and influence of ascorbic acid, glutathione, dimethylsulfoxide, N-t-butyl-a-phenyl-nitrone, copper-ions and a copper complex, catalase, superoxide dismutase, hexobarbital and aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, W; Karge, E; Kretzschmar, M; Rost, M; Schulze, H P; Dargel, R; Reinemann, C; Rein, H

    1996-07-01

    For the investigation of luminol (LM)-and lucigenin (LC)-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) in rat liver microsomes using both a liquid-scintillation counter (LKB/Wallac 1219 Rackbeta) and a Berthold luminometer (AutoLumat LB 953) optimal incubation mixtures and conditions and basic kinetics have been established. Whereas calibration curves for both LM- and LC-CL are performed with hydrogenperoxide (LC quantum yield is 6.25 fold higher as that of LM), distinct differences were revealed with microsomes, indicating that different reactive oxygen species (ROS) are determined: Both LM- and LC-CL follow the kinetics of enzymatic reactions in terms of dependence on protein and NADPH or NADH concentration, time course, temperature etc., but with differences. LM-CL does not work without addition of Fe2+, whereas LC-CL does. Both copper ions and copper bound in a complex abolish CL, LC-CL being much more sensitive. Isolated cytochrome P-450 (P450) and NADPH P450 reductase from liver of pheno-barbital treated rats alone proved to be inactive in LM-and LC-CL production, whereas te combination 1:1 without and with addition of lipid was highly active in both LM-and LC-CL. Ascorbic acid and glutathione as scavengers diminish both LM- and LC-CL in concentrations higher then 10(5). Dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) was ineffective in LM-CL up to concentrations of 0.2 M, the very high concentration of 2 M diminished LM-CL only to 1/3. LC-CL was diminished starting at concentrations of 100 mM and at 2 M only 10% of maximum LC-CL was observed. The trap substance N-t-butyl-a-phenylnitrone (BNP) also diminished LC-CL more effectively than LM-CL. Clearcut differences were revealed by the addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase: both enzymes diminished LM-CL only, without any influence on LC-CL. Hexobarbital, a potent uncoupler of P450, enhances LM-CL fivefold, whereas LC-CL is barely influenced. Aniline (without uncoupling capability) decreased both LM-and LC-CL increasingly with increasing

  15. Ag/AgCl nanoparticles-modified CdSnO3·3H2O nanocubes photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl orange and antibiotics under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Feng; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Huang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Huan; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2017-11-01

    CdSnO 3 ·3H 2 O (CSH) nanocubes modified with Ag/AgCl nanoparticles were constructed via the ultrasonic-assisted precipitation-photoreduction method. The obtained samples were characterized using various analytical techniques. Methyl orange (MO), tetracycline (TC), and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) were degraded as target pollutants under visible light irradiation to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples. Compared with pure CSH and Ag/AgCl nanoparticles, the developed composite of which 5mL of AgNO 3 was added on the synthesis, labelled as 5-Ag/AgCl/CSH, occupied the best photocatalytic activity. The corresponding degradation rate for MO was 94% within 40min. 94% of TC and 90% of OTC-HCl were also degraded by 5-Ag/AgCl/CSH catalyst within 60min, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Meanwhile, a possible photocatalytic mechanism over 5-Ag/AgCl/CSH sample was proposed based on the experiment and theoretical analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Solar degradation of 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone by TiO2 and iron(III) catalyst with H2O2 and O2 as electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Victor; Peringer, Paul; Caceres, Julia; Blanco, Julian; Malato, Sixto; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater containing mainly 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone (AMBI), used in the manufacture of dyes, was characterized as bio-recalcitrant by means of different biodegradability tests. In order to enhance the biodegradability of this important pollutant, solar photocatalytic degradation methods were explored. The systems light/TiO 2 /O 2 , light/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 , light/Fe 3+ /O 2 and light/Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 were compared under direct sunlight at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain), using a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC). The iron photo-assisted systems exhibited the most interesting behaviour, from the kinetic and engineering points of view, especially if their combination (as pre-treatment) with a biological process is considered. To compare the efficiency of these systems, the evolution of the following parameters were studied: (a) the dissolved organic carbon and initial compound concentration, (b) the toxicity, and (c) the biodegradability of treated solution. At lab scale, using a solar lamp, the degradation rate of the system light/Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 was two times higher than the system light/Fe 3+ /O 2 but this last system does not need H 2 O 2 addition, improving the economical requirements of the system

  17. Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites

  18. Fabrication of highly active Melem/Zn0.25Cd0.75S composites for the degradation of bisphenol A and methyl orange under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Yan, Tao; Liu, Xiaohuan; Ji, Pengge; Sun, Meng; Wei, Dong; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composite showed enhanced activity in MO degradation. • The composites with melem content of 30 wt.% exhibited the best activity. • The heterojunction was in situ fabricated between melem and Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S. • The Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S heterojunction facilitated the separation of electron-hole pairs. - Abstract: Metal-free polymeric catalyst hold great promise owing to their abundant sources, low-cost fabrication and easy processibility. Melem, an important intermediate during condensation of melamine rings to graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ), was synthesized by simple solid phase polymerization process. A novel Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composite was fabricated through a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The as-products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis DRS spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The TEM and HRTEM results reveal that Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S nanoparticles and Melem closely contact with each other to form an intimate interface. The as-prepared composites exhibit significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Methyl orange (MO) and Bisphenol A (BPA), which could be attributed to the effective photo-induced charges transfer and separation in Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composites. On the basis of radical scavenger experiments, superoxide radicals and holes are suggested to play a critical role in MO degradation over Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S heterojunctions. A possible mechanism for charge separation and transfer in the Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composites was proposed to explain the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  19. Degradation and repair of DNA from rat hepatoma cells after treatments with γ-rays and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzhevskaya, D.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Petrov, S.I.; Fomenko, L.A.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown, that DNA single-strand breaks induced in the cells of ascite hepatoma with γ-rays and metylnitrosourea (MNM) are effectively repaired. DNA two-strand breaks of hepatoma cells, treated with MNM are effectively repaired in situ as well. Only insignificant part of two-strand gamma-induced breaks in DNA of these cells is repaired during postirradiation period. Under combined effect of gamma rays and MNM on hepatoma cells a delay of DNA reparation and its further degradation as well as inhibition of nonplanned DNA synthesis and the suppression of DNA-polymerase 1 activity are observed

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Mn–C–Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles and Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under Sunlight Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel visible-light-active Mn–C–TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique using polyoxyethylenes orbitan monooleate (Tween 80 as template and carbon precursor and manganese acetate as manganese precursor. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance, XPS, and laser particle size analysis. The XRD results showed that Mn–C–TiO2 sample exhibited anatase phase and no other crystal phase was identified. High specific surface area, small crystallite size, and small particle size distribution could be obtained by manganese and carbon codoped and Mn–C–TiO2 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region than that of C–TiO2 and pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized catalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange (MO solution under the sunlight irradiation. The results showed that Mn–C–TiO2 nanoparticles have higher activity than other samples under sunlight, which could be attributed to the high specific surface area, smaller particle size, and lower band gap energy.

  1. The effect of natural iron oxide and oxalic acid on the photocatalytic degradation of isoproturon: a kinetics and analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheloukh, H; Remache, W; Parrino, F; Sehili, T; Mechakra, H

    2017-05-17

    The photocatalytic degradation of isoproturon, a persistent toxic herbicide, was investigated in the presence of natural iron oxide and oxalic acid and under UV irradiation. The influence of the relevant parameters such as the pH and the iron oxide and oxalic acid concentrations has been studied. The presence of natural iron oxide and oxalic acid in the system effectively allow the degradation of isoproturon, whereas the presence of t-butyl alcohol adversely affects the phototransformation of the target pollutant, thus indicating that an OH radical initiated the degradation mechanism. The degradation mechanism of isoproturon was investigated by means of GC-MS analysis. Oxidation of both the terminal N-(CH 3 ) 2 and isopropyl groups is the initial process leading to N-monodemethylated (NHCH 3 ), N-formyl (N(CH 3 )CHO), and CHCH 3 OH as the main intermediates. The substitution of the isopropyl group by an OH group is also observed as a side process.

  2. Synthesis of Nano-Zinc Oxide Loaded on Mesoporous Silica by Coordination Effect and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Property of Methyl Orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhichuan; Zhou, Hongjun; Chen, Huayao; Xu, Hua; Feng, Chunhua; Zhou, Xinhua

    2018-05-09

    Salicylaldimine-modified mesoporous silica (Sal-MCM-3 and Sal-MCM-9) was prepared through a co-condensation method with different amounts of added salicylaldimine. With the coordination from the salicylaldimine, zinc ions were impregnated on Sal-MCM-3 and Sal-MCM-9. Then, Zn-Sal-MCM-3 and Zn-Sal-MCM-9 were calcined to obtain nano-zinc oxide loaded on mesoporous silica (ZnO-MCM-3 and ZnO-MCM-9). The material structures were systematically studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N₂ adsorption/desorption measurements, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet diffused reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS), and thermogravimetry (TGA). Methyl orange (MO) was used to investigate the photocatalysis behavior of ZnO-MCM-3 and ZnO-MCM-9. The results confirmed that nano ZnO was loaded in the channels as well as the outside surface of mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The modification of salicylaldimine helped MCM-41 to load more nano ZnO on MCM-41. When the modification amount of salicylaldimine was one-ninth and one-third of the mass of the silicon source, respectively, the load of nano ZnO on ZnO-MCM-9 and ZnO-MCM-3 had atomic concentrations of 1.27 and 2.03, respectively. ZnO loaded on ZnO-MCM-9 had a wurtzite structure, while ZnO loaded on ZnO-MCM-3 was not in the same crystalline group. The blocking effect caused by nano ZnO in the channels reduced the orderliness of MCM-41. The photodegradation of MO can be divided in two processes, which are mainly controlled by the surface areas of ZnO-MCM and the loading amount of nano ZnO, respectively. The pseudo-first-order model was more suitable for the photodegradation process.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of C-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films for visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Cong, Longchao; Liu, Guanglong, E-mail: liugl@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • C-TiO{sub 2} thin films were successfully synthesized by modified sol–gel method based on the self-assembly technique. • Tween 80, one kind of hydrocarbon surfactants, was used as template and carbon precursor. • A thorough material characterization was performed to determine the effect of calcination time on the structural and optical properties of the synthesized catalyst films. - Abstract: C-TiO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized by a modified sol–gel route based on the self-assembly technique exploiting Tween80 (T80) as a pore directing agent and carbon source. The effect of calcination time on the photocatalytic activity of C-doped TiO{sub 2} catalyst was studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The XRD results showed that C-TiO{sub 2} sample calcined at 400 °C for various times exhibited anatase phase and no other crystal phase was identified. C-TiO{sub 2} exhibited a shift in an absorption edge of samples in the visible region than that of conventional or reference TiO{sub 2}. The XPS results showed an existence of C in the TiO{sub 2} catalysts and C might be existed as C-O-Ti group. Moreover, the C-TiO{sub 2} thin film calcined at 400 °C for 30 min showed the lowest PL intensity due to a decrease in the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes under UV light irradiation. Also the photocatalytic activity of synthesized catalyst was evaluated by decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the optimum preparations of C-TiO{sub 2} thin films were found to be under calcination temperature of 400, calcination time of 30 min, and with preparation 9 layers film.

  4. Fabrication of highly active Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composites for the degradation of bisphenol A and methyl orange under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaodong [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yan, Tao, E-mail: yantujn@163.com [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu, Xiaohuan; Ji, Pengge [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Sun, Meng; Wei, Dong; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Novel Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composite showed enhanced activity in MO degradation. • The composites with melem content of 30 wt.% exhibited the best activity. • The heterojunction was in situ fabricated between melem and Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S. • The Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S heterojunction facilitated the separation of electron-hole pairs. - Abstract: Metal-free polymeric catalyst hold great promise owing to their abundant sources, low-cost fabrication and easy processibility. Melem, an important intermediate during condensation of melamine rings to graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), was synthesized by simple solid phase polymerization process. A novel Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composite was fabricated through a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The as-products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis DRS spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The TEM and HRTEM results reveal that Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S nanoparticles and Melem closely contact with each other to form an intimate interface. The as-prepared composites exhibit significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Methyl orange (MO) and Bisphenol A (BPA), which could be attributed to the effective photo-induced charges transfer and separation in Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composites. On the basis of radical scavenger experiments, superoxide radicals and holes are suggested to play a critical role in MO degradation over Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S heterojunctions. A possible mechanism for charge separation and transfer in the Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composites was proposed to explain the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  5. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  6. Application of response surface methodology for degradation of methyl orange with TiO{sub 2} sol-gel sulphated Ti; Aplicacion de metodologia de superficie de respuesta para la degradacion de naranja de metilo con TiO{sub 2} sol-gel sulfatado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel S, M. T.; Garcia A, R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo y Sor Juana I. de la Cruz, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Garcia A, P.; Lagunes G, L. M. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Av. Universidad s/n, Zona de la Cultura, Col. Magisterial, 86040 Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Cabrera C, E. G., E-mail: shish_kko@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Villahermosa, Carretera Villahermosa-Frontera Km. 3.5, Cd. Industrial, 86010 Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2015-06-01

    In this work we report the implementation of the response surface methodology for the optimization of photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange dye (MO) using as photo catalyst sulphated TiO{sub 2} prepared by sol-gel method. The variables studied were ph of the solution (3-11), catalyst concentration (0.1-1 g/L), and MO concentration (10-30 ppm). The effects of these parameters over the degradation of MO were evaluated according to a Box-Behnken design. The only crystal structure identified by X-ray diffraction was anatase phase. The optimum conditions for the photo catalytic degradation of MO according to the methodology applied were ph 6.0, 17.78 ppm MO concentration at each concentration level of the catalyst. (Author)

  7. VIBRATIONAL SPECTRA OF t-BUTYL ALCOHOL, t-BUTYLAMINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    good stray light rejection. A Spectra-Physics ... the spectrometer. The vial was then spun to enhance the Raman signal and reduce the risk of .... *Abbreviations used: m, medium; s, strong; v, very; w, weak; sh, shoulder; -, not detected due to the ...

  8. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, M.

    1993-04-01

    Compounds (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me[sub 3]Si). Reactions of (MeC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U with (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 2]Hg results in formation of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  9. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, Marc [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Compounds (RC5H4)3U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC5H4)3UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me3Si). Reactions of (MeC5H4)3U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC5H4)3ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC5H4)4U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC5H4)3U with (RC5H4)2Hg results in formation of (RC5H4)4U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  10. EFECTO DE LA CONCENTRACIÓN DEL METIL PARATIÓN Y EL EXTRACTO DE LEVADURA COMO FACTORES DE SELECCIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS DEGRADADORES DEL PESTICIDA A PARTIR DE SUELOS CONTAMINADOS Effect of Methyl Parathion Concentration and Yeast Extract as Factors for Selecting Pesticide Degrading Microorganisms from Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Botero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento y cultivo de microorganismos con capacidades para degradar los contaminantes ambientales es importante para implementar planes de biorremediación. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del extracto de levadura tanto en la capacidad de asimilación microbiana del pesticida organofosforado metil paratión, como en los procesos de aislamiento de microorganismos útiles para de degradar este pesticida. Los microorganismos evaluados fueron obtenidos de suelo fresco fumigado históricamente con este pesticida. Los ensayos se efectuaron con medios sólidos definidos enriquecidos con metil paratión (0-60 mg L-1 y extracto de levadura (0-0.5 g L -1. Se encontró que los microorganismos fueron capaces de asimilar hasta 5 mg L -1 del metil paratión en ausencia de extracto de levadura sin evidenciar efectos tóxicos. La capacidad de asimilación aumentó a 10 mg L-1 en los cultivos enriquecidos con 0.5 g L-1 de extracto de levadura. El extracto de levadura en las dosis usadas no afectó el aislamiento de microorganismos. Sin embargo, el aislamiento por siembra directa en medios enriquecidos con metil paratión como única fuente de carbono se dificultó por el aporte de la materia orgánica del suelo que permitió el crecimiento de cepas tolerantes sin capacidad para degradar el pesticida.Isolation and culture of microorganisms with capacity to degrade environmental pollutants are important for implementing bioremediation plans. This study is an evaluation of the yeast extract effect on both the microbial capacity to assimilate the organo-phosphorous pesticide methyl parathion and the isolation processes of microorganisms useful for degrading this pesticide. Microorganisms evaluated were obtained from fresh soil historically fumigate with this pesticide. Trials were conducted with defined solid means enriched with methyl parathion (0-60 mg L-1 and yeast extract (0-0.5 g L-1. It was found that microorganisms were able to assimilate up to 5

  11. Magnetically separable reactive sorbent based on the CeO2/γ-Fe2O3 composite and its utilization for rapid degradation of the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl and certain nerve agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Kuráň, P.; Pilařová, V.; Trögl, J.; Šťastný, M.; Pelant, O.; Henych, Jiří; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Životský, O.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Skoumal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 262, FEB (2015), s. 747-755 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Magnetically separable sorbent * Destructive sorption * Cerium oxide * Parathion methyl * Toxic organophosphates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2015

  12. LIQUID CULTURE FOR ISOLATING MICROORGANISMS WITH POTENTIAL TO DEGRADE METHYL PARATHION FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS AND ORGANIC WASTE CULTIVO LÍQUIDO PARA AISLAR MICROORGANISMOS CON POTENCIAL PARA DEGRADAR METIL PARATIÓN A PARTIR DE SUELOS AGRÍCOLAS Y RESIDUOS ORGÁNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Botero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for microorganisms with high capacity for pesticide degradation is a very interesting attempt to approach bioremediation strategies in order to prevent contamination. This study evaluates the potential of agricultural soils and solid organic waste cultures microbial isolation as a strategy for screening microorganisms with potential for Methyl parathion (MP degradation. For the study, microbial consortia were recovered from the liquid fraction of suspension cultures of agricultural soils and solid organic waste. Then, the MP degradation ability and its toxic effect on microbial activity were determined during microbial incubations under laboratory controlled conditions. The results showed that it is not possible to recover the active microorganisms that have potential to degrade the MP from the agricultural soils. However, an active consortium that would degrade both MP and its degradation products was isolated from the organic solid waste.La búsqueda de microorganismos con alta capacidad de degradación de los plaguicidas es un intento muy interesante de acercarse a las estrategias de biorremediación con el fin de evitar la contaminación. Este estudio evalúa el potencial del cultivo de microorganismos de suelos agrícolas y de residuos sólidos orgánicos como una estrategia para la detección de microorganismos con potencial para el metil paratión (MP la degradación. Para el estudio, consorcios microbianos fueron recuperados de la fracción líquida de los cultivos en suspensión de los suelos agrícolas y los residuos sólidos orgánicos. La capacidad de degradación de la MP y su efecto tóxico sobre la actividad microbiana se determinó durante las incubaciones de los microorganismos en condiciones controladas de laboratorio. Los resultados mostraron que no es posible recuperar los microorganismos activos que tienen potencial para degradar el MP de los suelos agrícolas. Sin embargo, un consorcio activo que degradar

  13. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, P; Frey, H -M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P; Tzannis, A -P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  14. Experimental vapor pressures (from 1 Pa to 100 kPa) of six saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs): Methyl hexanoate, methyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl tetradecanoate and methyl hexadecanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraoui, Lakhdar; Khimeche, Kamel; Dahmani, Abdallah; Mokbel, Ilham; Jose, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • Vapor-liquid equilibria, Enthalpy of Vaporization, saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of six saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), methyl hexanoate (or methyl caproate), methyl octanoate (or methyl caprylate), Methyl decanoate (or methyl caprate), methyl dodecanoate (or methyl laurate), methyl tetradecanoate (or methyl myristate), and methyl hexadecanoate (or methyl palmitate) were measured from 1 Pa to 100 kPa and at temperature range between 262 and 453 K using a static apparatus. The experimental data (P-T) were compared with the available literature data.

  15. Whole-genome methylation caller designed for methyl- DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etchie

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Our method uses a single-CpG-resolution, whole-genome methylation ... Key words: Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation, next-generation sequencing, ...... methylation is prevalent in embryonic stem cells andmaybe mediated.

  16. Reaction products from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and deoxyribonucleic acid containing thymidine residues. Synthesis and identification of a new methylation product, O4-methyl-thymidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, P. D.; Orr, D. J.; Shah, S. A.; Farmer, P. B.; Jarman, M.

    1973-01-01

    1. DNA was treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea at pH7–8, 37°C, degraded to yield 3- and 7-methylpurines and deoxyribonucleosides and the reaction products were separated by chromatography on ion-exchange resins. The following methods for identification and determination of products were used: with unlabelled N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, u.v. absorption; use of methyl-14C-labelled N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and use of [14C]thymine-labelled DNA. 2. The synthesis of O4-methylthymidine and its identification by u.v. and mass spectroscopy are reported. 3. 3-Methylthymidine and O4-methylthymidine were found as methylation products from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea with thymidine and with DNA, in relatively small yields. Unidentified products containing thymine were found in enzymic digests of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-treated DNA, which may be phosphotriesters. 4. The possible role of formation of methylthymines in mutagenesis by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea is discussed. PMID:4798180

  17. ANTI-BIOFOULING BY DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-feng Ma; Hong-jun Yang; Guang-zhao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylate terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-ethylene carbonate)(PEOC) macromonomer (PEOCA) were synthesized,and the degradation of the polymers was investigated by use of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D).It is shown that the polymeric surface exhibits degradation in seawater depending on the content of the side chains.Field tests in seawater show that the surface constructed by the copolymer can effectively inhibit marine biofouling because it can be self-renewed due to degradation of the copolymer.

  18. Methylation pathways in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.W. III.

    1982-01-01

    Research on the biochemical causes of human psychosis concentrates on investigating whether schizophremia is linked to abnormalities in the metabolism of methyl carbon groups in the body. The metabolism of C-14 labeled methyl groups in methionine is studied in animals, normal subjects and patient volunteers

  19. Methyl-Analyzer--whole genome DNA methylation profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yurong; Ge, Yongchao; Haghighi, Fatemeh G

    2011-08-15

    Methyl-Analyzer is a python package that analyzes genome-wide DNA methylation data produced by the Methyl-MAPS (methylation mapping analysis by paired-end sequencing) method. Methyl-MAPS is an enzymatic-based method that uses both methylation-sensitive and -dependent enzymes covering >80% of CpG dinucleotides within mammalian genomes. It combines enzymatic-based approaches with high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology to provide whole genome DNA methylation profiles. Methyl-Analyzer processes and integrates sequencing reads from methylated and unmethylated compartments and estimates CpG methylation probabilities at single base resolution. Methyl-Analyzer is available at http://github.com/epigenomics/methylmaps. Sample dataset is available for download at http://epigenomicspub.columbia.edu/methylanalyzer_data.html. fgh3@columbia.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Abiotic Formation of Methyl Halides in the Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, F.

    2011-12-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide are the most abundant chlorine and bromine containing organic compounds in the atmosphere. Since both compounds have relatively long tropospheric lifetimes they can effectively transport halogen atoms from the Earth's surface, where they are released, to the stratosphere and following photolytic oxidation form reactive halogen gases that lead to the chemical destruction of ozone. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide account for more than 20% of the ozone-depleting halogens delivered to the stratosphere and are predicted to grow in importance as the chlorine contribution to the stratosphere from anthropogenic CFCs decline. Today methyl chloride and methyl bromide originate mainly from natural sources with only a minor fraction considered to be of anthropogenic origin. However, until as recently as 2000 most of the methyl chloride and methyl bromide input to the atmosphere was considered to originate from the oceans, but investigations in recent years have clearly demonstrated that terrestrial sources such as biomass burning, wood-rotting fungi, coastal salt marshes, tropical vegetation and organic matter degradation must dominate the atmospheric budgets of these trace gases. However, many uncertainties still exist regarding strengths of both sources and sinks, as well as the mechanisms of formation of these naturally occurring halogenated gases. A better understanding of the atmospheric budget of both methyl chloride and methyl bromide is therefore required for reliable prediction of future ozone depletion. Biotic and abiotic methylation processes of chloride and bromide ion are considered to be the dominant pathways of formation of these methyl halides in nature. In this presentation I will focus on abiotic formation processes in the terrestrial environment and the potential parameters that control their emissions. Recent advances in our understanding of the abiotic formation pathway of methyl halides will be discussed. This will

  1. Isolation and characterization of the pesticide-degrading plasmid pJP1 from Alcaligenes paradoxus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.R.; Appleton, J.; Pemberton, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    A strain of Alcaligenes paradoxus, unable to degrade phenoxyacetic acid, was shown to degrade two synthetic derivatives of this molecule, the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. The ability to degrade these pesticides is encoded by a 58-megadalton conjugal plasmid, pJP1

  2. 78 FR 53047 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...: This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of halosulfuron-methyl in or on artichoke and... metabolites and degradates, in or on artichoke and caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 0.05 parts per million (ppm... Proposed New Uses on Artichoke and Caneberry (Crop subgroup 13-07A),'' dated March 25, 2013, pp. 30-34...

  3. Degradation of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr; Stoychev, I.; Nerud, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2004), s. 208-209 ISSN 0964-8305. [International Bideterioration and Biodegradation Symposium /12./. Praha, 14.07.2002-18.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : mtbe Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.835, year: 2004

  4. Rheological behavior, chemical and physical characterization of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters submitted to thermal oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Sant' ana; Silva, Flavio Luiz Honorato da; Lima, Ezenildo Emanuel de; Carvalho, Maria Wilma N.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Dantas, Hemeval Jales; Farias, Paulo de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    In this study the effect of antioxidant terc-butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) on the oxidative stability of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters subjected to thermal degradation at 100 deg C was studied. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters specific mass, dynamic viscosity and rheological behavior were evaluated. According to results, antioxidant degraded samples specific mass and dynamic viscosity did not showed alterations, remaining statistically equal. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters showed a Newtonian rheological behavior and degraded samples without adding BHA showed rheological behavior alterations. (author)

  5. Identification of Differentially Methylated Sites with Weak Methylation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration crucial for regulating stress responses. Identifying large-scale DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution is made possible by whole genome bisulfite sequencing. An essential task following the generation of bisulfite sequencing data is to detect differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs among treatments. Most statistical methods for DMC detection do not consider the dependency of methylation patterns across the genome, thus possibly inflating type I error. Furthermore, small sample sizes and weak methylation effects among different phenotype categories make it difficult for these statistical methods to accurately detect DMCs. To address these issues, the wavelet-based functional mixed model (WFMM was introduced to detect DMCs. To further examine the performance of WFMM in detecting weak differential methylation events, we used both simulated and empirical data and compare WFMM performance to a popular DMC detection tool methylKit. Analyses of simulated data that replicated the effects of the herbicide glyphosate on DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana show that WFMM results in higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting DMCs compared to methylKit, especially when the methylation differences among phenotype groups are small. Moreover, the performance of WFMM is robust with respect to small sample sizes, making it particularly attractive considering the current high costs of bisulfite sequencing. Analysis of empirical Arabidopsis thaliana data under varying glyphosate dosages, and the analysis of monozygotic (MZ twins who have different pain sensitivities—both datasets have weak methylation effects of <1%—show that WFMM can identify more relevant DMCs related to the phenotype of interest than methylKit. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs are genomic regions with different DNA methylation status across biological samples. DMRs and DMCs are essentially the same

  6. Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Magnetite Nanoparticles with Statistical Poly(tert-butyl acrylate-poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharin Kanhakeaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the surface modification of magnetite nanoparticle (MNP with poly[(t-butyl acrylate-stat-(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate] copolymers (P[(t-BA-stat-PEGMA] via a surface-initiated “grafting from” atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. Loading molar ratio of t-BA to PEGMA was systematically varied (100 : 0, 75 : 25, 50 : 50, and 25 : 75, resp. such that the degree of hydrophilicity of the copolymers, affecting the particle dispersibility in water, can be fine-tuned. The reaction progress in each step of the synthesis was monitored via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The studies in the reaction kinetics indicated that PEGMA had higher reactivity than that of t-BA in the copolymerizations. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC indicated that the molecular weights of the copolymers increased with the increase of the monomer conversion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that the particles were spherical with averaged size of 8.1 nm in diameter. Dispersibility of the particles in water was apparently improved when the copolymers were coated as compared to P(t-BA homopolymer coating. The percentages of MNP and the copolymer in the composites were determined via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and their magnetic properties were investigated via vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM.

  7. DNA methylation in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pokrywka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes, have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described.

  8. Methylated β-Cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Madsen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    The complexation of 6 bile salts with various methylated β-cyclodextrins was studied to elucidate how the degree and pattern of substitution affects the binding. The structures of the CDs were determined by mass spectrometry and NMR techniques, and the structures of the inclusion complexes were...

  9. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  10. Methylation of food commodities during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starratt, A.N.; Bond, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sites of methylation in several commodities (wheat, oatmeal, peanuts, almonds, apples, oranges, maize, alfalfa and potatoes) during fumigation with 14 C-methyl bromide were studied. Differences were observed in levels of the major volatiles: methanol, dimethyl sulphide and methyl mercaptan, products of O- and S-methylation, resulting from treatment of the fumigated materials with 1N sodium hydroxide. In studies of maize and wheat, histidine was the amino acid which underwent the highest level of N-methylation. (author). 24 refs, 3 tabs

  11. Stability testing of extemporaneous preparation of methyl salicylate ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A Makeen

    2018-01-01

    Results: The shelf life (t90% of extemporaneously prepared methyl salicylate ointment was found to be 131 days at room temperature (25°C ± 5°C and 176 days in the refrigerator (2°C–8°C. Conclusion: The methyl salicylate present in extemporaneous ointment preparation is fairly stable at cool temperatures but shows faster degradation at higher temperature conditions. Therefore, it is recommended that an expiry date of 4 months can be safely mentioned when stored in cool.

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies on stability of new stabilizers for N-methyl-P-nitroaniline derivative in CMDB propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qiufan [Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi’an 710065 (China); Fan, Xuezhong, E-mail: xuezhongfan@126.com [Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi’an 710065 (China); Li, Jizhen [Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi’an 710065 (China); Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, MOE/School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Bi, Fuqiang; Fu, Xiaolong; Zhai, Lianjie [Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi’an 710065 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Five new stabilizers have been designed and synthesized. • The influence of the carbon chain length on the stability of propellants was studied. • Effects of temperature on the reactions of stabilizers and nitrogen oxides were explained. • The new stabilizer n-BNA was one of the most promising stabilizers. - Abstract: Although N-methyl-P-nitroaniline (MNA) was a quite effective stabilizer in composite modified double base (CMDB) propellants, it undergoes crystallization easily from nitroglycerin (NG) during storage. In order to improve its solubility in nitroglycerin (NG) and the stability in propellants, several new stabilizers including N-ethyl-p-nitroaniline (ENA), N-n-propyl-p-nitroaniline (n-PNA), N-i-propyl-p-nitroaniline (i-PNA), N-n-butyl-p-nitroaniline (n-BNA) and N-t-butyl-p-nitroaniline (t-BNA) were designed and synthesized to replace MNA by increasing the carbon chain length. The interaction between NG and different stabilizers was simulation by Materials Studio 5.5 and the stability and the high temperature stability performance of those new stabilizers in propellants were calculated by Gaussian 09. It was found that both the solubility of new stabilizers in NG and the stability and the high temperature stability performance of those in propellants were improved when the carbon chain length of substitution groups on nitrogen atom was increased. Thus, the n-BNA was a most potential stabilizer. Then all properties of the stabilizers were studied experimentally, which was agreement well with the theoretical analysis.

  13. and triorganotin(IV) complexes of 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    -2-Me-4) have been synthesized by the reactions of di-n-butyl and dimethyltin dichlorides and tri-n-butyltin(IV) chloride with 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and triethylamine in tetrahydrofuran. The reaction of triphenyltin chloride with trimethylsilyl-2-t-butyl-4- methylphenoxide in the same solvent however, gives a complex of ...

  14. Methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The development of HCC is a complex, multistep, multistage process. The molecular pathogenesis of HCC appears to involve multiple genetic aberrations in the molecular control of hepatocyte proliferation, differentiation and death and the maintenance of genomic integrity. This process is influenced by the cumulative activation and inactivation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other genes. p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. There is also a striking sequence specific binding and induction of mutations by AFB1 at codon 249 of p53 in HCC.

    Epigenetic alterations are also involved in cancer development and progression. Methylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with inhibition of transcriptional initiation and permanent silencing of downstream genes.

    It is now known that most important tumor suppressor genes are inactivated, not only by mutations and deletions but also by promoter methylation. Several studies indicated that p16, p15, RASSF1A, MGMT, and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation are prevalent in HCC. In addition, geographic variation in the methylation status of tumor DNA indicates that environmental factors may influence the frequent and concordant degree of hypermethylation in multiple genes in HCC and that epigeneticenvironmental interactions may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. We have found significant relationships between promoter methylation and AFB1-DNA adducts confirming the impact of environmental exposures on gene methylation.

    DNA isolated from serum or plasma of cancer patients frequently contains the same genetic and

  15. Thermal Degradation and Identification of Heat-Sensitive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Stuart C.; Goldman, Emma W.

    2005-01-01

    A study demonstrates the thermal degradation of two heat-sensitive polymers, namely, polystyrene and poly (methyl methacrylate). The experiment described in the study introduces undergraduate students to polymer structure as well as the application of spectroscopic techniques to the solution of structural problems.

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of methyl methacrylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out in the presence of triphenylstibonium 1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-cyclopentadienylide as an initiator in dioxane at 65°C ± 0·1°C. The system follows non-ideal radical kinetics ( ∝ [M]1.4 [I]0.44) due to primary radical termination as well as degradative ...

  17. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  18. DNA methylation and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy J; Sweatt, J David

    2010-11-01

    Memory formation and storage require long-lasting changes in memory-related neuronal circuits. Recent evidence indicates that DNA methylation may serve as a contributing mechanism in memory formation and storage. These emerging findings suggest a role for an epigenetic mechanism in learning and long-term memory maintenance and raise apparent conundrums and questions. For example, it is unclear how DNA methylation might be reversed during the formation of a memory, how changes in DNA methylation alter neuronal function to promote memory formation, and how DNA methylation patterns differ between neuronal structures to enable both consolidation and storage of memories. Here we evaluate the existing evidence supporting a role for DNA methylation in memory, discuss how DNA methylation may affect genetic and neuronal function to contribute to behavior, propose several future directions for the emerging subfield of neuroepigenetics, and begin to address some of the broader implications of this work.

  19. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  20. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  1. Whole-genome methylation caller designed for methyl- DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etchie

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Key words: Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation, next-generation sequencing, Hidden ... its response to environmental cues. .... have a great potential to become the most cost-effective ... hg18 reference genome (set to 0 if not present in retrieved reads). ..... DNA methylation patterns and epigenetic memory.

  2. Effects of frequency and a radical scavenger on ultrasonic degradation of water-soluble polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Shinobu; Taguchi, Kimihiko; Futamura, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic degradation of methyl cellulose, pullulan, dextran and poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous solutions was investigated at the frequencies of 20 and 500 kHz, where the ultrasonic power delivered into solutions was kept constant (22 W). The number average molecular mass and the polydispersity were obtained as a function of sonication time. The degradation under sonication at the 500 kHz frequency proceeded faster in comparison with the 20 kHz sonication for four polymers. The addition of a radical scavenger, t-BuOH, resulted in suppression of degradation of water-soluble polymers. The degradation rate constants were estimated from the plot of molecular weight against sonication time. The degradation rate of methyl cellulose was the largest one among the investigated polymers. The difference in the degradation rates was discussed in terms of the flexibility and the hydrodynamic radius of polymer chains in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Semi-degradable poly(β-amino ester) networks with temporally controlled enhancement of mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L; Weiss, Daiana; Clark, J Brian; Taylor, W Robert; Gall, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are clinically used in numerous biomedical applications, and classically show a loss of mechanical properties within weeks of implantation. This work demonstrates a new class of semi-degradable polymers that show an increase in mechanical properties through degradation via a controlled shift in a thermal transition. Semi-degradable polymer networks, poly(β-amino ester)-co-methyl methacrylate, were formed from a low glass transition temperature crosslinker, poly(β-amino ester), and high glass transition temperature monomer, methyl methacrylate, which degraded in a manner dependent upon the crosslinker chemical structure. In vitro and in vivo degradation revealed changes in mechanical behavior due to the degradation of the crosslinker from the polymer network. This novel polymer system demonstrates a strategy to temporally control the mechanical behavior of polymers and to enhance the initial performance of smart biomedical devices. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioconversion of lutein by Enterobacter hormaechei to form a new compound, 8-methyl-α-ionone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guifang; Wang, Fangfang; Sun, Jianhong; Ye, Jianbin; Mao, Duobin; Ma, Ke; Yang, Xuepeng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the final product of the bioconversion of lutein by a novel lutein-degrading bacterium, Enterobacter hormaechei A20, and the kinetics of the process. A new product, 8-methyl-α-ionone, was resolved by GC-MS. The compound was further identified by NMR. A conversion yield of 90% was achieved by E. hormaechei in 36 h with 10 g lutein l -1 . This is the first report of the bioconversion of lutein to form 8-methyl-α-ionone. A degradation pathway is proposed.

  5. Methylated DNMT1 and E2F1 are targeted for proteolysis by L3MBTL3 and CRL4DCAF5 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Feng; Yu, Jiekai; Zhang, Chunxiao; Alejo, Salvador; Hoang, Nam; Sun, Hong; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Hui

    2018-04-24

    Many non-histone proteins are lysine methylated and a novel function of this modification is to trigger the proteolysis of methylated proteins. Here, we report that the methylated lysine 142 of DNMT1, a major DNA methyltransferase that preserves epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation patterns during DNA replication, is demethylated by LSD1. A novel methyl-binding protein, L3MBTL3, binds the K142-methylated DNMT1 and recruits a novel CRL4 DCAF5 ubiquitin ligase to degrade DNMT1. Both LSD1 and PHF20L1 act primarily in S phase to prevent DNMT1 degradation by L3MBTL3-CRL4 DCAF5 . Mouse L3MBTL3/MBT-1 deletion causes accumulation of DNMT1 protein, increased genomic DNA methylation, and late embryonic lethality. DNMT1 contains a consensus methylation motif shared by many non-histone proteins including E2F1, a key transcription factor for S phase. We show that the methylation-dependent E2F1 degradation is also controlled by L3MBTL3-CRL4 DCAF5 . Our studies elucidate for the first time a novel mechanism by which the stability of many methylated non-histone proteins are regulated.

  6. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  7. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  8. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of water + t-butyl alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water proton resonance initially shifts to higher frequencies (low fields) as the cosolvent is added to water, and the shift to higher frequency is strongly temperature dependent, the effect being greatly enhanced at lower temperatures. As the proportion of cosolvent increases the hydroxyl proton signals in the water + ...

  9. Vapour phase alkylation of ethylbenzene with t-butyl alcohol over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons is a reaction of high commercial ... supported phosphoric acid, used for the production of cumene, are also felt to be ... diffractometer equipped with a Cu-Kα radiation source and a liquid nitrogen cooled.

  10. Kinetics of Tc-99m hexakis t-butyl isonitrile in normal and ischemic canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.J.; Dragotakos, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Hexakis 99m Tc-tertiary butyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-TBI) was studied as a cardiac perfusion imaging agent in nine dogs with partial occlusion of the LAD. Thirty min after applying the stenosis, 99m Tc-TBI was injected into the right atrium (RA) in five dogs and left atrium (LA) in four dogs. Normal and ischemic zone regional myocardial 99m Tc-TBI activities were monitored continuously for 4 h. Dogs with LA injections had minimal and equivalent 4 h fractional clearance from the normal and ischemic zones. Dogs with RA injections had minimal, but significantly lower 4 h fractional 99m Tc clearances in the ischemic zone (0.08±0.08) compared to the normal zone (0.16±0.07, P 99m Tc-TBI a promising cardiac perfusion imaging agent. (orig.)

  11. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  12. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Body Fluid Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Gomaa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, available identification techniques for forensic samples are either enzyme or protein based, which can be subjected to degradation, thus limiting its storage potentials. Epigenetic changes arising due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be used for body fluid identification. Markers DACT1, USP49, ZC3H12D, FGF7, cg23521140, cg17610929, chromosome 4 (25287119–25287254, chromosome 11 (72085678–72085798, 57171095–57171236, 1493401–1493538, and chromosome 19 (47395505–47395651 are currently being used for semen identification. Markers cg26107890, cg20691722, cg01774894 and cg14991487 are used to differentiate saliva and vaginal secretions from other body fluids. However, such markers show overlapping methylation pattern. This review article aimed to highlight the feasibility of using DNA methylation of certain genetic markers in body fluid identification and its implications for forensic investigations. The reviewed articles have employed molecular genetics techniques such as Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP, methylation specific PCR (MSP, Pyrosequencing, Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA, Methylation-sensitive Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNuPE, and Multiplex SNaPshot Microarray. Bioinformatics software such as MATLAB and BiQ Analyzer has been used. Biological fluids have different methylation patterns and thus, this difference can be used to identify the nature of the biological fluid found at the crime scene. Using DNA methylation to identify the body fluids gives accurate results without consumption of the trace evidence and requires a minute amount of DNA for analysis. Recent studies have incorporated next-generation sequencing aiming to find out more reliable markers that can differentiate between different body fluids. Nonetheless, new DNA methylation markers are yet to be discovered to accurately differentiate between saliva and vaginal secretions with high confidence. Epigenetic changes are

  13. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.

  14. Process for the production of methyl methacrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eastham, G.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Fraaije, Marco; Winter, Remko

    2015-01-01

    A process of producing methyl methacrylate or derivatives thereof is described. The process includes the steps of; (i) converting 2-butanone to methyl propionate using a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, and (ii) treating the methyl propionate produced to obtain methyl methacrylate or derivatives

  15. Influence of anionic surfactant on the process of electro-Fenton decolorized methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, B X

    2010-01-01

    The electro-Fenton process has been shown to be very successful to remove dyes from water. However, the influence of other constituents in dyeing industry wastewater, such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) surfactants, has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of SDS surfactant on the kinetics of Methyl Orange degradation undergoing Electro-Fenton process was investigated. Results show that Methyl Orange degradation rate decreased as SDS concentration (below Critical Micelle Concentration, CMC) increased, which was attributed to the consumption of hydroxyl radicals (( )OH) by surfactants. The kinetics modeling indicates the reaction was the first-order reaction to Methyl Orange even SDS existing. The pseudo first-order rate constants decreased as SDS concentration increased.

  16. Mercury methylation influenced by areas of past mercury mining in the Terlingua district, Southwest Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Biester, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Speciation and microbial transformation of Hg was studied in mine waste from abandoned Hg mines in SW Texas to evaluate the potential for methyl-Hg production and degradation in mine wastes. In mine waste samples, total Hg, ionic Hg 2+ , Hg 0 , methyl-Hg, organic C, and total S concentrations were measured, various Hg compounds were identified using thermal desorption pyrolysis, and potential rates of Hg methylation and methyl-Hg demethylation were determined using isotopic-tracer methods. These data are the first reported for Hg mines in this region. Total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations were also determined in stream sediment collected downstream from two of the mines to evaluate transport of Hg and methylation in surrounding ecosystems. Mine waste contains total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations as high as 19,000 μg/g and 1500 ng/g, respectively, which are among the highest concentrations reported at Hg mines worldwide. Pyrolysis analyses show that mine waste contains variable amounts of cinnabar, metacinnabar, Hg 0 , and Hg sorbed onto particles. Methyl-Hg concentrations in mine waste correlate positively with ionic Hg 2+ , organic C, and total S, which are geochemical parameters that influence processes of Hg cycling and methylation. Net methylation rates were as high as 11,000 ng/g/day, indicating significant microbial Hg methylation at some sites, especially in samples collected inside retorts. Microbially-mediated methyl-Hg demethylation was also observed in many samples, but where both methylation and demethylation were found, the potential rate of methylation was faster. Total Hg concentrations in stream sediment samples were generally below the probable effect concentration of 1.06 μg/g, the Hg concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment dwelling organisms; whereas total Hg concentrations in mine waste samples were found to exceed this concentration, although this is a sediment quality guideline and is not directly

  17. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  18. Radiation degradation of α-substituted acrylate polymers and copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbert, J.N.; Caplan, P.J.; Poindexter, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation degradation is observed in poly(methyl α-chloroacrylate), poly(methyl α-cyanoacrylate), and poly (α-chloroacrylonitrile) homopolymers and their respective MMA copolymers when γ-irradiated in vacuo. Polymer degradation susceptibilities are quantified in terms of G(scission radicals) and G(scission) -- G(crosslinks), measured by EPR and membrane osmometry, respectively; values by these two methods are compared. Higher G(rads) values ranging from 2 to 6 and [G(s) -- G(x)] values ranging from 2 to 11 are obtained for the substituted polymers and copolymers relative to the values for PMMA (1.6; 1.9), a standard e-beam positive resist, which suggests that these modified polymers are more sensitive e-beam resists than PMMA

  19. The thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA G. POPOVIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-oxidative thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate was investigated by studying changes in the polymer residue. Due to the different number of b-hydrogens in their ester substituents, these two polymeric isomers behave differently when subjected to elevated temperatures. Poly(iso-butyl methacrylate degrades quantitatively by depolymerisation with zip lengths of the same order of magnitude as those of poly(methyl methacrylate. Poly(sec-butyl methacrylate degrades by a combined degradation mechanism of depolymerisation and de-esterification. De-esterification becomes a significant thermolysis route at temperatures higher than 240°C.

  20. TBP degradation products. Separation and gas-chromatographic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Alem, C.M.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A de.

    1991-11-01

    A separation method for di butylphosphate, mono butylphosphate and phosphoric acid as degradation products in organic and aqueous streams of the process containing variable amounts of actinides and fission products is described. The products were separated by extraction and after methylation the final determination was carried out by gas chromatography. TPP was used as internal standard and 5 to 500 mg/L concentration range was determined with 1 to 10% deviation depending on the concentration of organo phosphates. (author)

  1. Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester) Networks with Temporally-Controlled Enhancement of Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Weiss, Daiana; Clark, J. Brian; Taylor, W.R.; Gall, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers are clinically used in numerous biomedical applications, and classically show a loss in mechanical properties within weeks of implantation. This work demonstrates a new class of semi-degradable polymers that show an increase in mechanical properties through degradation via a controlled shift in a thermal transition. Semi-degradable polymer networks, poly(β-amino ester)-co-methyl methacrylate, were formed from a low glass transition temperature crosslinker, poly(β-amino ester), and high glass transition temperature monomer, methyl methacrylate, which degraded in a manner dependent upon the crosslinker chemical structure. In vitro and in vivo degradation revealed changes in mechanical behavior due to the degradation of the crosslinker from the polymer network. This novel polymer system demonstrates a strategy to temporally control the mechanical behavior of polymers and to enhance the initial performance of smart biomedical devices. PMID:24769113

  2. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  3. The methylation of the C-terminal region of hnRNPQ (NSAP1) is important for its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Dario O.; Quaresma, Alexandre J.C.; Kobarg, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is an irreversible post-translational protein modification catalyzed by a family of at least nine different enzymes entitled PRMTs (protein arginine methyl transferases). Although PRMT1 is responsible for 85% of the protein methylation in human cells, its substrate spectrum has not yet been fully characterized nor are the functional consequences of methylation for the protein substrates well understood. Therefore, we set out to employ the yeast two-hybrid system in order to identify new substrate proteins for human PRMT1. We were able to identify nine different PRMT1 interacting proteins involved in different aspects of RNA metabolism, five of which had been previously described either as substrates for PRMT1 or as functionally associated with PRMT1. Among the four new identified possible protein substrates was hnRNPQ3 (NSAP1), a protein whose function has been implicated in diverse steps of mRNA maturation, including splicing, editing, and degradation. By in vitro methylation assays we were able to show that hnRNPQ3 is a substrate for PRMT1 and that its C-terminal RGG box domain is the sole target for methylation. By further studies with the inhibitor of methylation Adox we provide evidence that hnRNPQ1-3 are methylated in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate by immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells that the methylation of hnRNPQ is important for its nuclear localization, since Adox treatment causes its re-distribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

  4. In vitro evaluation of N-methyl amide tripeptidomimetics as substrates for the human intestinal di-/tri-peptide transporter hPEPT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Begtrup, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    application of N-methyl amide bioisosteres as peptide bond replacements in tripeptides in order to decrease degradation by peptidases and yet retain affinity for and transport via hPEPT1. Seven structurally diverse N-methyl amide tripeptidomimetics were selected based on a principal component analysis...... of structural properties of 6859 N-methyl amide tripeptidomimetics. In vitro extracellular degradation of the selected tripeptidomimetics as well as affinity for and transepithelial transport via hPEPT1 were investigated in Caco-2 cells. Decreased apparent degradation was observed for all tripeptidomimetics...... to be substrates for hPEPT1 than tripeptidomimetics with charged side chains. The results of the present study indicate that the N-methyl amide peptide bond replacement approach for increasing bioavailability of tripeptidomimetic drug candidates is not generally applicable to all tripeptides. Nevertheless...

  5. Isolation of Methylophaga spp. from Marine Dimethylsulfide-Degrading Enrichment Cultures and Identification of Polypeptides Induced during Growth on Dimethylsulfide▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS)-degrading enrichment cultures were established from samples of coastal seawater, nonaxenic Emiliania huxleyi cultures, and mixed marine methyl halide-degrading enrichment cultures. Bacterial populations from a broad phylogenetic range were identified in the mixed DMS-degrading enrichment cultures by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sequences of dominant DGGE bands were similar to those of members of the genera Methylophaga and Alcanivorax. Several closely ...

  6. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  7. Purex diluent degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO 3 system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) molecule, not HNO 3 as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO 3 concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO 2 and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO 2 scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures

  8. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO 3 nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO 3 –ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO 3 . • WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO 3 –ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO 3 nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO 3 (m-WO 3 ) and hexagonal WO 3 (h-WO 3 ) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO 3 and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO 3 shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO 3 . Symmetrical monoclinic WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO 3 with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  9. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  10. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 specifically methylates the nonhistone chromatin protein HMGA1a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Tina Branscombe; Webb, Kristofor J.; Edberg, Dale D.; Reeves, Raymond; Clarke, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The HMGA family proteins HMGA1a and HMGA1b are nuclear nonhistone species implicated in a wide range of cellular processes including inducible gene transcription, modulation of chromosome structure through nucleosome and chromosome remodeling, and neoplastic transformation. HMGA proteins are highly modified, and changes in their phosphorylation states have been correlated with the phase of the cell cycle and changes in their transcriptional activity. HMGA1a is also methylated in the first DNA-binding AT-hook at Arg25 and other sites, although the enzyme or enzymes responsible have not been identified. We demonstrate here that a GST fusion of protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) specifically methylates full-length recombinant HMGA1a protein in vitro. Although GST fusions of PRMT1 and PRMT3 were also capable of methylating the full-length HMGA1a polypeptide, they recognize its proteolytic degradation products much better. GST fusions of PRMT4 or PRMT7 were unable to methylate the full-length protein or its degradation products. We conclude that PRMT6 is a good candidate for the endogenous enzyme responsible for HGMA1a methylation

  11. Histone Lysine Methylation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of several lysine residues of histones is a crucial mechanism for relatively long-term regulation of genomic activity. Recent molecular biological studies have demonstrated that the function of histone methylation is more diverse and complex than previously thought. Moreover, studies using newly available genomics techniques, such as exome sequencing, have identified an increasing number of histone lysine methylation-related genes as intellectual disability-associated genes, which highlights the importance of accurate control of histone methylation during neurogenesis. However, given the functional diversity and complexity of histone methylation within the cell, the study of the molecular basis of histone methylation-related neurodevelopmental disorders is currently still in its infancy. Here, we review the latest studies that revealed the pathological implications of alterations in histone methylation status in the context of various neurodevelopmental disorders and propose possible therapeutic application of epigenetic compounds regulating histone methylation status for the treatment of these diseases.

  12. miRNAting control of DNA methylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    miRNAting control of DNA methylation. ASHWANI ... function and biological process ... Enrichment analysis of the genes methylated by DRM2 for molecular function and biological ... 39(3), June 2014, 365–380, © Indian Academy of Sciences.

  13. Bacterial production of methyl ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been

    2017-01-31

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of methyl ketones in a genetically modified host cell that overproduces .beta.-ketoacyl-CoAs through a re-engineered .beta.-oxidation pathway and overexpresses FadM.

  14. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. APPLICATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER FROM HIGHLYCONTAMINATED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether is added to gasoline to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions by vehicles. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with methyl tert-butyl ether may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this research the degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether at relatively high concentrations was investigated by UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as pH, amount of H2O2, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and intermediates such as tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl alcohol were measured over a 180 min period using a gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector and combined with headspace sampler. Results showed that the time required for complete degradation increased from 30 to 180min, when the initial concentration was increased from 10 to 500mg/L. The first order rate constant for degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether from the hydroxyl radical was estimated to be 0.177 to 0.022 1/min as the concentration increased from 10 to 500mg/L. Study on the overall mineralization monitored by total organic carbon (TOC analysis showed that in the initial concentration of 100mg/L methyl tert-butyl ether, complete mineralization was obtained after 110min under UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process.

  16. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics

  17. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L., E-mail: umbertofulco@gmail.com; Albuquerque, E. L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil)

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  18. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) reveals that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Salt stress, alkali stress, Gossypium hirsutum L., DNA methylation, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). INTRODUCTION. DNA methylation is one of the key epigenetic mecha- nisms among eukaryotes that can modulate gene expression without the changes of DNA sequence.

  19. miRNAting control of DNA methylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA methylation is a type of epigenetic modification where a methyl group is added to the cytosine or adenine residue of a given DNA sequence. It has been observed that DNA methylation is achieved by some collaborative agglomeration of certain proteins and non-coding RNAs. The assembly of IDN2 and its ...

  20. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kicker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  1. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  2. Effect of 200 keV proton irradiation on the properties of methyl silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lixin; Xu Zhou; Wei Qiang; He Shiyu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of 200 keV proton irradiation on methyl silicone rubber were studied. The changes in surface morphology, mechanical properties, cross-linking density, glass transition temperature, infrared attenuated total reflection spectrum and mass spectrum indicated that, at lower fluence, the proton irradiation induced cross-linking, resulting in an increase in tensile strength and hardness of the methyl silicone rubber. However, at higher proton fluence, radiation-induced degradation, which decreased the tensile strength and hardness, became dominant. A macromolecular-network destruction model for silicone rubber irradiated with protons was proposed

  3. Methylation of Gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varbanova,M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yang, Y.; McKelvey, K.; Hanada, A.; Borochov, R.; Yu, F.; Jikumaru, Y.; Ross, J.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana GAMT1 and GAMT2 encode enzymes that catalyze formation of the methyl esters of gibberellins (GAs). Ectopic expression of GAMT1 or GAMT2 in Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and petunia (Petunia hybrida) resulted in plants with GA deficiency and typical GA deficiency phenotypes, such as dwarfism and reduced fertility. GAMT1 and GAMT2 are both expressed mainly in whole siliques (including seeds), with peak transcript levels from the middle until the end of silique development. Within whole siliques, GAMT2 was previously shown to be expressed mostly in developing seeds, and we show here that GAMT1 expression is also localized mostly to seed, suggesting a role in seed development. Siliques of null single GAMT1 and GAMT2 mutants accumulated high levels of various GAs, with particularly high levels of GA1 in the double mutant. Methylated GAs were not detected in wild-type siliques, suggesting that methylation of GAs by GAMT1 and GAMT2 serves to deactivate GAs and initiate their degradation as the seeds mature. Seeds of homozygous GAMT1 and GAMT2 null mutants showed reduced inhibition of germination, compared with the wild type, when placed on plates containing the GA biosynthesis inhibitor ancymidol, with the double mutant showing the least inhibition. These results suggest that the mature mutant seeds contained higher levels of active GAs than wild-type seeds.

  4. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  5. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  6. Identification of endometrial cancer methylation features using combined methylation analysis methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Trimarchi

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that is frequently altered in tumors. DNA methylation features are attractive biomarkers for disease states given the stability of DNA methylation in living cells and in biologic specimens typically available for analysis. Widespread accumulation of methylation in regulatory elements in some cancers (specifically the CpG island methylator phenotype, CIMP can play an important role in tumorigenesis. High resolution assessment of CIMP for the entire genome, however, remains cost prohibitive and requires quantities of DNA not available for many tissue samples of interest. Genome-wide scans of methylation have been undertaken for large numbers of tumors, and higher resolution analyses for a limited number of cancer specimens. Methods for analyzing such large datasets and integrating findings from different studies continue to evolve. An approach for comparison of findings from a genome-wide assessment of the methylated component of tumor DNA and more widely applied methylation scans was developed.Methylomes for 76 primary endometrial cancer and 12 normal endometrial samples were generated using methylated fragment capture and second generation sequencing, MethylCap-seq. Publically available Infinium HumanMethylation 450 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA were compared to MethylCap-seq data.Analysis of methylation in promoter CpG islands (CGIs identified a subset of tumors with a methylator phenotype. We used a two-stage approach to develop a 13-region methylation signature associated with a "hypermethylator state." High level methylation for the 13-region methylation signatures was associated with mismatch repair deficiency, high mutation rate, and low somatic copy number alteration in the TCGA test set. In addition, the signature devised showed good agreement with previously described methylation clusters devised by TCGA.We identified a methylation signature for a "hypermethylator phenotype" in

  7. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  8. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe Ziir

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...... groups of mice clearly revealed a fibrosis protective role of uPARAP/Endo180. This effect appeared to directly reflect the activity of the collagen receptor, since no compensatory events were noted when comparing the mRNA expression profiles of the two groups of mice in an array system focused on matrix-degrading...

  9. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  10. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  11. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  12. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  13. [Analysis of the character of film decomposition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) coated urea by infrared spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-po; Wu, Zhi-jie; Liang, Cheng-hua; Chen, Li-jun; Zhang, Yu-lan; Nie, Yan-xi

    2012-03-01

    The degradability characteristics of film with 4 kinds of methyl methacrylate coated urea amended with inhibitors were analyzed by FITR, which was purposed to supply theoretical basis for applying the FITR analysis method to film decomposition and methyl methacrylate coated urea fertilizers on farming. The result showed that the chemical component, molecule structure and material form of the membrane were not changed because of adding different inhibitors to urea. the main peaks of expressing film degradation process were brought by the -C-H of CH3 & CH2, -OH, C-O, C-C, C-O-C, C=O, C=C flexing vibrancy in asymmetry and symmetry in 3 479-3 195, 2 993--2 873, 1 741-1 564, 1 461-925 and 850-650 cm(-1). The peak value changed from smooth to tip, and from width to narrow caused by chemical structural transform of film The infrared spectrum of 4 kinds of fertilizers was not different remarkably before 60 days, and the film was slowly degraded. But degradation of the film was expedited after 60 days, it was most quickened at 120 day, and the decomposition rate of film was decreased at 310 day. The substantiality change of film in main molecule structure of 4 kinds of fertilizers didn't happen in 310 days. The main component of film materials was degraded most slowly in brown soil. The speed of film degradation wasn't heavily impacted by different inhibitors. The characteristic of film degradation may be monitored entirely by infrared spectrum. The degradation dynamic, chemical structure change, degradation speed difference of the film could be represented through infrared spectrum.

  14. MethylMix 2.0: an R package for identifying DNA methylation genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedoz, Pierre-Louis; Prunello, Marcos; Brennan, Kevin; Gevaert, Olivier

    2018-04-14

    DNA methylation is an important mechanism regulating gene transcription, and its role in carcinogenesis has been extensively studied. Hyper and hypomethylation of genes is a major mechanism of gene expression deregulation in a wide range of diseases. At the same time, high-throughput DNA methylation assays have been developed generating vast amounts of genome wide DNA methylation measurements. We developed MethylMix, an algorithm implemented in R to identify disease specific hyper and hypomethylated genes. Here we present a new version of MethylMix that automates the construction of DNA-methylation and gene expression datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). More precisely, MethylMix 2.0 incorporates two major updates: the automated downloading of DNA methylation and gene expression datasets from TCGA and the automated preprocessing of such datasets: value imputation, batch correction and CpG sites clustering within each gene. The resulting datasets can subsequently be analyzed with MethylMix to identify transcriptionally predictive methylation states. We show that the Differential Methylation Values created by MethylMix can be used for cancer subtyping. olivier.gevaert@stanford.edu. https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/manuals/MethylMix/man/MethylMix.pdf. MethylMix 2.0 was implemented as an R package and is available in bioconductor.

  15. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  16. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  17. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  18. Methylation of ribonucleic acid by the carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Comparisons of chemical analyses at the nucleoside and base levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, P. D.; Shah, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    1. The following methods for hydrolysis of methyl-14C-labelled RNA, and for chromatographic isolation and determination of the products, were investigated: enzymic digestion to nucleosides at pH6 or 8; alkaline hydrolysis and conversion into nucleosides; hydrolysis by acid to pyrimidine nucleotides and purine bases, or completely to bases; chromatography on Dowex 50 (NH4+ form) at pH6 or 8.9, or on Dowex 50 (H+ form), or on Sephadex G-10. 2. The suitability of the various methods for determination of methylation products was assessed. The principal product, 7-methylguanosine, was unstable under the conditions used for determinations of nucleosides. 3- and 7-Methyladenine and 3- and 7-methylguanine are best determined as bases; 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine can be isolated as either nucleosides or bases; O6-methylguanine is unstable under the acid hydrolysis conditions used and can be determined as the nucleoside; 3-methyluracil was detected, but may be derived from methylation of the ionized form of uracil. 3. Differences between the patterns of methylation of RNA and homopolyribonucleotides by the N-methyl-N-nitroso compounds and dimethyl sulphate were found: the nitroso compounds were able to methylate O-6 of guanine, were relatively more reactive at N-7 of adenine and probably at N-3 of guanine, but less reactive at N-1 of adenine, N-3 of cytosine and probably at N-3 of uridine. They probably reacted more with the ribose–phosphate chain, but no products from this were identified. 4. The possible influences of these differences on biological action of the methylating agents is discussed. Nitroso compounds may differ principally in their ability to induce miscoding in the Watson–Crick sense by reaction at O-6 of guanine. Both types of agent may induce miscoding to a lesser extent through methylation at N-3 of guanine; both can methylate N atoms, presumably preventing Watson–Crick hydrogen-bonding. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea can degrade RNA, possibly

  19. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2 for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene methylation need to be standardised, simplified and evaluated in external quality assurance programmes. It is concluded that methylated genes have the potential to provide a new generation of cancer biomarkers.

  20. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  1. Cathodoluminescence as a method for the study of degradation of polysilanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Petr; Schauer, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 2 (2006), s. 303-307 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : cathodoluminescence * polysilanes * electron beam * poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene] * degradation * metastability Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2006

  2. EFFECT OF BTEX ON THE DEGRADATION OF MTBE AND TBA BY MIXED BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in groundwater often coexists with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) near the source of the plume. Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is a prevalent intermediate of MTBE degradation. Therefore, there is a significant p...

  3. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

  4. NOVEL EMBEDDED CERAMIC ELECTRODE SYSTEM TO ACTIVATE NANOSTRUCTURED TITANIUM DIOXIDE FOR DEGRADATION OF MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel reactor combining a flame-deposited nanostructured titanium dioxide film and a set of embedded ceramic electrodes was designed, developed and tested for degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water. On applying a voltage to the ceramic electrodes, a surface coro...

  5. Thermophysical study of methyl levulinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, Laura; Lafuente, Carlos; García-Mardones, Mónica; Gascón, Ignacio; Giner, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We have carried out a thermophysical characterization of methyl levulinate. • The study has been performed over a temperature range from (278.15 to 328.15) K. • pρT behavior has been studied over a temperature range from (333.15 to 453.15) K. • TRIDEN equation has been used to correlate pρT data. • Results have been compared with of ethyl and butyl levulinate and levulinic acid. -- Abstract: Several thermophysical properties (density, speed of sound, refractive index, surface tension, static permittivity and dynamic viscosity) of methyl levulinate have been measured under atmospheric pressure at temperatures from (278.15 to 338.15) K, while the vapor pressure was determined over a temperature range from (333.15 to 453.15) K. Furthermore, pρT behavior has been also investigated using a high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter over a temperature range from (283.15 to 338.15) K and a pressure range from (0.1 to 60.0) MPa. All these values obtained for methyl levulinate have been compared with other members of the levulinate family and also with levulinic acid

  6. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])

  7. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...

  8. Radiation degradation of silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Silk fibroin powder was prepared from irradiated silk fibroin fiber by means of only physical treatment. Silk fibroin fiber irradiated with an accelerated electron beam in the dose range of 250 - 1000 kGy was pulverized by using a ball mill. Unirradiated silk fibroin fiber was not pulverized at all. But the more irradiation was increased, the more the conversion efficiency from fiber to powder was increased. The conversion efficiency of silk fibroin fiber irradiated 1000 kGy in oxygen was 94%. Silk fibroin powder shows remarkable solubility, which dissolved 57% into water of ambient temperature. It is a very interesting phenomenon that silk fibroin which did not treat with chemicals gets solubility only being pulverized. In order to study mechanism of solubilization of silk fibroin powder, amino acid component of soluble part of silk fibroin powder was analyzed. The more irradiation dose up, the more glycine or alanine degraded, but degradation fraction reached bounds about 50%. Other amino acids were degraded only 20% even at the maximum. To consider crystal construction of silk fibroin, it is suggested that irradiation on silk fibroin fiber selectively degrades glycine and alanine in amorphous region, which makes it possible to pulverize and to dissolve silk fibroin powder. (author)

  9. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  10. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  11. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Systemic effects of chronically administered methyl prednisolonate and methyl 17-deoxyprednisolonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, E; Lee, H J

    1984-06-01

    The systemic activities of methyl prednisolonate and methyl 17-deoxyprednisolonate (1) were studied in rats. Methyl 17-deoxyprednisolonate produced significant changes in the amount of sodium ion (decreased) and potassium ion (increased) in urine; however, methyl prednisolonate had no effect on electrolyte balance. Both methyl prednisolonate and methyl 17-deoxyprednisolonate had no effect on liver glycogen content, plasma corticosterone level and relative adrenal weight. In contrast, the parent compound prednisolone caused a significant decrease in liver glycogen content, plasma corticosterone level and relative adrenal weight.

  13. Biogeochemistry of arsenic in natural waters: The importance of methylated species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.C.D.; Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Water samples from a number of lakes and estuaries, mostly in California, showed measurable concentrations of methylated arsenic (equivalent to 1-59% of total As) with the exception of one highly alkaline lake. Neither depleted phosphate concentrations nor high dissolved salts correlated with the appearance of methylated forms of As. A temporal study of As speciation in Davis Creek Reservoir, a seasonally anoxic lake in northern California, demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid increased sufficiently to become the dominant form of dissolved As within the surface photic zone during late summer and fall. Methylated forms decreased while arsenate increased when the lake over-turned in early December, which suggested a degradation of dimethylarsinic acid to arsenate.

  14. The Incidence and Fate of Volatile Methyl Siloxanes in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) arise from diverse, pervasive sources aboard crewed spacecraft ranging from materials offgassing to volatilization from personal care products. These sources lead to a persistent VMS compound presence in the cabin environment that must be considered for robust life support system design. Volatile methyl siloxane compound stability in the cabin environment presents an additional technical issue because degradation products such as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) are highly soluble in water leading to a unique load challenge for water purification processes. The incidence and fate of VMS compounds as observed in the terrestrial atmosphere, water, and surface (soil) environmental compartments have been evaluated as an analogy for a crewed cabin environment. Volatile methyl siloxane removal pathways aboard crewed spacecraft are discussed and a material balance accounting for a DMSD production mechanism consistent with in-flight observations is presented.

  15. Degradation of organic pollutants by methane grown microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselsoe, Martin; Boysen, Susanne; Iversen, Niels; Jørgensen, Lars; Murrell, J Colin; McDonald, Ian; Radajewski, Stefan; Thestrup, Helle; Roslev, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Microbial consortia were enriched from various environmental samples with methane as the sole carbon and energy source. Selected consortia that showed a capacity for co-oxidation of naphthalene were screened for their ability to degrade methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), phthalic acid esters (PAE), benzene, xylene and toluene (BTX). MTBE was not removed within 24 h by any of the consortia examined. One consortium enriched from activated sludge ("AAE-A2"), degraded PAE, including (butyl-benzyl)phthalate (BBP), and di-(butyl)phthalate (DBP). PAE have not previously been described as substrates for methanotrophic consortia. The apparent Km and Vmax for DBP degradation by AAE-A2 at 20 degrees C was 3.1 +/- 1.2 mg l(-1) and 8.7 +/- 1.1 mg DBP (g protein x h)(-1), respectively. AAE-A2 also showed fast degradation of BTX (230 +/- 30 nmol benzene (mg protein x h)(-1) at 20 degrees C). Additionally, AAE-A2 degraded benzene continuously for 2 weeks. In contrast, a pure culture of the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b ceased benzene degradation after only 2 days. Experiments with methane mono-oxygenase inhibitors or competitive substrates suggested that BTX degradation was carried out by methane-oxidizing bacteria in the consortium, whereas the degradation of PAE was carried out by non-methanotrophic bacteria co-existing with methanotrophs. The composition of the consortium (AAE-A2) based on polar lipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles showed dominance of type II methanotrophs (83-92% of biomass). Phylogeny based on a 16S-rRNA gene clone library revealed that the dominating methanotrophs belonged to Methylosinus/Methylocystis spp. and that members of at least 4 different non-methanotrophic genera were present (Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Janthinobacterium and Rubivivax).

  16. The Atmospheric Chemistry of Methyl Chavicol (Estragole)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Rickard, A. R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pereira, K. F.; Camredon, M.; Munoz, A.; Vazquez, M.; Alacreu, P.; Rodenas, M.; Vera, T.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leads to formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA), with consequences for health, air quality, crop yields, atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer. It is estimated that ca. 90 % of VOC emissions to the atmosphere originate from biogenic sources (BVOC); such emissions may increase under future climates. Recent field observations have identified Methyl Chavicol ("MC" hereafter, also known as Estragole; 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene, C10H12O) as a major BVOC above pine forests in the USA [Bouvier-Brown et al., 2009], and within an oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo, where it was found that MC could represent the highest single floral contribution of reactive carbon to the atmosphere [Misztal et al., 2010]. Palm oil cultivation, and hence emissions of MC, may be expected to increase with societal food and biofuel demand. We present the results of a series of simulation chamber experiments to assess the atmospheric fate of MC. Experiments were performed in the EUPHORE (European Photoreactor) facility in Valencia, Spain (200 m3 outdoor smog chamber), investigating the degradation of MC by reaction with OH, O3 and NO3. An extensive range of measurement instrumentation was used to monitor precursor and product formation, including stable species (FTIR, PTR-MS, GC-FID and GC-MS), radical intermediates (LIF), inorganic components (NOx, O3, HONO (LOPAP and aerosol production (SMPS) and composition (PILS and filters; analysed offline by LC-MS and FTICR-MS). Experiments were conducted at a range of NOx:VOC ratios, and in the presence and absence of radical (OH) scavenger compounds. This chamber dataset is used to determine the rate constants for reaction of MC with OH, O3 and NO3, the ozonolysis radical yields, and identify the primary degradation products for each initiation route, alongside the aerosol mass yields. Aerosol composition measurements are analysed to identify markers for MC contributions to

  17. EFFECTS OF STIMULATOR SUBSTANCES ON AEROBIC METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER BIODEGRADATION BY MICROBIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farrokhi ، S. Ahmadizad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study dissolved humic substances and yeast extract were tested in different concentrations for enhancing methyl tert-butyl ether mineralization by isolated microorganisms from a variety of sources. All experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of 25ºC. Vials of 50 mL and 125 mL volume sealed with Teflon-lined Mini-Nert caps was used for microcosm experiments. In all experiments 1% sodium azide were used as control. Samples of bacterial cultures that metabolize methyl tert-butyl ether have been analysed by direct GC analysis using flame ionization detector. Cultures able to metabolize have been found in activated sludge and soils. These microorganisms weregram-positive bacterium. An aerobic microbial consortium was enriched in laboratory for four months. Methyl tert-butyl ether has been shown to biodegrade under aerobic and co-metabolic conditions. A microbial consortium isolated from activated sludges was identified as Cocobacillus. The concentration of the initial attached biomass was about 0.11 g/L of dry weight. The maximum mineralization rate and beneficial effects of stimulator substances on aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether occurred with the culture by combined concentrations of 500 mg/L of yeast extract and 20 mg/L of peat humic growth support of microbial consortium within 216 h and in presence of high oxygen levels and well mixing conditions. It was shown that adding, peat humic and yeast extract together, had better stimulatory effect on methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation. Results clearly showed a stimulatory effect on methyl tert-butyl ether consumption higher than 20%. Consortium was capable of degrading concentrations of ≤1000 mg/L, whereas concentrations of >1000 mg/L, were not degraded.

  18. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  19. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    material system (structural polymer and degradation agent ) for producing a high strength, non-corroding, highly inert, environmentally safe, extended...polymer sites in the active enzyme center differs dramatically between alkyl and aromatic polyesters. More specifically, as the degree of backbone...capped and centrifuged at 3,000 g. This procedure was repeated twice. To the remaining biomass pellet 15 mL of 1 mg/mL solution of N-ethyl-N- nitrosourea

  20. Radiation degradation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Maznah Mahmud; Norhashidah Talip; Kamarudin Bahari; Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain an oligo chitosan, degradation of chitosan s were carried out in solid state and liquid state. The effects of an irradiation on the molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan were investigated using Ubbelohde Capillary Viscometer and Brookfield Viscometer respectively. The molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan s were decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the molecular weight of chitosan can be further decreased. (author)

  1. Methylation patterns in marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto J; Bertoni, Francesco

    Promoter DNA methylation is a major regulator of gene expression and transcription. The identification of methylation changes is important for understanding disease pathogenesis, for identifying prognostic markers and can drive novel therapeutic approaches. In this review we summarize the current knowledge regarding DNA methylation in MALT lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Despite important differences in the study design for different publications and the existence of a sole large and genome-wide methylation study for splenic marginal zone lymphoma, it is clear that DNA methylation plays an important role in marginal zone lymphomas, in which it contributes to the inactivation of tumor suppressors but also to the expression of genes sustaining tumor cell survival and proliferation. Existing preclinical data provide the rationale to target the methylation machinery in these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Joon-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Lee, Suman

    2007-01-01

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes

  3. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  4. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  5. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish, E-mail: dsarkar@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO{sub 3}–ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO{sub 3}. • WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO{sub 3}–ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO{sub 3} nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO{sub 3} (m-WO{sub 3}) and hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO{sub 3} and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO{sub 3} shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO{sub 3}. Symmetrical monoclinic WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO{sub 3} with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  6. WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the asociated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. Other objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of MCPA-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain ERG5, Isolated from a Groundwater Aquifer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Kot, Witold; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain ERG5 was isolated from a bacterial community, originating from a groundwater aquifer polluted with low pesticide concentrations. This bacterium degrades 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a wide spectrum of concentrations and has been shown to function in bioaug......Sphingomonas sp. strain ERG5 was isolated from a bacterial community, originating from a groundwater aquifer polluted with low pesticide concentrations. This bacterium degrades 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a wide spectrum of concentrations and has been shown to function...

  8. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C., E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); Feron, Krishna [Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Technology, P. O. Box 330, Newcastle NSW 2300 (Australia)

    2014-05-12

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles.

  9. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Feron, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C 60 bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles

  10. Enhanced decolorization of methyl orange using zero-valent copper nanoparticles under assistance of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Song, Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Tao, Zheng; Yu, Shuili; Liu, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    The rate of reduction reactions of zero-valent metal nanoparticles is restricted by their agglomeration. Hydrodynamic cavitation was used to overcome the disadvantage in this study. Experiments for decolorization of methyl orange azo dye by zero-valent copper nanoparticles were carried out in aqueous solution with and without hydrodynamic cavitation. The results showed that hydrodynamic cavitation greatly accelerated the decolorization rate of methyl orange. The size of nanoparticles was decreased after hydrodynamic cavitation treatment. The effects of important operating parameters such as discharge pressure, initial solution pH, and copper nanoparticle concentration on the degradation rates were studied. It was observed that there was an optimum discharge pressure to get best decolorization performance. Lower solution pH were favorable for the decolorization. The pseudo-first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of methyl orange increased linearly with the copper dose. UV-vis spectroscopic and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analyses confirmed that many degradation intermediates were formed. The results indicated hydroxyl radicals played a key role in the decolorization process. Therefore, the enhancement of decolorization by hydrodynamic cavitation could due to the deagglomeration of nanoparticles as well as the oxidation by the in situ generated hydroxyl radicals. These findings greatly increase the potential of the Cu(0)/hydrodynamic cavitation technique for use in the field of treatment of wastewater containing hazardous materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure, bioactivity, and synthesis of methylated flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lingrong; Jiang, Yueming; Yang, Jiali; Zhao, Yupeng; Tian, Miaomiao; Yang, Bao

    2017-06-01

    Methylated flavonoids are an important type of natural flavonoid derivative with potentially multiple health benefits; among other things, they have improved bioavailability compared with flavonoid precursors. Flavonoids have been documented to have broad bioactivities, such as anticancer, immunomodulation, and antioxidant activities, that can be elevated, to a certain extent, by methylation. Understanding the structure, bioactivity, and bioavailability of methylated flavonoids, therefore, is an interesting topic with broad potential applications. Though methylated flavonoids are widely present in plants, their levels are usually low. Because developing efficient techniques to produce these chemicals would likely be beneficial, we provide an overview of their chemical and biological synthesis. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  13. Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI-YING BO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk spiked with seven organophosphorus pesticides, i.e., dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate and trichlorphon, was fermented at 42 °C with commercial directed vat set (DVS starters to investigate the degradation kinetics of the pesticides during yoghurt processing. The spiked pesticides were extracted from the prepared samples with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography after purification. Based on published results that the degradation kinetics of pesticides is first order, the rate constant of degradation and the half live period of the pesticides were calculated. The results indicated that degradation of the pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing were enhanced by one or both starters, except for malathion, and the two commercial DVS starters had different influences on the degradation kinetics of the pesticides.

  14. Methylation diet and methyl group genetics in risk for adenomatous polyp occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lucock

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A methylation diet influences methyl group synthesis in the regulation of blood homocysteine level, and is modulated by genetic interactions. Methylation-related nutrients also interact with key genes to modify risk of AP, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Independent of diet, two methylation-related genes (A2756G-MS and A66G-MSR were directly associated with AP occurrence.

  15. A genome-wide methylation study on obesity Differential variability and differential methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Barnes, Vernon A.; De Miguel, Carmen; Pollock, Jennifer; Ownby, Dennis; Shi, Huidong; Zhu, Haidong; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Besides differential methylation, DNA methylation variation has recently been proposed and demonstrated to be a potential contributing factor to cancer risk. Here we aim to examine whether differential variability in methylation is also an important feature of obesity, a typical non-malignant common

  16. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate...

  17. Statistical modeling for degradation data

    CERN Document Server

    Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.

  18. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Huebert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given. (author)

  19. Chemical degradation of pentachlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.S.; Shukla, A.; Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    Industry produces a large volume of hazardous wastes containing pentachlorophenol, a U.S. EPA priority hazardous organic material. The environmentally safe disposal of these PCP-contaminated wastes is a serious problem for the waste management authorities as the current treatment processes are unsatisfactory. In this paper, the results of a feasibility study of chemical degradation and/or solidification methods for PCP-containing wastes. The photochemical decomposition of the PCP in a microemulsion or in micellar media obtained with the help of SDS or CTAB show the greatest promise

  20. Radiation degradation of polymethacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation on polymers have been studied for many years. When polymers are subjected to ultraviolet light or ionizing radiation, chain scission and crosslinking are possible. The radiation degradations of several methacrylate type polymers were investigated. The primary polymer studied was polymethacrylamide (PMAAm). Ultraviolet irradiated PMAAm yielded a five line ESR spectrum with 22 gauss splitting which is believed to arise from a polymeric radical ending with a methacrylamide unit. The results obtained indicate that polymethacrylamide is a polymer which undergoes main chain cleavage upon irradiation. As such this polymer may have potential applicability as a positive resist for fabrication of microelectronic devices

  1. Aberrant TET1 Methylation Closely Associated with CpG Island Methylator Phenotype in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Norihisa; Shinjo, Keiko; An, Byonggu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yamao, Kenji; Ohka, Fumiharu; Katsushima, Keisuke; Hatanaka, Akira; Tojo, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Hiromu; Ueda, Minoru; Kondo, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    Inactivation of methylcytosine dioxygenase, ten-eleven translocation (TET) is known to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation in cancers. Tumors with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), a distinct subgroup with extensive DNA methylation, show characteristic features in the case of colorectal cancer. The relationship between TET inactivation and CIMP in colorectal cancers is not well understood. The expression level of TET family genes was compared between CIMP-positive (CIMP-P) and CIMP-negative (CIMP-N) colorectal cancers. Furthermore, DNA methylation profiling, including assessment of the TET1 gene, was assessed in colorectal cancers, as well as colon polyps. The TET1 was silenced by DNA methylation in a subset of colorectal cancers as well as cell lines, expression of which was reactivated by demethylating agent. TET1 methylation was more frequent in CIMP-P (23/55, 42%) than CIMP-N (2/113, 2%, P CIMP-P, 16/40, 40%; CIMP-N, 2/24, 8%; P = 0.002), suggesting that TET1 methylation is an early event in CIMP tumorigenesis. TET1 methylation was significantly associated with BRAF mutation but not with hMLH1 methylation in the CIMP-P colorectal cancers. Colorectal cancers with TET1 methylation have a significantly greater number of DNA methylated genes and less pathological metastasis compared to those without TET1 methylation (P = 0.007 and 0.045, respectively). Our data suggest that TET1 methylation may contribute to the establishment of a unique pathway in respect to CIMP-mediated tumorigenesis, which may be incidental to hMLH1 methylation. In addition, our findings provide evidence that TET1 methylation may be a good biomarker for the prediction of metastasis in colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. The Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate: Amine Diazotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that this experiment takes safety and noncarcinogenic reactants into account. Demonstrates the use of diazonium salts for the replacement of an aromatic amine group by a phenolic hydroxyl. Involves two pleasant-smelling organic compounds, methyl anthranilate (grape) and methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). (MVL)

  3. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  4. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision.

  5. Methyl 3-(Quinolin-2-ylindolizine-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumaissa Belguedj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel compound, methyl 3-(quinolin-2-ylindolizine-1-carboxylate (2 has been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction of 1-(quinolin-2-ylmethylpyridinium ylide (1 with methyl propiolate in presence of sodium hydride in THF. The structure of this compound was established by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS data

  6. Adenine N6-methylation in diverse fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    A DNA modification - methylation of cytosines and adenines - has important roles in diverse processes such as regulation of gene expression and genome stability, yet until recently adenine methylation had been considered to be only a hallmark of prokaryotes. A new study identifies abundant

  7. Effects of cytosine methylation on transcription factor binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Medvedeva, Yulia A; Khamis, Abdullah M.; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bhuyan, Md Shariful I; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Harbers, Matthias; Forrest, Alistair RR; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation in promoters is closely linked to downstream gene repression. However, whether DNA methylation is a cause or a consequence of gene repression remains an open question. If it is a cause, then DNA methylation may affect

  8. DMPD: TLR ignores methylated RNA? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16111629 TLR ignores methylated RNA? Ishii KJ, Akira S. Immunity. 2005 Aug;23(2):11...1-3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR ignores methylated RNA? PubmedID 16111629 Title TLR ignores methylated

  9. Modeling spatiotemporal dynamics of DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövkvist, Cecilia Elisabet

    into how epigenetic marks are distributed in the human genome. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate DNA methylation and maintenance of methylation patterns throughout cell division. We argue that collaborative models, those where the methylation of CpG sites depends on the methylation status...... into the game more explicitly in another type of model that speaks out the duality of the two aspects. Using statistical analysis of experimental data, this thesis further explores a link between DNA methylation and nucleosome occupancy. By comparing the patterns on promoters to regions with similar Cp...... division. The patterns of epigentic marks depend on enzymes that ensure their maintenance and introduction. Using theoretical models, this thesis proposes new mechanisms for how enzymes operate to maintain patterns of epigenetic marks. Through analysis of experimental data this work gives new insight...

  10. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  11. Radiation effects on DNA methylation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, J.; Kurishita, A.; Miyamura, Y.; Ono, T.; Tawa, R.; Sakurai, H.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on DNA methylation in liver, brain and spleen were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total methylated cytosine level in the genome was reduced within 8 hours after 3.8 Gy of irradiation in liver of adult mice. But no appreciable effect was observed in brain and spleen. When mice were irradiated at newborn, liver DNA revealed no change in methylated cytosine level. Even though slight effects of radiation were detected in he methylation of the c-myc and c-fos genes, they were only temporary and no long-term effects were observed. These data suggest that the effect of radiation on DNA methylation in vivo is not prevailing a DNA damage, but rather influenced much through biological parameters. (author)

  12. Methylation analysis of polysaccharides: Technical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ian M; Carnachan, Susan M; Bell, Tracey J; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2018-05-15

    Glycosyl linkage (methylation) analysis is used widely for the structural determination of oligo- and poly-saccharides. The procedure involves derivatisation of the individual component sugars of a polysaccharide to partially methylated alditol acetates which are analysed and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linkage positions for each component sugar can be determined by correctly identifying the partially methylated alditol acetates. Although the methods are well established, there are many technical aspects to this procedure and both careful attention to detail and considerable experience are required to achieve a successful methylation analysis and to correctly interpret the data generated. The aim of this article is to provide the technical details and critical procedural steps necessary for a successful methylation analysis and to assist researchers (a) with interpreting data correctly and (b) in providing the comprehensive data required for reviewers to fully assess the work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA sequence explains seemingly disordered methylation levels in partially methylated domains of Mammalian genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Gaidatzis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For the most part metazoan genomes are highly methylated and harbor only small regions with low or absent methylation. In contrast, partially methylated domains (PMDs, recently discovered in a variety of cell lines and tissues, do not fit this paradigm as they show partial methylation for large portions (20%-40% of the genome. While in PMDs methylation levels are reduced on average, we found that at single CpG resolution, they show extensive variability along the genome outside of CpG islands and DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Methylation levels range from 0% to 100% in a roughly uniform fashion with only little similarity between neighboring CpGs. A comparison of various PMD-containing methylomes showed that these seemingly disordered states of methylation are strongly conserved across cell types for virtually every PMD. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that DNA sequence is a major determinant of these methylation states. This is further substantiated by a purely sequence based model which can predict 31% (R(2 of the variation in methylation. The model revealed CpG density as the main driving feature promoting methylation, opposite to what has been shown for CpG islands, followed by various dinucleotides immediately flanking the CpG and a minor contribution from sequence preferences reflecting nucleosome positioning. Taken together we provide a reinterpretation for the nucleotide-specific methylation levels observed in PMDs, demonstrate their conservation across tissues and suggest that they are mainly determined by specific DNA sequence features.

  14. Adsorption of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(lactide) Copolymers. Effects of Composition and Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dries; Carlsson, Fredrik; Malmsten, Martin

    2001-04-01

    The effect of chemical degradation of two diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (E) and poly(lactide) (L), E(39)L(5) and E(39)L(20), on their adsorption at silica and methylated silica was investigated with in situ ellipsometry. Steric stablization of polystyrene dispersions was investigated in relation to degradation. Hydrolysis of the poly(lactide) block of the copolymers was followed at different temperatures and pH by using HPLC to measure the occurrence of lactic acid in solution. The block copolymers were quite stable in pH-unadjusted solution at low temperature, whereas degradation was facilitated by increasing temperature or lowering of the pH. Lower degradation rates of E(39)L(20) where observed at low temperature in comparison with those of E(39)L(5), whereas the degradation rates of the copolymers were quantitatively similar at high temperature. The adsorption of the copolymers at methylated silica substrates decreased with increasing degree of degradation due to the reduction in the ability of hydrophobic block to anchor the copolymer layer at the surface. At silica the adsorption initially increased with increasing degradation, particularly for E(39)L(20) due to deposition of aggregates onto the surface. After extensive degradation the adsorption of the copolymers at both silica and methylated silica resembled that of the corresponding poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer. Overall, it was found that the eventual reduction in adsorption occurred at a lower degree of degradation for E(39)L(5) than for E(39)L(20). Mean-field calculations showed a reduced anchoring for the block copolymers with decreasing poly(lactide) block length at hydrophobic surfaces. In accordance with this finding, it was observed that polystyrene dispersions were stabilized by E(39)L(20) or E(39)L(5) in a way that depended on both the lactide block length and the degree of degradation. Upon degradation of the hydrophobic block, stabilization of the polystyrene dispersions was

  15. Detection of DNA methylation changes in micropropagated banana plants using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Echeverria, S; Herrera-Valencia, V A.; Kay, A -J.

    2001-07-01

    The extent of DNA methylation polymorphisms was evaluated in micropropagated banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Grand Naine') derived from either the vegetative apex of the sucker or the floral apex of the male inflorescence using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. In all, 465 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers were amplified using eight combinations of primers. A total of 107 sites (23%) were found to be methylated at cytosine in the genome of micropropagated banana plants. In plants micropropagated from the male inflorescence explant 14 (3%) DNA methylation events were polymorphic, while plants micropropagated from the sucker explant produced 8 (1.7%) polymorphisms. No DNA methylation polymorphisms were detected in conventionally propagated banana plants. These results demonstrated the usefulness of MSAP to detect DNA methylation events in micropropagated banana plants and indicate that DNA methylation polymorphisms are associated with micropropagation.

  16. The origin and fate of 4-methyl steroid hydrocarbons. I. Diagenesis of 4-methyl sterenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George A.; Lamb, Neil A.; Maxwell, James R.

    1986-03-01

    Treatment of 4-methylcholest-4-ene under mild acid conditions at low temperatures gives chemical evidence for certain features seen in the distributions of sedimentary 4-methyl steroid hydrocarbons, and further indicates that many low temperature diagenetic reactions of steroids are explicable in terms of acid catalysed rearrangements. Specifically, the results provide: (i) Indirect evidence that the 4-ene skeleton is a key intermediate in the dehydration of 4-methyl stanols in sediments. (ii) An explanation for the distribution of 4-methyl sterenes and A-nor sterenes in the lacustrine Messel shale (Eocene). (iii) An explanation for the presence of 4β-methyl steranes in relatively immature sedimentary rocks, despite the precursor stanols having the 4α-methyl configuration. With increasing maturity in the Paris Basin shales (Lower Toarcian), the less stable 4β-methyl steranes decrease gradually in abundance relative to their 4α-methyl counterparts, at a rate fairly similar to the change in pristane stereochemistry.

  17. Degradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blends: degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Archel M A; Allcock, Harry R; Katti, Dhirendra S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-04-01

    Biomaterials based on the polymers of lactic acid and glycolic acid and their copolymers are used or studied extensively as implantable devices for drug delivery, tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Although these polymers have shown good biocompatibility, concerns have been raised regarding their acidic degradation products, which have important implications for long-term implantable systems. Therefore, we have designed a novel biodegradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blend whose degradation products are less acidic than those of the poly(alpha-hydroxyester) alone. In this study, the degradation characteristics of a blend of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50 PLAGA) and poly[(50% ethyl glycinato)(50% p-methylphenoxy) phosphazene] (PPHOS-EG50) were qualitatively and quantitatively determined with comparisons made to the parent polymers. Circular matrices (14mm diameter) of the PLAGA, PPHOS-EG50 and PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend were degraded in non-buffered solutions (pH 7.4). The degraded polymers were characterized for percentage mass loss and molecular weight and the degradation medium was characterized for acid released in non-buffered solutions. The amounts of neutralizing base necessary to bring about neutral pH were measured for each polymer or polymer blend during degradation. The poly(phosphazene)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) blend required significantly less neutralizing base in order to bring about neutral solution pH during the degradation period studied. The results indicated that the blend degraded at a rate intermediate to that of the parent polymers and that the degradation products of the polyphosphazene neutralized the acidic degradation products of PLAGA. Thus, results from these in vitro degradation studies suggest that the PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend may provide a viable improvement to biomaterials based on acid-releasing organic polymers.

  18. Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) with an Overview of the Dermal Toxicity of Vesicant Agents and their Degradation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Food and Water Consumption and Locomotor Movement in Rats, Lab Animals, 26:180-189 (1992). Mann, F.G. and Pope, W.J., "Production and Reactions of ý...and Use: t-butyl alcohol is used in the manufacture of flotation agents, flavors, perfumes, used extensively as a solvent, as a gasoline additive

  19. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Gey, M.; Hubert, S.; Langguth, H.

    1984-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  20. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil degradation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the issues involved behind the current state, usage, interactions and linkages in the soils in Pakistan. The condition of soils is deteriorating due to developmental and environmental factors such as soil degradation, water pollution, fauna degeneration etc. Issues, problems and constraints faced in the management and usage of soils are diagnosed at different levels in the ecosystems predominant in Pakistan. The research questions propose effective solutions, types of instruments, methods or processes to resolve the issues within the various areas or ecosystems in the most sustainable and effective manner [23]. Biological solutions and methods can be applied at the sub-system level by private individuals or communities at a lower cost, and at a more localized level than engineering methods. Engineering methods may be suited for interventions at a system level rather than at a sub-system level; but even at this level they will be complementary with biological methods. (author)

  2. Degraded Crater Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 3 May 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Southern Arabia Terra is very degraded (beaten up). This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story When you think of Arabia, you probably think of hot deserts and a lot of profitable oil reserves. On Mars, however, Southern Arabia Terra is a cold place of cratered terrain. This almost frothy-looking image is the badly battered edge of an ancient crater, which has suffered both erosion and bombardment from asteroids, comets, or other impacting bodies over the long course of its existence. A blanket of dust has also settled over the region, which gives the otherwise rugged landscape a soft and more subdued appearance. The small, round crater (upper left) seems almost gemlike in its setting against the larger crater ring. But this companionship is no easy romance. Whatever formed the small crater clearly whammed into the larger crater rim at some point, obliterating part of its edge. You can tell the small crater was formed after the first and more devastating impact, because it is laid over the other larger crater. How much younger is the small one? Well, its rim is also much sharper and more intact, which gives a sense that it is probably far more youthful than the very degraded, ancient crater.

  3. Photoinduced degradation of carbaryl in a wetland surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Penney L; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2002-11-06

    The photoinduced degradation of carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl carbamate) was studied in a wetland's surface water to examine the photochemical processes influencing its transformation. For this particular wetland water, at high pH, it was difficult to delineate the photolytic contribution to the overall degradation of carbaryl. At lower pH values, the extent of the degradation attributable to indirect pathways, that is, in the presence of naturally occurring photosensitizers, increased significantly. Moreover, the photoenhanced degradation at the lower pH values was found to be seasonally and spatially dependent. Analysis of water samples revealed two primary constituents responsible for the observed indirect photolytic processes: nitrate and dissolved natural organic matter (NOM). Nitrate in the wetland appears at high concentrations (> or =1 mM) seasonally after the application of fertilizers in the watershed and promotes contaminant destruction through the photochemical production of the hydroxyl radical (HO*). The extent of the observed indirect photolysis pathway appears to be dependent upon the concentration of nitrates and the presence of HO* scavengers such as dissolved NOM and carbonate alkalinity. Paradoxically, during low-nitrate events (<50 microM), NOM becomes the principal photosensitizer through either the production of HO*, direct energy transfer from the excited triplet state, and/or production of an unidentified transient species.

  4. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  5. Degradation of thiram in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.; Murthy, N.B.K.; Kumarsamy, R.

    1975-01-01

    Determination of the residual 35 S labelled tetramethylthiuram disulfide showed that the fungicide persisted longer in sterilized than in unsterilized soil, while the chloroform extractable radioactivity decreased, the water extractable radioactivity increased with increase in time. However, in sterilized soil the water extractable radioactivity remained more or less constant. Degradation of the fungicide was further demonstrated by the release of C 35 S 2 from soil treated with labelled thiram. Dimethylamine was found to be one of the degradation products. A bacterium isolated from thiram-enriched soil could degrade the fungicide in shake culture. The degradation pathways of thiram in sterilized and unsterilized soils are discussed. (author)

  6. In vitro degradation of ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G; Rivas, A

    1976-12-01

    The cytoplasmic ribosomes from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris are found to be of two types taking into consideration their stability "in vitro". In the group of unstable ribosomes the large subunit is degraded. The other group apparently does not suffer any degradation under the conditions described. However the RNAs extracted from both types of ribosomes are degraded during sucrose density gradients. The degradation of the largest RNA species has been reported previously, but no comment has been made about the stability of the ribosome itself.

  7. The radiation degradation of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hollain, G.

    1977-04-01

    Polypropylene is used extensively in the manufacture of disposable medical devices because of its superior properties. Unfortunately this polymer does not lend itself well to radiation sterilization, undergoing serious degradation which affects the mechanical properties of the polymer. In this paper the effects of radiation on the mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene are discussed. A programme of research to minimize the radiation degradation of this polymer through the addition of crosslinking agents to counteract the radiation degradation is proposed. It is furthermore proposed that a process of annealing of the irradiated polymer be investigated in order to minimize the post-irradiation degradation of the polypropylene [af

  8. Global DNA methylation analysis using methyl-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Peng, Mingsheng; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic process which helps control gene transcription activity in eukaryotes. Information regarding the methylation status of a regulatory sequence of a particular gene provides important knowledge of this transcriptional control. DNA methylation can be detected using several methods, including sodium bisulfite sequencing and restriction digestion using methylation-sensitive endonucleases. Methyl-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP) is a technique used to study the global DNA methylation status of an organism and hence to distinguish between two individuals based on the DNA methylation status determined by the differential digestion pattern. Therefore, this technique is a useful method for DNA methylation mapping and positional cloning of differentially methylated genes. In this technique, genomic DNA is first digested with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme such as HpaII, and then the DNA fragments are ligated to adaptors in order to facilitate their amplification. Digestion using a methylation-insensitive isoschizomer of HpaII, MspI is used in a parallel digestion reaction as a loading control in the experiment. Subsequently, these fragments are selectively amplified by fluorescently labeled primers. PCR products from different individuals are compared, and once an interesting polymorphic locus is recognized, the desired DNA fragment can be isolated from a denaturing polyacrylamide gel, sequenced and identified based on DNA sequence similarity to other sequences available in the database. We will use analysis of met1, ddm1, and atmbd9 mutants and wild-type plants treated with a cytidine analogue, 5-azaC, or zebularine to demonstrate how to assess the genetic modulation of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. It should be noted that despite the fact that MSAP is a reliable technique used to fish for polymorphic methylated loci, its power is limited to the restriction recognition sites of the enzymes used in the genomic

  9. DNA methylation analysis reveals distinct methylation signatures in pediatric germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatruda, James F; Frazier, A Lindsay; Poynter, Jenny N; Ross, Julie A; Christensen, Brock; Fustino, Nicholas J; Chen, Kenneth S; Hooten, Anthony J; Nelson, Heather; Kuriger, Jacquelyn K; Rakheja, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a prominent feature of many cancers, and may be especially relevant in germ cell tumors (GCTs) due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs in the germ line during normal development. We used the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel to compare DNA methylation in the three main histologic subtypes of pediatric GCTs (germinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST); N = 51) and used recursively partitioned mixture models (RPMM) to test associations between methylation pattern and tumor and demographic characteristics. We identified genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using generalized linear models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We also measured global DNA methylation at LINE1 elements and evaluated methylation at selected imprinted loci using pyrosequencing. Methylation patterns differed by tumor histology, with 18/19 YSTs forming a distinct methylation class. Four pathways showed significant enrichment for YSTs, including a human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway. We identified 190 CpG loci with significant methylation differences in mature and immature teratomas (q < 0.05), including a number of CpGs in stem cell and pluripotency-related pathways. Both YST and germinoma showed significantly lower methylation at LINE1 elements compared with normal adjacent tissue while there was no difference between teratoma (mature and immature) and normal tissue. DNA methylation at imprinted loci differed significantly by tumor histology and location. Understanding methylation patterns may identify the developmental stage at which the GCT arose and the at-risk period when environmental exposures could be most harmful. Further, identification of relevant genetic pathways could lead to the development of new targets for therapy

  10. CCDC 1441885: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 5-t-butyl-2-(14-(4-t-butyl-2,6-diformylphenyl)-5,12-dimethyldibenzo[c,pqr]tetraphen-7-yl)isophthalaldehyde chloroform solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong; Sun, Zhe; Herng, Tun Seng; Goncalves, Theo; Gopalakrishna, Tullimilli Y.; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Ding, Jun; Wu, Jishan

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. Thermal Degradation of Synthetic Cathinones: Implications for Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Sarah; Savage, Megan; Cavazos, Cassandra; Bella, Paige

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic cathinones represent an important class of designer drugs. The widespread attention and publicity associated with these psychostimulants have resulted in numerous legislative actions at state and federal levels throughout the USA. These amphetamine-like compounds are characterized by a β-keto functional group. Although the synthetic cathinones share many properties of their phenethylamine counterparts, the presence of the ketone moiety is responsible for a number of unique and distinct differences in terms of their chemical characteristics and properties. Thermal degradation of methcathinone was first reported several decades ago but has received limited attention. In this study, we identified in situ thermal degradation products for 18 cathinones during gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Oxidative degradation arises from the loss of two hydrogens, yielding a characteristic 2 Da mass shift. Degradation products were characterized by prominent iminium base peaks with mass-to-charge ratios 2 Da lower than the parent drug, and in the case of the pyrrolidine-containing cathinones, prominent molecular ions arising from the 2,3-enamine. Chromatographic and mass spectroscopic data are described for 4-ethylmethcathinone, 4-methylethcathinone, buphedrone, butylone, ethcathinone, ethylone, flephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, methcathinone, methedrone, methylone, 4-methyl-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, naphyrone, pentedrone, pentylone and pyrovalerone. Degradation was minimized by lowering injection temperatures, residence time in the inlet and eliminating active sites during chromatographic analysis. Chromatographic and mass spectral data for the cathinone degradation products are presented and discussed within the context of forensic toxicological analysis, selection of appropriate instrumental methods and implications for the interpretation of results. © The Author 2015

  12. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Co-Metabolism with a Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-metabolic bioremediation is supposed to be an impressive and promising approach in the elimination technology of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, which was found to be a common pollutant worldwide in the ground or underground water in recent years. In this paper, bacterial strain DZ13 (which can co-metabolically degrade MTBE was isolated and named as Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 based on the result of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Strain DZ13 could grow on n-alkanes (C5-C8, accompanied with the co-metabolic degradation of MTBE. Diverse n-alkanes with different carbon number showed a significant influence on the degradation rate of MTBE and accumulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA. When Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 co-metabolically degraded MTBE with n-pentane as the growth substrate, a higher MTBE-degrading rate (Vmax = 38.1 nmol/min/mgprotein, Ks = 6.8 mmol/L and lower TBA-accumulation was observed. In the continuous degradation experiment, the removal efficiency of MTBE by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DZ13 did not show an obvious decrease after five times of continuous addition.

  13. Modeling the competitive effect of ammonium oxidizers and heterotrophs on the degradation of MTBE in a packed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to study effects on the degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a packed bed reactor due to the presence of contaminants such as ammonium, and the mix of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). It was shown that competition between the slower...

  14. Carbon isotope effects associated with Fenton-like degradation of toluene: Potential for differentiation of abiotic and biotic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, Jason M.E.; Slater, Greg F.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-mediated oxygenation to enhance subsurface aerobic biodegradation is a frequently employed remediation technique. However, it may be unclear whether observed organic contaminant mass loss is caused by biodegradation or chemical oxidation via hydroxyl radicals generated during catalyzed Fenton-like reactions. Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis has the potential to discriminate between these processes. Here we report laboratory experiments demonstrating no significant carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like hydroxyl radical oxidation of toluene. This implies that observation of significant isotopic fractionation of toluene at a site undergoing H 2 O 2 -mediated remediation would provide direct evidence of biodegradation. We applied this approach at a field site that had undergone 27 months of H 2 O 2 -mediated subsurface oxygenation. Despite substantial decreases (> 68%) in groundwater toluene concentrations carbon isotope signatures of toluene (δ 13 C tol ) showed no significant variation (mean = - 27.5 ±0.3 per mille, n = 13) over a range of concentrations from 11.1 to 669.0 mg L -1 . Given that aerobic degradation by ring attack has also been shown to result in no significant isotopic fractionation during degradation, at this site we were unable to discern the mechanism of degradation. However, such differentiation is possible at sites where aerobic degradation by methyl group attack results in significant isotopic fractionation

  15. Fast degradation of dyes in water using manganese-oxide-coated diatomite for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Tran, Quang-Tung; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-11-01

    By a simple wet-chemical procedure using a permanganate in the acidic medium, diatomite coated with amorphous manganese oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. The structural, microstructural and morphological characterizations of the as-synthesized catalysts confirmed the nanostructure of MnO2 and its stabilization on the support - diatomite. The highly efficient and rapid degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange over synthesized MnO2 coated Diatomite has been carried out. The results revealed considerably faster degradation of the dyes against the previously reported data. The proposed mechanism of the dye-degradation is considered to be a combinatorial effect of chemical, physicochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the fabricated catalysts have potential application in waste water treatment, and pollution degradation for environmental remediation.

  16. Enhanced microbial decolorization of methyl red with oxidized carbon fiber as redox mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emilia Rios-Del Toro, E. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [División de Geociencias Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene, E-mail: rene@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) act as redox mediator. • Electron accepting capacity increased with oxidation time of ACF. •ACFs increased 8-fold the reduction of methyl red in biological assays. •Biofilm formed on the ACFs partly blocked their redox mediator capacity. -- Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions is possible but at a slow rate. Redox mediators (quinones, activated carbon) are used to improve the reduction rate. The aim of this work was to use activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a redox mediator for the anaerobic reduction of the azo dye methyl red. ACF was chemically modified with 8 M HNO{sub 3} to increase its redox-mediating capacity and used in chemical and anaerobic biological batch assays for the reduction of methyl red. ACF increased its redox-mediating capacity up to 3-fold in chemical assays; in biological assays ACF increased the reduction rate up to 8-fold compared to controls without ACF. However, since the ACF served as support for biomass, a biofilm formed on the fiber significantly reduced its redox-mediating capacity; substrate consumption suggested that the electron transport from ACF to methyl red was the rate-limiting step in the process. These results are the first evidence of the role of ACF as a redox mediator in the reductive decolorization of methyl red, in addition to the effect of biofilm attached to ACF on methyl red reduction. Due to the versatile characteristics of ACF and its redox-mediating capacity, carbon fibers could be used in biological wastewater treatment systems to accelerate the reductive transformation of pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents.

  17. Enhanced microbial decolorization of methyl red with oxidized carbon fiber as redox mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emilia Rios-Del Toro, E.; Celis, Lourdes B.; Cervantes, Francisco J.; Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) act as redox mediator. • Electron accepting capacity increased with oxidation time of ACF. •ACFs increased 8-fold the reduction of methyl red in biological assays. •Biofilm formed on the ACFs partly blocked their redox mediator capacity. -- Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions is possible but at a slow rate. Redox mediators (quinones, activated carbon) are used to improve the reduction rate. The aim of this work was to use activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a redox mediator for the anaerobic reduction of the azo dye methyl red. ACF was chemically modified with 8 M HNO 3 to increase its redox-mediating capacity and used in chemical and anaerobic biological batch assays for the reduction of methyl red. ACF increased its redox-mediating capacity up to 3-fold in chemical assays; in biological assays ACF increased the reduction rate up to 8-fold compared to controls without ACF. However, since the ACF served as support for biomass, a biofilm formed on the fiber significantly reduced its redox-mediating capacity; substrate consumption suggested that the electron transport from ACF to methyl red was the rate-limiting step in the process. These results are the first evidence of the role of ACF as a redox mediator in the reductive decolorization of methyl red, in addition to the effect of biofilm attached to ACF on methyl red reduction. Due to the versatile characteristics of ACF and its redox-mediating capacity, carbon fibers could be used in biological wastewater treatment systems to accelerate the reductive transformation of pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents

  18. The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, N B; Talmage, S S; Griffin, G D; Waters, L C; Watson, A P; King, J F; Hauschild, V

    1999-01-01

    We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an

  19. Microbial surfactant mediated degradation of anthracene in aqueous phase by marine Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 5514

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreethar Swaathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes the biosurfactant mediated anthracene degradation by a marine alkaliphile Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 5514. The isolate, MTCC 5514 degraded >95% of 300 ppm anthracene in an aqueous medium within 22 days and the degradation percentage reduced significantly when the concentration of anthracene increased to above 500 ppm. Naphthalene, naphthalene 2-methyl, phthalic acid and benzene acetic acid are the products of degradation identified based on thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass analyses. It has been observed that the degradation is initiated by the biosurfactant of the isolate for solubilization through micellation and then the alkali pH and intra/extra cellular degradative enzymes accomplish the degradation process. Encoding of genes responsible for biosurfactant production (licA3 as well as catabolic reactions (C23O made with suitable primers designed. The study concludes in situ production of biosurfactant mediates the degradation of anthracene by B. licheniformis.

  20. Degradation of dimethyl disulphide in soil with or without biochar amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dawei; Yan, Dongdong; Cao, Aocheng; Fang, Wensheng; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Wang, Qiuxia

    2017-09-01

    Dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) is a new and effective alternative to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. The effect of biochar on the fate of DMDS in soil is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the degradation kinetics of DMDS in different soils and evaluate the effect of biochar amendment on DMDS degradation using incubation experiments. The degradation half-life of DMDS was between 1.05 and 6.66 days under non-sterile conditions, and 12.63 to 22.67 days under sterile conditions in five types of soil. Seven out of the eight tested biochar amendments (BC-2 to BC-8) delayed the degradation of DMDS in soil, increasing the half-life of DMDS in Fangshan soil from 1.05 to 1.16-5.87 days following amendment with 1% (w/w) biochar. The degradation rate of DMDS in Fangshan soil accelerated as the amendment rate of BC-1 increased, and decreased as the amendment rate of BC-7 increased. Biodegradation is an important degradation route for DMDS in soil, and DMDS degraded faster in alkaline soil. The effects of biochar amendments on DMDS degradation in soil are determined by complex multiple factors (such as surface area, pH and physicochemical composition), rather than by any single property of biochar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Search for mode-selective chemistry: The unimolecular dissociation of t-butyl hydroperoxide induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, D.W.; Farneth, W.E.; Zare, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    The use of optoacoustic spectroscopy permits both the monitoring of the overtone excitation of t-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) and the in situ detection of the resulting reaction product t-butanol (t-BuOH). The sample is contained in a reaction cell, equipped with a microphone, in which all surfaces have been specially passivated. The cell is placed inside the cavity of a dye laser tuned to excite the 5--0 O--H stretch of the t-BuOOH at 619.0 nm. The dissociation process yields directly xOH and t-BuOx, and the latter readily abstracts a hydrogen atom from a parent molecule to form t-butanol (t-BuOH). The appearance rate of t-BuOH is obtained by ratioing the area under the 5--0 O--H stretch of t-BuOH to that of a combination band of t-BuOOH. At low pressures, below 40 Torr, a plot of the reciprocal of the t-BuOH appearance rate versus total pressure shows near linear behavior. This linearlity can be well described by a statistical model (RRKM) when careful averaging of the dissociation rate over the thermal energy distribution of the photoactivated molecules is included. At pressures above 40 Torr, a marked deviation from linearity appears. This deviation is fit to a kinetic model in which the dissociation rate of an energy nonrandomized molecule competes with the rate of intramolecular energy relaxation. This places a lower bound of > or =5.0 x 10 11 s -1 on the rate of energy randomization. A discussion of this model in the context of other possible kinetic schemes as well as other photoactivated and chemically activated systems is presented

  2. CCDC 900612: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (4,4'-Di-t-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine)-trifluoromethanethiolato-copper

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  3. UV absorption spectra, kinetics and mechanism for alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals originating from t-butyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Ljungström, E.; Sehested, J.

    1994-01-01

    Alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals from 1-butyl alcohol (TBA), HOC (CH3)2CH2. and HOC(CH3)2CH2O2. have been studied in the ps phase at 298 K. Two techniques were used: pulse radiolysis UV absorption to measure the spectra and kinetics, and long path-length Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR...

  4. Calcium oxide supported gold nanoparticles as catalysts for the selective epoxidation of styrene by t-butyl hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbre, Deepa K; Choudhary, Vasant R; Patil, Nilesh S; Uphade, Balu S; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2014-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles are deposited on basic CaO supports as catalysts for the selective conversion of styrene into styrene oxide. Synthetic methods, gold loading and calcination temperatures are varied to permit an understanding of their influence on gold nanoparticle size, the presence of cationic gold species and the nature of interaction between the gold nanoparticles and the CaO support. Based on these studies, optimal conditions are designed to make the Au/CaO catalyst efficient for the selective epoxidation of styrene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycarbonate radiolytic degradation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S. de

    1994-01-01

    Polycarbonate Durolon, useful for medical supplies fabrication, is submitted to gamma radiation for sterilization purposes. Scissions in main chain occur, in carbonyl groups, producing molecular degradations and yellowness. The radiolytic stabilization is obtained through additive to the polymer. In this work some degradation and stabilization aspects are presented. (L.C.J.A.). 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  7. Degradable polymers for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter elaborates the degradable polymers for tissue engineering and their required scaffold material in tissue engineering. It recognizes the examples of degradable polymers broadly used in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the persuasion of the body to heal itself through the

  8. MOSFET Degradation Under RF Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; Kuper, F.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the degradation of MOS transistors under RF stress. Hot-carrier degradation, negative-bias temperature instability, and gate dielectric breakdown are investigated. The findings are compared to established voltage- and field-driven models. The experimental results indicate that the

  9. Evaluating genome-wide DNA methylation changes in mice by Methylation Specific Digital Karyotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruoka Shuichiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of genome-wide DNA methylation changes has become more accessible with the development of various array-based technologies though when studying species other than human the choice of applications are limited and not always within reach. In this study, we adapted and tested the applicability of Methylation Specific Digital Karyotyping (MSDK, a non-array based method, for the prospective analysis of epigenetic changes after perinatal nutritional modifications in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. MSDK is a sequenced based method that allows a comprehensive and unbiased methylation profiling. The method generates 21 base pairs long sequence tags derived from specific locations in the genome. The resulting tag frequencies determine in a quantitative manner the methylation level of the corresponding loci. Results Genomic DNA from whole lung was isolated and subjected to MSDK analysis using the methylation-sensitive enzyme Not I as the mapping enzyme and Nla III as the fragmenting enzyme. In a pair wise comparison of the generated mouse MSDK libraries we identified 158 loci that are significantly differentially methylated (P-value = 0.05 after perinatal dietary changes in our mouse model. Quantitative methylation specific PCR and sequence analysis of bisulfate modified genomic DNA confirmed changes in methylation at specific loci. Differences in genomic MSDK tag counts for a selected set of genes, correlated well with changes in transcription levels as measured by real-time PCR. Furthermore serial analysis of gene expression profiling demonstrated a dramatic difference in expressed transcripts in mice exposed to perinatal nutritional changes. Conclusion The genome-wide methylation survey applied in this study allowed for an unbiased methylation profiling revealing subtle changes in DNA methylation in mice maternally exposed to dietary changes in methyl-donor content. The MSDK method is applicable for mouse models

  10. Designs for degraded Trbovlje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Marot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction, two degraded urban areas are presented. The first, planning unit seven, is situated in the southeastern part of Trbovlje town. The other, called Speke, lies to the south of Liverpool. The basis for the concept and context of urban renewal model are given by comparison between the newest Slovene and British spatial planning legislation, analyses of the Design management plan Nasipi and Supplementary Planning Document Edge Lane West, and review of different approaches to local communities’ involvement. Based on all the thus far collected data, a questionnaire about quality of living, knowledge of planning system and area perception was produced. Initially, it was used in a pilot residential area Žabjek, and afterwards, a shortened version was carried out in units lying in other parts of the town. Other stakeholders also expressed their ideas about how to develop planning unit seven. Speke Garston as another example of successful urban renewal is given. In conclusion guidelines for method and context development of urban renewal are given for planning unit seven, with emphasis on the Žabjek estate.

  11. Homogalacturonan methyl-esterification and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Mouille, Grégory; Pelloux, Jérome

    2009-09-01

    The ability of a plant cell to expand is largely defined by the physical constraints imposed by its cell wall. Accordingly, cell wall properties have to be regulated during development. The pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan is a major component of the plant primary walls. Biosynthesis and in muro modification of homogalacturonan have recently emerged as key determinants of plant development, controlling cell adhesion, organ development, and phyllotactic patterning. This review will focus on recent findings regarding impact of homogalacturonan content and methyl-esterification status of this polymer on plant life. De-methyl-esterification of homogalacturonan occurs through the action of the ubiquitous enzyme 'pectin methyl-esterase'. We here describe various strategies developed by the plant to finely tune the methyl-esterification status of homogalacturonan along key events of the plant lifecycle.

  12. Annotating the genome by DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar, Howard; Razin, Aharon

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a prominent role in setting up and stabilizing the molecular design of gene regulation and by understanding this process one gains profound insight into the underlying biology of mammals. In this article, we trace the discoveries that provided the foundations of this field, starting with the mapping of methyl groups in the genome and the experiments that helped clarify how methylation patterns are maintained through cell division. We then address the basic relationship between methyl groups and gene repression, as well as the molecular rules involved in controlling this process during development in vivo. Finally, we describe ongoing work aimed at defining the role of this modification in disease and deciphering how it may serve as a mechanism for sensing the environment.

  13. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  14. Preparation of ErMnO3 by Sol-gel Method and its Photocatalytic Activity for Removal of Methyl Orange from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X. Y.; Yang, J. N.; Yu, L. L.; Min, J. Y.; Sun, D. D.; Tang, P. S.; Chen, H. F.

    2018-05-01

    The single phase perovskite ErMnO3 was synthesized using Er(NO3)3, manganese acetate, citric acid and urea by a facile sol-gel method. The gel of ErMnO3 precursor was kept for 36 hours in 100 °C oven to get the xerogel. Then, the xerogel was calcined at 800 °C for 12 hours in muffle furnace to prepare single phase ErMnO3. The prepared sample was characterized by thermogravimetry differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Under ultraviolet light, the photocatalytic activity of ErMnO3 was studied with methyl orange of 20 mg/L as the simulated sewage. The results show that the ErMnO3 sample particle size distribution is relatively uniform, the average grain size is mainly around 100 nm. The photocatalytic experiment demonstrates that ErMnO3 is highly photocatalytic activity for removal of methyl orange from water. When methyl orange of 20 mg/L is degraded for 120 min in the presence of ErMnO3, the degradation rate of methyl orange can reach about 95%. The degradation of methyl orange accords with first order kinetic model in presence ErMnO3 sample, and the apparent rate constant is 0.022 min-1.

  15. Lysosomal degradation of membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2010-05-03

    The constitutive degradation of membrane components takes place in the acidic compartments of a cell, the endosomes and lysosomes. Sites of lipid degradation are intralysosomal membranes that are formed in endosomes, where the lipid composition is adjusted for degradation. Cholesterol is sorted out of the inner membranes, their content in bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases, and, most likely, sphingomyelin is degraded to ceramide. Together with endosomal and lysosomal lipid-binding proteins, the Niemann-Pick disease, type C2-protein, the GM2-activator, and the saposins sap-A, -B, -C, and -D, a suitable membrane lipid composition is required for degradation of complex lipids by hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana based on methylation-sensitive AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M T; Ruiz-García, L; Martínez-Zapater, J M

    2002-12-01

    AFLP analysis using restriction enzyme isoschizomers that differ in their sensitivity to methylation of their recognition sites has been used to analyse the methylation state of anonymous CCGG sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana. The technique was modified to improve the quality of fingerprints and to visualise larger numbers of scorable fragments. Sequencing of amplified fragments indicated that detection was generally associated with non-methylation of the cytosine to which the isoschizomer is sensitive. Comparison of EcoRI/ HpaII and EcoRI/ MspI patterns in different ecotypes revealed that 35-43% of CCGG sites were differentially digested by the isoschizomers. Interestingly, the pattern of digestion among different plants belonging to the same ecotype is highly conserved, with the rate of intra-ecotype methylation-sensitive polymorphisms being less than 1%. However, pairwise comparisons of methylation patterns between samples belonging to different ecotypes revealed differences in up to 34% of the methylation-sensitive polymorphisms. The lack of correlation between inter-ecotype similarity matrices based on methylation-insensitive or methylation-sensitive polymorphisms suggests that whatever the mechanisms regulating methylation may be, they are not related to nucleotide sequence variation.

  17. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although...... the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD-mDNA interface by two MBD arginines...

  18. Maternal intake of methyl-group donors affects DNA methylation of metabolic genes in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and infant nutrition in the early postnatal period (lactation) are critically involved in the development and health of the newborn infant. The Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study was set up to assess the effect of maternal methyl-group donor intake (choline, betaine, folate, methionine) on infant DNA methylation. Maternal intake of dietary methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Before and during pregnancy, we evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet and supplementation (folic acid) in relation to gene-specific ( IGF2 DMR, DNMT1 , LEP , RXRA ) buccal epithelial cell DNA methylation in 6 months old infants ( n  = 114) via pyrosequencing. In the early postnatal period, we determined the effect of maternal choline intake during lactation (in mothers who breast-fed for at least 3 months) on gene-specific buccal DNA methylation ( n  = 65). Maternal dietary and supplemental intake of methyl-group donors (folate, betaine, folic acid), only in the periconception period, was associated with buccal cell DNA methylation in genes related to growth ( IGF2 DMR), metabolism ( RXRA ), and appetite control ( LEP ). A negative association was found between maternal folate and folic acid intake before pregnancy and infant LEP (slope = -1.233, 95% CI -2.342; -0.125, p  = 0.0298) and IGF2 DMR methylation (slope = -0.706, 95% CI -1.242; -0.107, p  = 0.0101), respectively. Positive associations were observed for maternal betaine (slope = 0.875, 95% CI 0.118; 1.633, p  = 0.0241) and folate (slope = 0.685, 95% CI 0.245; 1.125, p  = 0.0027) intake before pregnancy and RXRA methylation. Buccal DNMT1 methylation in the infant was negatively associated with maternal methyl-group donor intake in the first and second trimester of pregnancy and negatively in the third trimester. We found no clear association between maternal choline intake

  19. Methyl Iodide Decomposition at BWR Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Mike; Bell, Merl

    2012-09-01

    Based on favourable results from short-term testing of methanol addition to an operating BWR plant, AREVA has performed numerous studies in support of necessary Engineering and Plant Safety Evaluations prior to extended injection of methanol. The current paper presents data from a study intended to provide further understanding of the decomposition of methyl iodide as it affects the assessment of methyl iodide formation with the application of methanol at BWR Plants. This paper describes the results of the decomposition testing under UV-C light at laboratory conditions and its effect on the subject methyl iodide production evaluation. The study as to the formation and decomposition of methyl iodide as it is effected by methanol addition is one phase of a larger AREVA effort to provide a generic plant Safety Evaluation prior to long-term methanol injection to an operating BWR. Other testing phases have investigated the compatibility of methanol with fuel construction materials, plant structural materials, plant consumable materials (i.e. elastomers and coatings), and ion exchange resins. Methyl iodide is known to be very unstable, typically preserved with copper metal or other stabilizing materials when produced and stored. It is even more unstable when exposed to light, heat, radiation, and water. Additionally, it is known that methyl iodide will decompose radiolytically, and that this effect may be simulated using ultra-violet radiation (UV-C) [2]. In the tests described in this paper, the use of a UV-C light source provides activation energy for the formation of methyl iodide. Thus is similar to the effect expected from Cherenkov radiation present in a reactor core after shutdown. Based on the testing described in this paper, it is concluded that injection of methanol at concentrations below 2.5 ppm in BWR applications to mitigate IGSCC of internals is inconsequential to the accident conditions postulated in the FSAR as they are related to methyl iodide formation

  20. Whole genome DNA methylation: beyond genes silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado-Magallanes, Roberto; Rebbani, Khadija; Lim, Ricky; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Benoukraf, Touati

    2016-01-01

    The combination of DNA bisulfite treatment with high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled investigation of genome-wide DNA methylation at near base pair level resolution, far beyond that of the kilobase-long canonical CpG islands that initially revealed the biological relevance of this covalent DNA modification. The latest high-resolution studies have revealed a role for very punctual DNA methylation in chromatin plasticity, gene regulation and splicing. Here, we aim to outline the ...

  1. Thermal degradation of the vapours of organic nitrogen compounds in the presence of the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brault, A.; Chevalier, G.; Kerfanto, M.; Loyer, H.

    1983-04-01

    Following a quick survey of the literature on the products originated during the thermal degradation of some organic nitrogen compounds, the experimental results obtained by applying a technique previously used for other organic compounds are presented. The compounds investigated include: methyl and ethylamines at the origin of the bad smells of many gaseous wastes, trilaurylamine and tetraethylenediamine sometimes used in nuclear facilities. Attention is brought on the emission of noxious products during thermal degradation in the presence of the air, at various temperatures, viz. either usual combustion gases such as carbon monoxide, or nitro-derivatives such as hydrogen cyanide present whatever the compound investigated when temperatures are below 850 0 C [fr

  2. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  3. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mikeska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease.

  5. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  6. Methyl bromide fumigation and delayed mortality: safe trade of live pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C B; Iline, I I; Novoselov, M; McNeill, M R; Richards, N K; van Koten, C; Stephenson, B P

    Live organisms intercepted from treated commodities during phytosanitary inspections usually arouse suspicions of treatment failure, sub-standard treatment application, or post-treatment infestation. The additional possibility that some treatments could kill slowly, meaning commodities might be inspected before pests have succumbed, is seldom considered for treatments other than irradiation. We used a novel biochemical viability assay to measure delays between methyl bromide fumigation and mortality of dipteran eggs, and evaluated the correspondence between egg viability and egg morphological features. Our experimental conditions simulated shipping of rock melons from Australia to New Zealand by sea and air. No eggs survived fumigation, but they took 3-20 days to die, whereas phytosanitary inspections of rock melons occur within 2-7 days. Delays were not influenced by methyl bromide concentration, but were significantly lengthened by cooler storage temperatures. Methyl bromide's preservative effects delayed degradation of egg morphology, so the biochemical assay detected mortality long before morphological signs of egg death appeared. The results show that commodities subjected to effective methyl bromide treatments are at risk of being inspected before all pests have either died, or started to exhibit morphological signs of death. This could cause commodities to be unnecessarily rejected by quarantine authorities. Better methods than inspection for live pests are needed to assist authorities to gain assurance that treated commodities have been effectively disinfested. These could be developed by exploiting biochemical responses of pests and commodities to treatments.

  7. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshabah Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue.

  8. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwayne C. Kicker

    2001-09-28

    A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events

  9. Oxidative degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation: Mechanistic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyung, E-mail: dkim@aum.edu [Department of Physical Science, Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36117 (United States); O' Shea, Kevin E., E-mail: osheak@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Cooper, William J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urban Water Research Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Widespread pollution has been associated with gasoline oxygenates of branched ethers methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl ether (TAME) which enter groundwater. The contaminated plume develops rapidly and treatment for the removal/destruction of these ethers is difficult when using conventional methods. Degradation of MTBE, with biological methods and advanced oxidation processes, are rather well known; however, fewer studies have been reported for degradation of alternative oxygenates. Degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates (DIPE, ETBE, and TAME) by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous oxygen saturation was investigated to elucidate degradation pathways. Detailed degradation mechanisms are proposed for each gasoline oxygenate. The common major degradation pathways are proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound cavitation and low temperature pyrolytic degradation of ETBE and TAME. Even some of the products from {beta}-H abstraction overlap with those from high temperature pyrolysis, the effect of {beta}-H abstraction was not shown clearly from product study because of possible 1,5 H-transfer inside cavitating bubbles. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides was also determined during sonolysis. These data provide a better understanding of the degradation pathways of gasoline oxygenates by sonolysis in aqueous solutions. The approach may also serve as a model for others interested in the details of sonolysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasoline oxygenates (ETBE, TAME, DIPE) were completely degraded after 6 hours under ultrasonic irradiation in O{sub 2} saturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The major degradation pathways were proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals and low temperature pyrolytic degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of {beta

  10. Covalent Coupling of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Loaded Quantum Dots to Carbon Nanotube/Au Nanocomposite for Enhanced Detection of Methyl Parathion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Liu, Deli; Li, Haibing; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    An amperometric biosensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of methyl parathion (MP) was developed based on dual signal amplification: (1) a large amount of introduced enzyme on the electrode surface and (2) synergistic effects of nanoparticles towards enzymatic catalysis. The fabrication process includes (1) electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles by a multi-potential step technique at multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode and (2) immobilization of methyl parathion degrading enzyme (MPDE) onto a modified electrode through CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) covalent attachment. The introduced MWCNT and gold nanoparticles significantly increased the surface area and exhibited synergistic effects towards enzymatic catalysis. CdTe QDs are further used as carriers to load a large amount of enzyme. As a result of these two important enhancement factors, the proposed biosensor exhibited extremely sensitive, perfectly selective, and rapid response to methyl parathion in the absence of a mediator.

  11. Studies on the biotechnological production of methyl xanthines. Untersuchung zur biotechnologischen Gewinnung von Methylxanthinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, M.

    1986-04-25

    Two strains of Pseudomonas putida were isolated during enrichment of caffeine-degrading microorganisms of the two, the strain Pseudomonas putida WS grew on media containing up to 2% of caffeine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Of 25 further strains of bacteria and fungi, only one yeast also had caffeine-degrading characteristics. Caffeine degradation was much slower than with the two Pseudomonas strains, and caffeine was used only as a nitrogen source. This suggests two alternative methods of methyl xanthine production: 1) When graining Mutant H8 on glucose caffeine, the reaction could be interrupted with good yields after a short time. This method requires the processing of a complex mixture of caffeine, theobromine, and heteroxanthine. 2) When growing Mutant H8 on a mixture of peptone meat broth plus caffeine, the reaction can be interrupted with average yields after near-complete conversion. This method is recommended for heteroxanthine production, owing to the fact that peak heteroxanthine yields of 50% are not reached until all other methyl anthines have been converted more or less completely.

  12. DNA methylation results depend on DNA integrity – role of post mortem interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eRhein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Major questions of neurological and psychiatric mechanisms involve the brain functions on a molecular level and cannot be easily addressed due to limitations in access to tissue samples. Post mortem studies are able to partly bridge the gap between brain tissue research retrieved from animal trials and the information derived from peripheral analysis (e.g. measurements in blood cells in patients. Here, we wanted to know how fast DNA degradation is progressing under controlled conditions in order to define thresholds for tissue quality to be used in respective trials. Our focus was on the applicability of partly degraded samples for bisulfite sequencing and the determination of simple means to define cut-off values.After opening the brain cavity, we kept two consecutive pig skulls at ambient temperature (19-21°C and removed cortex tissue up to a post mortem interval (PMI of 120h. We calculated the percentage of degradation on DNA gel electrophoresis of brain DNA to estimate quality and relate this estimation spectrum to the quality of human post-mortem control samples. Functional DNA quality was investigated by bisulfite sequencing of two functionally relevant genes for either the serotonin receptor 5 (SLC6A4 or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2.Testing our approach in a heterogeneous collective of human blood and brain samples, we demonstrate integrity of measurement quality below the threshold of 72h PMI.While sequencing technically worked for all timepoints irrespective of conceivable DNA degradation, there is a good correlation between variance of methylation to degradation levels documented in the gel (R2=0.4311, p=0.0392 for advancing post mortem intervals (PMI. This otherwise elusive phenomenon is an important prerequisite for the interpretation and evaluation of samples prior to in-depth processing via an affordable and easy assay to estimate identical sample quality and thereby comparable methylation measurements.

  13. Damage effects and mechanisms of proton irradiation on methyl silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.X.; He, Sh.Y.; Xu, Zh.; Wei, Q.

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed on the damage effects and mechanisms of proton irradiation with 150 keV energy to space-grade methyl silicone rubber. The changes in surface morphology, mechanical properties, infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrum, mass spectrum and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrum (PYGC-MS) indicated that, under lower fluence, the proton radiation would induce cross-linking effect, resulting in an increase in tensile strengths and hardness of the methyl silicon rubber. However, under higher proton fluence, the radiation-induced degradation, which decreased the tensile strengths and hardness, became a dominant effect. A macromolecular-network destruction model for the silicone rubber radiated with the protons was proposed

  14. Intrinsic immunogenicity of rapidly-degradable polymers evolves during degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorko, James I; Hess, Krystina L; Pineault, Kevin G; Jewell, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies reveal many biomaterial vaccine carriers are able to activate immunostimulatory pathways, even in the absence of other immune signals. How the changing properties of polymers during biodegradation impact this intrinsic immunogenicity is not well studied, yet this information could contribute to rational design of degradable vaccine carriers that help direct immune response. We use degradable poly(beta-amino esters) (PBAEs) to explore intrinsic immunogenicity as a function of the degree of polymer degradation and polymer form (e.g., soluble, particles). PBAE particles condensed by electrostatic interaction to mimic a common vaccine approach strongly activate dendritic cells, drive antigen presentation, and enhance T cell proliferation in the presence of antigen. Polymer molecular weight strongly influences these effects, with maximum stimulation at short degradation times--corresponding to high molecular weight--and waning levels as degradation continues. In contrast, free polymer is immunologically inert. In mice, PBAE particles increase the numbers and activation state of cells in lymph nodes. Mechanistic studies reveal that this evolving immunogenicity occurs as the physicochemical properties and concentration of particles change during polymer degradation. This work confirms the immunological profile of degradable, synthetic polymers can evolve over time and creates an opportunity to leverage this feature in new vaccines. Degradable polymers are increasingly important in vaccination, but how the inherent immunogenicity of polymers changes during degradation is poorly understood. Using common rapidly-degradable vaccine carriers, we show that the activation of immune cells--even in the absence of other adjuvants--depends on polymer form (e.g., free, particulate) and the extent of degradation. These changing characteristics alter the physicochemical properties (e.g., charge, size, molecular weight) of polymer particles, driving changes in

  15. Reactions of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide: O6-methylation versus charge transfer complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.; Suhai, S.

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G* and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels was employed to study O6-methylation of guanine due to its reactions with methyl chloride and methyl bromide and to obtain explanation as to why the methyl halides cause genotoxicity and possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Geometries of the various isolated species involved in the reactions, reactant complexes (RCs), and product complexes (PCs) were optimized in gas phase. Transition states connecting the reactant complexes with the product complexes were also optimized in gas phase at the same levels of theory. The reactant complexes, product complexes, and transition states were solvated in aqueous media using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of the self-consistent reaction field theory. Zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to total energy and the corresponding thermal energy correction to enthalpy were made in each case. The reactant complexes of the keto form of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide in water are appreciably more stable than the corresponding complexes involving the enol form of guanine. The nature of binding in the product complexes was found to be of the charge transfer type (O6mG+ · X-, X dbond Cl, Br). Binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs obtained with the keto form of guanine did not alter the positions of the halide anions in the PCs, and the charge transfer character of the PCs was also not modified due to this binding. Further, the complexes obtained due to the binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs had greater stability than the isolated PCs. The reaction barriers involved in the formation of PCs were found to be quite high (?50 kcal/mol). Mechanisms of genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the methyl halides appear to involve charge transfer-type complex formation. Thus the mechanisms of these processes involving the methyl halides appear to be quite different from those that involve the

  16. Possible Appearance of Degradation Products of Paraquat in Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, P. [Imperial Chemical Industries LTD., Jealott' s Hill Research Station, Bracknell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-05-15

    Chemical analysis has established that residue levels of paraquat in crops harvested after use of the chemical are at such a low level as to constitute no hazard to the consuming public. (Paraquat dichloride is 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium dichloride). There remained the possibility that toxic metabolites or other conversion products of paraquat might appear in crops. This paper is concerned with attempts to evaluate this possibility, and demonstrates that no hazard arises from the formation of degradation products. It has been shown, using paraquat labelled with {sup 14}C in the methyl groups and in the pyridine nuclei, that the chemical is not metabolically degraded in plants. However, photochemical degradation of paraquat can occur on the surface of leaves in sunlight. In vitro experiments involving ultra-violet irradiation of aqueous solutions of {sup 14}C-paraquat have shown that 4-carboxy-1-methylpyridinium chloride and methylamine hydrochloride are the only products formed in significant amount in the photochemical degradation. Paper chromatography and isotope dilution have shown that these products are formed on leaves of plants treated with {sup 14}C-paraquat (mostly after the plants are dead). Whole plant radioautography has established that 4-carboxy-1-{sup 14}C methylpyridinium chloride is not translocated at all from the dead leaves on which it is formed and certainly this compound will not appear in harvested crops. This has been confirmed in an experiment in which {sup 14}C-paraquat was used to desiccate the tops of potato plants before harvesting the tubers. All the radioactivity subsequently found in the tubers could be accounted for as paraquat (level 0.08 ppm). There was no evidence for the presence of significant amounts of other radioactive compounds in the tubers, even though chromatography of extracts of the desiccated plants showed that photochemical degradation products were formed on the leaves: these were not translocated into the

  17. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  18. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    . In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human......Quantification of forest degradation in monitoring and reporting as well as in historic baselines is among the most challenging tasks in national REDD+ strategies. However, a recently introduced option is to base monitoring systems on subnational conditions such as prevalent degradation activities...

  19. Global DNA methylation of ischemic stroke subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soriano-Tárraga

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS, a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder, is among the leading causes of mortality and long-term disability in the western world. Epidemiological data provides evidence for a genetic component to the disease, but its epigenetic involvement is still largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, change over time and may be associated with aging processes and with modulation of the risk of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. We analyzed 2 independent cohorts of IS patients. Global DNA methylation was measured by luminometric methylation assay (LUMA of DNA blood samples. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the methylation differences between the 3 most common IS subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, small-artery disease (SAD, and cardio-aortic embolism (CE. A total of 485 IS patients from 2 independent hospital cohorts (n = 281 and n = 204 were included, distributed across 3 IS subtypes: LAA (78/281, 59/204, SAD (97/281, 53/204, and CE (106/281, 89/204. In univariate analyses, no statistical differences in LUMA levels were observed between the 3 etiologies in either cohort. Multivariate analysis, adjusted by age, sex, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habit, confirmed the lack of differences in methylation levels between the analyzed IS subtypes in both cohorts. Despite differences in pathogenesis, our results showed no global methylation differences between LAA, SAD, and CE subtypes of IS. Further work is required to establish whether the epigenetic mechanism of methylation might play a role in this complex disease.

  20. Copper induces expression and methylation changes of early development genes in Crassostrea gigas embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Lebreton, Morgane; Rouxel, Julien; Akcha, Farida; Rivière, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    Copper contamination is widespread along coastal areas and exerts adverse effects on marine organisms such as mollusks. In the Pacific oyster, copper induces severe developmental abnormalities during early life stages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to better understand whether the embryotoxic effects of copper in Crassostrea gigas could be mediated by alterations in gene expression, and the putative role of DNA methylation, which is known to contribute to gene regulation in early embryo development. For that purpose, oyster embryos were exposed to 4 nominal copper concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20 μg L -1 Cu 2+ ) during early development assays. Embryotoxicity was monitored through the oyster embryo-larval bioassay at the D-larva stage 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and genotoxicity at gastrulation 7 hpf. In parallel, the relative expression of 15 genes encoding putative homeotic, biomineralization and DNA methylation proteins was measured at three developmental stages (3 hpf morula stage, 7 hpf gastrula stage, 24 hpf D-larvae stage) using RT-qPCR. Global DNA content in methylcytosine and hydroxymethylcytosine were measured by HPLC and gene-specific DNA methylation levels were monitored using MeDIP-qPCR. A significant increase in larval abnormalities was observed from copper concentrations of 10 μg L -1 , while significant genotoxic effects were detected at 1 μg L -1 and above. All the selected genes presented a stage-dependent expression pattern, which was impaired for some homeobox and DNA methylation genes (Notochord, HOXA1, HOX2, Lox5, DNMT3b and CXXC-1) after copper exposure. While global DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine) at gastrula stage didn't show significant changes between experimental conditions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, its degradation product, decreased upon copper treatment. The DNA methylation of exons and the transcript levels were correlated in control samples for HOXA1 but such

  1. Inductive effect of methyl group in a series of methylated indoles: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 125, No. 4, July 2013, pp. 905–912. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inductive effect of methyl group in a series of methylated indoles: A graph theoretical analysis in the light of density functional theory and correlation with experimental charge transfer transition energies. AMIT S TIWARYa,∗ and ASOK K MUKHERJEEb.

  2. Evidence for methyl group transfer between the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedale, W.A.; Nettleton, D.O.; Sopata, C.S.; Thoelke, M.S.; Ordal, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present evidence for methyl (as methyl or methoxy) transfer from the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins H1 and possibly H3 of Bacillus subtilis to the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein H2. This methyl transfer, which has been observed in vitro was strongly stimulated by the chemoattractant aspartate and thus may plan an important role in the sensory processing system of this organism. Although radiolabeling of H1 and H3 began at once after the addition of [ 3 H] methionine, radiolabeling of H2 showed a lag. Furthermore, the addition of excess nonradioactive methionine caused immediate exponential delabeling of H1 and H3 while labeling of H2 continued to increase. Methylation of H2 required the chemotactic methyltransferase, probably to first methylate H1 and H3. Aspartate caused increased labeling of H2 and strongly decreased labeling of H1 and H3 after the addition of nonradioactive methionine. Without the addition of nonradioactive methionine, aspartate caused demethylation of H1 and to a lesser extent H3, with an approximately equal increase of methylation of H2

  3. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  4. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-07-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  5. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  6. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  7. Predicting degradability of organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finizio, A; Vighi, M [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Entomologia Agraria

    1992-05-01

    Degradability, particularly biodegradability, is one of the most important factors governing the persistence of pollutants in the environment and consequently influencing their behavior and toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The need for reliable persistence data in order to assess the environmental fate and hazard of chemicals by means of predictive approaches, is evident. Biodegradability tests are requested by the EEC directive on new chemicals. Neverthless, degradation tests are not easy to carry out and data on existing chemicals are very scarce. Therefore, assessing the fate of chemicals in the environment from the simple study of their structure would be a useful tool. Rates of degradation are a function of the rates of a series of processes. Correlation between degradation rates and structural parameters are will be facilitated if one of the processes is rate determining. This review is a survey of studies dealing with relationships between structure and biodegradation of organic chemicals, to identify the value and limitations of this approach.

  8. Optimal methylation noise for best chemotactic performance of E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Subrata; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2018-03-01

    In response to a concentration gradient of chemoattractant, E. coli bacterium modulates the rotational bias of flagellar motors which control its run-and-tumble motion, to migrate towards regions of high chemoattractant concentration. Presence of stochastic noise in the biochemical pathway of the cell has important consequences on the switching mechanism of motor bias, which in turn affects the runs and tumbles of the cell in a significant way. We model the intracellular reaction network in terms of coupled time evolution of three stochastic variables—kinase activity, methylation level, and CheY-P protein level—and study the effect of methylation noise on the chemotactic performance of the cell. In presence of a spatially varying nutrient concentration profile, a good chemotactic performance allows the cell to climb up the concentration gradient quickly and localize in the nutrient-rich regions in the long time limit. Our simulations show that the best performance is obtained at an optimal noise strength. While it is expected that chemotaxis will be weaker for very large noise, it is counterintuitive that the performance worsens even when noise level falls below a certain value. We explain this striking result by detailed analysis of CheY-P protein level statistics for different noise strengths. We show that when the CheY-P level falls below a certain (noise-dependent) threshold the cell tends to move down the concentration gradient of the nutrient, which has a detrimental effect on its chemotactic response. This threshold value decreases as noise is increased, and this effect is responsible for noise-induced enhancement of chemotactic performance. In a harsh chemical environment, when the nutrient degrades with time, the amount of nutrient intercepted by the cell trajectory is an effective performance criterion. In this case also, depending on the nutrient lifetime, we find an optimum noise strength when the performance is at its best.

  9. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters—Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a jet-stirred reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valérie; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    The modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters was investigated and the specific chemistry, which is due to the presence of the ester group in this class of molecules, is described. New reactions and rate parameters were defined and included in the software EXGAS for the automatic generation of kinetic mechanisms. Models generated with EXGAS were successfully validated against data from the literature (oxidation of methyl hexanoate and methyl heptanoate in a jet-stirred reactor) and a new set of experimental results for methyl decanoate. The oxidation of this last species was investigated in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures from 500 to 1100 K, including the negative temperature coefficient region, under stoichiometric conditions, at a pressure of 1.06 bar and for a residence time of 1.5 s: more than 30 reaction products, including olefins, unsaturated esters, and cyclic ethers, were quantified and successfully simulated. Flow rate analysis showed that reactions pathways for the oxidation of methyl esters in the low-temperature range are similar to that of alkanes. PMID:23710076

  10. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters-Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a jet-stirred reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valérie; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2010-11-01

    The modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters was investigated and the specific chemistry, which is due to the presence of the ester group in this class of molecules, is described. New reactions and rate parameters were defined and included in the software EXGAS for the automatic generation of kinetic mechanisms. Models generated with EXGAS were successfully validated against data from the literature (oxidation of methyl hexanoate and methyl heptanoate in a jet-stirred reactor) and a new set of experimental results for methyl decanoate. The oxidation of this last species was investigated in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures from 500 to 1100 K, including the negative temperature coefficient region, under stoichiometric conditions, at a pressure of 1.06 bar and for a residence time of 1.5 s: more than 30 reaction products, including olefins, unsaturated esters, and cyclic ethers, were quantified and successfully simulated. Flow rate analysis showed that reactions pathways for the oxidation of methyl esters in the low-temperature range are similar to that of alkanes.

  11. Histone Lysine Methylation in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-dong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN belongs to debilitating microvascular complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of end-stage renal diseases worldwide. Furthermore, outcomes from the DCCT/EDIC study showed that DN often persists and progresses despite intensive glucose control in many diabetes patients, possibly as a result of prior episode of hyperglycemia, which is called “metabolic memory.” The underlying mechanisms responsible for the development and progression of DN remain poorly understood. Activation of multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors can lead to aberrant expression of DN-related pathologic genes in target renal cells. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms in chromatin such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and methylation can influence the pathophysiology of DN and metabolic memory. Exciting researches from cell culture and experimental animals have shown that key histone methylation patterns and the related histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases can play important roles in the regulation of inflammatory and profibrotic genes in renal cells under diabetic conditions. Because histone methylation is dynamic and potentially reversible, it can provide a window of opportunity for the development of much-needed novel therapeutic potential for DN in the future. In this minireview, we discuss recent advances in the field of histone methylation and its roles in the pathogenesis and progression of DN.

  12. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  13. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Nils; Duffy, M.J; Napieralski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that meas......Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested...... that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2...... for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene...

  14. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-01-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to open-quotes develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.close quotes Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym open-quotes MESSclose quotes by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed

  15. Abiotic degradation of plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-López, Y. G.; Gutiérrez-Mayen, A. M.; Velasco-Pérez, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M.; Vázquez-Morillas, A.; Cano-Blanco, M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradable plastics have been promoted as an option to mitigate the environmental impacts of plastic waste. However, there is no certainty about its degradability under different environmental conditions. The effect of accelerated weathering (AW), natural weathering (NW) and thermal oxidation (TO) on different plastics (high density polyethylene, HDPE; oxodegradable high density polyethylene, HDPE-oxo; compostable plastic, Ecovio ® metalized polypropylene, PP; and oxodegradable metalized polypropylene, PP-oxo) was studied. Plastics films were exposed to AW per 110 hours; to NW per 90 days; and to TO per 30 days. Plastic films exposed to AW and NW showed a general loss on mechanical properties. The highest reduction in elongation at break on AW occurred to HDPE-oxo (from 400.4% to 20.9%) and was higher than 90% for HDPE, HDPE-oxo, Ecovio ® and PP-oxo in NW. No substantial evidence of degradation was found on plastics exposed to TO. Oxo-plastics showed higher degradation rates than their conventional counterparts, and the compostable plastic was resistant to degradation in the studied abiotic conditions. This study shows that degradation of plastics in real life conditions will vary depending in both, their composition and the environment.

  16. Dynamic Alu Methylation during Normal Development, Aging, and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation primarily occurs on CpG dinucleotides and plays an important role in transcriptional regulations during tissue development and cell differentiation. Over 25% of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome reside within Alu elements, the most abundant human repeats. The methylation of Alu elements is an important mechanism to suppress Alu transcription and subsequent retrotransposition. Decades of studies revealed that Alu methylation is highly dynamic during early development and aging. Recently, many environmental factors were shown to have a great impact on Alu methylation. In addition, aberrant Alu methylation has been documented to be an early event in many tumors and Alu methylation levels have been associated with tumor aggressiveness. The assessment of the Alu methylation has become an important approach for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer. This review focuses on the dynamic Alu methylation during development, aging, and tumor genesis. The cause and consequence of Alu methylation changes will be discussed.

  17. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of 3 H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action

  18. Impaired methylation as a novel mechanism for proteasome suppression in liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osna, Natalia A., E-mail: nosna@UNMC.edu [Liver Study Unit, The Omaha Veterans Affairs VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); White, Ronda L.; Donohue, Terrence M. [Liver Study Unit, The Omaha Veterans Affairs VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Beard, Michael R. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Adelaide (Australia); Tuma, Dean J.; Kharbanda, Kusum K. [Liver Study Unit, The Omaha Veterans Affairs VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States)

    2010-01-08

    The proteasome is a multi-catalytic protein degradation enzyme that is regulated by ethanol-induced oxidative stress; such suppression is attributed to CYP2E1-generated metabolites. However, under certain conditions, it appears that in addition to oxidative stress, other mechanisms are also involved in proteasome regulation. This study investigated whether impaired protein methylation that occurs during exposure of liver cells to ethanol, may contribute to suppression of proteasome activity. We measured the chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity in Huh7CYP cells, hepatocytes, liver cytosols and nuclear extracts or purified 20S proteasome under conditions that maintain or prevent protein methylation. Reduction of proteasome activity of hepatoma cell and hepatocytes by ethanol or tubercidin was prevented by simultaneous treatment with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Moreover, the tubercidin-induced decline in proteasome activity occurred in both nuclear and cytosolic fractions. In vitro exposure of cell cytosolic fractions or highly purified 20S proteasome to low SAM:S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratios in the buffer also suppressed proteasome function, indicating that one or more methyltransferase(s) may be associated with proteasomal subunits. Immunoblotting a purified 20S rabbit red cell proteasome preparation using methyl lysine-specific antibodies revealed a 25 kDa proteasome subunit that showed positive reactivity with anti-methyl lysine. This reactivity was modified when 20S proteasome was exposed to differential SAM:SAH ratios. We conclude that impaired methylation of proteasome subunits suppressed proteasome activity in liver cells indicating an additional, yet novel mechanism of proteasome activity regulation by ethanol.

  19. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from minimal traces: How low can we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Kloosterman, Ate D; Verschure, Pernette J

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of human DNA methylation (DNAm) can provide additional investigative leads in crime cases, e.g. the type of tissue or body fluid, the chronological age of an individual, and differentiation between identical twins. In contrast to the genetic profile, the DNAm level is not the same in every cell. At the single cell level, DNAm represents a binary event at a defined CpG site (methylated versus non-methylated). The DNAm level from a DNA extract however represents the average level of methylation of the CpG of interest of all molecules in the forensic sample. The variance of DNAm levels between replicates is often attributed to technological issues, i.e. degradation of DNA due to bisulfite treatment, preferential amplification of DNA, and amplification failure. On the other hand, we show that stochastic variations can lead to gross fluctuation in the analysis of methylation levels in samples with low DNA levels. This stochasticity in DNAm results is relevant since low DNA amounts (1pg - 1ng) is rather the norm than the exception when analyzing forensic DNA samples. This study describes a conceptual analysis of DNAm profiling and its dependence on the amount of input DNA. We took a close look at the variation of DNAm analysis due to DNA input and its consequences for different DNAm-based forensic applications. As can be expected, the 95%-confidence interval of measured DNAm becomes narrower with increasing amounts of DNA. We compared this aspect for two different DNAm-based forensic applications: body fluid identification and chronological age determination. Our study shows that DNA amount should be well considered when using DNAm for forensic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methylated liquor treatment process in caffeine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junbo; Yang, Mingyang; Huang, Wenjia; Cui, Shenglu; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    The caffeine production process produces a large amount of sodium methyl sulphate in the methylated mother liquor. In order to recycle this part of ingredient, we use the mother liquid of Shijiazhuang Xin Nuowei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. as the object of study, the use of “nanofiltration (NF) - Dish Type Reverse Osmosis (DTRO) “combination of membrane technology for desalination and concentration. The experimental results show that the concentration of sodium sulfate in the nanofiltration solution is 0.37 g • L -1, the rejection rate is 98%, and the concentration of sodium methyl sulfate in DTRO concentrated solution is 453.80 g • L -1, which meets the requirements of the enterprise.

  1. Histone H4 Lysine 20 methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine; Schotta, Gunnar; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2013-01-01

    of histones have emerged as key regulators of genomic integrity. Intense research during the past few years has revealed histone H4 lysine 20 methylation (H4K20me) as critically important for the biological processes that ensure genome integrity, such as DNA damage repair, DNA replication and chromatin...... compaction. The distinct H4K20 methylation states are mediated by SET8/PR-Set7 that catalyses monomethylation of H4K20, whereas SUV4-20H1 and SUV4-20H2 enzymes mediate further H4K20 methylation to H4K20me2 and H4K20me3. Disruption of these H4K20-specific histone methyltransferases leads to genomic...

  2. Biodegradation of methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol: evidence for the presence of a p-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylase in a Gram-negative Serratia sp. strain DS001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakala, Suresh B; Gorla, Purushotham; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Krovidi, Ravi Kumar; Baru, Rajasekhar; Yanamandra, Mahesh; Merrick, Mike; Siddavattam, Dayananda

    2007-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of utilizing methyl parathion as sole carbon and energy source was isolated by selective enrichment on minimal medium containing methyl parathion. The strain was identified as belonging to the genus Serratia based on a phylogram constructed using the complete sequence of the 16S rRNA. Serratia sp. strain DS001 utilized methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol, 4-nitrocatechol, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol as sole carbon and energy sources but could not grow using hydroquinone as a source of carbon. p-Nitrophenol and dimethylthiophosphoric acid were found to be the major degradation products of methyl parathion. Growth on p-nitrophenol led to release of stoichiometric amounts of nitrite and to the formation of 4-nitrocatechol and benzenetriol. When these catabolic intermediates of p-nitrophenol were added to resting cells of Serratia sp. strain DS001 oxygen consumption was detected whereas no oxygen consumption was apparent when hydroquinone was added to the resting cells suggesting that it is not part of the p-nitrophenol degradation pathway. Key enzymes involved in degradation of methyl parathion and in conversion of p-nitrophenol to 4-nitrocatechol, namely parathion hydrolase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase component "A" were detected in the proteomes of the methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol grown cultures, respectively. These studies report for the first time the existence of a p-nitrophenol hydroxylase component "A", typically found in Gram-positive bacteria, in a Gram-negative strain of the genus Serratia.

  3. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robersy Sanchez

    Full Text Available Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background ("noise" induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1 the adherence to Landauer's principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2 whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic

  4. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A novel method to quantify local CpG methylation density by regional methylation elongation assay on microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yingjuan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation based techniques are important tools in both clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. But most of these methods only analyze a few CpG sites in a target region. Indeed, difference of site-specific methylation may also lead to a change of methylation density in many cases, and it has been found that the density of methylation is more important than methylation of single CpG site for gene silencing. Results We have developed a novel approach for quantitative analysis of CpG methylation density on the basis of microarray-based hybridization and incorporation of Cy5-dCTP into the Cy3 labeled target DNA by using Taq DNA Polymerase on microarray. The quantification is achieved by measuring Cy5/Cy3 signal ratio which is proportional to methylation density. This methylation-sensitive technique, termed RMEAM (regional methylation elongation assay on microarray, provides several advantages over existing methods used for methylation analysis. It can determine an exact methylation density of the given region, and has potential of high throughput. We demonstrate a use of this method in determining the methylation density of the promoter region of the tumor-related gene MLH1, TERT and MGMT in colorectal carcinoma patients. Conclusion This technique allows for quantitative analysis of regional methylation density, which is the representative of all allelic methylation patterns in the sample. The results show that this technique has the characteristics of simplicity, rapidness, specificity and high-throughput.

  6. Analysis of DNA Cytosine Methylation Patterns Using Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, María Ángeles; de María, Nuria; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Vélez, María Dolores; Cervera, María Teresa; Cabezas, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Different molecular techniques have been developed to study either the global level of methylated cytosines or methylation at specific gene sequences. One of them is the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique (MSAP) which is a modification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). It has been used to study methylation of anonymous CCGG sequences in different fungi, plants, and animal species. The main variation of this technique resides on the use of isoschizomers with different methylation sensitivity (such as HpaII and MspI) as a frequent-cutter restriction enzyme. For each sample, MSAP analysis is performed using both EcoRI/HpaII- and EcoRI/MspI-digested samples. A comparative analysis between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI fragment patterns allows the identification of two types of polymorphisms: (1) methylation-insensitive polymorphisms that show common EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns but are detected as polymorphic amplified fragments among samples and (2) methylation-sensitive polymorphisms which are associated with the amplified fragments that differ in their presence or absence or in their intensity between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns. This chapter describes a detailed protocol of this technique and discusses the modifications that can be applied to adjust the technology to different species of interest.

  7. Trans-methylation reactions in plants: focus on the activated methyl cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Moona; Alegre, Sara; Trotta, Andrea; Pascual, Jesús; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa

    2018-02-01

    Trans-methylation reactions are vital in basic metabolism, epigenetic regulation, RNA metabolism, and posttranslational control of protein function and therefore fundamental in determining the physiological processes in all living organisms. The plant kingdom is additionally characterized by the production of secondary metabolites that undergo specific hydroxylation, oxidation and methylation reactions to obtain a wide array of different chemical structures. Increasing research efforts have started to reveal the enzymatic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of complex metabolites in plants. Further engineering of these enzymatic machineries offers significant possibilities in the development of bio-based technologies, but necessitates deep understanding of their potential metabolic and regulatory interactions. Trans-methylation reactions are tightly coupled with the so-called activated methyl cycle (AMC), an essential metabolic circuit that maintains the trans-methylation capacity in all living cells. Tight regulation of the AMC is crucial in ensuring accurate trans-methylation reactions in different subcellular compartments, cell types, developmental stages and environmental conditions. This review addresses the organization and posttranslational regulation of the AMC and elaborates its critical role in determining metabolic regulation through modulation of methyl utilization in stress-exposed plants. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Origin and fate of 4-methyl steroid hydrocarbons. I. Diagenesis of 4-methyl sterenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, G.A.; Lamb, N.A.; Maxwell, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    Treatment of 4-methylcholest-4-ene under mild acid conditions at low temperatures gives chemical evidence for certain features seen in the distributions of sedimentary 4-methyl steroid hydrocarbons, and further indicates that many low temperature diagenetic reactions of steroids are explicable in terms of acid catalyzed rearrangements. Specifically, the results provide: (i) Indirect evidence that the 4-ene skeleton is a key intermediate in the dehydration of 4-methyl stanols in sediments. (ii) An explanation for the distribution of 4-methyl sterenes and A-nor sterenes in the lacustrine Messel shale (Eocene). (iii) An explanation for the presence of 4..beta..-methyl steranes in relatively immature sedimentary rocks, despite the precursor stanols having the 4..cap alpha..-methyl configuration. With increasing maturity in the Paris Basin shales (Lower Toarcian), the less stable 4..beta..-methyl steranes decrease gradually in abundance relative to their 4..cap alpha..-methyl counterparts, at a rate fairly similar to the change in pristane stereochemistry.

  9. Research on the degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate in drinking water by strong ionization discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, ZHAO; Chengwu, YI; Rongjie, YI; Huijuan, WANG; Lanlan, YIN; I, N. MUHAMMAD; Zhongfei, MA

    2018-03-01

    The degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in the drinking water was investigated using strong ionization discharge technology in this study. Under the optimized condition, the degradation efficiency of DMP in drinking water was up to 93% in 60 min. A series of analytical techniques including high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were used in the study. It was found that a high concentration of ozone (O3) produced by dielectric barrier discharge reactor was up to 74.4 mg l-1 within 60 min. Tert-butanol, isopropyl alcohol, carbonate ions ({{{{CO}}}3}2-) and bicarbonate ions ({{{{HCO}}}3}-) was added to the sample solution to indirectly prove the presence and effect of hydroxyl radicals (·OH). These analytical findings indicate that mono-methyl phthalate, phthalic acid (PA) and methyl ester PA were detected as the major intermediates in the process of DMP degradation. Finally, DMP and all products were mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) ultimately. Based on these analysis results, the degradation pathway of DMP by strong ionization discharge technology were proposed.

  10. Cord blood buffy coat DNA methylation is comparable to whole cord blood methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, John; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Benke, Kelly S; Newschaffer, Craig; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Croen, Lisa A; Iosif, Ana-Maria; LaSalle, Janine M; Fallin, M Daniele; Bakulski, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    Cord blood DNA methylation is associated with numerous health outcomes and environmental exposures. Whole cord blood DNA reflects all nucleated blood cell types, while centrifuging whole blood separates red blood cells, generating a white blood cell buffy coat. Both sample types are used in DNA methylation studies. Cell types have unique methylation patterns and processing can impact cell distributions, which may influence comparability. We evaluated differences in cell composition and DNA methylation between cord blood buffy coat and whole cord blood samples. Cord blood DNA methylation was measured with the Infinium EPIC BeadChip (Illumina) in eight individuals, each contributing buffy coat and whole blood samples. We analyzed principal components (PC) of methylation, performed hierarchical clustering, and computed correlations of mean-centered methylation between pairs. We conducted moderated t-tests on single sites and estimated cell composition. DNA methylation PCs were associated with individual (P PC1 = 1.4 × 10 -9 ; P PC2 = 2.9 × 10 -5 ; P PC3 = 3.8 × 10 -5 ; P PC4 = 4.2 × 10 -6 ; P PC5 = 9.9 × 10 -13 , P PC6 = 1.3 × 10 -11 ) and not with sample type (P PC1-6 >0.7). Samples hierarchically clustered by individual. Pearson correlations of mean-centered methylation between paired samples ranged from r = 0.66 to r = 0.87. No individual site significantly differed between buffy coat and whole cord blood when adjusting for multiple comparisons (five sites had unadjusted Pcoat and whole cord blood are much lower than inter-individual variation, demonstrating that both sample preparation types can be analytically combined and compared.

  11. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (HydroxyMethylation before and during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pauwels

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxylmethylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxymethylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxymethylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04 and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04. A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxymethylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxymethylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy.

  12. Experimental and chemical kinetic modeling study of small methyl esters oxidation: Methyl (E)-2-butenoate and methyl butanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, S.; Sarathy, S.M.; Thomson, M.J. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada); Dievart, P.; Dagaut, P. [CNRS, 1C, Ave de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-12-15

    This study examines the effect of unsaturation on the combustion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). New experimental results were obtained for the oxidation of methyl (E)-2-butenoate (MC, unsaturated C{sub 4} FAME) and methyl butanoate (MB, saturated C{sub 4} FAME) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at atmospheric pressure under dilute conditions over the temperature range 850-1400 K, and two equivalence ratios ({phi}=0.375,0.75) with a residence time of 0.07 s. The results consist of concentration profiles of the reactants, stable intermediates, and final products, measured by probe sampling followed by on-line and off-line gas chromatography analyses. The oxidation of MC and MB in the JSR and under counterflow diffusion flame conditions was modeled using a new detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism (301 species and 1516 reactions) derived from previous schemes proposed in the literature. The laminar counterflow flame and JSR (for {phi}=1.13) experimental results used were from a previous study on the comparison of the combustion of both compounds. Sensitivity analyses and reaction path analyses, based on rates of reaction, were used to interpret the results. The data and the model show that MC has reaction pathways analogous to that of MB under the present conditions. The model of MC oxidation provides a better understanding of the effect of the ester function on combustion, and the effect of unsaturation on the combustion of fatty acid methyl ester compounds typically found in biodiesel. (author)

  13. Comparison of an ability to degrade MTBE between mixed culture and monoculture isolated from gasoline contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Virojanakud

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE is an oxygenated compound used to enhance the octane index of gasoline and replace lead in gasoline. MTBE can reduce air pollution but causes water pollution due to its high water solubility and low sorption to soil and thus can easily contaminate the environment. Biodegradation is one of the promising techniques to reduce MTBE contaminated in the environment and MTBE degrader was proposed as an efficient method used to degrade MTBE. In this study, MTBE degraders were isolated from gasoline contaminated soil and then were evaluated with the hypothesis that MTBE degraders could improve biodegradation of MTBE in soil and mixed culture could degrade MTBE more rapidly than monoculture. Gasoline contaminated soil samples were taken from retail gas stations and a motorcycle repair shop in Khon Kaen University. Isolation of MTBE degrader was conducted by using Basal Salt Medium (BSM containing 200 mg/L of MTBE as a carbon source. Mixed culture of MTBE degrader was successfully isolated under aerobic condition. Morphology study was conducted by streaking isolated mixed culture in solid medium, agar slant and identifying the cells shape under a microscope. It was found that this mixed culture was a gram negative bacteria with 7 different isolates. A comparison of the ability to degrade MTBE between mixed culture and monoculture was investigated in BSM containing 100 mg/L of MTBE. The results indicated that a mixed culture degraded MTBE more rapidly than monoculture i.e. 20% within 14 days. Monoculture, J4 and J7, were the most rapid MTBE degraders among the other monocultures in which they degraded 14% of MTBE in 14 days while monoculture J15 could degrade only 1% of MTBE.This preliminary result suggests that mixed cultures degrade MTBE more efficiently than monoculture.

  14. Methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay and its poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaoxia; Jiang, David D.; Wilkie, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    A methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay was used to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate) clay nanocomposites by melt blending and the effect of the clay loading level on the modified clay and corresponding nanocomposite was studied. These nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimetry. The results show a mixed intercalated/delaminated morphology with good nanodispersion. The compatibility between the methylacrylate-subsituted clay and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are greatly improved compared to other oligomerically-modified clays

  15. Degradation of shape memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeer, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An important parameter for deciding whether or not a SME alloy is suitable for practical applications is the magnitude of the strain reversal accompanying martensite reversion. This research is concerned with elucidating metallurgical factors that cause degradation of this heat-activated recovery strain, E/sub R/. After explaining what is meant by degradation, two manifestations of degradation recently identified in near-monotectoid uranium-niobium alloys are described. The first was associated with the onset of plastic deformation of the martensite beyond the reversible strain limit, E/sub L/; a reduction of E/sub R/ from 5.25% at 8% total strain, i.e. E/sub L/, to 2.9% at 12% total strain was observed. A second type of degradation depended strongly on the heating rate during reversion; the E/sub R/ for an imposed strain of 6.95% was reduced from a value of 5.25% to 1.3% when the heating rate was decreased from 40 0 /sec to 0.05 0 /sec. Degradation was attributed to a change in the transformation path and the interjection of time-dependent, low temperature aging reactions

  16. Toward a Unified Understanding of Mercury and Methylated Mercury from the World's Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Landing, W. M.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    -profile concentration maxima, however, the depth of the maxima are more varied than the total mercury profiles (150 - 700m). Also, our observed distribution of methylated mercury highly correlated with organic carbon remineralization rates (OCRR) in the North Pacific and Indian Oceans. Interestingly, we find the highest methylated mercury concentrations in the Southern Ocean, suggesting the possibility of unique mechanisms for methylmercury production, preservation, and degradation in polar ecosystems such as cold water temperatures, extended periods of sea ice cover, and annual atmospheric mercury depletion events. We are using these data to better link oceanic production of bioaccumulative mercury to models for atmospheric and oceanic transport and bioaccumulation. This will ultimately lead to a better understanding of mercury levels in consumable fish and shell fish.

  17. An anomalous behavior in degraded bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vinamrita; Tandon, Ram Pal; Arora, Swati; Kumar, Pankaj; Bhatnagar, Pramod Kumar; Arora, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    An anomalous behavior—a change in polarity with the passage of time in the bulk heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):6,6-phenylC61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) organic solar cells—is reported here. This work is a continuation of our previous work where the initial degradation of the organic solar cells, freshly prepared up to 4 h, was mainly due to domain formation in the active layer. With the passage of time, the activity at the interfaces starts becoming significant. A decrease of V OC and J SC , leading to a change in polarity, has been reported and explained up to 300 h after fabrication.

  18. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Siegmann

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796])

  19. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pewlong, W.; Sudatis, B.; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl 2 /C 2 H 5 OH/H 2 O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  20. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pewlong, W; Sudatis, B [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  1. Origin of methyl torsional potential barrier – An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This paper presents the evolution of views on methyl internal rotation ... recognized in the early years of quantum theory.1 Since then, detailed experimental and ..... C−C bond in the methyl conjugated molecules is an important factor for barrier.

  2. Allele specific expression and methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The social hymenoptera are emerging as models for epigenetics. DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group, is a common epigenetic marker. In mammals and flowering plants methylation affects allele specific expression. There is contradictory evidence for the role of methylation on allele specific expression in social insects. The aim of this paper is to investigate allele specific expression and monoallelic methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. We found nineteen genes that were both monoallelically methylated and monoallelically expressed in a single bee. Fourteen of these genes express the hypermethylated allele, while the other five express the hypomethylated allele. We also searched for allele specific expression in twenty-nine published RNA-seq libraries. We found 555 loci with allele-specific expression. We discuss our results with reference to the functional role of methylation in gene expression in insects and in the as yet unquantified role of genetic cis effects in insect allele specific methylation and expression.

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Changes of Host DNA Methylation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... *These authors contributed equally to this work. 1To whom .... Ethics statement ... three times with 700 ml of IP buffer. Methylated ... as crucial genes affected by Salmonella infection and termed these differentially methylated.

  4. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease.

  5. Solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate was measured within a temperature range of 283.5–464.8 K and pressures up to 10.7 MPa. Experiments were carried out using the Cailletet apparatus, which uses a synthetic method for the experiments. The critical points of several isopleths

  6. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C.; Roost, Matthias S.; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  7. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  8. Methyl 3,4-bis(cyclopropylmethoxybenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Chao Cheng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H20O4, was obtained unintentionally as the byproduct of an attempted synthesis of methyl 3-(cyclopropylmethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  9. Genome-Wide Methylation Profiling of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukova B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the major psychiatric disorders. It is a disorder of complex inheritance, involving both heritable and environmental factors. DNA methylation is an inheritable epigenetic modification that stably alters gene expression. We reasoned that genetic modifications that are a result of environmental stimuli could also make a contribution.

  10. Atmospheric fate of methyl vinyl ketone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praske, Eric; Crounse, John D; Bates, Kelvin H

    2015-01-01

    First generation product yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (3-buten-2-one, MVK) under both low and high NO conditions are reported. In the low NO chemistry, three distinct reaction channels are identified leading to the formation of (1) OH, glycolaldehyde, and acetyl...

  11. [The biology of aerobic methylobacteria capable of degrading halomethanes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Iu A; Doronina, N V

    2003-01-01

    Recent data on the biology of aerobic methylotrophic bacteria capable of utilizing toxic halogenated methane derivatives as sources of carbon and energy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the taxonomic, physiological, and biochemical diversity of mono- and dihalomethane-degrading methylobacteria and the enzymatic and genetic aspects of their primary metabolism. The initial steps of chloromethane dehalogenation to formate and HCl through a methylated corrinoid and methyletrahydrofolate are catalyzed by inducible cobalamin methyl transferase, made up of two proteins (CmuA and CmuB) encoded by the cmuA and cmuB genes. At the same time, the primary dehalogenation of dichloromethane to formaldehyde and HCl is catalyzed by cytosolic glutathione transferase with S-chloromethylglutathione as an intermediate. The latter enzyme is encoded by the structural dcmA gene and is under the negative control of the regulatory dcmR gene. In spite of considerable progress in the study of halomethane dehalogenation, some aspects concerning the structural and functional organization of this process and its regulation remain unknown, including the mechanisms of halomethane transport, the release of toxic dehalogenation products (S-chloromethylglutathione, CH2O, and HCl) from cells, and the maintenance of intracellular pH. Of particular interest is quantitative evaluation of the ecophysiological role of aerobic methylobacteria in the mineralization of halomethanes and protection of the biosphere from these toxic pollutants.

  12. Microwave-induced carbon nanotubes catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Xue, Shuang; Song, Youtao; Shen, Manli; Zhang, Zhaohong; Yuan, Tianxin; Tian, Fangyuan; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave-induced CNTs-based catalytic degradation technology is developed. • Microwave catalytic activities of CNTs with different diameters are compared. • Organic pollutants with different structure can be degraded in MW/CNTs system. • The 10–20 nm CNTs shows the higher catalytic activity under MW irradiation. - Abstract: In this study, a new catalytic degradation technology using microwave induced carbon nanotubes (MW/CNTs) was proposed and applied in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The catalytic activity of three CNTs of 10–20 nm, 20–40 nm, and 40–60 nm diameters were compared. The results showed that organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO), methyl parathion (MP), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), bisphenol A (BPA), and methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution could be degraded effectively and rapidly in MW/CNTs system. CNTs with diameter of 10–20 nm exhibited the highest catalytic activity of the three CNTs under MW irradiation. Further, complete degradation was obtained using 10–20 nm CNTs within 7.0 min irradiation when 25 mL MO solution (25 mg/L), 1.2 g/L catalyst dose, 450 W, 2450 MHz, and pH = 6.0 were applied. The rate constants (k) for the degradation of SDBS, MB, MP, MO and BPA using 10–20 nm CNTs/MW system were 0.726, 0.679, 0.463, 0.334 and 0.168 min"−"1, respectively. Therefore, this technology may have potential application for the treatment of targeted organic pollutants in wastewaters.

  13. Microwave-induced carbon nanotubes catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Xue, Shuang; Song, Youtao; Shen, Manli [School of Environment Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Zhaohong, E-mail: lnuhjhx@163.com [School of Environment Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Yuan, Tianxin; Tian, Fangyuan [School of Environment Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Microwave-induced CNTs-based catalytic degradation technology is developed. • Microwave catalytic activities of CNTs with different diameters are compared. • Organic pollutants with different structure can be degraded in MW/CNTs system. • The 10–20 nm CNTs shows the higher catalytic activity under MW irradiation. - Abstract: In this study, a new catalytic degradation technology using microwave induced carbon nanotubes (MW/CNTs) was proposed and applied in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The catalytic activity of three CNTs of 10–20 nm, 20–40 nm, and 40–60 nm diameters were compared. The results showed that organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO), methyl parathion (MP), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), bisphenol A (BPA), and methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution could be degraded effectively and rapidly in MW/CNTs system. CNTs with diameter of 10–20 nm exhibited the highest catalytic activity of the three CNTs under MW irradiation. Further, complete degradation was obtained using 10–20 nm CNTs within 7.0 min irradiation when 25 mL MO solution (25 mg/L), 1.2 g/L catalyst dose, 450 W, 2450 MHz, and pH = 6.0 were applied. The rate constants (k) for the degradation of SDBS, MB, MP, MO and BPA using 10–20 nm CNTs/MW system were 0.726, 0.679, 0.463, 0.334 and 0.168 min{sup −1}, respectively. Therefore, this technology may have potential application for the treatment of targeted organic pollutants in wastewaters.

  14. The earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa stimulates abundance and activity of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicide degraders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zaprasis, Adrienne; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Drake, Harold L; Horn, Marcus A

    2011-01-01

    2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is a widely used phenoxyalkanoic acid (PAA) herbicide. Earthworms represent the dominant macrofauna and enhance microbial activities in many soils. Thus, the effect of the model earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) on microbial MCPA degradation was assessed in soil columns with agricultural soil. MCPA degradation was quicker in soil with earthworms than without earthworms. Quantitative PCR was inhibition-corrected per nucleic acid extract and indicated that copy numbers of tfdA-like and cadA genes (both encoding oxygenases initiating aerobic PAA degradation) in soil with earthworms were up to three and four times higher than without earthworms, respectively. tfdA-like and 16S rRNA gene transcript copy numbers in soil with earthworms were two and six times higher than without earthworms, respectively. Most probable numbers (MPNs) of MCPA degraders approximated 4 × 105 gdw−1 in soil before incubation and in soil treated without earthworms, whereas MPNs of earthworm-treated soils were approximately 150 × higher. The aerobic capacity of soil to degrade MCPA was higher in earthworm-treated soils than in earthworm-untreated soils. Burrow walls and 0–5 cm depth bulk soil displayed higher capacities to degrade MCPA than did soil from 5–10 cm depth bulk soil, expression of tfdA-like genes in burrow walls was five times higher than in bulk soil and MCPA degraders were abundant in burrow walls (MPNs of 5 × 107 gdw−1). The collective data indicate that earthworms stimulate abundance and activity of MCPA degraders endogenous to soil by their burrowing activities and might thus be advantageous for enhancing PAA degradation in soil. PMID:20740027

  15. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  16. How does methylation suppress the electron-induced decomposition of 1-methyl-nitroimidazoles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoski, F.; Varella, M. T. do N.

    2017-10-01

    The efficient decomposition of nitroimidazoles (NIs) by low energy electrons is believed to underlie their radiosensitizing properties. Recent dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements showed that methylation at the N1 site unexpectedly suppresses the electron-induced reactions in 4(5)-NI. We report theoretical results that provide a clear interpretation of that astounding finding. Around 1.5 eV, DEA reactions into several fragments are initiated by a π* resonance, not considered in previous studies. The autoionization lifetime of this anion state, which limits the predissociation dynamics, is considerably shorter in the methylated species, thereby suppressing the DEA signals. On the other hand, the lifetime of the π* resonance located around 3 eV is less affected by methylation, which explains why DEA is still observed at these energies. Our results demonstrate how even a simple methylation can significantly modify the probabilities for DEA reactions, which may be significant for NI-based cancer therapy.

  17. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  18. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate for continuous production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Duan, Ying; Gong, Ruchao; Yu, Shangzhi; Lu, Meizhen; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2015-06-01

    Undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) was continuously produced from methyl ricinoleate using a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system with atomization feeding. The UAME yield of 77 wt.% was obtained at 500°C using SiC as the microwave absorbent and heating medium. The methyl ricinoleate conversion and UAME yield from microwave-assisted pyrolysis process were higher than those from conventional pyrolysis. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis process was also investigated. The methyl ricinoleate conversion increased but the cracking liquid yield decreased when the temperature increased from 460°C to 560°C. The maximum UAME yield was obtained at the temperature of 500°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobility and molecular ions of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, methyl salicylate and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, D. M.

    1983-06-01

    The mobilities of positive and negative reactant ions are reported for (H2O)nH(+); (H2O)2O2 and (H2O)2CO3(-) ion clusters. The formation of positive DMMP monomer and dimer is reported, and equilbria molecular reactions are reported. Acetone is reported as forming a dimer at 81 ppb with a reduced mobility (K sub o) of 1.82, Methyl salicylate is shown to form a protonated and hydrated positive monomer. Mixtures of DMMP and methyl salicylate with acetone showed a substantial change in DMMP ion clustering and little or no change in the methyl salicylate mobility spectra. Negative ions were not observed for DMMP, methyl salicylate, acetone and the mixtures under the conditions reported.

  20. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T g ) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  1. Accelerated DNA Methylation Age: Associations with PTSD and Neural Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J.; Logue, Mark W.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Sadeh, Naomi; Schichman, Steven A.; Stone, Annjanette; Salat, David H.; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina; Miller, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may accelerate cellular aging and lead to premature morbidity and neurocognitive decline. Methods This study evaluated associations between PTSD and DNA methylation (DNAm) age using recently developed algorithms of cellular age by Horvath (2013) and Hannum et al. (2013). These estimates reflect accelerated aging when they exceed chronological age. We also examined if accelerated cellular age manifested in degraded neural integrity, indexed via diffusion tensor imaging. Results Among 281 male and female veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, DNAm age was strongly related to chronological age (rs ~.88). Lifetime PTSD severity was associated with Hannum DNAm age estimates residualized for chronological age (β = .13, p= .032). Advanced DNAm age was associated with reduced integrity in the genu of the corpus callosum (β = −.17, p= .009) and indirectly linked to poorer working memory performance via this region (indirect β = − .05, p= .029). Horvath DNAm age estimates were not associated with PTSD or neural integrity. Conclusions Results provide novel support for PTSD-related accelerated aging in DNAm and extend the evidence base of known DNAm age correlates to the domains of neural integrity and cognition. PMID:26447678

  2. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by Kocuria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiković Dragan D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE has been used to replace the toxic compounds from gasoline and to reduce emission of air pollutants. Due to its intensive use, MTBE has become one of the most important environment pollutants. The aim of this paper is isolation and identification of the bacteria from wastewater sample of “HIP Petrohemija” Pančevo (Serbia, capable of MTBE biodegradation. The results of the investigation showed that only the bacterial isolate 27/1 was capable of growth on MTBE. The result of sequence analyzes of 16S rDNA showed that this bacterial isolate belongs to the Kocuria sp. After the incubation period of 86 days, the degradation rates of initial MTBE concentration of 25 and 125 μg/ml were 55 and 36%, respectively. These results indicated that bacteria Kocuria sp. is successfully adapted on MTBE and can be potentially used in bioremediation of soils and waters contaminated with MTBE.

  3. Radiolytic stabilization of industrial poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterilisable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its physical properties. Therefore, radiolytic stabilization of PMMA is important for to become it commercially radio sterilisable. In this work we investigated the radiolytic stabilization of PMMA by using HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer) additive, commercially used for photo and thermo oxidative stabilization of polymers. The investigation of the radiation-induced main chain scissions was carried out by viscometric method. The additive added to the polymer system at 0.3 % w/w promotes a molecular radioprotection of 61%. That means a reduction of G value (scissions/100 eV) from 2.6 to 1.0. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (Tg) of PMMA (no additive), significantly changed by radiation, does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. TGA analysis showed that the additive promotes thermal stability to the system, increasing decomposition temperature of PMMA. Spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and RMN ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector additive added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. Analysis on mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and optical (yellowness index and refractive index) properties showed a good influence of the additive on polymer system. (author)

  4. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Detection by Pyrosequencing®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays important roles in healthy as well as diseased cells, by influencing the transcription of genes. In spite the fact that human somatic cells are diploid, most of the currently available methods for the study of DNA methylation do not provide......-effective protocol for allele-specific DNA methylation detection based on Pyrosequencing(®) of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) products including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the amplicon....

  5. Degradation of MTBE and TBA by a new isolate from MTBE-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ling; Huang, Guo-Qiang; Lian, Jing-Yan; Li, Xin-Gang

    2007-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive, possesses serious problems to the environmental health. In the present study, a bacterial culture named A-3 which could effectively degrade MTBE was isolated from the MTBE contaminated soil. The isolate was identified as Chryseobacterium sp., a new species capable of degrading MTBE. In order to enhance its degradation ability, selected environment factors were investigated. The results showed that the optimal temperature was in the range of 25-30 degrees C, the pH was 7.0, the inoculum size was 2 x 10(8) CFU/ml and the optimal concentration of MTBE was from 50 to 100 mg/L. The maximum MTBE utilization rate (upsilon(max)) was 102 nmol MTBE/(mg cell protein x h). Furthermore, it was found that the isolate could also degrade tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The degradation rates of TBA were much faster than those of MTBE. The additional TBA would lead to the decrease of the initial MTBE degradation rate and the inhibitory effect of TBA increased with the increase of TBA concentration. Similar protein profiles at least seven peptides were demonstrated after SDS-PAGE analysis of crude extracts obtained from the cells growing in MTBE and TBA culture.

  6. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  7. Usability of human Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for mouse DNA methylation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needhamsen, Maria; Ewing, Ewoud; Lund, Harald; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Harris, Robert Adam; Kular, Lara; Jagodic, Maja

    2017-11-15

    The advent of array-based genome-wide DNA methylation methods has enabled quantitative measurement of single CpG methylation status at relatively low cost and sample input. Whereas the use of Infinium Human Methylation BeadChips has shown great utility in clinical studies, no equivalent tool is available for rodent animal samples. We examined the feasibility of using the new Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for studying DNA methylation in mouse. In silico, we identified 19,420 EPIC probes (referred as mEPIC probes), which align with a unique best alignment score to the bisulfite converted reference mouse genome mm10. Further annotation revealed that 85% of mEPIC probes overlapped with mm10.refSeq genes at different genomic features including promoters (TSS1500 and TSS200), 1st exons, 5'UTRs, 3'UTRs, CpG islands, shores, shelves, open seas and FANTOM5 enhancers. Hybridization of mouse samples to Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChips showed successful measurement of mEPIC probes and reproducibility between inter-array biological replicates. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of mEPIC probes for data exploration such as hierarchical clustering. Given the absence of cost and labor convenient genome-wide technologies in the murine system, our findings show that the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip platform is suitable for investigation of the mouse methylome. Furthermore, we provide the "mEPICmanifest" with genomic features, available to users of Infinium Human MethylationEPIC arrays for mouse samples.

  8. Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Reduction of Methyl Iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1999-01-01

    a Grignard reagent to methyl iodide, and for reduction of methyl iodide with tributyltin hydride or with gaseous hydrogen iodide. Very small KIE's were found for electron transfer to methyl iodide from magnesium in ether or from sodium in ammonia. The reason may be that these reactions are transport...

  9. Clinical Utility of promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Aim is to examine the potential usefulness of blood based methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) of methylated DKK3 and RASSF1A genes in early detection of breast cancer. Method: Methylation status of DKK3 and RASSF1 was investigated in forty breast cancer patients, twenty fibroadenoma patients ...

  10. Synthesis of 14C-labelled α-methyl tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venkatachalam, T.K.; Conway, T.; Diksic, M.

    1992-01-01

    A new route for the preparation of radioactively labelled α-methyl L-tyrosine is described. The labelling at the α position has been successfully achieved with 14 C-, 11 C- (very preliminary, unpublished), and 3 H-labelled methyl iodide. A detailed report on 14 C-labelling at the α position and the hydrolysis of 4-methoxy α-methyl phenylalanine is presented. The alkylation proceeds via the methylation of the carbanion of N-benzylidene 4-methoxy phenylalanine methyl ester 2. Hydrolysis of 4-O methyl tyrosine to tyrosine by HBr and HI were analysed and used in the optimization of the hydrolysis conditions of 4. Enantiomeric purity of the isolated L-isomer has been found to be 99% as judged by HPLC. Pseudo first-order rate constant for the hydrolysis of 14 C-labelled α-methyl 4-methoxy phenyl alanine methyl ester was determined. Preliminary findings of the 3 H- and 11 C-radiolabelled α-methyl tyrosine (methyl labelled) are also mentioned. For the first time it was shown that α-methyl D,L-tyrosine can be separated into enantiomerically pure α-methyl D- and L-tyrosine using a CHIRALPAK WH column. (author)

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB, the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  13. Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loester, H.; Seim, H.

    1996-01-01

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to γ-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring γ-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, γ-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or γ-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl- 14 C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl- 14 C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl- 14 C]glycine betaine and [methyl- 14 C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  14. Genome-wide methylation analysis identified sexually dimorphic methylated regions in hybrid tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Lin, Grace; Wang, Le; Lin, Valerie C. L.; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is an interesting biological phenomenon. Previous studies showed that DNA methylation might play a role in sexual dimorphism. However, the overall picture of the genome-wide methylation landscape in sexually dimorphic species remains unclear. We analyzed the DNA methylation landscape and transcriptome in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) using whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We found 4,757 sexually dimorphic differentially methylated regions (DMRs), with significant clusters of DMRs located on chromosomal regions associated with sex determination. CpG methylation in promoter regions was negatively correlated with the gene expression level. MAPK/ERK pathway was upregulated in male tilapia. We also inferred active cis-regulatory regions (ACRs) in skeletal muscle tissues from WGBS datasets, revealing sexually dimorphic cis-regulatory regions. These results suggest that DNA methylation contribute to sex-specific phenotypes and serve as resources for further investigation to analyze the functions of these regions and their contributions towards sexual dimorphisms. PMID:27782217

  15. The Effect of Methylation and Anti-Oxidant on Discoloration of Weathered Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivand Darabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs become more widespread, the resistance of these products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more important. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor ultraviolet light, rain, snow and atmosphere pollution, they will be degraded which can be indicated by color fade. To investigate the effects of methylation and Anti-Oxidant separately and together on discoloration of weathered wood plastic composites, composites of poplar wood flour and high density polyethylene.Were made according to the ASTMD 2565, samples were placed in Atlas Xenon apparatus for 250 and 2000 hours. Discoloration and FT-IR spectra of the samples were measured and compared. The results have shown that methylation in short term and long term can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples and also in short term can hinder the photodegradation. FT-IR spectra showed that, in long term, neither of the treatments could protect lignin from irradiation within wood flour. But methylation limited the depth of penetration of weathering. The Antioxidant did not have an influence on color change in a long period of time, but was able to relatively decrease it in short term.

  16. Groundwater remediation project at Stockem railway station following a pollution with MIAK (Methyl Isoamyl Ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daelemans, A.; Boden, A.; Schuyteneer, L.W. de; Achter, L.H. van [Soil Service of Belgium, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    On the 20{sup th} of January 2000, a derailment accident happened near the railway station of Stockem in the vicinity of the city of Arlon. An estimated 20.000 litres of MIAK (methyl isoamyl ketone or 5-methyl-2-hexanone) was spilled and lost into the soil. Immediately after the accident, the Soil Service of Belgium received a request from the Belgian National Railway Company to establish an emergency plan for the remediation of the spill, including the design and the follow-up of the clean up operations. The calamity happened to the West of the railway station at a height of 360 m above sea level and in the vicinity of the Semois river (200 m to the South). From a geological point of view, the Formation of Florenville is outcropping at the site. This formation is characterized by an alternation of sandy sediments and sandstone layers. Locally the rock layer are porous allowing vertical migration of the water. The formation is an important but vulnerable aquifer. Further to the South, water is extracted from the aquifer in large quantities for both public distribution and bottling purposes. The spilled product, 5-methyl-2-hexanone (MIAK), has a typical fruity odour and its density is slightly lower than water. The product is relative mobile and fairly easy degraded biologically in low concentrations. (orig.)

  17. Biofiltration of odours - industrial pilot to treat methyl ethyl ketone and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, L.; Elsie, K.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone and toluene in the off-gases of a plant producing polyvinyl chloride sheeting for the automotive industry and swimming pools caused frequent odour complaints from the neighbourhood. A pilot project was developed to investigate the removal of the compounds under actual operating conditions by passing part of the exhaust through a compost-based, three-stage biofilter. It was determined over the 156 days of operation that the removal efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene averaged 73% and 49%, respectively. It was also shown that shutdowns and disruptions of the laminating process for short and extended periods did not affect the biofilter performance. Addition of 100g/L solution of KNO 3 as a nitrogen source did not improve the performance. Carbon dioxide concentration data and the presence of an average microbial population of 52 million colony forming units per gram provided evidence that biological degradation played a significant role in the reduction of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene in the off-gases of the laminator. (author)

  18. [Specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybenzene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution in the organism of warm-blooded animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, B K; Grishenko, V K; Astashkina, A P; Elizarova, M K

    2013-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybezene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution after intragastric administration of these toxicants to warm-blooded animals (rats). They were detected in the unmetabolized form in the internal organs and blood of the animals. The levels of 2-methyl hydroxybezene were especially high in the stomach and blood whereas the maximum content of 3-methyl hydroxybenzene was found in brain, blood, small intestines of the poisoned rats.

  19. Degradation of materials and passivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1997-01-01

    Demanding for a reduction in materials degradation is a serious problem all over the world. Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) is, among others, a very valuable tool to follow many degradation processes. Evidently, Fe is the most important Moessbauer element considering the overall presence of iron in everyday life. MS may contribute to our knowledge about nearly all fields of materials degradation, chemical, mechanical, thermal, irradiative, etc. Following some general lines, corrosion is considered in particular. MS is applicable to investigate the bulk of materials as well as their surface layers with an information depth of ca. 250 nm. In general, it has to be applied as a surface sensitive method in combination with other relevant methods in order to get a detailed insight into ongoing processes. Some examples have been selected to elucidate the application of MS in this field. Another class of examples concerns attempts to prevent corrosion, i.e., the application of coatings and transforming chemicals. A very effective and most natural way to reduce corrosion is the passivation of materials. The effect of passive layers and their destruction by environmental influences are discussed using results of MS and related methods. It is outlined that passivity is not restricted to chemically treated metals but can be considered as a general concept for preventing different kinds of materials from degradation. (orig.)

  20. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  1. Degradation of CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Large scale commercial introduction of CIGS photovoltaics (PV) requires modules with low costs, high efficiencies and long and predictable lifetimes. Unfortunately,knowledge about the lifetime of CIGS PV is limited, which is reflected in the results of field studies: degradation rates varying from

  2. The Degradation of a Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Galina Fedorouna

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the process of national degradation is a real danger and concern of all Russian society. Discusses environmental concerns, such as water, soil, and air pollution; falling birth rates; aging of the population; crime; and decline in moral values. Concludes that it is imperative for all citizens to stop and reverse these trends. (CFR)

  3. Polymeric Materials - introduction and degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    1999-01-01

    These notes support the polymer part of the courses 91742 and 91762 (Materials and Corrosion/degradation of materials) taught in IFAKthey contain a short introduction on group contribution methods for estimating properties of polymers, polymer thermodynamics, viscoelasticity models as well...

  4. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C f...... because they absorb light of environmentally irrelevant wavelengths....

  5. Evaluation of Methyl-Binding Domain Based Enrichment Approaches Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A Aberg

    Full Text Available Methyl-binding domain (MBD enrichment followed by deep sequencing (MBD-seq, is a robust and cost efficient approach for methylome-wide association studies (MWAS. MBD-seq has been demonstrated to be capable of identifying differentially methylated regions, detecting previously reported robust associations and producing findings that replicate with other technologies such as targeted pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA. There are several kits commercially available that can be used for MBD enrichment. Our previous work has involved MethylMiner (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA that we chose after careful investigation of its properties. However, in a recent evaluation of five commercially available MBD-enrichment kits the performance of the MethylMiner was deemed poor. Given our positive experience with MethylMiner, we were surprised by this report. In an attempt to reproduce these findings we here have performed a direct comparison of MethylMiner with MethylCap (Diagenode Inc, Denville, NJ, USA, the best performing kit in that study. We find that both MethylMiner and MethylCap are two well performing MBD-enrichment kits. However, MethylMiner shows somewhat better enrichment efficiency and lower levels of background "noise". In addition, for the purpose of MWAS where we want to investigate the majority of CpGs, we find MethylMiner to be superior as it allows tailoring the enrichment to the regions where most CpGs are located. Using targeted bisulfite sequencing we confirmed that sites where methylation was detected by either MethylMiner or by MethylCap indeed were methylated.

  6. MethylMeter(®): bisulfite-free quantitative and sensitive DNA methylation profiling and mutation detection in FFPE samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; Pulverer, Walter; Weinhaeusel, Andreas; Diago, Oscar R; Hogan, Daniel J; Ostertag, Derek; Hanna, Michelle M

    2016-06-01

    Development of a sensitive method for DNA methylation profiling and associated mutation detection in clinical samples. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumors received by clinical laboratories often contain insufficient DNA for analysis with bisulfite or methylation sensitive restriction enzymes-based methods. To increase sensitivity, methyl-CpG DNA capture and Coupled Abscription PCR Signaling detection were combined in a new assay, MethylMeter(®). Gliomas were analyzed for MGMT methylation, glioma CpG island methylator phenotype and IDH1 R132H. MethylMeter had 100% assay success rate measuring all five biomarkers in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. MGMT methylation results were supported by survival and mRNA expression data. MethylMeter is a sensitive and quantitative method for multitarget DNA methylation profiling and associated mutation detection. The MethylMeter-based GliomaSTRAT assay measures methylation of four targets and one mutation to simultaneously grade gliomas and predict their response to temozolomide. This information is clinically valuable in management of gliomas.

  7. Morphological influence of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures (nanozigzag, nanohelics and nanorod) on photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sadaf Bashir; Hou, Mengjing; Shuang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhengjun, E-mail: zjzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Glancing angle deposition technique is used to fabricate various columnar nanostructures in a single step to tune physiochemical properties. • Enhanced surface area induces porosity, with dispersion of active sites at different length scales of pores. • The increase interface between nanostructures and organic dye is promising factor to enhance photocatalytic degradation. • Morphologies having high surface to volume ratio increases the number of catalytic reaction sites to facilitate organic molecules adsorption favorable for reaction kinetics. - Abstract: Hierarchical nanostructures have drawn significant attention and incredible performance in photodriven chemical conversion area due to its unique physicochemical properties. Herein, we study the morphological influence of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures on photocatalytic degradation of different organic dyes methyl blue, methyl violet and methyl orange present in industrial wastewater. Nanorod, nanohelics and nanozigzag TiO{sub 2} nanofilms were fabricated by using galancing angle deposition technique (GLAD). TiO{sub 2} nanofilms were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and raman analysis. BET surface area analysis were carried out by using nitrogen adsorption desorption curves. The results show that TiO{sub 2} morphology had great influence on photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes due to difference in specific surface area and pore volume of nanostructures. The photocatalytic degradation experiments were carried out for three hours under UV–vis light irradiation. Catalysis recycling and organic dyes concentration influence were also studied. In case of high concentration of organic dyes, negligible degradation rate is observed. TiO{sub 2} nanozigzag films show better degradation performance than nanohelics and nanorod due to presence of large surface area for reaction, higher porosity with dispersion of active sites at different length

  8. The role of microbial community composition and groundwater chemistry in determining isoproturon degradation potential in UK aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Llewellyn, Neville; Smith, Jennifer; van der Gast, Christopher; Lilley, Andrew; Singer, Andrew; Thompson, Ian

    2004-07-01

    The community response of indigenous sandstone, chalk and limestone groundwater microorganisms to the addition of the commonly used herbicide isoproturon was examined. The addition of 100 microg l(-1) isoproturon generally caused an increase in species diversity determined by chemotaxonomic analysis (fatty methyl ester analysis) of isolates resulting from incubation of cultures at 18 degrees C for 4 days. Amongst the groundwater samples to which isoproturon was added, isoproturon degradation rates were correlated with increasing dominance of a few species. However, the changes in community profile associated with isoproturon degradation varied from site to site. Repeated sub-culturing with 100 microg l(-1) isoproturon and sterile groundwater was carried out to examine whether this level of pesticide could exert a selection pressure, and hence stimulate more rapid degradation. Significantly increased degradation was observed in a groundwater sample from the chalk, but not in sandstone, or limestone samples. The addition of filter-sterilised sandstone groundwater to bacteria on filter paper from slow degrading limestone sites significantly improved their degrading performance. The addition of filter-sterilised limestone groundwater to the sandstone bacteria reduced their degradation rate only slightly. The data suggested that the nature of the indigenous community does influence pesticide degradation in groundwater, but that the groundwater chemistry may also play a role.

  9. Dietary and supplemental maternal methyl-group donor intake and cord blood DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; A S Langie, Sabine; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-02

    Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the development and health of the fetus. We evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet (methionine, betaine, choline, folate) and supplementation (folic acid) before and during pregnancy in relation to global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and gene specific (IGF2 DMR, DNMT1, LEP, RXRA) cord blood methylation. A total of 115 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study. The intake of methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. LC-MS/MS and pyrosequencing were used to measure global and gene specific methylation, respectively. Dietary intake of methyl-groups before and during pregnancy was associated with changes in LEP, DNMT1, and RXRA cord blood methylation. Statistically significant higher cord blood LEP methylation was observed when mothers started folic acid supplementation more than 6 months before conception compared with 3-6 months before conception (34.6 ± 6.3% vs. 30.1 ± 3.6%, P = 0.011, LEP CpG1) or no folic acid used before conception (16.2 ± 4.4% vs. 13.9 ± 3%, P = 0.036 for LEP CpG3 and 24.5 ± 3.5% vs. 22.2 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045 for LEP mean CpG). Taking folic acid supplements during the entire pregnancy resulted in statistically significantly higher cord blood RXRA methylation as compared with stopping supplementation in the second trimester (12.3 ± 1.9% vs. 11.1 ± 2%, P = 0.008 for RXRA mean CpG). To conclude, long-term folic acid use before and during pregnancy was associated with higher LEP and RXRA cord blood methylation, respectively. To date, pregnant women are advised to take a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/day from 4 weeks before until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Our results suggest significant epigenetic modifications when taking a folic acid supplement beyond the current advice.

  10. The global DNA methylation surrogate LINE-1 methylation is correlated with MGMT promoter methylation and is a better prognostic factor for glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiharu Ohka

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequently occurring primary brain tumor in the central nervous system of adults. Glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs, WHO grade 4 have a dismal prognosis despite the use of the alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ, and even low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade 2 eventually transform to malignant secondary GBMs. Although GBM patients benefit from promoter hypermethylation of the O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT that is the main determinant of resistance to TMZ, recent studies suggested that MGMT promoter methylation is of prognostic as well as predictive significance for the efficacy of TMZ. Glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP in the global genome was shown to be a significant predictor of improved survival in patients with GBM. Collectively, we hypothesized that MGMT promoter methylation might reflect global DNA methylation. Additionally in LGGs, the significance of MGMT promoter methylation is still undetermined. In the current study, we aimed to determine the correlation between clinical, genetic, and epigenetic profiles including LINE-1 and different cancer-related genes and the clinical outcome in newly diagnosed 57 LGG and 54 GBM patients. Here, we demonstrated that (1 IDH1/2 mutation is closely correlated with MGMT promoter methylation and 1p/19q codeletion in LGGs, (2 LINE-1 methylation levels in primary and secondary GBMs are lower than those in LGGs and normal brain tissues, (3 LINE-1 methylation is proportional to MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas, and (4 higher LINE-1 methylation is a favorable prognostic factor in primary GBMs, even compared to MGMT promoter methylation. As a global DNA methylation marker, LINE-1 may be a promising marker in gliomas.

  11. Tailoring oxides of copper-Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles and evaluation of organic dyes degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, Ragini; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple one-pot colloidal synthesis strategy tailoring cuprous or cupric nano-oxides in pure state. NaOH provided alkaline conditions (pH 12.5 -13) for nano-oxides formation, while its concentration regulated the oxidation state of the nano-oxides. The morphological, structural and optical properties of synthesized Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Dye degradation capability of CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles was evaluated using four organic dyes - Malachite green, Methylene blue, Methyl orange and Methyl red. The results demonstrate effective degradation of all four dyes employing with almost comparable activity both Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles.

  12. DNA methylation in sugarcane somaclonal variants assessed through methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, J H M B; Kemper, E L; Costa, J B; Manechini, J R V; Pinto, L R

    2017-05-04

    Micropropagation is an important tool for large-scale multiplication of plant superior genotypes. However, somaclonal variation is one of the drawbacks of this process. Changes in DNA methylation have been widely reported as one of the main causes of somaclonal variations in plants. In order to investigate the occurrence of changes in the methylation pattern of sugarcane somaclonal variants, the MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism) technique was applied to micro-propagated plantlets sampled at the third subculture phase. The mother plant, in vitro normal plantlets, and in vitro abnormal plantlets (somaclonal variants) of four sugarcane clones were screened against 16 MSAP selective primers for EcoRI/MspI and EcoRI/HpaII restriction enzymes. A total of 1005 and 1200 MSAP-derived markers with polymorphism percentages of 28.36 and 40.67 were obtained for EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI restriction enzyme combinations, respectively. The genetic similarity between the mother plant and the somaclonal variants ranged from 0.877 to 0.911 (EcoRI/MspI) and from 0.928 to 0.955 (EcoRI/HpaII). Most of the MASPs among mother plant and micro-propagated plantlets were derived from EcoRI/MspI restriction enzymes suggesting alteration due to gain or loss of internal cytosine methylation. A higher rate of loss of methylation (hypomethylation) than gain of methylation (hypermethylation) was observed in the abnormal in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Although changes in the methylation pattern were also observed in the in vitro normal plantlets, they were lower than those observed for the in vitro abnormal plantlets. The MASP technique proved to be a promising tool to early assessment of genetic fidelity of micro-propagated sugarcane plants.

  13. A genome-wide methylation study on obesity: differential variability and differential methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Barnes, Vernon A; De Miguel, Carmen; Pollock, Jennifer; Ownby, Dennis; Shi, Hidong; Zhu, Haidong; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling

    2013-05-01

    Besides differential methylation, DNA methylation variation has recently been proposed and demonstrated to be a potential contributing factor to cancer risk. Here we aim to examine whether differential variability in methylation is also an important feature of obesity, a typical non-malignant common complex disease. We analyzed genome-wide methylation profiles of over 470,000 CpGs in peripheral blood samples from 48 obese and 48 lean African-American youth aged 14-20 y old. A substantial number of differentially variable CpG sites (DVCs), using statistics based on variances, as well as a substantial number of differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs), using statistics based on means, were identified. Similar to the findings in cancers, DVCs generally exhibited an outlier structure and were more variable in cases than in controls. By randomly splitting the current sample into a discovery and validation set, we observed that both the DVCs and DMCs identified from the first set could independently predict obesity status in the second set. Furthermore, both the genes harboring DMCs and the genes harboring DVCs showed significant enrichment of genes identified by genome-wide association studies on obesity and related diseases, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancers, supporting their roles in the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity. We generalized the recent finding on methylation variability in cancer research to obesity and demonstrated that differential variability is also an important feature of obesity-related methylation changes. Future studies on the epigenetics of obesity will benefit from both statistics based on means and statistics based on variances.

  14. Methylation profiling identified novel differentially methylated markers including OPCML and FLRT2 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Davison, Jerry; Qu, Xiaoyu; Morrissey, Colm; Storer, Barry; Brown, Lisha; Vessella, Robert; Nelson, Peter; Fang, Min

    2016-04-02

    To develop new methods to distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancers (PCa), we utilized comprehensive high-throughput array-based relative methylation (CHARM) assay to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) throughout the genome, including both CpG island (CGI) and non-CGI regions in PCa patients based on Gleason grade. Initially, 26 samples, including 8 each of low [Gleason score (GS) 6] and high (GS ≥7) grade PCa samples and 10 matched normal prostate tissues, were analyzed as a discovery cohort. We identified 3,567 DMRs between normal and cancer tissues, and 913 DMRs distinguishing low from high-grade cancers. Most of these DMRs were located at CGI shores. The top 5 candidate DMRs from the low vs. high Gleason comparison, including OPCML, ELAVL2, EXT1, IRX5, and FLRT2, were validated by pyrosequencing using the discovery cohort. OPCML and FLRT2 were further validated in an independent cohort consisting of 20 low-Gleason and 33 high-Gleason tissues. We then compared patients with biochemical recurrence (n=70) vs. those without (n=86) in a third cohort, and they showed no difference in methylation at these DMR loci. When GS 3+4 cases and GS 4+3 cases were compared, OPCML-DMR methylation showed a trend of lower methylation in the recurrence group (n=30) than in the no-recurrence (n=52) group. We conclude that whole-genome methylation profiling with CHARM revealed distinct patterns of differential DNA methylation between normal prostate and PCa tissues, as well as between different risk groups of PCa as defined by Gleason scores. A panel of selected DMRs may serve as novel surrogate biomarkers for Gleason score in PCa.

  15. Regulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animals

    KAUST Repository

    He, Xinjian

    2011-02-15

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes. In plants, DNA methylation can be established through the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, an RNA interference pathway for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which requires 24-nt small interfering RNAs. In mammals, de novo DNA methylation occurs primarily at two developmental stages: during early embryogenesis and during gametogenesis. While it is not clear whether establishment of DNA methylation patterns in mammals involves RNA interference in general, de novo DNA methylation and suppression of transposons in germ cells require 24-32-nt piwi-interacting small RNAs. DNA methylation status is dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation reactions. In plants, active DNA demethylation relies on the repressor of silencing 1 family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases, which remove the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site, initiating a base excision repair (BER) pathway. In animals, multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed, including a deaminase- and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathway. New information concerning the effects of various histone modifications on the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation has broadened our understanding of the regulation of DNA methylation. The function of DNA methylation in plants and animals is also discussed in this review. © 2011 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.

  16. DNA Methylation of MMP9 Is Associated with High Levels of MMP-9 Messenger RNA in Periapical Inflammatory Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Kelma; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Silva, Renato Menezes; Letra, Ariadne; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the major class of enzymes responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix components and participate in the pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. MMP expression may be regulated by DNA methylation. The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts and to test the hypothesis that, in these lesions, their transcription may be modulated by DNA methylation. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the DNA methylation pattern of the MMP2 gene in 13 fresh periapical granuloma samples and 10 fresh radicular cyst samples. Restriction enzyme digestion was used to assess methylation of the MMP9 gene in 12 fresh periapical granuloma samples and 10 fresh radicular cyst samples. MMP2 and MMP9 messenger RNA transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All periapical lesions and healthy mucosa samples showed partial methylation of the MMP2 gene; however, periapical granulomas showed higher MMP2 mRNA expression levels than healthy mucosa (P = .014). A higher unmethylated profile of the MMP9 gene was found in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts compared with healthy mucosa. In addition, higher MMP9 mRNA expression was observed in the periapical lesions compared with healthy tissues. The present study suggests that the unmethylated status of the MMP9 gene in periapical lesions may explain the observed up-regulation of messenger RNA transcription in these lesions. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Degradation of dyestuff materials by fenton oxidation, Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrour, Kh.; Hachem, Ch.; Karabet, F.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of various kinds of dyes (Azo carmine B, Tartrazine, Calcon, Methyle Orange, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue G 250, Methylene Blue, Bismark Brown Y(G) and Black 5) have been studied using Fenton's reagent (Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 ). Many experiments were carried out on Azo carmine B as a model with initial concentration of 10 -4 to investigate the process's optimal conditions, pH, H 2 O 2 dosage, Fe 2+ dosage , temperature. The optimal conditions found were: pH=3, [H 2 O 2 ]=3 x 10 -3 M, [Fe 2+ ]=10 -4 M, t=60 Centigrade. under these contritions it was observed that Azo carmine B can be degraded at high extent (96.46%) after 50 min, however, the mineralization reached only (31.2%) in term of TOC and (41.1%) in term of COD. Results show that dyes are decomposed in two-stage reaction. In the first stage (Fe 2= /H 2 O 2 ) dyes decomposes rapidly within 0.5-5 min and the reaction obeys the pseudo-first-order. In the second stage (Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 ) the dye decomposition is somewhat less rapidly, and the reaction follows the first order rate kinetic with respect to the dye concentration. (author)

  18. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  19. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  20. Adsorption of methyl iodide on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidajat, K.; Aracil, J.; Kenney, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption of non-radioactive methyl iodide has been measured experimentally over a range of conditions of concentration, and temperature on an activated charcoal. This is of interest since methyl iodide is formed from iodine fission products in gas cooled nuclear reactors. A mathematical model has also been developed which describes the rate of adsorption, under isothermal and linear adsorption isotherm conditions in a recycle adsorber. This model takes into account the resistance to adsorption caused by the surface adsorption, as well as the external and internal mass transfer resistances. The solution to the model for the recycle adsorber was obtained using a semidiscretisation method to reduce the partial differential equations to a system of stiff ordinary differential equations, and the resulting differential equations solved by a standard numerical technique. (author)

  1. Degradation of corn stalk by the composite microbial system of MC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The composite microbial system of MC1 was used to degrade corn stalk in order to determine properties of the degraded products as well as bacterial composition of MC1. Results indicated that the pH of the fermentation broth was typical of lignocellulose degradatioin by MC1, decreasing in the early phase and increasing in later stages of the degradation. The microbial biomass peaked on the day 3 after degradation. The MC1 effeciently degraded the corn stalk by nearly 70% during which its cellulose content decreased by 71.2%, hemicellulose by 76.5% and lignin by 24.6%. The content of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the fermentation broth increased progressively during the first three days, and decreased thereafter, suggesting an accumulation of WSC in the early phase of the degradation process. Total levels of various volatile products peaked in the third day after degradation , and 7 types of volatile products were detected in the fermentation broth. These were ethanol, acetic acid, 1,2-ethanediol, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid and glycerine. Six major compounds were quantitatively analysed and the contents of each compound were ethanol (0.584 g/L), acetic acid (0.735 g/L), 1,2-ethanediol (0.772 g/L), propanoic acid (0.026 g/L), butanoic acid (0.018 g/L) and glycerine (4.203 g/L). Characterization of bacterial cells collected from the culture solution, based on 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE analysis of DNAs, showed that the composition of bacterial community in MC1 coincided basically with observations from previous studies. This indicated that the structure of MC1 is very stable during degradation of different lignocellulose materials.

  2. Methyl iodide tests on used adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the history of events leading to the current problems in radioiodine test conditions. These radioiodine tests are performed in the adsorbent media from both safety and non-safety related Nuclear Air Treatment Systems (NATS). The main problem addressed is that currently there are still numerous plant technical specifications for NATS which reference outdated test protocols for the surveillance testing of the radioactive methyl iodide performance of the adsorbents. Recommendations for correcting the test condition problems are presented. 7 refs

  3. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of methyl ricinoleate

    OpenAIRE

    Neeharika, T. S.V.R.; Lokesh, P.; Prasanna Rani, K. N.; Prathap Kumar, T.; Prasad, R. B.N.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinoleic acid is an unsaturated hydroxy fatty acid that naturally occurs in castor oil in proportions of up to 85–90%. Ricinoleic acid is a potential raw material and finds several applications in coatings, lubricant formulations and pharmaceutical areas. Enzymatic hydrolysis of castor oil is preferred over conventional hydrolysis for the preparation of ricinoleic acid to avoid estolide formation. A kinetics analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysis of Methyl Ricinoleate in the presence of Candi...

  4. Liberation of methyl acrylate from metallalactone complexes via M-O ring opening (M = Ni, Pd) with methylation agents

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. Y Tina; Ghani, Amylia Abdul; D'Elia, Valerio; Cokoja, Mirza; Herrmann, Wolfgang A.; Basset, Jean-Marie; Kü hn, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Ring opening of various nickela- and palladalactones induced by the cleavage of the M-O bond by methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (MeOTf) and methyl iodide (MeI) is examined. Experimental evidence supports the mechanism of ring opening by the alkylating agent followed by β-H elimination leading to methyl acrylate and a metal-hydride species. MeOTf shows by far higher efficiency in the lactone ring opening than any other methylating agent including the previously reported methyl iodide. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  5. Dynamic instability of genomic methylation patterns in pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Steen KT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic methylation patterns are established during gametogenesis, and perpetuated in somatic cells by faithful maintenance methylation. There have been previous indications that genomic methylation patterns may be less stable in embryonic stem (ES cells than in differentiated somatic cells, but it is not known whether different mechanisms of de novo and maintenance methylation operate in pluripotent stem cells compared with differentiating somatic cells. Results In this paper, we show that ablation of the DNA methyltransferase regulator DNMT3L (DNA methyltransferase 3-like in mouse ES cells renders them essentially incapable of de novo methylation of newly integrated retroviral DNA. We also show that ES cells lacking DNMT3L lose DNA methylation over time in culture, suggesting that DNA methylation in ES cells is the result of dynamic loss and gain of DNA methylation. We found that wild-type female ES cells lose DNA methylation at a much faster rate than do male ES cells; this defect could not be attributed to sex-specific differences in expression of DNMT3L or of any DNA methyltransferase. We also found that human ES and induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed marked but variable loss of methylation that could not be attributed to sex chromosome constitution or time in culture. Conclusions These data indicate that DNA methylation in pluripotent stem cells is much more dynamic and error-prone than is maintenance methylation in differentiated cells. DNA methylation requires DNMT3L in stem cells, but DNMT3L is not expressed in differentiating somatic cells. Error-prone maintenance methylation will introduce unpredictable phenotypic variation into clonal populations of pluripotent stem cells, and this variation is likely to be much more pronounced in cultured female cells. This epigenetic variability has obvious negative implications for the clinical applications of stem cells.

  6. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  7. DNA methylation signatures of educational attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jenny; Bonder, Marc Jan; Dekkers, Koen F.; Nivard, Michel G.; van Iterson, Maarten; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beekman, Marian; van der Spek, Ashley; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Franke, Lude; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.; BIOS consortium

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment is a key behavioural measure in studies of cognitive and physical health, and socioeconomic status. We measured DNA methylation at 410,746 CpGs (N = 4152) and identified 58 CpGs associated with educational attainment at loci characterized by pleiotropic functions shared with neuronal, immune and developmental processes. Associations overlapped with those for smoking behaviour, but remained after accounting for smoking at many CpGs: Effect sizes were on average 28% smaller and genome-wide significant at 11 CpGs after adjusting for smoking and were 62% smaller in never smokers. We examined sources and biological implications of education-related methylation differences, demonstrating correlations with maternal prenatal folate, smoking and air pollution signatures, and associations with gene expression in cis, dynamic methylation in foetal brain, and correlations between blood and brain. Our findings show that the methylome of lower-educated people resembles that of smokers beyond effects of their own smoking behaviour and shows traces of various other exposures.

  8. Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Blom, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s) underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects. PMID:24048206

  9. Fragrance material review on cyclohexyl methyl pentanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of cyclohexyl methyl pentanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Cyclohexyl methyl pentanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for cyclohexyl methyl pentanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients (submitted for publication).) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A New Alkali-Stable Phosphonium Cation Based on Fundamental Understanding of Degradation Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingzi; Kaspar, Robert B; Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Yan, Yushan

    2016-09-08

    Highly alkali-stable cationic groups are a critical component of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs). To search for such cations, we studied the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of a series of quaternary phosphonium (QP) cations. Benzyl tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium [BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO)] was determined to have higher alkaline stability than the benchmark cation, benzyl trimethylammonium (BTMA). A multi-step methoxy-triggered degradation mechanism for BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO) was proposed and verified. By replacing methoxy substituents with methyl groups, a superior QP cation, methyl tris(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)phosphonium [MTPP-(2,4,6-Me)] was developed. MTPP-(2,4,6-Me) is one of the most stable cations reported to date, with <20 % degradation after 5000 h at 80 °C in a 1 m KOD in CD3 OD/D2 O (5:1 v/v) solution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Advanced Oxidation Degradation of Diclofenac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, William J., E-mail: wcooper@uci.edu [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Song Weihua, E-mail: wsong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs), utilize free radical reactions to directly degrade chemical contaminants as an alternative to traditional water treatment. This study reports the absolute rate constants for reaction of diclofenac sodium and the model compound (2, 6-dichloraniline) with the two major AO/RP radicals; the hydroxyl radical (•OH) and hydrated electron (e{sup -}{sub aq}). The bimolecular reaction rate constants (M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) for diclofenac for •OH was (9.29 ± 0.11) x 10{sup 9}, and, for e- aq was (1.53 ± 0.03) x10{sup 9}. Preliminary degradation mechanisms are suggested based on product analysis using {sup 60}Co γ-irradiation and LC-MS for reaction by-product identification. The toxicity of products was evaluated using the Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria method. (author)

  12. Advanced Oxidation Degradation of Diclofenac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, William J.; Song Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs), utilize free radical reactions to directly degrade chemical contaminants as an alternative to traditional water treatment. This study reports the absolute rate constants for reaction of diclofenac sodium and the model compound (2, 6-dichloraniline) with the two major AO/RP radicals; the hydroxyl radical (•OH) and hydrated electron (e - aq ). The bimolecular reaction rate constants (M -1 s -1 ) for diclofenac for •OH was (9.29 ± 0.11) x 10 9 , and, for e- aq was (1.53 ± 0.03) x10 9 . Preliminary degradation mechanisms are suggested based on product analysis using 60 Co γ-irradiation and LC-MS for reaction by-product identification. The toxicity of products was evaluated using the Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria method. (author)

  13. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachiraporn Pewlong; Boonya Sudatis [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-09-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated in the dose range up to 2500 kGy using an electron beam accelerator to apply the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The tensile strength of irradiated fibroin fiber decreased with increasing dose and the presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced the degradation. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: calcium chloride solution (CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O = 1 : 2 : 8 in mole ratio), hydrochloric acid (0.5N) and distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water-soluble protein was extracted by distilled water. (author)

  16. [Analysis of genomic DNA methylation level in radish under cadmium stress by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Li-Wang; Gong, Yi-Qin; Huang, Dan-Qiong; Wang, Feng; He, Ling-Li

    2007-06-01

    The level of cytosine methylation induced by cadmium in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome was analysed using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The MSAP ratios in radish seedling exposed to cadmium chloride at the concentration of 50, 250 and 500 mg/L were 37%, 43% and 51%, respectively, and the control was 34%; the full methylation levels (C(m)CGG in double strands) were at 23%, 25% and 27%, respectively, while the control was 22%. The level of increase in MSAP and full methylation indicated that de novo methylation occurred in some 5'-CCGG sites under Cd stress. There was significant positive correlation between increase of total DNA methylation level and CdCl(2) concentration. Four types of MSAP patterns: de novo methylation, de-methylation, atypical pattern and no changes of methylation pattern were identified among CdCl(2) treatments and the control. DNA methylation alteration in plants treated with CdCl(2) was mainly through de novo methylation.

  17. Phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 for a novel application to degrade organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parin C; Kumar, V Ravi; Dastager, Syed G; Khire, Jayant M

    2017-12-01

    The production of phytase using Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 under submerged fermentation conditions was studied using protein rich chickpea flour as substrate. Employing a hybrid statistical media optimization strategy of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken experimental designs in shake-flasks gave an increased phytase activity from an initial 66 IU/mL in 216 h to 160 IU/mL in a reduced time of 132 h. Productivity, thus increased by 3.97 times from 7.3 to 29 IU/mL/day. Using the optimized media, the production was successfully scaled-up further and improved up to 164 IU/mL in 96 h by studies carried out employing 2 and 10-L fermenters. The enzyme supernatant was recovered using centrifugal separation of biomass and the stability of the produced phytase was tested for animal feed applications under gastric conditions. In vitro degradation studies of water soluble monocrotophos, methyl parathion and water insoluble chlorpyrifos, pesticides used extensively in agriculture was carried out. It was observed by HPLC analysis that phytase could degrade 72% of chlorpyrifos at pH 7.0, 35 °C. Comparable results were obtained with monocrotophos and methyl parathion. With chlorpyrifos at higher temperature 50 °C as much as 91% degradation could be obtained. The degradation of chlorpyrifos was further validated by spraying phytase on harvested green chilli (Capsicum annuum L) under normal conditions of pH 7.0, 35 °C and the degradation products obtained analyzed by LCMS. Thus, the present study brings out a potentially novel application of phytase for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides.

  18. Runoff and degradation of aerially applied dinotefuran in paddy fields and river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Sayako; Ito, Masataka; Nagasawa, Shunsuke; Morohashi, Masayuki; Ohno, Masaki; Todate, Yukitaka; Kose, Tomohiro; Kawata, Kuniaki

    2015-06-01

    Variation, run-off and degradation characteristics of the insecticide dinotefuran, (EZ)-(RS)-1-methyl-2-nitro-3-(tetrahydro-3-furyl-methyl)guanidine, in water and soil from two paddy fields after aerial application was investigated as well as in river water. Maximum concentrations of dinotefuran were 290 and 720 µg/L in the two paddy waters, 25 and 28 µg/kg dry in the two paddy soils, and 10 µg/L in the river water. Runoff ratios of dinotefuran from the paddy fields were calculated as 14%-41%. Mean half-lives of dinotefuran were 5.4 days in the paddy water and 12 days in the paddy soil. Results obtained in this study are important for the evaluation of the actual behavior of dinotefuran in paddy fields and rivers.

  19. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of isolated, synthetic and degraded lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz-Jimenez, C.; De Leeuw, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to study the chemical structure of sound and fungus degraded, industrial and synthetic lignins. Pyrolysis products reflected in some detail the structural units present in the lignin polymer. Thus, sound spruce lignin yielded trans-isoeugenol coniferaldehyde and trans-coniferyl alcohol as major pyrolysis products. Biodegraded lignin yielded oxidized units, including vanillin, acetoguaiacone, methyl vanillate, propioguaiacone, vanilloyl methyl ketone and vanillic acid as major products. Kraft lignin also showed evidence of oxidation, although not as much as the biodegraded lignin. Major products from this industrial lignin were guaiacol, methylguaiacol, vinylguaiacol and homovanillic acid. Results indicated that synthetic lignin duplicates fairly well the structure of natural lignin. However, coniferylaldehyde and trans-coniferyl alcohol were the dominant products only from the synthetic lignin, indicating the presence of large amounts of coniferyl alcohol and coniferylaldehyde end groups. 21 references.

  20. Thermal degradation of biocidal organic N-halamines and N-halamine polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylińska, Marta; Kaczmarek, Halina, E-mail: halina@chem.umk.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Novel biocidal N-halamines have been substituted to poly(p-methyl styrene). • Thermal stability of all obtained compounds has been studied by thermogravimetry. • Stabilization of selected polymer has been achieved using octyl tin mercaptide. • The mechanism of thermal degradation of N-halamine polymers has been proposed. - Abstract: Novel biocidal organic N-halamines (based on imidazoline dione rings) were used as a substituents for poly(p-methyl styrene). The biocidal polymers and substituents have been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal resistance of investigated compounds was compared to those of non-halogenated precursors. The introduction of chlorine atoms to polymers decreases their thermal resistance comparing to precursors but efficient stabilization is possible by using octyl tin mercaptide. The complex mechanism of thermal decomposition of polymers has been discussed.