WorldWideScience

Sample records for degraded water reuse

  1. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  2. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Reuse rate of treated wastewater in water reuse system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yao-bo; YANG Wen-bo; LI Gang; WU Lin-lin; WEI Yuan-song

    2005-01-01

    A water quality model for water reuse was made by mathematics induction. The relationship among the reuse rate of treated wastewater(R), pollutant concentration of reused water( Cs ), pollutant concentration of influent( C0 ), removal efficiency of pollutant in wastewater(E), and the standard of reuse water were discussed in this study. According to the experiment result of a toilet wastewater treatment and reuse with membrane bioreactors, R would be set at less than 40%, on which all the concerned parameters could meet with the reuse water standards. To raise R of reuse water in the toilet, an important way was to improve color removal of the wastewater.

  4. Multiple-pass water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Farthing, S.S.; Cheng, C.S.

    1982-02-01

    Low-pressure membranes have definite advantages for the treatment of metal-processing wastewaters and acid mine water. The membrane processes are evaluated in terms of obtaining maximum water recovery (greater than 90%), proper ultrafiltrate quality, multiple-pass water reuse, and concentrate recycle. Various multi-salt solutions containing heavy metals (including cyanide complexes), and acid mine waters have been extensively investigated with a bench-scale unit, and a computer simulation model has been used to scale-up from the laboratory data. Water reuse models are presented for multiple passes. 9 references, 12 figures, 3 tables. (JMT)

  5. Adsorption and bio-sorption of nickel ions and reuse for 2-chlorophenol catalytic ozonation oxidation degradation from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wei, E-mail: chmawv@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zong, Panpan; Cheng, Zihong [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Baodong; Sun, Qi [National Institute of Clean-and-low Carbon Energy, Beijing 102209 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Biomass and fly ash which were widespread for adsorption of heavy metal ions. • Preparation of catalyst by saturated adsorbents for 2-chlorophenol ozone degradation. • This work demonstrated that the O{sub 3}/catalyst process was an effective pathway. • The use of nickel ions, fly ash and sawdust to achieve the recycling utilization of resources. -- Abstract: This work explored the preparation of an effective and low-cost catalyst and investigated its catalytic capacity for 2-chlorophenol ozonation oxidation degradation in wastewater by using an ozone oxidation batch reactor. The catalyst was directly prepared by the reuse of fly ash and sawdust after saturated adsorption of nickel ions from wastewater, which was proposed as an efficient and economic approach. The obtained catalyst was characterized by TGA, BET, FTIR, XRD, and SEM, the results showed that fly ash as the basic framework has high specific surface area and the addition of sawdust as the porogen agent could improve the pore structure of the catalyst. The adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and sawdust from aqueous solution was also investigated in this study. The results obtained from the experiments indicated that adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and biomass sawdust could be well described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The catalytic performance of catalyst was studied in terms of the effect of time, liquid–solid ratio and pH on 2-chlorophenol ozonation degradation. It was found that the catalyst could effectively improve the ozonation reaction rate at pH = 7 with a 2:1 liquid–solid ratio. The kinetic study demonstrated that the reaction followed the first order model, and the rate constant increased 267% (0.03–0.1 min{sup −1}) of 2-chlorophenol ozonation degradation with 5 mmol/L concentration at pH = 7.0 compared with ozonation alone.

  6. Adsorption and bio-sorption of nickel ions and reuse for 2-chlorophenol catalytic ozonation oxidation degradation from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Zong, Panpan; Cheng, Zihong; Wang, Baodong; Sun, Qi

    2014-02-15

    This work explored the preparation of an effective and low-cost catalyst and investigated its catalytic capacity for 2-chlorophenol ozonation oxidation degradation in wastewater by using an ozone oxidation batch reactor. The catalyst was directly prepared by the reuse of fly ash and sawdust after saturated adsorption of nickel ions from wastewater, which was proposed as an efficient and economic approach. The obtained catalyst was characterized by TGA, BET, FTIR, XRD, and SEM, the results showed that fly ash as the basic framework has high specific surface area and the addition of sawdust as the porogen agent could improve the pore structure of the catalyst. The adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and sawdust from aqueous solution was also investigated in this study. The results obtained from the experiments indicated that adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and biomass sawdust could be well described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The catalytic performance of catalyst was studied in terms of the effect of time, liquid-solid ratio and pH on 2-chlorophenol ozonation degradation. It was found that the catalyst could effectively improve the ozonation reaction rate at pH=7 with a 2:1 liquid-solid ratio. The kinetic study demonstrated that the reaction followed the first order model, and the rate constant increased 267% (0.03-0.1 min(-1)) of 2-chlorophenol ozonation degradation with 5 mmol/L concentration at pH=7.0 compared with ozonation alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. REUSE OF WASTE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Nathália Leal; Hentz,Paulo; Silva, Josemar Marques; Barcellos, Afonso Lopes

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2236130812585Given that water is a limited natural resource essential to life, questions about the conservation and preservation of water resources has been the focus of studies by bodies which conservationists seek alternatives for better use of natural resources. The technologies use water solutions are sustainable and contribute to the rational use of water, providing the conservation of water resources for future generations. The continuous increase of the world ...

  8. Water Reuse in Industrial food Processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subject of responsible care for the environment, water reuse is increasingly regarded as a tool for ... In this paper some hints are given for implementing water reuse in the food processing industry, ... The problem of rational use of industrial.

  9. Water reuse: potential for expanding the nation's water supply through reuse of municipal wastewater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Assessment of Water Reuse as an Approach to Meeting Future Water Supply Needs; National Research Council

    "Expanding water reuse--the use of treated wastewater for beneficial purposes including irrigation, industrial uses, and drinking water augmentation--could significantly increase the nation's total...

  10. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  11. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  12. An overview of reclaimed water reuse in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Yi; Wentao Jiao; Xiaoning Chen; Weiping Chen

    2011-01-01

    China is facing severe water problems including scarcity and pollution which are now becoming key factors restricting developments.Creating an alternative water resource and reducing effluent discharges,water reuse has been recognized as an integral part of water and wastewater management scheme in China.The government has launched nationwide efforts to optimize the benefits of utilizing reclaimed water.This article reviewed the water reuse activities in China,including:(1) application history and current status; (2)potentials of reclaimed water reuse; (3) laws,policies and regulations governing reclaimed water reuse; (4) risks associated with reclaimed water reuse; (5) issues in reclaimed water reuse.Reclaimed water in Beijing and Tianjin were given as examples.Suggestions for improving the efficiencies of reusing urban wastewater were advanced.Being the largest user of reclaimed wastewater in the world,China's experience can benefit the development of water reuse in other regions.

  13. Reuse & Recirculation of Filter Backwash Water of Water Treatment Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh L. Jibhakate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water treatment plant, filtration is done by means of sand filtration process. Due to continuous filtration process, sand pores get clogged and decreases the efficiency. For mitigating such problem, reverse flow of water & air i.e. backwashing process is carried out. To carry out backwashing operation, 4% of treated water has been utilized and will result in muddy water known as backwash water. This backwash water is then discharged into a natural stream or storage tank near the plant for recirculation. The present study includes a trial for the reuse & recirculation of backwash water.

  14. Electrodialysis and water reuse novel approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Marco; Ferreira, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This book presents novel techniques to evaluate electrodialysis processes, to synthesize ionic membranes and to characterize their properties. It shows the potential use of membrane process to the treatment of effluents generated in many industrial sectors such as refineries, leather industries, mining and electroplating processes. The book is based on the results obtained by the author's research group during the past decade. It is useful for students, researchers and engineers interested in membrane technologies for water reuse.

  15. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow......  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  16. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  17. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  18. Water management and reuse opportunities in a thermal power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9 (29), pp. ... Key words: Boiler blow down, industrial water reuse, industrial water treatment, power plants, waste management. ... waste water from electric power plant on the earliness.

  19. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  20. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  1. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  2. Does the water reuse affect the fish growth, welfare quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish production in aquaculture is growing from year to year. However capacities of current aquaculture facilities are limited. So the need of intensification of old facilities and building new intensive facilities is obvious. The high intensity of fish culture generates some questions. Could water reuse affect fish growth, welfare, health or quality of final product? A lot of research was performed for this issue but just a few works compared water reuse systems (RAS versus flow thru systems (FTS. A problem with CO2 oversaturation was solved by shallow diffusers. Fin erosion seems to be a problem of high stocking density and system hygienic but it is not related directly to water reuse. A few papers were written about biochemical blood stress markers but it was mostly aimed to acute crowding or changes were found at extreme stocking densities over 124 kg.m3 for rainbow trout and 70 kg.m3 for sea bass. The fish are able to accustom to increased noise produced by RAS equipment very fast so it don’t affect fish negatively. There wasn’t found any prove of main water reuse to fish influence in the available literature. All results indicates that if the ecological parameters are kept in natural range for the fish reared in RAS, there is no negative effect of water reuse on fish.

  3. Setting up microbiological water reuse guidelines for the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Brissaud, F

    2004-01-01

    Water reuse is a widespread practice in most Mediterranean countries. Some countries have no wastewater treatment facilities and direct reuse of raw wastewater is occurring while others have a well-established national reuse policy. Water reuse microbiological standards, when existing, significantly differ from one country to another. Some countries have adopted regulations close to the California's Water Recycling Criteria whereas other countries have chosen criteria based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. California standards are technologically based requirements aimed at eliminating the presence of pathogens. The WHO guidelines relied on epidemiological evidences though few were available. Their revision on the basis of new epidemiological investigations and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) provided by Blumenthal et al., together with added QMRA data, helped proposing Mediterranean guidelines. Acceptable annual risks related to bathing and potable water drinking were taken as benchmarks. This proposal is designed to protect individuals against realistic maximum exposures and to provide minimum and affordable requirements which should constitute the basis of water reuse regulations in every country of the region. Inadequacies of the actual knowledge do not allow a definitive position regarding the guideline limits; other scientific and technical basis are still required.

  4. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  5. Design of a climate-dependent water reuse project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Brissaud, F; Maihol, J C; Valette, F; Lazarova, V

    2002-01-01

    Reclaimed water storage is imperative in water reuse management. Climate is a primary factor controlling reclaimed water storage design by its significant influence on irrigation water needs as well as on stored water quality. This study presents a modelling approach that has been applied to assist the design of a climate-dependent water reuse project on an Atlantic island. Models for predicting irrigation water needs and water quality in tertiary lagoons were coupled with a technical-economic model to design reclaimed water storage facilities. Three scenarios corresponding to different augmentation of current reclaimed water reuse were investigated. According to the modelling, the storage sizes to meet the water quantity required for irrigation increased with water deficit--the difference between evapotranspiration and precipitation. The size of tertiary lagoons to meet required water quality was found to be larger than the size to meet required water quantity. To meet both quantitative irrigation needs and <1,000 FC/100 ml irrigation and disposal regulation, extending the tertiary lagoon system would be more cost-effective than storage calculated to meet only quantitative irrigation needs supplemented with UV disinfection. The reliability of reclaimed water storage design was estimated with 40 years historic climatic records.

  6. Water management and reuse opportunities in a thermal power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... It was found that 131 m3/d of the wastewater were of high quality and could be recycled inside the ... were provided for better operation of the water treatment systems and for reuse of the industrial water.

  7. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  8. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  9. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  10. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  11. The status of water reuse in European textile sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajnhandl, Simona; Valh, Julija Volmajer

    2014-08-01

    The textile finishing industry is known as a very fragmented and heterogeneous industrial sector dominated mainly by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As with many other industrial sectors in Europe, it is obliged to act more sustainably in regard to increasingly limited natural resources such as water. This paper presents in-depth survey of wastewater reuse programmes over the last ten years covering the European textile finishing industry. Different wastewater treatment solutions developed are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the project AquaFit4Use (7th Framework Programme), where almost five years of project work has resulted in valuable know-how practices in water reuse for the most water consuming sectors in Europe i.e. paper, food, chemical and textile. Only the latter is discussed in this paper. The main negative impacts by the textile finishing sector on the environment are still related to intensive water consumption and wastewater discharge, characterised by greater amounts of organic chemicals and colouring agents, low biodegradability, and high salinity. End of pipe treatment of such complex effluents in order to produce reusable water is not feasible. Therefore, separation of waste effluents regarding their pollution level and their separate treatment was the basic approach used in the project. As a result waste effluents with a big reuse potential could be effectively treated by combination of conventional treatment technologies. Proposed water treatment scenarios enable more than 40% reduction in fresh water consumption. Since different guidelines of minimum water quality to be safely reuse in textile processes exist at this stage this issue is discussed as well.

  12. Role of water reuse for enhancing integrated water management in Europe and Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, V; Levine, B; Sack, J; Cirelli, G; Jeffrey, P; Muntau, H; Salgot, M; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    Recycling water is an important aspect of water resource and environment management policies, ensuring reliable alternative water resources, reducing environmental pollution and achieving a more sustainable form of development. This paper focuses on wastewater reuse as a strategy for integrated water management. Key economic, financial, regulatory, social and technical factors that help to make water reuse projects successful are reviewed. Selected examples from Northern and Western Europe and arid and semi-arid Mediterranean regions illustrate the contribution of wastewater reuse to integrated management of water resources.

  13. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  14. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  15. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  16. Indirect potable reuse: a sustainable water supply alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  17. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  18. Pilot-plant scale separation and reuse of TiO{sub 2}- photo-catalyst in degrading reactions; Photo reacteur solaire pilote pour separation et reutilisation du catalyseur TiO{sub 2} utilise pour des reactions de degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, P.; Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain); Las Nieves, F.J. de [University of Almeria, Dept. of Applied Physics, Almeria (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    TiO{sub 2}-catalyst suspensions work very efficiently in photo-catalysis for waste-water treatment. Nevertheless, once photo-catalysis is complete, separation of the catalyst from solution becomes the main problem. The catalyst has been recovered by introducing accelerated sedimentation of TiO{sub 2} particles. This paper reports on the reuse of two types of TiO{sub 2} catalysts for photo-catalysis of tetra-chloro-ethylene at pilot plant scale (50L). One is the well-known Degussa P25 and the other was obtained from ENEL Labs (Italy). Two procedures for reuse were tested: the reuse of slurry after degradation without separation of the catalyst and reuse of the catalyst after it has settled to the bottom. (authors)

  19. Life cycle energy analysis of reclaimed water reuse projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; C Chang, Andrew; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output life cycle analysis to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on sewage discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, we apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  20. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  1. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their acceptance of the three major water reuse types of river water supplement, park water supplement, and agriculture irrigation was not high. The beneficial use of reclaimed water was admired by water resource managers, industrial sectors, and researchers, and these stakeholders strongly supported the advancement of reclaimed water reuse. However, some of the stakeholders showed concerns about the potential risks from reclaimed wastewater reuse. Among them, risks from waste water treatment facilities were the biggest concern. Stakeholders’ perception of reclaimed water was influenced by their social-economic attributes. This study will enrich the current survey findings on public perception of reclaimed water reuse, particularly in developing countries.

  2. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  3. Establishment of water quality index (Na+, Ca2+) for purified water reused to zinc electrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-yuan; XIAO Hai-juan; WANG Yun-yan; PEI Fei; SHU Yu-de; ZHANG Jin-long

    2009-01-01

    The effects of Na+ and Ca2+ in the purified water on the conductivity of zinc electrolyte and the current efficiency of zinc electrolysis were studied by the alternating current bridge method and the simulated electrolysis experiments, and the water quality index of reused water was established. The results show that the conductivity of the solution and the current efficiency decrease as these two kinds of positive ions are added in the electrolyte. The effect of Ca2+ is much more remarkable than that of Na+. ρ(Na+)≤ 8 g/L and ρ(Ca2+)≤20 mg/L are the quality indexes in the zinc electrolysis process and the concentrations of Na+ and Ca2+ in the purified water reused to the process should be less than the limited values, i.e. the water quality index of the purified water should be controlled by its reused amount.

  4. Life cycle assessment of water reuse systems in an industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Le; Liu, Xin; Liu, Xuewei; Yuan, Zengwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-11-15

    The rapid development of industrial parks in China has resulted in large resource consumption and pollutant emissions, especially freshwater use and wastewater discharge. Water reuse has attracted much attention from governments because of its potential to conserve freshwater and reduce pollutant emissions. However, water reuse usually means adding advanced treatment which consumes chemicals, materials and energy. Is the water reuse beneficial for the environment from a life cycle perspective? To answer this question, we quantified the environmental impacts of reusing treated wastewater at industrial parks under different scenarios through a comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four scenarios are assessed: wastewater is treated and discharged, 20% and 99% of wastewater is treated and reused as industrial process water, and treated wastewater is used for horticulture. Inventory data were mainly obtained from a facility which manages the wastewater treatment and reuse system of an industrial park in Jiangsu Province. Environmental impacts were evaluated using the CML2001 method built into the GaBi version 4.3 database. The results show the water reuse is beneficial and the reuse rate significantly affects environmental performance of the system. It is also found that using the reclaimed water for higher value applications results in larger environmental credit. Decision makers in water management should consider both water quantity and quality and associated environmental impacts for different water reuse applications.

  5. Chihuahua: a water reuse case in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, M S; Navarro, C J; Pérez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Water supply for all kind of uses in Chihuahua is mainly groundwater. During the last decade this city has been damaged with a heavy hydrologic crisis because of a persistent drought. This came up with the overexploitation of groundwater aquifers; therefore a deficit between demand and offer was done. To minimize this problem the government authorities have started an integral plan of optimizing hydrologic resources which considers the treatment of wastewater and the use of reclaimed water. The secondary wastewater treatment facility of the city treats about 30,000 m3/d of a wastewater with high organic contents, and produces an effluent with low concentration of suspended solids, organic matter, fats, detergents, and metals. Reclaimed water is conveyed toward strategic sites for the irrigation of great green areas in sport clubs, educational institutions and industrial zones, besides of its utilization on some manufacturing processes, road service, and also over construction industry. The potential reuse of this water goes farther from those activities; the treatment of the secondary effluent until the required levels of the water-bearing recharge criteria are met for drinking water supply is considered as the next step to achieve through a suitable planning strategy for the best integral resource advantage.

  6. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material.

  7. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  8. Water Reuse Highlights: A Summary Volume of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO. Research Foundation.

    This document reports the efforts of the AWWA Research Foundation to gather, prepare, and distribute current technical information in the wastewater reclamation and reuse field. The information reported has been abstracted from other Foundation publications and only attempts here to highlight the field. Categories discussed include research,…

  9. Degradation of drinking water sludge for long-term waste management

    OpenAIRE

    WATANABE, Yasutaka / KOMINE, Hideo / YASUHARA, Kazuya / MURAKAMI, Satoshi / TOYODA, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Drinking water sludge is industrial waste which is discharged during water purification, and it is presentlyanticipated to reuse drinking water sludge as geotechnical material. However, degradation has not been investigated. Tokeep strength, stability, and safety on long -term waste management, it is important to apply degradation characteristicsto designing and maintenance. As an aspect of degradation on drinking water sludge, variation of consolidationproperties induced interaction with wat...

  10. A biological safety evaluation on reclaimed water reused as scenic water using a bioassay battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongbin Wei; Zhuowei Tan; Yuguo Du

    2011-01-01

    An assessment method based on three toxicity tests (algae growth inhibition,daphnia immobilization and larval fish toxicity) was used to screen the biological safety of reclaimed water which was reused as sole replenishment for scenic water system in a park (SOF Park) in northern China.A total of 24 water samples were collected from six sites of water system in the SOF Park in four different seasons.The results indicated that:(1) the reclaimed water directly discharged from a reclamation treatment plant near the SOF Park as influent of park had relatively low biological safety (all samples were ranked as C or D); (2) the biological safety of reclaimed water was improved greatly with the ecological reclamation treatment processes composing of artificial wetland system and followed oxidation pond system; (3) the biological safety of reclaimed water in the main lake of SOF Park kept at a health status during different seasons (all samples were ranked as A); (4) there was some certain correlation (R2 =0.5737) between the sum of toxicity scores and dissolved organic carbon for the studied water samples.It was concluded that the assessment method was reliable to screen the safety of reclaimed water reused as scenic water,and the reclaimed water with further ecological purification processes such as artificial wetland and oxidation pond system can be safely reused as scenic water in park.

  11. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed.

  12. Photo-catalytic reactors for in-building grey water reuse. Comparison with biological processes and market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, B.; Murray, C.; Diaper, C.; Parsons, S.A.; Jeffrey, P. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield Univ., Cranfield, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom); Bedel, C. [Dept. of Industrial Process, National Inst. of Applied Sciences (France); Centeno, C. [Dept. of the Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines)

    2003-07-01

    Photo catalytic reactors potentially have a market in the reuse of grey water as they do not suffer from problems associated with toxic shocks and can be compact. The process is dependant upon the ratio of TOC to TiO{sub 2} concentration such that a greater proportion of the feed is degraded when either are increased. Economic assessment of grey water recycling showed both scale of operation and regional location to be the two most important factors in deciding the financial acceptability of any reuse technology. Overall the assessment suggested that photo catalytic oxidation (PCO) technology was suitable for grey water recycling and that the technology should be marketed at large buildings such as residential accommodation and offices. (orig.)

  13. Reuse of drainage water model : calculation method of drainage water and watertable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.W.J.; Rijtema, P.E.; Abdel Khalik, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to assist the Ministry of Irrigation in Egypt in the planning of future watermanagement strategies incorporating reuse of drainage water practices. In order to achieve this main objective a comprehensive measurement programme has been initiated and a mathematical

  14. Implications of Transitioning from De Facto to Engineered Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-05-17

    Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions. We created a genetic algorithm to estimate costs and model optimal conditions. To assess power plant performance, we evaluated reliability metrics for thermal variances and generation capacity loss as a function of water temperature. Applying our analysis to the greater Chicago area, we observed high de facto reuse for some power plants and substantial costs for retrofitting to use reclaimed water. Conversely, the gains in reliability and performance through engineered reuse with cooling towers outweighed the energy investment in reclaimed water pumping. Our analysis yields quantitative results of reclaimed water feasibility and can inform sustainable management of water and energy.

  15. Evolving urban water and residuals management paradigms: water reclamation and reuse, decentralization, and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T

    2009-08-01

    Population growth and improving standards of living, coupled with dramatically increased urbanization, are placing increased pressures on available water resources, necessitating new approaches to urban water management. The tradition linear "take, make, waste" approach to managing water increasingly is proving to be unsustainable, as it is leading to water stress (insufficient water supplies), unsustainable resource (energy and chemicals) consumption, the dispersion of nutrients into the aquatic environment (especially phosphorus), and financially unstable utilities. Different approaches are needed to achieve economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Fortunately, a toolkit consisting of stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, water conservation, water reclamation and reuse, energy management, nutrient recovery, and source separation is available to allow more closed-loop urban water and resource management systems to be developed and implemented. Water conservation and water reclamation and reuse (multiple uses) are becoming commonplace in numerous water-short locations. Decentralization, enabled by new, high-performance treatment technologies and distributed stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, is furthering this transition. Likewise, traditional approaches to residuals management are evolving, as higher levels of energy recovery are desired, and nutrient recovery and reuse is to be enhanced. A variety of factors affect selection of the optimum approach for a particular urban area, including local hydrology, available water supplies, water demands, local energy and nutrient-management situations, existing infrastructure, and utility governance structure. A proper approach to economic analysis is critical to determine the most sustainable solutions. Stove piping (i.e., separate management of drinking, storm, and waste water) within the urban water and resource management profession must be eliminated. Adoption of these new approaches to urban

  16. Water reuse in river basins with multiple users: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, G. W. H. (Gijs); Bastiaanssen, W. G. M. (Wim); Immerzeel, W. W. (Walter)

    2015-03-01

    Unraveling the interaction between water users in a river basin is essential for sound water resources management, particularly in a context of increasing water scarcity and the need to save water. While most attention from managers and decision makers goes to allocation and withdrawals of surface water resources, reuse of non-consumed water gets only marginal attention despite the potentially significant volumes. As a consequence, claims of water saving are often grossly exaggerated. It is the purpose of this paper to explore the processes associated with water reuse in a river basin among users of varying nature and review existing methods for directly or indirectly describing non-consumed water, recoverable flow and/or water reuse. First a conceptual representation of processes surrounding water withdrawals and associated definitions is discussed, followed by a section on connectivity between individual withdrawals and the complex dynamics arising from dependencies and tradeoffs within a river basin. The current state-of-the-art in categorizing basin hydrological flows is summarized and its applicability to a water system where reuse occurs is explored. The core of the paper focuses on a selection and demonstration of existing indicators developed for assessing water reuse and its impacts. It is concluded that although several methods for analyses of water reuse and recoverable flows have been developed, a number of essential aspects of water reuse are left out of existing indicators. Moreover, a proven methodology for obtaining crucial quantitative information on recoverable flows is currently lacking. Future studies should aim at spatiotemporal tracking of the recoverable portion of water withdrawals and showing the dependency of multiple water users on such flows to water policy makers.

  17. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia M. Chaudhry; Kerry A. Hamilton; Haas, Charles N.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% ...

  18. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  19. Energetic aspects and opportunities for reusing water on offshore platforms in Campos Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Magalhães Duarte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the drilling and production of oil at sea, a large quantity of potable water used is most commonly transported to oil platforms using offshore supply vessels (OSVs. Sea water desalination is used as well, but only in a few oil platforms. To minimize energy consumption, water supply options were studied. The desalination of seawater and the reusing of streams of grey water and black water were evaluated and compared with the characteristics of the current supply via OSVs. In both desalination and OSV water supply options an electrolytic wastewater treatment plant is used. The objective of this study was to analyze the current situation regarding water supply on offshore platforms located in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to propose measures to take advantage of opportunities to reuse water and reduce energy expenditure. Two alternative scenarios were developed that involved the reuse of water that comes from the effluent of a biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Information on the logistics of supplying water to platforms was obtained through direct consultation with companies and sources in the literature. The results show that annual energy consumption (uptake, treatment, transportation, use and waste water treatment of water on offshore platforms is currently 1.89 GWh, and that a reduction of 1.8 GWh of the energy consumed can be achieved using advanced reuse treatments. Energy consumption in the water reuse treatment is more competitive than those of transport by OSVs or seawater desalination.

  20. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-03-19

    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a

  1. Microbiology of broiler carcasses and chemistry of chiller water as affected by water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcutt, J K; Smith, D; Huezo, R I; Ingram, K D

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of treating and reusing poultry chiller water in a commercial poultry processing facility. Broiler carcasses and chiller water were obtained from a commercial processing facility which had recently installed a TOMCO Pathogen Management System to recycle water in sections 2 and 3 of two 3-compartment chillers. In this system, reused water is blended with fresh water to maintain the chiller volume. Carcasses were sampled prechill and postchill (final exit), and chiller water was sampled from the beginning and end of each of the 3 sections. Carcasses were subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 0.1% peptone. Numbers of Escherichia coli (EC), coliforms (CF), and Campylobacter (CPY) were determined from the WCR and chiller water samples. Prevalence of Salmonella (SAL) was also determined on the WCR and chiller water samples. On average, prechill levels of bacteria recovered from rinses were 2.6, 2.9, and 2.6 log10 cfu/mL for EC, CF, and CPY, respectively. Ten out of 40 (25%) prechill carcasses were positive for SAL. After chilling, numbers of EC, CF, and CPY recovered from carcass rinses decreased by 1.5, 1.5, and 2.0 log10 cfu/mL, respectively. However, 9 out of 40 (22%) postchill carcasses were positive for SAL. When the chiller water samples were tested, counts of EC, CF, and CPY were found only in water collected from the first section of the chiller (inlet and outlet). Two of 4 water samples collected from the inlet of the first section tested positive for SAL. This study shows that fresh and reused water can be used to cool poultry in chiller systems to achieve a reduction in numbers of bacteria (EC, CF, and CPY) or equivalent prevalence (SAL) of bacteria recovered from broiler carcasses.

  2. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-05-15

    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  3. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Ullinger

    Full Text Available The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  4. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullinger, Heather L; Kennedy, Marla J; Schneider, William H; Miller, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  5. Experimental mobile water reuse; Unidade movel experimental em reuso de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Maria de Fatima Rodrigues da; Santiago, Vania Maria Junqueira; Machado, Mara de Barros; Cerqueira, Ana Claudia Figueiras Pereira de; Florido, Priscilla Lopes; Iwane, Tsutomo; Coelho, Eloisia B.A.P.; Souza, Rodrigo Suhett de; Tomaz, Ailton Fonseca [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for environmental excellence in PETROBRAS and the need to minimize water use dictated by Law 9433/97 led to corporate guidelines to promote initiatives for the effective management of water resources, triggering a series of actions and projects. The Center for Research and Development - CENPES has as a priority research lines enable the reduction of water consumption in the oil industry through the reuse of effluent. The Mobile Unit for Experimental Water Reuse is a pioneer project in the world, in its format and purpose, was developed by CENPES in partnership with E and P - Process Engineering Ltda. and with e participation of the managements of Refine, SMES and Engineering. The main objective support initiatives aimed at reuse deployments Units of Operations (refineries and terminals, for example), by defining the best route technology for water treatment and wastewater. The Mobile Unit is composed of two trucks with pilot scale equipment that can test up to 90 technological solutions for water treatment and reuse. The station can test spot, the Company's refinery, processes to remove solids, organic load removal, and processes aimed at polishing and demineralization, simulating the operating conditions specific to the different characteristics of water and wastewater, with view to producing high quality water-compatible reuse in cooling towers or steam generation. From these tests CENPES may indicate the best alternative technically and economically for water reuse in design for industrial facilities, reducing time and cost of testing pilots. The field of knowledge in water reuse is an important asset to the sustainability of the Oil and Gas industry. Sustainable use of water resources is a goal of permanent PETROBRAS. (author)

  6. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  7. The assessment of water use and reuse through reported data: A US case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Maria J.; Jafvert, Chad T.; Nies, Loring F., E-mail: nies@purdue.edu

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for freshwater make it necessary to find innovative ways to extend the life of our water resources, and to manage them in a sustainable way. Indirect water reuse plays a role in meeting freshwater demands but there is limited documentation of it. There is a need to analyze its current status for water resources planning and conservation, and for understanding how it potentially impacts human health. However, the fact that data are archived in discrete uncoordinated databases by different state and federal entities, limits the capacity to complete holistic analysis of critical resources at large watershed scales. Humans alter the water cycle for food production, manufacturing, energy production, provision of potable water and recreation. Ecosystems services are affected at watershed scales but there are also global scale impacts from greenhouse gas emissions enabled by access to cooling, processing and irrigation water. To better document these issues and to demonstrate the utility of such an analysis, we studied the Wabash River Watershed located in the U.S. Midwest. Data for water extraction, use, discharge, and river flow were collected, curated and reorganized in order to characterize the water use and reuse within the basin. Indirect water reuse was estimated by comparing treated wastewater discharges with stream flows at selected points within the watershed. Results show that during the low flow months of July–October, wastewater discharges into the Wabash River basin contributed 82 to 121% of the stream flow, demonstrating that the level of water use and unplanned reuse is significant. These results suggest that intentional water reuse for consumptive purposes such as landscape or agricultural irrigation could have substantial ecological impacts by diminishing stream flow during vulnerable low flow periods. - Highlights: • Indirect water reuse is ubiquitous with limited quantitative documentation of it. • Water data are uncoordinated

  8. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2017-07-17

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water reuse in the Apatlaco River Basin (México): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller-Chávez, G; Seguí-Amórtegui, L; Alfranca-Burriel, O; Escalante-Estrada, V; Pozo-Román, F; Rivas-Hernández, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of implementing different reclamation and reuse projects that improve the quality of the Apatlaco river basin located in the central part of Mexico. A special methodology based on a decision support system was developed. This methodology allows to decide if it is convenient or not to finance a reclamation or reuse project for the most common water uses in the basin. This methodology is based on the net present value criteria (NPV) of the effective cash flow during the useful life of the project. The results obtained reveal a technical and economical feasibility for industrial reuse in Jiutepec and for agricultural reuse in Zacatepec and Emiliano Zapata. On the other hand, sanitation projects are not feasible in all cases analyzed. Therefore, Mexican Regulation (Ley Federal de Derechos en Materia de Agua) as currently implemented, does not promote and support this kind of projects.

  10. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A

    2016-05-01

    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons.

  11. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches fro On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-site non-potable water reuse is increasingly used to augment water supplies, but traditional fecal indicator approaches for defining and monitoring exposure risks are limited when applied to these decentralized options. This session emphasizes risk-based modeling to define pat...

  12. The assessment of water use and reuse through reported data: A US case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Maria J; Jafvert, Chad T; Nies, Loring F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for freshwater make it necessary to find innovative ways to extend the life of our water resources, and to manage them in a sustainable way. Indirect water reuse plays a role in meeting freshwater demands but there is limited documentation of it. There is a need to analyze its current status for water resources planning and conservation, and for understanding how it potentially impacts human health. However, the fact that data are archived in discrete uncoordinated databases by different state and federal entities, limits the capacity to complete holistic analysis of critical resources at large watershed scales. Humans alter the water cycle for food production, manufacturing, energy production, provision of potable water and recreation. Ecosystems services are affected at watershed scales but there are also global scale impacts from greenhouse gas emissions enabled by access to cooling, processing and irrigation water. To better document these issues and to demonstrate the utility of such an analysis, we studied the Wabash River Watershed located in the U.S. Midwest. Data for water extraction, use, discharge, and river flow were collected, curated and reorganized in order to characterize the water use and reuse within the basin. Indirect water reuse was estimated by comparing treated wastewater discharges with stream flows at selected points within the watershed. Results show that during the low flow months of July-October, wastewater discharges into the Wabash River basin contributed 82 to 121% of the stream flow, demonstrating that the level of water use and unplanned reuse is significant. These results suggest that intentional water reuse for consumptive purposes such as landscape or agricultural irrigation could have substantial ecological impacts by diminishing stream flow during vulnerable low flow periods.

  13. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Management experiences and trends for water reuse implementation in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Heather N; Simon, Gregory L; Frisby, Tammy M; Luthy, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, California fell nearly 300,000 acre-ft per year (AFY) short of its goal to recycle 1,000,000 AFY of municipal wastewater. Growth of recycled water in the 48 Northern California counties represented only 20% of the statewide increase in reuse between 2001 and 2009. To evaluate these trends and experiences, major drivers and challenges that influenced the implementation of recycled water programs in Northern California are presented based on a survey of 71 program managers conducted in 2010. Regulatory requirements limiting discharge, cited by 65% of respondents as a driver for program implementation, historically played an important role in motivating many water reuse programs in the region. More recently, pressures from limited water supplies and needs for system reliability are prevalent drivers. Almost half of respondents (49%) cited ecological protection or enhancement goals as drivers for implementation. However, water reuse for direct benefit of natural systems and wildlife habitat represents just 6-7% of total recycling in Northern California and few financial incentives exist for such projects. Economic challenges are the greatest barrier to successful project implementation. In particular, high costs of distribution systems (pipelines) are especially challenging, with $1 to 3 million/mile costs experienced. Negative perceptions of water reuse were cited by only 26% of respondents as major hindrances to implementation of surveyed programs.

  15. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  16. Water shortage and needs for wastewater re-use in the north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Jin, P K

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the present condition of the water shortage in north China where annual rainfall is low and per capita water resource is below the line of regular water stress, or even the line of absolute water scarcity. Of the available water resources, the percentge of water withdrawal in all the north basins is high--the Yellow River and Huai River basins being greater than 80% and the Hai River basin mainly depending on interbasin water transfer. Over-withdrawal of water also results in serious water environmental problems including "flow cut-off" of the Yellow River main channel and water pollution of many rivers. The paper also analyses the potential of wastewater as a resource and the demand for treated wastewater re-use. In north China, due to low rainfall and high potential evaporation environmental re-use, gardening, afforestation, etc. is considered as the main usage of the treated wastewater. Considering the economic restrictions in the less developed area, a decentralised system can be taken as an important option in formulating water re-use strategies.

  17. Removal of recalcitrant organic matter content in wastewater by means of AOPs aiming industrial water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Bianca M; Souza, Bruno S; Guimarães, Tarsila M; Ribeiro, Thiago F S; Cerqueira, Ana C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Márcia

    2016-11-01

    This paper comes out from the need to provide an improvement in the current oil refinery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) aiming to generate water for reuse. The wastewater was pretreated and collected in the WWTP after the biological treatment unit (bio-disks) followed by sand filtration. Ozonation (ozone concentration from 3.0-60 mgO3 L(-1)), UV (power lamp from 15 to 95 W), H2O2 (carbon:H2O2 molar ratio of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4), and two advanced oxidation processes (UV/O3 and UV/H2O2) were investigated aiming to reduce the wastewater organic matter and generate water with suitable characteristics for the reverse osmosis operation and subsequent industrial reuse. Even after the biological and filtration treatments, the oil refinery wastewater still presented an appreciable amount of recalcitrant organic matter (TOC of 12-19 mgC L(-1)) and silt density index (SDI) higher than 4, which is considered high for subsequent reverse osmosis due to membrane fouling risks. Experiments using non combined processes (O3, H2O2, and UV only) showed a low degree of mineralization after 60 min of reaction, although the pretreatment with ozone had promoted the oxidation of aromatic compounds originally found in the real matrix, which suggests the formation of recalcitrant compounds. When the combined processes were applied, a considerable increase in the TOC removal was observed (max of 95 % for UV/O3 process, 55 W, 60 mgO3 L(-1)), likely due the presence of higher amounts of reactive species, specially hydroxyl radicals, confirming the important role of these species on the photochemical degradation of the wastewater compounds. A zero-order kinetic model was fitted to the experimental data and the rate constant values (k, mgC L(-1) h(-1)) ranged from 4.8 treatment were calculated as 5.4 and 81 Wh L(-1), respectively, for UV/O3 (15 W, 60 mgO3 L(-1)) and UV/H2O2 (95 W, 1C:1H2O2). Good results in terms of water conditioning for reverse osmosis operation were

  18. Challenges to Stakeholder Participation in Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Potter, Rob; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Developing new water resources continues to be a challenge in water scarce regions and water reuse offers a sustainable means by which water availability can be maximised. In Jordan, treated domestic wastewater (reclaimed water) already provides a valuable contribution to the annual water budget. This resource is used for irrigation either directly around wastewater treatment plants, or indirectly after reclaimed water released from treatment plants has been transferred though natural waterways and blended with surface runoff. Direct reuse is employed for the irrigation of fodder crops such as barley or alfalfa, while indirect reuse is employed for the irrigation of high-value fruit and vegetable crops grown in the Jordan Valley, a major commercial agricultural area. In order to ensure water reuse is conducted successfully, it is essential that the benefits of reclaimed water (water availability, high nutrient content) are maximised while the potential risks (to human health, soil sustainability and agricultural yields) are minimised. Stakeholder participation in water reuse management decisions could raise the capacity of the water user (such as the farmer) to manage the risks without compromising the benefits of this resource. To investigate the extent to which stakeholders are participating in water reuse management, semi-structured interviews with farmers and institutional representatives were conducted in Jordan. A particular aim of the interviews was to explore the variation in participation between those stakeholders using reclaimed water directly and indirectly. The data collected during 56 interviews with Jordanian farmers showed that the farmers' perception and management of reclaimed water varied considerably between the indirect and direct users. The direct users had a greater level of satisfaction with the water (55 per cent of those asked described the water as "good water") and recognised that they were able to produce larger yields and raise their

  19. Technical-economic modelling of integrated water management: wastewater reuse in a French island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Valette, F; Brissaud, F; Fazio, A; Lazarova, V

    2001-01-01

    An integrated technical-economic model is used to address water management issues in the French island of Noirmoutier. The model simulates potable water production and supply, potable and non potable water demand and consumption, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal, water storage, transportation and reuse. A variety of water management scenarios is assessed through technical, economic and environmental evaluation. The scenarios include wastewater reclamation and reuse for agricultural and landscape irrigation as well as domestic non potable application, desalination of seawater and brackish groundwater for potable water supply. The study shows that, in Noirmoutier, wastewater reclamation and reuse for crop irrigation is the most cost-effective solution to the lack of water resources and the protection of sensitive environment. Some water management projects which are regarded as having less economic benefit in the short-term may become competitive in the future, as a result of tightened environmental policy, changed public attitudes and advanced water treatment technologies. The model provides an appropriate tool for water resources planning and management.

  20. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  1. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  2. Characterization of water treatment sludge and its reuse as coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ahad, Abdul; Alam, Mehtab

    2016-11-01

    Coagulation-flocculation process results in the generation of large volume of waste or residue, known as water treatment sludge (WTS), in the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Sustainable management of the inevitable waste requires careful attention from the plant operators and sludge managers. In this study, WTS produced with the optimum alum dose of 30 ml/L at the laboratory scale has been treated with sulphuric acid to bring forth a product known as sludge reagent product (SRP). The performance of SRP is evaluated for its efficiency in removing the colloidal suspensions from the Yamuna river water over wide pH range of 2-13. 1% sludge acidified with sulphuric acid of normality 2.5 at the rate of 0.05 ml/ml sludge has been observed as the optimum condition for preparing SRP from WTS. The percentage turbidity removal is greater at higher pH value and increases with increasing the dosage of SRP. The optimum SRP dosage of 8 ml/L in the pH range of 6-8 performed well in removing the colloidal suspension and other impurities from the Yamuna water. The quality of treated water met the prescribed standards for most of the quality parameters. Thus, SRP has the potential to substitute the conventional coagulants partially or completely in the water treatment process, depending on the quality needed at the users end. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding community receptivity to water re-use: Ku-ring-gai Council case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R R; Davies, P

    2007-01-01

    This social research project investigated community receptivity to using rainwater and greywater as alternative domestic water sources. It was focused in the Ku-ring-gai local government area in northern Sydney, and involved a household questionnaire followed by community leader interviews and resident focus groups. Trends, such as a prolonged drought and increasing population, compound the current crisis and concern facing Sydney's available water supply. Substitution of domestic potable water has been promoted as part of the solution. The research results revealed that community receptivity was highest for external uses, such as watering gardens and flushing toilets, and progressively decreased with increasing personal contact. Receptivity to greywater reuse fell more rapidly with the community believing there was a higher health risk associated with its use. Gender and cultural background were revealed as significant variables and give insight into the design of strategies to target these demographic groups. This evidence provides a reliable stocktake of current receptivity revealing that the community has good awareness and positive association with water reuse for many household activities. This now needs to be harnessed through programs targeted at developing skills, resources and motivation for new water reuse practices and technologies across diverse social groupings.

  4. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetan Blandin; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Joaquim Comas; Ignasi Rodriguez-Roda; Pierre Le-Clech

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be ...

  5. Municipal Wastewater: A Rediscovered Resource for Sustainable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both population growth and movement puts forth the need for increased regional water supplies across the globe. While significant progress has been made in the area of building new infrastructure to capture freshwater and divert it to urban and rural areas, there exists a consid...

  6. In-Plant Reuse of Pollution Abated Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    sulphur , wheat and xnany oik-en. A typicP1 r-plkmflem of ig. 254 Pd--ctor i shown in the applic llon &anr.\\ 7 Aitatinxg jeta kccip ths intf±ri frnm...streams De-watering tallow after washing operation De-gritting gas scrubber effluent ahead of centrifuge Benieficiation of china clay ( kaolin

  7. Industrial process water treatment and reuse: A framework for synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Pennati, Alessandra; Bogataj, Milos;

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical optimization has shown the potential to contribute to industrial water management, through the development of the solution methods needed for optimization-based design of wastewater treatment and reuse networks (also called water networks). Nevertheless, the application...... and solution of the design problems with fair complexity representative of industrial applications. The framework is demonstrated through the solution of a case study dealing with the treatment and reuse of water effluent produced by an oil refinery. The problem is solved, and a win−win solution is identified...... of this approach is still limited to motivating examples lacking the ability to handle problems with complexity of industrial relevance. To address this challenge, in this contribution, we focus on the integration of wastewater engineering concepts and models, together with optimization methods and solution...

  8. [Photochemical degradation of chlorpyrifos in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Li, Xuede; Cao, Haiqun; Yue, Yongde

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of different light sources, temperature, pH, and water quality on the photochemical degradation of clilorpyrifos in water were examined under natural and simulated solar irradiation. The results showed that the photochemical degradation of chlorpyrifos in water followed the first order reaction, and its half-life was 0.62, 6.92, 19.74 and 22.50 h under high pressure mercury lamp (HPML), xenon lamp (XL), ultraviolet lamp (UV), and sunlight (SL) irradiation, respectively. Temperature had a significant effect on the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos, which was increased with increasing temperature and reached the maximum at 35 degrees C. The degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was stable both in acid and in neutral buffer solution, but enhanced in alkaline buffer solution. Water quality also had a significant effect, with a decreasing degradation rate of chlorpyrifos in the sequence of distilled water > tap water > river water > lake wate > paddy water.

  9. Conservation and reuse of water in Brazilian petroleum refineries; Conservacao e reuso de agua em refinarias de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, Felipe Ramalho; Magrini, Alessandra; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: frpombo@ppe.ufrj.br, ale@ppe.ufrj.br, szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper views to present the main technologies for effluent treatment of petroleum refineries having as target the reuse. An analysis of international and Brazilian experiences of water reuse in petroleum refineries is performed viewing to support the proposition of recommendations for Brazilian refineries.

  10. Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residue Reuse for Phosphorus Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yoke Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based water treatment residue (Al-WTR generated during the drinking water treatment process is a readily available recycled material with high phosphorus (P adsorption capacity. The P adsorption capacity of Al-WTR generated from Singapore’s water treatment plant was evaluated with reference to particle size range, adsorption pH and temperature. Column tests, with WTR amendments in sand with and without compost, were used to simulate the bioretention systems. The adsorption rate decreased with increasing WTR sizes. Highest P adsorption capacity, 15.57 mg PO43−-P/g WTR, was achieved using fine WTR particles (>50% particles at less than 0.30 mm. At pH 4, the contact time required to reduce effluent P concentration to below the detectable range was half compared with pH 7 and 9. The adsorption rate observed at 40 ± 2 °C was 21% higher compared with that at 30 ± 2 °C. Soil mixes amended with 10% WTR and compost were able to maintain consistently high (90% total phosphorus (TP removal efficiency at a TP load up to 6.45 g/m3. In contrast, TP removal efficiencies associated with columns without WTR amendment decreased to less than 45% as the TP load increased beyond 4.5 g/m3. The results showed that WTR application is beneficial for enhanced TP removal in bioretention systems.

  11. Reusing larval rearing water and its effect on development and quality of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamai, Wadaka; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Maiga, Hamidou; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2016-03-16

    There is growing interest in applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) against mosquitoes. Mass production of mosquitoes for large-scale releases demands a huge amount of water. Yet, many arid and/or seasonally arid countries face the difficulties of acute water shortage, deterioration of water quality and environmental constraints. The re-use of water to rear successive generations of larvae is attractive as a way to reduce water usage and running costs, and help to make this control method viable. To determine whether dirty larval water was a suitable rearing medium for Anopheles arabiensis, in place of the 'clean' dechlorinated water routinely used, a series of three experiments was carried out to evaluate the effect of dirty water or mixed clean and dirty water on several parameters of insect quality. Batches of 100 fresh eggs were distributed in dirty water or added to clean water to test the effect of dirty water on egg hatching, whereas first-instar larvae were used to determine the effect on immature development time, pupation, adult emergence, body size, and longevity. Moreover, to assess the effect of dirty water on larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence, and longevity, L4 larvae collected after the tilting or larvae/pupae separation events were returned either to the dirty water or added to clean water. Results indicated that reusing dirty water or using a 50:50 mix of clean and dirty water did not affect egg hatching. Moreover, no difference was found in time to pupation, larval mortality or sex ratio when first-instar larvae were added to clean water, dirty water, or a 75:25, 50:50 or 25:75 mix of clean and dirty water and reared until emergence. When late-instar larvae were put back into their own rearing water, there was no effect on pupation rate, emergence rate or female longevity, though male longevity was reduced. When reared from first-instar larvae, however, dirty water decreased pupation rate, emergence rate, body size, and adult

  12. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their motivation, practices and concerns related to using grey water treatment for a portion of their household wastewater and reuse of the treated grey water for irrigation. A total of 47 respondents from different socio-economic background, aged over 18 years, from this community in the Jordan valley took part in the survey. The level of formal education of the respondents was low, and most of households’ incomes were below the poverty line in Jordan. Most of the respondents reported that the quality of water supplied by public network is acceptable, but the quantity is insufficient to meet their demand, with supplies being delivered to the household once a week. Respondents relied on the public water network as a first-most important resource (85.1%, and 57.4% of the respondent relied on private water tankers as a second-most important resource in addition to the public network. However, 6% of the respondents relied only on private water tankers with no access to the public network. Storage tanks are common practice in all the houses in order to store enough water for at least one week. The survey responses provide evidence that rural communities are willing to accept reuse of treated grey water for irrigation. Furthermore, some of people in the studied area are willing to learn more about grey water treatment and reuse in order to operate grey water systems for irrigation purposes. Water scarcity in this rural area of Jordan is the main determinant of

  13. Water Reuse and Wastewater Recycling at U.S. Army Installations: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    a designated use (e.g., a golf course). The intent is to encourage water reuse, rainwater harvesting, rainfall sensor controls, and other techniques...gating agricultural plots or public access lands, i.e., property where the general public may enter, such as golf courses or parks. Where there are no...generally address only microbiological and environmental concerns. Health risks associated with both pathogenic micro-organisms and chemical

  14. Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture: Development of a Regional Water Reuse Decision-Support Model (RWRM) for Cost-Effective Irrigation Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh K; Schwabe, Kurt A; Jassby, David

    2016-09-06

    Water scarcity has become a critical problem in many semiarid and arid regions. The single largest water use in such regions is for crop irrigation, which typically relies on groundwater and surface water sources. With increasing stress on these traditional water sources, it is important to consider alternative irrigation sources for areas with limited freshwater resources. One potential irrigation water resource is treated wastewater for agricultural fields located near urban centers. In addition, treated wastewater can contribute an appreciable amount of necessary nutrients for plants. The suitability of reclaimed water for specific applications depends on water quality and usage requirements. The main factors that determine the suitability of recycled water for agricultural irrigation are salinity, heavy metals, and pathogens, which cause adverse effects on human, plants, and soils. In this paper, we develop a regional water reuse decision-support model (RWRM) using the general algebraic modeling system to analyze the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment trains to generate irrigation water from reclaimed wastewater, with the irrigation water designed to meet crop requirements as well as California's wastewater reuse regulations (Title 22). Using a cost-minimization framework, least-cost solutions consisting of treatment processes and their intensities (blending ratios) are identified to produce alternative irrigation sources for citrus and turfgrass. Our analysis illustrates the benefits of employing an optimization framework and flexible treatment design to identify cost-effective blending opportunities that may produce high-quality irrigation water for a wide range of end uses.

  15. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  16. Investigating the Energy-Water Usage Efficiency of the Reuse of Treated Municipal Wastewater for Artificial Groundwater Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric D; Keller, Arturo A; Geyer, Roland; Frew, James

    2016-02-16

    This project investigates the energy-water usage efficiency of large scale civil infrastructure projects involving the artificial recharge of subsurface groundwater aquifers via the reuse of treated municipal wastewater. A modeling framework is introduced which explores the various ways in which spatially heterogeneous variables such as topography, landuse, and subsurface infiltration capacity combine to determine the physical layout of proposed reuse system components and their associated process energy-water demands. This framework is applied to the planning and evaluation of the energy-water usage efficiency of hypothetical reuse systems in five case study regions within the State of California. Findings from these case study analyses suggest that, in certain geographic contexts, the water requirements attributable to the process energy consumption of a reuse system can exceed the volume of water that it is able to recover by as much as an order of magnitude.

  17. Agronomic aspects and environmental impact of reusing marginal water in irrigation: a case study from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowelhi, N M; Abo Soliman, S M S; Barbary, S M; El-Shahawy, M I

    2006-01-01

    Egypt produces approximately 2.4 million m3 of secondary treated wastewater (TWW) annually, used for irrigation directly or indirectly by blending with agricultural drainage water (BDW). The annual re-use of (BDW) is approximately 4 million m3. The safe and efficient use of marginal water (BDW and TWW) is a core objective of this study which has been operating from 1997 to date. After six growing seasons the main results can be summarized as follows: MAXIMIZING CROP PRODUCTION: TWW can be used for high production of oil crops (canola, soybean sunflower or maize) compared to fresh water, while BDW can be used for high production of tolerant crops (cotton and sugar beet). CROP QUALITY: using marginal water increases the concentration of elements (Pb, B, Ni, Co) in all crops but these elements were under critical levels (there were no toxicity hazards). It is better to use alternative irrigation with fresh water under a drip irrigation system to maximise crop production and minimise the adverse effects of such water in field crops quality. SOIL POLLUTION AND SALINITY BUILD UP: A drip irrigation system under alternative irrigation by fresh with TWW or BDW reduces salinity build up risks and the levels of elements (Pb, B, Ni, Co) in soil compared to re-use marginal water. SOIL PATHOGENS: Using marginal water slightly contaminated the soil with total faecal coliform (TFC), mites, shigella and salmonella. PLANT ANATOMY: No great changes in anatomical disturbance where induced in different structures of plants which were reduced at maturity stage. PRIMARY GUIDELINES FOR RE-USING MARGINAL WATER: From obtained results it can be recommended to use marginal water with salinity content ranged between 1.1 to 3.64dS/m, and elemental contents (Pb 3.0-3.51 ppm), (B 0.05-1.67 ppm), (Co 0.04-0.07 ppm), (Ni 0.08-0.15 ppm) for safe (field, vegetable and medicinal) crops production. REUSE BIO SOLIDS FOR CROP PRODUCTION: Sewage sludge produced from treated wastewater can be safely used

  18. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process.

  19. Reuse of degraded Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrate by supplementation with wheat bran. Quantitative parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Raquel Picornell Buendía

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted in order to investigate the agronomic feasibility of Pleurotus ostreatus by reusing spent substrates previously in crops of the same mushroom. After the physical and chemical characterization of the substrates, we have evaluated quantitative production parameters in one growing season. As base material, the experiment was arranged in wheat straw (WS and spent Pleurotus substrate (SPS to generate prepared substrates with the participation of the same, alone, and mixed in different proportions with wheat bran (WB. Unsupplemented SPS, supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, mixture of WS + unsupplemented SPS, and mixture of WS + supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, are prepared substrates with biological efficiencies (BE ranging between 41 and 66% and an excellent unit weight of sporophores harvested. All correlations established among the germination index (GI, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest, yield components and BE were significant and positive correlation coefficients expressed.

  20. Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Prathapar, Sanmugan; Harrasi, Ali Al

    2008-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of greywater availability in Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman, to establish a methodology for greywater quantity estimation, to test greywater quality in order to assess reuse potential, and to examine public acceptance for reuse.Total fresh water consumption and greywater generation from different household sources were measured by water meters in five selected households during summer and winter. Additionally, a survey was designed and conducted in five administrative areas of Muscat Governorate, with the objective of testing a methodology for estimating greywater generation potential in these areas. Collected data were compared with that used by the Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water, Sultanate of Oman. The survey covered a total of 169 houses and 1,365 people. Greywater samples were collected and analyzed from showers, laundries, kitchens and sinks in some of these households to determine their water quality parameters. Statistical analysis results indicated that there is no significant variance in the total fresh water consumption between data used by the ministry and those measured and estimated during this study, highlighting the applicability of the tested method. The study concluded that the average per capita greywater generation rate is 151 Lpcd. Greywater production ranged from 80 to 83% of the total fresh water consumption and most of the greywater is generated from showers. Further, 55 to 57% of the greywater generated in a typical Omani household originated from the shower, 28 to 33% originated from the kitchen, 6 to 9% originated from laundry, and 5 to 7% originated from sink, which constitutes approximately 81% of the total fresh water consumption. The physical, chemical, and biological analyses of the grab samples revealed that greywater contains significant levels of suspended solids, inorganic constituents, total organic carbon, chemical and biochemical oxygen demands, total Coliforms

  1. Water regeneration and water reuse pilot experience in paper industry; Experiencia piloto de regeneracion y reulitizacion de agua en el sector papelero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estiles Olive, J.; Vidal Parellada, P.

    2008-07-01

    Water scarcity in some geographical areas has promoted water consumption optimization and wastewater regeneration and reuse studies. This paper explains pilot study is a paper mill industry using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nano filtration (NF), as second pass treatment, to regenerate wastewater in order to be reused in the paper mill process. due to excellent pilot results industrial application is now under study. (Author)

  2. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  3. Application of disease burden to quantitative assessment of health hazards for a decentralized water reuse system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiaochang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Li, Yu-You; Zhou, Jinhong; Zhang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the methodology of disease burden (DB) to quantify the health impact of microbial regrowth during wastewater reuse, using the case study of a decentralized water reuse system in Xi'an Si-yuan University, located in Xi'an, China. Based on field investigation findings, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella and rotavirus were selected as typical regrowth pathogens causing potential health hazards during the reuse of reclaimed water. Subsequently, major exposure routes including sprinkler irrigation, landscape fountains and toilet flushing were identified. Mathematical models were established to build the relationship between exposure dose and disease burden by calculating the disability adjusted life year (DALY). Results of disease burden for this case study show that DALYs attributed to E. coli were significantly greater than those caused by other pathogens, and DALYs associated with sprinkler irrigation were higher than those originating from other routes. A correlation between exposure dose and disease was obtained by introducing a modified calculation of morbidity, which can extend the assessment endpoint of health risk to disease burden from the conventional infection rate.

  4. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  5. Effects of ozone and ozone/peroxide on trace organic contaminants and NDMA in drinking water and water reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Stanford, Benjamin D; Yan, Dongxu; Gerrity, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A

    2012-02-01

    An ozone and ozone/peroxide oxidation process was evaluated at pilot scale for trace organic contaminant (TOrC) mitigation and NDMA formation in both drinking water and water reuse applications. A reverse osmosis (RO) pilot was also evaluated as part of the water reuse treatment train. Ozone/peroxide showed lower electrical energy per order of removal (EEO) values for TOrCs in surface water treatment, but the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased EEO values during wastewater treatment. TOrC oxidation was correlated to changes in UV(254) absorbance and fluorescence offering a surrogate model for predicting contaminant removal. A decrease in N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (after chloramination) was observed after treatment with ozone and ozone/peroxide. However, during spiking experiments with surface water, ozone/peroxide achieved limited destruction of NDMA, while in wastewaters net direct formation of NDMA of 6-33 ng/L was observed after either ozone or ozone/peroxide treatment. Once formed during ozonation, NDMA passed through the subsequent RO membranes, which highlights the significance of the potential for direct NDMA formation during oxidation in reuse applications.

  6. Wastewater Treatment in Dyehouse using Flocculation Method and Water re-use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelog Karla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research was to determine whether the treatment of dye-house wastewater with fl occulation could be efficient enough for water re-use in further production. A cationic condensation product was chosen for the treatment of industrial mixed wastewater collected in one week in Gorenjska predilnica d. d. Treated water was used for laboratory dyeing of cotton, polyester, polyacrylonitril, polyamide and wool with three different recipes representing light, medium and dark shade. The fabrics were dyed comparatively using technological and treated water under the same conditions. Colourimetric evaluation of dyed samples was done on spectrophotometer DataColour Spectrafl ash SF-600X. Wet fastness and colour fastness to perspiration (acid and alkaline of differently dyed samples were investigated. The results showed a high efficiency of flocculation for dye-house wastewater treatment and reuse of treated water in production. The change of colour was acceptable for all dyed samples except cotton light shade. Wet fastness became worse only on cotton but not more than one grade, when comparing the samples dyed in technological and those dyed in cleaned water. The colour fastness to perspiration did not change for polyester and polyacrylonitril; it was worse only for cotton samples.

  7. Comparison of tertiary treatment by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for water reuse in denim textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amar, Nihel; Kechaou, Noura; Palmeri, John; Deratani, André; Sghaier, Ali

    2009-10-15

    The wastewaters resulting from different baths of a dyeing factory specialized in denim fabric are collected and treated by an activated sludge plant. This study investigated the coupling of activated sludge treatment with either nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) to recycle water and reuse it in the process. We first conducted NF experiments with a HL membrane in different configurations: dead end and cross-flow for flat sheets and also in spiral wound form. Results on water permeation and salt rejection show that performances are configuration dependent. Then, for the study of the NF/RO textile wastewater treatment, experiments were conducted with spiral wound membranes in order to be closest to the industrial configuration. After analyzing the removal efficiencies of suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treatment plant, we conducted NF experiments using an HL2514TF spiral wound membrane preceded by ultrafiltration (UF) treatment. We used as well an RO membrane (AG2514TF) to compare performances in water yield and quality for the same pumping costs. The results show that NF allows higher yield, while respecting the Tunisian standard of water reuse (CODreuse of the water in the process.

  8. The role of free water surface constructed wetlands as polishing step in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, A; Bixio, D; Thoeye, C

    2007-07-15

    In Europe, the last two decades witnessed growing water stress, both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration, which prompted many municipalities for a more efficient use of the water resources, including a more widespread acceptance of water reuse practices. Treatment technology encompasses a vast variety of options. Constructed wetlands are regarded as key elements in polishing conventionally treated wastewater for recreational and environmental applications. A survey was conducted to assess the performance of tertiary free water surface constructed wetlands in treating both key and emerging contaminant categories in the perspective of water reuse. A database was created with information concerning systems with emerging and free-floating macrophytes. The database includes results from both full- and pilot-scale systems, and considers a broad variety of operating conditions. This paper provides an overview of the treatment performances of the constructed wetlands in the database and discusses their significance in the optic of water reclamation and reuse practices.

  9. An Integrated Planning for Reuse and Wetland Strategy of Waste Water from Rural Enterprises:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUQI-XING; R.W.BELL; 等

    1995-01-01

    A waste water reuse engineering was designed and then operated in Hongshan,a small town in Zhejiang Province,China,in order to solve pollution and shortage of water resources due to the development of rural enterprises.The results showed that series-structure design and cycling model were two effective modes of saving water and decreasing pollutants into environment,and wetland strategy should be a component part of the integrated planning for waste water reuse of rural enterprises.This case study could provide a basis for the optimum utilization and pollution avoidance of water resources.

  10. Potential of Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Reuse for Water Consumption Reduction and Wastewater Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Zavala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern Mexico is a semiarid region with water scarcity and a strong pressure on water sources caused by the rapid increase of population and industrialization. In this region, rainwater harvesting alone is not enough to meet water supply demands due to the irregular distribution of rainfall in time and space. Thus, in this study the reliability of integrating rainwater harvesting with greywater reuse to reduce water consumption and minimize wastewater generation in the Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey Campus, was assessed. Potable water consumption and greywater generation in main facilities of the campus were determined. Rainwater that can be potentially harvested in roofs and parking areas of the campus was estimated based on a statistical analysis of the rainfall. Based on these data, potential water savings and wastewater minimization were determined. Characterization of rainwater and greywater was carried out to determine the treatment necessities for each water source. Additionally, the capacity of water storage tanks was estimated. For the selected treatment systems, an economic assessment was conducted to determine the viability of the alternatives proposed. Results showed that water consumption can be reduced by 48% and wastewater generation can be minimized by 59%. Implementation of rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse systems in the Monterrey Campus will generate important economic benefits to the institution. Amortization of the investments will be achieved in only six years, where the net present value (NPV will be on the order of US $50,483.2, the internal rate of return (IRR of 4.6% and the benefits–investment ratio (B/I of 1.7. From the seventh year, the project will present an IRR greater than the minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR. In a decade, the IRR will be 14.4%, more than twice the MARR, the NPV of US $290,412.1 and the B/I of 3.1, denoting economic feasibility. Based on these results, it is clear that

  11. Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

    2011-03-31

    The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local

  12. Characterization of domestic gray water from point source to determine the potential for urban residential reuse: a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Golda A.; Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli; Muthu, Nandhivarman

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to discern the domestic gray water (GW) sources that is least polluting, at the urban households of India, by examining the GW characteristics, comparing with literature data, reuse standards and suitable treatment technologies. In view of this, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic GW originating from bath, wash basin, laundry and kitchen sources are determined and compared with established standards for reuse requirements. Quality of different gray water sources is characterized with respect to the physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, ground element and heavy metal properties. The pollutant loads indicate that the diversion techniques are not suitable for household application and, therefore, treatment is necessary prior to storage and reuse. It is observed that the total volume of GW generated exceeds the reuse requirement for suggested reuse such as for flushing and gardening/irrigation. In spite of generating less volume, the kitchen source is found to be the major contributor for most of the pollutant load and, therefore, not recommended to be considered for treatment. It is concluded that treatment of GW from bathroom source alone is sufficient to meet the onsite reuse requirements and thereby significantly reduce the potable water consumption by 28.5 %. Constructed wetland systems and constructed soil filters are suggested as suitable treatment alternatives owing to its ability to treat highly variable pollutant load with lower operational and maintenance cost, which is more practical for tropical and developing countries.

  13. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  14. Dissolved organic compounds in reused process water for steam-assisted gravity drainage oil sands extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Li, Zhengguo; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kozo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    The in situ oil sands production method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) reuses process wastewater following treatment. However, the treatment and reuse processes concentrate contaminants in the process water. To determine the concentration and dynamics of inorganic and organic contaminants, makeup water and process water from six process steps were sampled at a facility employing the SAGD process in Alberta, Canada. In the groundwater used for the makeup water, the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was 4 mg/L. This significantly increased to 508 mg/L in the produced water, followed by a gradual increase with successive steps in subsequent water treatments. The concentrations and dynamics of DOC constituents in the process water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the produced water, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone (33.1 mg/L) and 2-butanone (13.4 mg/L) predominated, and there were significant amounts of phenolic compounds (total 9.8 mg/L) and organic acids including naphthenic acids (NAs) corresponding to the formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(X) for combinations of n = 4 to 18, Z = 0 and -2, and X = 2 to 4 (53 mg/L) with trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene and phenanthrene. No organic contaminants, except for saturated fatty acids, were detected in the groundwater. The concentration of DOC in the recycled water was 4.4-fold higher than that in the produced water. Likewise, the total concentrations of phenols and organic acids in the recycled water were 1.7- and 4.5-fold higher than in the produced water, whereas the total concentrations of VOCs and PAHs in the recycled water were reduced by over 80%, suggesting that phenols and organic acids are selectively concentrated in the process water treatment. This comprehensive chemical analysis thus identified organic constituents that were concentrated in the process water and which interfere with subsequent

  15. Test results on re-use of reclaimed shower water: Summary. [space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, C. E.; Garcia, R.; Sauer, R.; Linton, A. T.; Elms, T.; Reysa, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    A microgravity whole body shower (WBS) and waste water recovery systems (WWRS) were evaluated in three separate closed loop tests. Following a protocol similar to that anticipated for the U.S. Space Station, test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower. The WWRS processes evaluated during the test series were phase change and reverse osmosis (RO). A preprototype Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem phase change process was used for the initial test with chemical pretreatment of the shower water waste input. The second and third tests concentrated on RO technologies. The second test evaluated a dynamic RO membrane consisting of zirconium oxide polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membranes deposited on the interior diameter of 316L porous stainless steel tubes while the final test employed a thin semipermeable RO membrane deposited on the interior surface of polysulfone hollow fibers. All reclaimed water was post-treated for purity using ion exchange and granular activated carbon beds immediately followed by microbial control treatment using both heat and iodine. The test hardware, controls exercised for whole body showering, types of soaps evaluated, shower subject response to reclaimed water showering, and shower water collection and chemical pretreatment (if required) for microbial control are described. The WWRS recovered water performance and the effectiveness of the reclaimed water post-treatment techniques used for maintaining water purity and microorganism control are compared. Results on chemical and microbial impurity content of the water samples obtained from various locations in the shower water reuse system are summarized.

  16. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  17. Reverse osmosis integrity monitoring in water reuse: The challenge to verify virus removal - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Marie-Laure; Lawrence, Michael G; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    A reverse osmosis (RO) process is often included in the treatment train to produce high quality reuse water from treated effluent for potable purposes because of its high removal efficiency for salinity and many inorganic and organic contaminants, and importantly, it also provides an excellent barrier for pathogens. In order to ensure the continued protection of public health from pathogen contamination, monitoring RO process integrity is necessary. Due to their small sizes, viruses are the most difficult class of pathogens to be removed in physical separation processes and therefore often considered the most challenging pathogen to monitor. To-date, there is a gap between the current log credit assigned to this process (determined by integrity testing approved by regulators) and its actual log removal capability as proven in a variety of laboratory and pilot studies. Hence, there is a challenge to establish a methodology that more closely links to the theoretical performance. In this review, after introducing the notion of risk management in water reuse, we provide an overview of existing and potentially new RO integrity monitoring techniques, highlight their strengths and drawbacks, and debate their applicability to full-scale treatment plants, which open to future research opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of integrated ozone biological aerated filters and membrane filtration in water reuse of textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaozhong; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jinling; Yan, Jinli; Ge, Qilong; Gu, Xiaoyang; Jian, Lei

    2013-04-01

    A combined process including integrated ozone-BAFs (ozone biological aerated filters) and membrane filtration was first applied for recycling textile effluents in a cotton textile mill with capacity of 5000 m(3)/d. Influent COD (chemical oxygen demand) in the range of 82-120 mg/L, BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) of 12.6-23.1 mg/L, suspended solids (SSs) of 38-52 mg/L and color of 32-64° were observed during operation. Outflows with COD≤45 mg/L, BOD5≤7.6 mg/L, SS≤15 mg/L, color≤8° were obtained after being decontaminated by ozone-BAF with ozone dosage of 20-25 mg/L. Besides, the average removal rates of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) and UV254 were 100% and 73.4% respectively. Permeate water produced by RO (reverse osmosis) could be reused in dyeing and finishing processes, while the RO concentrates could be discharged directly under local regulations with COD≤100 mg/L, BOD5≤21 mg/L, SS≤52 mg/L, color≤32°. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality, and solve the problem of RO concentrate disposal.

  19. Proposing nanofiltration as acceptable barrier for organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2010-10-01

    For water reuse applications, " tight" nanofiltration (NF) membranes (of polyamide) as an alternative to reverse osmosis (RO) can be an effective barrier against pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and other organic contaminants. The use of RO in existing water reuse facilities is addressed and questioned, taking into consideration that tight NF can be a more cost-effective and efficient technology to target the problem of organic contaminants. It was concluded that tight NF is an acceptable barrier for organic contaminants because its removal performance approaches that of RO, and because of reduced operation and maintenance (O&M) costs in long-term project implementation. Average removal of neutral compounds (including 1,4-dioxane) was about 82% and 85% for NF and RO, respectively, and average removal of ionic compounds was about 97% and 99% for NF and RO, respectively. In addition, " loose" NF after aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) can be an effective barrier against micropollutants with removals over 90%. When there is the presence of difficult to remove organic contaminants such as NDMA and 1,4-dioxane; for 1,4-dioxane, source control or implementation of treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants will be an option; for NDMA, a good strategy is to limit its formation during wastewater treatment, but there is evidence that biodegradation of NDMA can be achieved during ARR. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Microbiological and physicochemical treatments applied to metallurgic industry aiming water reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluated for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and sedimentary solids (SS. The efficiency of physicochemical processes for clarifying the water and disinfection was evaluated through analysis of pH, turbidity, color, aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates and dissolved total solids (DTS. In the reuse of the water, acute toxicity for the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis was also evaluated.Estudou-se o reuso de água de um sistema composto por estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE com aeração prolongada e lodo ativado, e em uma estação compacta de tratamento de água (ECTA de uma indústria metalúrgica. Os processos para obtenção da água de reuso foram: microbiológico e físico-químico. O esgoto doméstico foi bombeado para a ETE, onde houve formação de flocos biológicos e água clarificada. Avaliou-se a eficiência do processo microbiológico da ETE mediante a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e sólidos sedimentáveis (SS. A eficiência do processo físico-químico de clarificação e desinfecção foi avaliada mediante análises de pH, turbidez, cor, contagem de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias, cloro livre, dureza, alcalinidade, cloretos, sulfatos, sólidos totais dissolvidos (STD. Na água de reuso além desses parâmetros avaliou-se a toxicidade aguda ao microcrustáceo Daphnia similis.

  1. Evaluation of fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis for sustainable agriculture and water reuse in arid regions

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura

    2016-11-25

    The present study focused on the performance of the FDFO process to achieve simultaneous water reuse from wastewater and production of nutrient solution for hydroponic application. Bio-methane potential (BMP) measurements were firstly carried out to determine the effect of osmotic concentration of wastewater achieved in the FDFO process on the anaerobic activity. Results showed that 95% water recovery from the FDFO process is the optimum value for further AnMBR treatment. Nine different fertilizers were then tested based on their FO performance (i.e. water flux, water recovery and reverse salt flux) and final nutrient concentration. From this initial screening, ammonium phosphate monobasic (MAP), ammonium sulfate (SOA) and mono-potassium phosphate were selected for long term experiments to investigate the maximum water recovery achievable. After the experiments, hydraulic membrane cleaning was performed to assess the water flux recovery. SOA showed the highest water recovery rate, up to 76% while KH2PO4 showed the highest water flux recovery, up to 75% and finally MAP showed the lowest final nutrient concentration. However, substantial dilution was still necessary to comply with the standards for fertigation even if the recovery rate was increased.

  2. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-10-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and full-scale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.; Fayyed, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD5, COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1) d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560

  4. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.; Fayyed, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD5, COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1) d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and

  5. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.; Fayyed, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD5, COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1) d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560

  6. Water reuse for urban landscape irrigation: aspersion and health related regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F; Blin, E; Hemous, S; Garrelly, L

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean seaside resort of Le Grau du Roi includes 40 hectares of landscaped areas spray irrigated with river water supplied through a separate network. Wastewater collected from several municipalities is treated in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and polished in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). Planned substitution of treated wastewater for river water is hindered by spray irrigation prohibition within a 100 m distance from houses and recreational areas. WWTP and WSP effluents were monitored for pathogens with a particular attention to Legionella in Spring and Summer 2006. Helminth eggs, salmonellae and enteroviruses were never detected neither in WWTP effluent nor in the ponds. Legionella spp content was slightly higher or of the order of magnitude of river water contents. Regarding Legionella pneumophila contents, WSP effluent did not significantly differ from the river water. E.coli and enterococci contents in WSP effluents complied with the "excellent quality" criteria of the European Directive for coastal bathing waters. Therefore, substituting WSP effluents to river water is unlikely to alter health risks related to spray irrigation and, in this case, the buffer zone required by the French water reuse guidelines appears being short of support.

  7. Drivers and economic aspects for the implementation of advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse in a PVC plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prieto

    2016-06-01

    The proposed solution is profitable for sites where fresh demineralized water production costs are currently higher than 1.5 €/m3 and the required flow of the recycled water exceeds 50 m3/h. The water reuse concept allows decoupling the production from fresh water use. In this case, anticipating that a drought would lead to a 3% reduction of the production, the amortization period would be lowered to one year.

  8. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  9. Dioxins, furans and PCBs in recycled water for indirect potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-12-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  10. Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Amines in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verman, Mayank; Pankaj

    Hazardous effects of various amines, produced in the environment from the partial degradation of azo dyes and amino acids, adversely affect the quality of human life through water, soil and air pollution and therefore needed to be degraded. A number of such studies are already available in the literature, with or without the use of ultrasound, which have been summarized briefly. The sonochemical degradation of amines and in the combination with a photocatalyst, TiO2 has also been discussed. Similar such degradation studies for ethylamine (EA), aniline (A), diphenylamine (DPA) and naphthylamine (NA) in the presence of ultrasound, TiO2 and rare earths (REs); La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd, in aqueous solutions at 20 kHz and 250 W power have been carried out and reported, to examine the combinatorial efficacy of ultrasound in the presence of a photocatalyst and rare earth ions with reactive f-electrons.

  11. Recovery and reuse of sludge from active and passive treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonimaro, Tsiverihasina V; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Zagury, Gérald J

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters generates considerable amounts of sludge, which raises several concerns, such as storage and disposal, stability, and potential social and environmental impacts. To alleviate the storage and management costs, as well as to give the mine sludge a second life, recovery and reuse have recently become interesting options. In this review, different recovery and reuse options of sludge originating from active and passive treatment of mine drainage are identified and thoroughly discussed, based on available laboratory and field studies. The most valuable products presently recovered from the mine sludge are the iron oxy-hydroxides (ochre). Other by-products include metals, elemental sulfur, and calcium carbonate. Mine sludge reuse includes the removal of contaminants, such as As, P, dye, and rare earth elements. Mine sludge can also be reused as stabilizer for contaminated soil, as fertilizer in agriculture/horticulture, as substitute material in construction, as cover over tailings for acid mine drainage prevention and control, as material to sequester carbon dioxide, and in cement and pigment industries. The review also stresses out some of the current challenges and research needs. Finally, in order to move forward, studies are needed to better estimate the contribution of sludge recovery/reuse to the overall costs of mine water treatment.

  12. Energy and chemical efficient nitrogen removal at a full-scale MBR water reuse facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With stringent wastewater discharge limits on nitrogen and phosphorus, membrane bioreactor (MBR technology is gaining popularity for advanced wastewater treatment due to higher effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, higher energy intensity required for MBR plants and increased operational costs for nutrient removal limit wide application of the MBR technology. Conventional nitrogen removal requires intensive energy inputs and chemical addition. There are drivers to search for new technology and process control strategies to treat wastewater with lower energy and chemical demand while still producing high quality effluent. The NPXpress is a patented technology developed by American Water engineers. This technology is an ultra-low dissolved oxygen (DO operation for wastewater treatment and is able to remove nitrogen with less oxygen requirements and reduced supplemental carbon addition in MBR plants. Jefferson Peaks Water Reuse Facility in New Jersey employs MBR technology to treat municipal wastewater and was selected for the implementation of the NPXpress technology. The technology has been proved to consistently produce a high quality reuse effluent while reducing energy consumption and supplemental carbon addition by 59% and 100%, respectively. Lab-scale kinetic studies suggested that NPXpress promoted microorganisms with higher oxygen affinity. Process modelling was used to simulate treatment performance under NPXpress conditions and develop ammonia-based aeration control strategy. The application of the ammonia-based aeration control at the plant further reduced energy consumption by additional 9% and improved treatment performance with 35% reduction in effluent total nitrogen. The overall energy savings for Jefferson Peaks was $210,000 in four years since the implementation of NPXpress. This study provided an insight in design and operation of MBR plants with NPXpress technology and ultra-low DO operations.

  13. Microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment for reuse in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Han; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Dao, Guo-Hua; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong -Ying

    2017-04-01

    Reuse of secondary municipal effluent from wastewater treatment plants in water bodies could effectively alleviate freshwater resource shortage. However, excessive nutrients must be efficiently removed to prevent eutrophication. Compared with other means of advanced wastewater treatment, microalgae-based processes display overwhelming advantages including efficient and simultaneous N and P removal, no requirement of additional chemicals, O2 generation, CO2 mitigation, and potential value-added products from harvested biomass. One particular challenge of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment compared to treatment of other types of wastewater is that concentrations of nutrients and N:P ratios in secondary municipal effluent are much lower and imbalanced. Therefore, there should be comprehensive considerations on nutrient removal from this specific type of effluent. Removal of nutrients and organic substances, and other environmental benefits of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment systems were summarized. Among the existing studies on microalgal advanced nutrient removal, much information on major parameters is absent, rendering performances between studies not really comparable. Mechanisms of microalgae-based nitrogen and phosphorus removal were respectively analyzed to better understand advanced nutrient removal from municipal secondary effluent. Factors influencing microalgae-based nutrient removal were divided into intrinsic, environmental, and operational categories; several factors were identified in each category, and their influences on microalgal nutrient removal were discussed. A multiplicative kinetic model was integrated to estimate microalgal growth-related nutrient removal based majorly on environmental and intrinsic factors. Limitations and prospects of future full-scale microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment were also suggested. The manuscript could offer much valuable information for future

  14. Endocrine-disrupting compounds: a review of their challenge to sustainable and safe water supply and water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ian R; Chapman, Heather F; Moore, Michael R; Ranmuthugala, Geetha

    2006-04-01

    The relevance of endocrine-disrupting compounds as potential contaminants of drinking water is reviewed, particularly in the reuse of wastewater. Growing populations and increasing intensification of land and water use for industry and agriculture have increased the need to reclaim wastewater for reuse, including to supplement the drinking water supply. The variety of anthropogenic chemicals that have been identified as potential endocrine disruptors in the environment and the problems arising from their use as human and livestock pharmaceuticals, as agricultural chemicals and in industry are discussed. The potentially adverse impact of these chemicals on human health and the ecology of the natural environment are reviewed. Data for the removal of estrogenic compounds from wastewater treatment are presented, together with the comparative potencies of estrogenic compounds. The relative exposure to estrogens of women on oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and through food consumption is estimated. A brief overview of some methods available or under development for the assessment of estrogenic activity in environmental samples is provided. The review concludes with a discussion of the directions for further investigation, which include human epidemiology, methodology development, and wastewater monitoring.

  15. Safe greywater reuse to augment water supply and provide sanitation in semi-arid areas of rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, S; Labhasetwar, P; Wate, S; Jimenez, B

    2010-01-01

    Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and to provide sanitation in rural low income areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. The systems are based on reclaiming greywater from bathing for the use in toilet flushing and kitchen garden irrigation. The reuse systems were implemented based on the scientific rationale presented in the WHO (2006) guidelines. The paper presents evidence from the operation and evaluation of the greywater treatment plants under field conditions between 2005 and 2008. The paper concludes that greywater is a highly cost effective solution for water scarcity. In this study, reusing greywater resulted in a 60% increase in water availability, a reduction in open defecation and a fourfold increase in food availability.

  16. A group decision-making tool for the application of membrane technologies in different water reuse scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, S M K; Saroj, D P; Kouchaki, S; Ilemobade, A A; Ouki, S K

    2015-06-01

    A global challenge of increasing concern is diminishing fresh water resources. A growing practice in many communities to supplement diminishing fresh water availability has been the reuse of water. Novel methods of treating polluted waters, such as membrane assisted technologies, have recently been developed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of membrane assisted technologies available, the current challenge is how to select a reliable alternative among numerous technologies for appropriate water reuse. In this research, a fuzzy logic based multi-criteria, group decision making tool has been developed. This tool has been employed in the selection of appropriate membrane treatment technologies for several non-potable and potable reuse scenarios. Robust criteria, covering technical, environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects, were selected, while 10 different membrane assisted technologies were assessed in the tool. The results show this approach capable of facilitating systematic and rigorous analysis in the comparison and selection of membrane assisted technologies for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse.

  17. Contaminants of emerging concern in reverse osmosis brine concentrate from indirect/direct water reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyn, Travis R; Harijanto, Wesley; Sandoval, Sofia; Delagah, Saied; Sharbatmaleki, Mohamadali

    2016-01-01

    Water shortage is becoming more common due to droughts and global population increases resulting in the increasing popularity of water reuse to create new water sources. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems are popular in these applications since they can produce drinking water quality effluent. Unfortunately, RO systems have the drawback of generating concentrate streams that contain contaminants rejected by the membrane including chemicals of emerging concern (CECs). CECs are chemicals such as hormones, steroids, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products that are used for their intended purpose and then released into wastewater. CECs are believed to be detrimental to aquatic wildlife health and pose an unknown human health risk. This research gathered the existing knowledge on CEC presence in concentrate, available proven concentrate treatment methods, their CEC removal abilities, and current CEC regulations. It was found that 127 CECs have been measured in RO concentrate with 100 being detected at least once. The most potent treatment process available is UV/H2O2 as it offers the highest removal rates for the widest range of chemicals. The less expensive process of ozone/biologically activated carbon offers slightly lower removal abilities. This comprehensive report will provide the groundwork for better understanding, regulating and treating concentrate stream CECs.

  18. Principles for scaling of distributed direct potable water reuse systems: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D

    2015-05-15

    Scaling of direct potable water reuse (DPR) systems involves tradeoffs of treatment facility economy-of-scale, versus cost and energy of conveyance including energy for upgradient distribution of treated water, and retention of wastewater thermal energy. In this study, a generalized model of the cost of DPR as a function of treatment plant scale, assuming futuristic, optimized conveyance networks, was constructed for purposes of developing design principles. Fractal landscapes representing flat, hilly, and mountainous topographies were simulated, with urban, suburban, and rural housing distributions placed by modified preferential growth algorithm. Treatment plants were allocated by agglomerative hierarchical clustering, networked to buildings by minimum spanning tree. Simulations assume advanced oxidation-based DPR system design, with 20-year design life and capability to mineralize chemical oxygen demand below normal detection limits, allowing implementation in regions where disposal of concentrate containing hormones and antiscalants is not practical. Results indicate that total DPR capital and O&M costs in rural areas, where systems that return nutrients to the land may be more appropriate, are high. However, costs in urban/suburban areas are competitive with current water/wastewater service costs at scales of ca. one plant per 10,000 residences. This size is relatively small, and costs do not increase significantly until plant service areas fall below 100 to 1000 homes. Based on these results, distributed DPR systems are recommended for consideration for urban/suburban water and wastewater system capacity expansion projects.

  19. Minimization of the Flowrate of Fresh Water and Corresponding Regenerated Water in Water-using System with Regeneration Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬梅; 胡仰栋; 华贲; 王修林

    2003-01-01

    A sequential three-step programming method is proposed for determining the minimum flowrate of fresh water and corresponding regenerated water in water-using system of single contaminant with regeneration reuse.In step 1, a programming with the objective of min fws is used to determine the minimum flowrate of fresh water,in which the mathematical representation is a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP1). Then under the same constraints with step 1, a programming with the objective of min freg in step 2 and a programming with the objective of rain Cr in step 3 are subsequently used to determine the minimum flowrate of regenerated water and the minimum inlet concentration to regeneration process corresponding to the minimum flowrate of fresh water based on step 1. The method is easy to apply because we only need to change the objective function but keep the constraints constant to go along the following steps after step 1. In addition, the relationship between the fresh water flowrate required, fws, and inlet concentration to regeneration process, Cr, is investigated. It is found that there exist three relationships between fws and Cr, which indicate three possibilities for Cb: below the pinch, above the pinch or at the pinch. Therefore, a new conclusion is drawn, which differs from that "regeneration of water at pinch minimizes fresh water flowrate" derived in literature and indicates that in some cases, regeneration at other point also minimizes fresh water flowrate.

  20. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  1. Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Choi, Young Chul [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hendren, Zachary [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kim, Gyu Dong [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-03-31

    In the U.S. manufacturing sector, current industrial water use practices are energy-intensive and utilize and discharge high volumes of waters, rendering them not sustainable especially in light of the growing scarcity of suitable water supplies. To help address this problem, the goal of this project was to develop an advanced, cost-effective, hybrid membrane-based water treatment system that can improve the energy efficiency of industrial wastewater treatment while allowing at least 50% water reuse efficiency. This hybrid process would combine emerging Forward Osmosis (FO) and Membrane Distillation (MD) technology components into an integrated FO-MD system that can beneficially utilize low-grade waste heat (i.e., T < 450 °F) in industrial facilities to produce distilled-quality product water for reuse. In this project, laboratory-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments on the hybrid FO-MD system were conducted for industrial wastewater treatment. It was demonstrated at laboratory, bench, and pilot scales that FO-MD membrane technology can concentrate brine to very high total dissolved solids (TDS) levels (>200,000 ppm) that are at least 2.5 times higher than the TDS level to which RO can achieve. In laboratory testing, currently available FO and MD membranes were tested to select for high-performing membranes with high salt rejection and high water flux. Multiple FO membrane/draw-salt solution combinations that gave high water flux with higher than 98% salt rejection were also identified. Reverse draw-salt fluxes were observed to be much lower for divalent salts than for monovalent salts. MD membranes were identified that had 99.9+% salt rejection and water flux as high as 50-90 L/(m2·h) for flat-sheet membranes and >20 L/(m2·h) for hollow fibers. In bench-scale testing, a single unit of commercially available FO and MD membrane modules were evaluated for continuous, integrated operation. Using the laboratory- and bench-scale test data

  2. Indirect desalination of Red Sea water with forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis for water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-10-01

    The use of energy still remains the main component of the costs of desalting water. Forward osmosis (FO) can help to reduce the costs of desalination, and extracting water from impaired sources can be beneficial in this regard. Experiments with FO membranes using a secondary wastewater effluent as a feed water and Red Sea water as a draw solution demonstrated that the technology is promising. FO coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) was implemented for indirect desalination. The system consumes only 50% (~1.5 kWh/m3) of the energy used for high pressure seawater RO (SWRO) desalination (2.5-4 kWh/m3), and produces a good quality water extracted from the impaired feed water. Fouling of the FO membranes was not a major issue during long-term experiments over 14 days. After 10 days of continuous FO operation, the initial flux declined by 28%. Cleaning the FO membranes with air scouring and clean water recovered the initial flux by 98.8%. A cost analysis revealed FO per se as viable technology. However, a minimum average FO flux of 10.5 L/m2-h is needed to compete with water reuse using UF-LPRO, and 5.5 L/m2-h is needed to recover and desalinate water at less cost than SWRO. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Grey water characterization and treatment for reuse in an arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, E.

    2012-06-01

    Grey water from a university facilities building in Cairo, Egypt was analysed for basic wastewater parameters. Mean concentrations were calculated based on grab samples over a 16-month period. Values for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients exceeded values reported in a number of other studies of grey water, while coliform counts were also high. A submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) system using a hollow fibre ultrafiltration membrane was used to treat the grey water with the aim of producing effluent that meets reuse guidelines for agriculture. A test run for 50 days at constant transmembrane pressure resulted in very good removal for key parameters including COD, total suspended solids (TSS), colour, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, anionic surfactants, and coliform bacteria. High standard deviations were observed for COD and coliform concentrations for both monthly grab samples and influent values from the 50-day SMBR experiment. SMBR effluent meets international and local guidelines for at least restricted irrigation, particularly as pertains to COD, TSS, and faecal coliforms which were reduced to mean treated values of 50 mg/L, 0 mg/L (i.e., not detected), and <50 cfu/100 mL, respectively. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  4. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Enabling Data Publication, Discovery and Re-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seul, M.; Pollak, J.

    2014-12-01

    The CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) supports a standards-based, services-oriented architecture for time-series data and provides a separate service to publish spatial data layers as shape files. Two new services that the WDC offers are a cloud-based server (Cloud HydroServer) for publishing data and a web-based client for data discovery. The Cloud HydroServer greatly simplifies data publication by eliminating the need for scientists to set up an SQL-server data base, a requirement that has proven to be a significant barrier, and ensures greater reliability and continuity of service. Uploaders have been developed to simplify the metadata documentation process. The web-based data client eliminates the need for installing a program to be used as a client and works across all computer operating systems. The services provided by the WDC is a foundation for big data use, re-use, and meta-analyses. Using data transmission standards enables far more effective data sharing and discovery; standards used by the WDC are part of a global set of standards that should enable scientists to access unprecedented amount of data to address larger-scale research questions than was previously possible. A central mission of the WDC is to ensure these services meet the needs of the water science community and are effective at advancing water science.

  5. Membrane distillation for wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate treatment with water reuse potential

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-11-29

    Membrane distillation (MD) was evaluated as a treatment option of wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate (WWROC) discharged from wastewater reclamation plants (WRPs). A direct contact MD (DCMD), at obtaining 85% water recovery of WWROC showed only 13–15% flux decline and produced good quality permeate (10–15 µS/cm, 99% ion rejection) at moderate feed temperature of 55 °C. Prevalent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition on the MD membrane occurred in treating WWROC at elevated concentrations. The combination of low salinity and loose CaCO3 adhesion on the membrane did not significantly contribute to DCMD flux decline. Meanwhile, high organic content in WWROC (58–60 mg/L) resulted in a significant membrane hydrophobicity reduction (70% lower water contact angle than virgin membrane) attributed to low molecular weight organic adhesion onto the MD membrane. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment helped in reducing organic contents of WWROC by 46–50%, and adsorbed a range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic micropollutants. This ensured high quality water production by MD (micropollutants-free) and enhanced its reuse potential. The MD concentrated WWROC was suitable for selective ion precipitation, promising a near zero liquid discharge in WRPs.

  6. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p related factors were also significant individual predictors of acceptance. The most important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  7. Evaluating Water Conservation and Reuse Policies Using a Dynamic Water Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  8. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling. PMID:27376337

  9. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan Blandin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forward osmosis (FO is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants, FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  10. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis-Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R D; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  11. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury

  12. Reuse of Ablution Water to Improve Peat Soil Characteristics for Ornamental Landscape Plants Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reuse of ablution water for washing peat soil in order to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in these soils which might effect negatively on the plant growth. The washing process design was similar to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW consist of layers of peat and sand soil and surrounded by gravel on both sides. Strelitzia sp. was used to detect the presence negative effect of the washing process on the morphological characteristics of the plants. The physical and chemical characteristics of ablution water was examined before and after the washing process by using Inductively Couple Plasma- Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The characteristics of peat soil before and after the washing process were examined by using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF. The results revealed that the percentage of FeO3in peat soil reduced from 45.80 to 1.01%. The percentage of SiO2 in sand soil dropped from 87.7 to 67.10%. Parameters of ablution water resulted from the washing process which including Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and heavy metals have increased but still within the standard limits for the disposal of ablution water into the environment. No atrophy was observed in Strelitzia sp. leaves, indicating the ability of plant to grow normally. It can be concluded that the utilization of ablution water in the washing of peat soil has improve the characteristics of the soil without effect on their organic constitutes.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage for energy recovery and water reuse in corn-ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan-Ozkaynak, A; Karthikeyan, K G

    2011-11-01

    Recycling of anaerobically-digested thin stillage within a corn-ethanol plant may result in the accumulation of nutrients of environmental concern in animal feed coproducts and inhibitory organic materials in the fermentation tank. Our focus is on anaerobic digestion of treated (centrifugation and lime addition) thin stillage. Suitability of digestate from anaerobic treatment for reuse as process water was also investigated. Experiments conducted at various inoculum-to-substrate ratios (ISRs) revealed that alkalinity is a critical parameter limiting digestibility of thin stillage. An ISR level of 2 appeared optimal based on high biogas production level (763 mL biogas/g volatile solids added) and organic matter removal (80.6% COD removal). The digester supernatant at this ISR level was found to contain both organic and inorganic constituents at levels that would cause no inhibition to ethanol fermentation. Anaerobic digestion of treated-thin stillage can be expected to improve the water and energy efficiencies of dry grind corn-ethanol plants.

  14. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and fullscale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used. © 2011 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  15. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  16. Evaluating water conservation and reuse policies using a dynamic water balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  17. A Study on the Waste Water Treatment Technology for Steel Industry: Recycle And Reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Sinha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is one of the most important and vital Industry of the present and the future. It is the asset of a nation. Steel plants use a tremendous amount of water for waste transfer, cooling and dust control. The steel plants have sintering mills, coke plants, blast furnaces, chemical byproducts and chemical processes, water cooled rolls, pumps, extrusion experiment, transfer lines for sludges and slurries. All these plants use a tremendous amount of water to cool the products and flush the impurities away from the finished stock. Wastewater is generated in huge quantity in steel industries. It contains many dissolved, undisclosed substances and chemicals in the wastewater. The steel industries produce wastewater and sludge during different industrial processes. The development of innovative technologies for treatment of wastewaters from steel industries is a matter of alarming concern for us. Although many research papers have been reported on wastewater pollution control studies, but a very few research work is carried out for treatment of wastewater of steel industries, especially in reference to development of design of industrial effluent Treatment Plants (ETP system. Another beneficial aspect of this research work will be recycling, reuse of water and sludge from steel industry The whole technologies for treating industrial wastewater can be divided into four categories: - Chemical, Physical, Biological and mathematical approaches. Physical treatment methods include sedimentation, Floatation , filtering , stripping, ion – exchange, adsorption and other processes that accomplish removal of dissolved and undisclosed substances without necessarily changing their chemical structure. The mathematical approaches are very useful and more realistic for developing a well operating cost–effective treatment system for industrial wastewater treatment.

  18. Petroleum pollutant degradation by surface water microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Malisa P; Jovancićević, Branimir S; Ilić, Mila; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2006-09-01

    It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of these investigations was to show to what extent the hydrocarbons of a petroleum pollutant are degraded by microbial cultures which were isolated as dominant microorganisms from a surface water of a wastewater canal of an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant. Biodegradation experiments were conducted on one paraffinic, and one naphthenic type of petroleum during a three month period under aerobic conditions, varying the following parameters: Inorganic (Kp) or an organic medium (Bh) with or without exposition to light. Microorganisms were analyzed in a surface water sample from a canal (Pancevo, Serbia), into which wastewater from an oil refinery and a nitrogen plant is released. The consortia of microorganisms were isolated from the water sample (most abundant species: Phormidium foveolarum--filamentous Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae and Achanthes minutissima, diatoms, algae). The simulation experiments of biodegradation were conducted with the biomass suspension and crude oils Sirakovo (Sir, paraffinic type) and Velebit (Ve, naphthenic type). After a three month period, organic substance was extracted by means of chloroform. In the extracts, the content of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids was determined (the group composition). n-Alkanes and isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes, pristane and phytane, in the aliphatic fractions, were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). Total isoprenoid aliphatic alkanes and polycyclic alkanes of sterane and triterpane types were analyzed by GC-MS. Paraffinic type petroleums have a significant loss of saturated hydrocarbons. For naphthenic

  19. Treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater by coagulation/electrochemical methods: Proposals for disposal and/or reuse of treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Larissa F; Barbosa, Andreia D; de Paula, Heber M; Romualdo, Lincoln L; Andrade, Leonardo S

    2016-09-15

    This paper describes and discusses an investigation into the treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater (water-based acrylic texture) by coagulation (aluminum sulfate) coupled to electrochemical methods (BDD electrode). Two proposals are put forward, based on the results. The first proposal considers the feasibility of reusing wastewater treated by the methods separately and in combination, while the second examines the possibility of its disposal into water bodies. To this end, parameters such as toxicity, turbidity, color, organic load, dissolved aluminum, alkalinity, hardness and odor are evaluated. In addition, the proposal for water reuse is strengthened by the quality of the water-based paints produced using the wastewater treated by the two methods (combined and separate), which was evaluated based on the typical parameters for the quality control of these products. Under optimized conditions, the use of the chemical coagulation (12 mL/L of Al2(SO4)3 dosage) treatment, alone, proved the feasibility of reusing the treated wastewater in the paint manufacturing process. However, the use of the electrochemical method (i = 10 mA/cm(2) and t = 90 min) was required to render the treated wastewater suitable for discharge into water bodies.

  20. Comprehensive reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in coagulation and adsorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Park, Dae-Seon; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    While drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs) inevitably lead to serious problems due to their huge amount of generation and limitation of landfill sites, their unique properties of containing Al or Fe contents make it possible to reuse them as a beneficial material for coagulant recovery and adsorbent. Hence, in the present study, to comprehensively handle and recycle DWTRs, coagulant recovery from DWTRs and reuse of coagulant recovered residuals (CRs) were investigated. In the first step, coagulant recovery from DWTRs was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) for statistical optimization of independent variables (pH, solid content, and reaction time) on response variable (Al recovery). As a result, a highly acceptable Al recovery of 97.5 ± 0.4% was recorded, which corresponds to 99.5% of the predicted Al recovery. Comparison study of recovered and commercial coagulant from textile wastewater treatment indicated that recovered coagulant has reasonable potential for use in wastewater treatment, in which the performance efficiencies were 68.5 ± 2.1% COD, 97.2 ± 1.9% turbidity, and 64.3 ± 1.0% color removals at 50 mg Al/L. Subsequently, in a similar manner, RSM was also applied to optimize coagulation conditions (Al dosage, initial pH, and reaction time) for the maximization of real cotton textile wastewater treatment in terms of COD, turbidity, and color removal. Overall performance revealed that the initial pH had a remarkable effect on the removal performance compared to the effects of other independent variables. This is mainly due to the transformation of metal species form with increasing or decreasing pH conditions. Finally, a feasibility test of CRs as adsorbent for phosphate adsorption from aqueous solution was conducted. Adsorption equilibrium of phosphate at different temperatures (10-30 °C) and initial levels of pH (3-11) indicated that the main mechanisms of phosphate adsorption onto CRs are endothermic and chemical

  1. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury

  2. Organic and inorganic species in produced water: Implications for water reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Rice, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently 20-30 billion barrels of formation water are co-produced annually in the USA with conventional oil and natural gas. The large database on the geochemistry of this produced water shows salinities that vary widely from ~5,000 to >350,000 mg/L TDS. Chloride, Na and Ca are generally the dominant ions, and concentrations of Fe, Mn, B, NH3 and dissolved organics, including, BTEX, phenols and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be relatively high. Hazardous concentrations of NORMs, including Ra-226 and Rn-222 have been reported in produced water from several states.Coal-bed methane (CBM) wells currently produce close to a billion barrels of water and deliver ~8% of total natural gas. The salinity of this produced water generally is lower than that of water from petroleum wells; salinity commonly is 1,000-20,000 mg/L, but ranges to150,000 mg/L TDS. Most CBM wells produce Na-HCO3-Cl type water that is low in trace metals and has no reported NORMs. This water commonly has no oil and grease and has relatively low DOC, but its organic composition has not been characterized in detail. The water is disposed of by injection into saline aquifers, through evaporation and/or percolation in disposal pits, road spreading, and surface discharge. Water that has an acceptable salinity and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) is considered acceptable for surface discharge and for injection into freshwater aquifers.As an alternative to costly disposal, low salinity produced water is being considered for reclamation, especially in the arid western USA. The cost of reclaiming this water to meet irrigation, industrial and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study at Placerita oil field, California. This produced water had a low salinity of ~8,000 mg/L, but high concentration of Si and organics. Removal of B, Si, NH3 and especially organics from this water proved difficult, and the estimated treatment cost was high at $0.08-$0.39/bbl for water treated for

  3. Coagulation & Ultra-filtration of Laundry Waste Waters using the Shower Water Reuse System (SWRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    waste water: Cationic polymers for removal of contaminants and decreased fouling in microfiltration , Journal of Membrane Science (11 2013) Xia... microfiltration of laundry wastewater, Journal of Membrane Science (12 2013) TOTAL: 2 Books Number of Manuscripts: Patents Submitted Patents Awarded...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The objective was to determine the optimal coagulation conditions for pre-treating laundry waste water before microfiltration

  4. Re-use of standard ontologies in a water quality vocabulary (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.; Simons, B.; Yu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Observations provide the key constraints on environmental and earth science investigations. Where an investigation uses data sourced from multiple providers, data fusion depends on the observation classifications being comparable. Standard models for observation metadata are available (ISO 19156) which provide slots for key classifiers, in particular, the observed property and observation procedure. While universal use of common vocabularies might be desirable in achieving interoperability, this is unlikely in practice. However, semantic web vocabularies provide the means for asserting proximity and other relationships between items in different vocabularies, thus enabling mediation as an interoperability solution. Here we report on the development of a vocabulary for water quality observations in which recording relationships with existing vocabularies was a core strategy. The vocabulary is required to enable combination of a number of groundwater, surface water and marine water quality datasets on an ongoing basis. Our vocabulary model is based on the principle that observations generally report values of specific parameters which are defined by combining a number of facets. We start from Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Data Types (QUDT), which is an OWL ontology developed by NASA and TopQuadrant. We extend this with two additional classes, for Observed Property and Identified Object, and two linking properties, which enable us to create an observed property vocabulary for water quality applications. This ontology is comparable with models for observed properties developed as part of OGC's Observations and Measurements v1.0 standard, the INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model, and may also be compared with the W3C SSN Ontology, which is based on the DOLCE Ultralite upper-ontology. Water quality observations commonly report concentrations of chemicals, both natural and contaminant, so we tie many of the Identified Objects to items from Chemical Entities of Biological

  5. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules; Fayyed, Manar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD(5), COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1)d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560-2,568 mg L(-1) and 6.9E2-2.7E5 CFU mL(-1), respectively. The grey water compromises 64 to 85% of the total water flow in the rural and urban areas. Storing grey water is inevitable to meet reuse requirements in terms of volume and timing. All the studied grey waters need treatment, in terms of solids, BOD(5), COD and pathogens, before storage and reuse. Storage and physical treatment, as a pretreatment step should be avoided, since it produces unstable effluents and non-stabilized sludge. However, extensive biological treatment can combine storage and physical treatments. Furthermore, a batch-fed biological treatment system combining anaerobic and aerobic processes copes with the fluctuations in the hydrographs and pollutographs as well as the present nutrients. The inorganic content of grey water in Jordan is about drinking water quality and does not need treatment. Moreover, the grey water SAR values were 3-7, revealing that the concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations comply with agricultural demand in Jordan. The observed patterns in the hydrographs and pollutographs showed that the hydraulic load could be used for the design of both physical and biological treatment units for dormitories and hotels. For family houses the hydraulic load was identified as the key design parameter for physical treatment units and the organic load is the key design parameter for biological treatment units.

  6. Water quality-scarcity relationships in irrigated agriculture: Health risks and adaptation strategies associated with indirect wastewater reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban wastewater provides a reliable, nutrient rich source of irrigation water for downstream agricultural producers. However, globally, less than ten percent of collected wastewater receives any form of treatment, resulting in the widespread indirect reuse of untreated, diluted wastewater from surface water sources. This research explores these links between water scarcity, anthropogenic drivers of water quality, and adaptation strategies farmer's employ through a case study in Dharwad, a mid-sized South Indian city. This study took an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating survey based research with geospatial analysis, and molecular methods (for waterborne pathogen detection) to develop a systems level understanding of the drivers, health risks, and adaptation strategies associated with the indirect reuse of wastewater in irrigated agriculture. In Dharwad, farmers with better access to wastewater reported growing more water-intensive, but higher value vegetable crops. While farmers further downstream tended to grow more staple crops. This study evaluated levels of culturable E. coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotype gene targets to assess contamination in irrigation water, soil, and on produce from farms. Irrigation water source was a major factor affecting the concentrations of culturable E. coli detected in soil samples and on greens. However, even when irrigation water was not contaminated (all borewell water samples) some culturable E. coli were present at low concentrations in soil and on produce samples, suggesting additional sources of contamination on farms. Maximum temperatures within the previous week showed a significant positive association with concentrations of E. coli on wastewater irrigated produce. This presentation will focus on discussing the ways in which urban wastewater management, climate, irrigation practices and cultivation patterns all come together to define the risks and benefits posed via the indirect reuse of wastewater.

  7. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  8. Application of MF,Ozone and RO in Treatment of Municipal Sewage Reused as Circulating Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Reuse of treated municipal sewage as circulating cooling water of fossil-fired power plants is a very theme worthy to be studied and spread because of the water shortage in most areas of China. This paper presents a process using coagulation + MF + ozone + partial RO to deal with the recycled sewage after treated preliminarily in sewage treatment plant. The process solves effectively the problem of higher TDS and higher total hardness in product water in winter, thus is especially fit for cities where sewage quality changes obviously with seasons.

  9. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  10. Application of pressure assisted forward osmosis for water purification and reuse of reverse osmosis concentrate from a water reclamation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Jamil, Shazad

    2016-07-26

    The use of forward osmosis (FO) is growing among the researchers for water desalination and wastewater treatment due to use of natural osmotic pressure of draw solute. In this study pressure assisted forward osmosis (PAFO) was used instead of FO to increase the water production rate. In this study a low concentration of draw solution (0.25 M KCl) was applied so that diluted KCl after PAFO operation can directly be used for fertigation. The performance of PAFO was investigated for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a water reclamation plant. The water production in PAFO was increased by 9% and 29% at applied pressure of 2 and 4 bars, respectively, to feed side based on 90 h of experiments. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment and HCl softening were used to reduce organic fouling and scaling prior to application of PAFO. It reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) by around 90% and 85%, respectively from untreated ROC. Subsequently, this led to an increase in permeate flux. In addition, GAC pretreatment adsorbed 12 out of 14 organic micropollutants tested from ROC to below detection limit. This application enabled to minimise the ROC volume with a sustainable operation and produced high quality and safe water for discharge or reuse. The draw solution (0.25 M KCl) used in this study was diluted to 0.14 M KCl, which is a suitable concentration (10 kg/m3) for fertigation, due to water transport from feed solution. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore T. Tsotsis

    2005-12-01

    Our goal in this study is to utilize novel anionic clay sorbents for treating and reclaiming/reusing power-plant effluents, in particular, boiler blow-down waters containing heavy metals, such as As and Se. Developing and using novel materials for such application is dictated by the challenge posed by reclaiming and recycling these too-clean-to-clean effluent streams, generated during electricity production, whose contaminant levels are in the ppm/ppb (or even less) trace levels. During the study model blow-down streams have been treated in batch experiments. Adsorption isotherms as a function of pH/temperature have been established for both As and Se. Adsorption rates have also measured as a function of concentration, temperature, pH, and space time. For both the equilibrium and rate measurements, we have studied the As/Se interaction, and competition from background anions. A homogeneous surface diffusion model is used to describe the experimental kinetic data. The estimated diffusivity values are shown to depend on the particle size. On the other hand, a model taking into account the polycrystalline nature of these adsorbent particles, and the presence of an intercrystallite porous region predicts correctly that the surface diffusivity is particle size independent. A mathematical model to describe flow experiments in packed-beds has also been developed during phase I of this project. The goal is to validate this model with flow experiments in packed-beds during the phase II of this project, to determine the adsorption capacity under flow conditions, and to compare it with the capacity estimated from the adsorption isotherms determined from the batch studies.

  12. Vermitreatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewaters and Nutrient Bioassay of Treated Effluents for Reuse as Irrigation Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharda Dhadse

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was undertaken to study the low cost efficient treatment system for the treatment of high organically polluted industrial wastewater. The herbal and bulk drug pharmaceutical industry wastewaters were characterized and treated by vermifilter units and the treated effluents were assessed for its toxicity or nutrient enrichment by algal assay procedure to explore the feasibility of use of treated effluents for the agriculture. Both the raw wastewaters were observed to be high strength organic wastewaters with very high COD and BOD5 with dark yellow color. Results of study established vermitechnology as the low cost efficient method for the treatment of herbal and bulk drug pharmaceutical wastewaters. Significant observations were recorded with respect to reduction of color, heavy metals and pollutants, and stabilization of organic waste. The algal growth potential studies were carried out by using Scenedesmus bijugatus. The significant enhancement of algal growth in algal growth potential test indicated the value addition to the effluents during vermifiltration process in terms of nutrients and growth promoting factors. The effluents from low organic loading (0.8 kg COD/m3.d unit complied with the Indian standard for irrigation water while the effluents from higher organic loading (3.2 kg COD/m3 .d required further treatment for polishing. Vermifilter system was, thus, proved to be suitable for the treatment of organically polluted industrial effluents, for their value addition and making them suitable for further recycling and reuse in agriculture as aerial spray or a liquid manure to increase the productivity of crop.

  13. Effect of matrix components on UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) advanced oxidation processes for trace organic degradation in reverse osmosis brines from municipal wastewater reuse facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Pignatello, Joseph J; Ma, Jun; Mitch, William A

    2016-02-01

    When reverse osmosis brines from potable wastewater reuse plants are discharged to poorly-flushed estuaries, the concentrated organic contaminants are a concern for receiving water ecosystems. UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) and UV/persulfate (UV/S2O8(2-)) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may reduce contaminant burdens prior to discharge, but the effects of the high levels of halide, carbonate and effluent organic matter (EfOM) normally present in these brines are unclear. On the one hand, these substances may reduce process efficiency by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydroxyl (OH) and sulfate (SO4(-) radicals. On the other, the daughter radicals generated by halide and carbonate scavenging may themselves degrade organics, offsetting the effect of ROS scavenging. UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) AOPs were compared for degradation of five pharmaceuticals spiked into brines obtained from two reuse facilities and the RO influent from one of them. For UV/H2O2, EfOM scavenged ∼75% of the OH, reducing the degradation efficiency of the target contaminants to a similar extent; halide and carbonate scavenging and the reactivities of associated daughter radicals were less important. For UV/S2O8(2-), anions (mostly Cl(-)) scavenged ∼93% of the SO4(-). Because daughter radicals of Cl(-) contributed to contaminant degradation, the reduction in contaminant degradation efficiency was only ∼75-80%, with the reduction driven by daughter radical scavenging by EfOM. Conversion of SO4(-) to more selective halogen and carbonate radicals resulted in a wider range of degradation efficiencies among the contaminants. For both AOPs, 250 mJ/cm(2) average fluence achieved significant removal of four pharmaceuticals, with significantly better performance by UV/S2O8(2-) treatment for some constituents. Accounting for the lower brine flowrates, the energy output to achieve this fluence in brines is comparable to that often applied to RO permeates. However, much higher fluence was

  14. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  15. Biodiesel wash-water reuse using microfiltration: toward zero-discharge strategy for cleaner and economized biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jaber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple but economically feasible refining method to treat and re-use biodiesel wash-water was developed. In detail, microfiltration (MF through depth-filtration configuration was used in different hybrid modules. Then, the treated wash-water was mixed with clean water at different ratios, re-used for biodiesel purification and water-washing efficiency was evaluated based on methyl ester purity analysis. The findings of the present study revealed that depth-filtration-based MF combined with sand filtration/activated carbon separation and 70% dilution rate with fresh water not only achieved standard-quality biodiesel product but also led to up to 15% less water consumption after two rounds of production operations. This would be translated into a considerable reduction in the total volume of fresh water used during the operation process and would also strengthen the environmental-friendly aspects of the biodiesel production process for wastewater generation was obviously cut by the same rate as well.

  16. 给水厂生产尾水回用技术分析%Analysis of tail water reuse technology in water supply plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 李梅; 刘雷; 杨曦凯; 王静

    2011-01-01

    The reuse of tail water in water supply plants, including settling tank sludge water and filter backwash water, is of great significance to the protection of water resources. The reuse technologies such as direct reuse, membrane filtration and chemical treatment are discussed through the analysis of the features of tail water. From the perspective of the safety of drinking water, by analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the above technologies, it is believed that membrane filtration will gradually become the primary technology for recycling tail water in water supply plants.%给水厂生产尾水包括沉淀池排泥水和滤池反冲洗水,回用生产尾水对水资源的保护具有重要意义.通过分析生产尾水的水质特点,探讨了生产尾水直接回用、膜过滤、投加PAM化学药剂等几种处理技术,并对这几种技术的优缺点进行了分析和比较,得出从饮用水安全角度考虑,膜技术在给水厂生产尾水的回收利用方面会逐渐成为首选技术.

  17. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2016-12-30

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  18. Wastewater treatment and reuse in urban agriculture: exploring the food, energy, water, and health nexus in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Robbie, Leslie; Ramaswami, Anu; Amerasinghe, Priyanie

    2017-07-01

    Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared. The results are counter-intuitive, and illustrate potential synergies and key constraints relating to the food-energy-water-health (FEW-health) nexus in developing cities. First, when the impact of GHG emissions from untreated wastewater diluted in surface streams is compared with the life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment with reuse in agriculture, the treatment-plus-reuse case yields a 33% reduction in life cycle system-wide GHG emissions. Second, despite water cycling benefits in urban agriculture, only contamination and farmer behavior and harvesting practices. The study uncovers key physical, environmental, and behavioral factors that constrain benefits achievable at the FEW-health nexus in urban areas.

  19. Highly Water-Soluble Magnetic Nanoparticles as Novel Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Ming Ming

    2010-06-16

    Highly hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles have been molecularly designed. For the first time, the application of highly water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles as novel draw solutes in forward osmosis (FO) was systematically investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by various groups were synthesized to explore the correlation between the surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles and the achieved osmolality. We verified that magnetic nanoparticles capped with polyacrylic acid can yield the highest driving force and subsequently highest water flux among others. The used magnetic nanoparticles can be captured by the magnetic field and recycled back into the stream as draw solutes in the FO process. In addition, magnetic nanoparticles of different diameters were also synthesized to study the effect of particles size on FO performance. We demonstrate that the engineering of surface hydrophilicity and magnetic nanoparticle size is crucial in the application of nanoparticles as draw solutes in FO. It is believed that magnetic nanoparticles will soon be extensively used in this area. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Black water sludge reuse in agriculture: Are heavy metals a problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Rani, S.; Leal, L.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal content of sewage sludge is currently the most significant factor limiting its reuse in agriculture within the European Union. In the Netherlands most of the produced sewage sludge is incinerated, mineralizing the organic carbon into the atmosphere rather than returning it back to the so

  1. Implementation proposal of a water conservation and reuse program at the TRANSPETRO; Proposta de implementacao de um programa de conservacao e reuso de agua na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The great amount of water that is used by industries and the ascendant preoccupation about the quantity and quality of water resources in Brazil and in the world are important justifications to start thinking of more efficient proposals for water application. Between the alternatives for water consume reduction in industry there is the reuse as the principle of those. A study of PricewaterhouseCoopers about this matter at the main national industries identified that 48% have reuse goals. The present work intends to show a methodology and the justifications to implement a conservation and water reuse program at the Terminals of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO. Therefore are presented the many possible applications for reuse water at TRANSPETRO and the stages to the implementation of this kind of project. The methodology presented, based on FIESP Proposal, has as the objective both water consumed reduction and water discharged reduction. Then it must be realized an identification of several water consumed sources and water discharged sources, focusing on the many reuse possible. (author)

  2. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  3. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  4. Water reuse for irrigated agriculture in Jordan: challenges of soil sustainability and the role of management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G; Nortcliff, S; Potter, R B

    2010-11-28

    Reclaimed water provides an important contribution to the water balance in water-scarce Jordan, but the quality of this water presents both benefits and challenges. Careful management of reclaimed water is required to maximize the nutrient benefits while minimizing the salinity risks. This work uses a multi-disciplinary research approach to show that soil response to irrigation with reclaimed water is a function of the management strategies adopted on the farm by the water user. The adoption of management methods to maintain soil productivity can be seen to be a result of farmers' awareness to potentially plant-toxic ions in the irrigation water (70% of Jordan Valley farmers identified salinization as a hazard from irrigation with reclaimed water). However, the work also suggests that farmers' management capacity is affected by the institutional management of water. About a third (35%) of farmers in the Jordan Valley claimed that their ability to manage salinization was limited by water shortages. Organizational interviews revealed that institutional awareness of soil management challenges was quite high (34% of interviewees described salinization as a risk from water reuse), but strategies to address this challenge at the institutional level require greater development.

  5. The Water Reuse project: Sustainable waste water re-use technologies for irrigated land in NIS and southern European states; project overview and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, E.; Doerr, S.; Ritsema, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    In irrigated areas in the New Independent States (NIS) and southern European States, inefficient use of conventional water resources occurs through incomplete wetting of soils, which causes accelerated runoff and preferential flow, and also through excessive evaporation associated with unhindered capillary rise. Furthermore, a largely unexploited potential exists to save conventional irrigation water by supplementation with organic-rich waste water, which, if used appropriately, can also lead to improvements to soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. This project aims to (a) reduce irrigation water losses by developing, evaluating and promoting techniques that improve the wetting properties of soils, and (b) investigate the use of organic-rich waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation and, in addition, as a tool in improving soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. Key activities include (i) identifying, for the NIS and southern European partner countries, the soil type/land use combinations, for which the above approaches are expected to be most effective and their implementation most feasible, using physical and socio-economic research methods, and (ii) examining the water saving potential, physical, biological and chemical effects on soils of the above approaches, and also their impact on performance. Expected outputs include techniques for sustainable improvements in soil wettability management as a novel approach in water saving, detailed evaluation of the prospects and effects of using supplemental organic-rich waste waters in irrigation, an advanced process-based numerical hydrological model, fully adapted to quantify and upscale resulting water savings and nutrient and potential contaminant fluxes for irrigated areas, and identification of suitable areas in the NIS and Mediterranean (in soil, land use, legislative and socio-economic terms) for implementation.

  6. The Design of Water-reusing Network with a Hybrid Structure Through Mathematical Programming%通过数学规划方法设计具有混合结构的水回用网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 段海涛; 冯霄

    2008-01-01

    A new design method for a water-reusing network, with a hybrid structure, to reduce the complexity of the network and to minimize freshwater consumption, is proposed. The unique feature of the methodology proposed in this article is to control the complexity of the water network by regulation of the control number in a water-reusing system. It combines the advantages of a conventional water-reusing network and a water-reusing network with internal water mains. To illustrate the proposed method, a single contaminant system and a multiple contaminant system serve as examples of the problems.

  7. Multi-objective models of waste load allocation toward a sustainable reuse of drainage water in irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ayman; Tawfik, Ahmed; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fleifle, Amr

    2016-06-01

    The present study proposes a waste load allocation (WLA) framework for a sustainable quality management of agricultural drainage water (ADW). Two multi-objective models, namely, abatement-performance and abatement-equity-performance, were developed through the integration of a water quality model (QAUL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm, by considering (1) the total waste load abatement, and (2) the inequity among waste dischargers. For successfully accomplishing modeling tasks, we developed a comprehensive overall performance measure (E wla ) reflecting possible violations of Egyptian standards for ADW reuse in irrigation. This methodology was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, during both summer and winter seasons of 2012. Abatement-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 100 % corresponded to the abatement ratio of the dischargers ranging from 20.7 to 75.6 % and 29.5 to 78.5 % in summer and in winter, respectively, alongside highly shifting inequity values. Abatement-equity-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 90 % unraveled the necessity of increasing treatment efforts in three out of five dischargers during summer, and four out of five in winter. The trade-off curves obtained from WLA models proved their reliability in selecting appropriate WLA procedures as a function of budget constraints, principles of social equity, and desired overall performance level. Hence, the proposed framework of methodologies is of great importance to decision makers working toward a sustainable reuse of the ADW in irrigation.

  8. A Study of Failure Events in Drinking Water Systems As a Basis for Comparison and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Potable Reuse Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Laura A; Quinn, Chloe; Tng, Keng H; Wood, James G; Leslie, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Potable reuse is implemented in several countries around the world to augment strained water supplies. This article presents a public health perspective on potable reuse by comparing the critical infrastructure and institutional capacity characteristics of two well-established potable reuse schemes with conventional drinking water schemes in developed nations that have experienced waterborne outbreaks. Analysis of failure events in conventional water systems between 2003 and 2013 showed that despite advances in water treatment technologies, drinking water outbreaks caused by microbial contamination were still frequent in developed countries and can be attributed to failures in infrastructure or institutional practices. Numerous institutional failures linked to ineffective treatment protocols, poor operational practices, and negligence were detected. In contrast, potable reuse schemes that use multiple barriers, online instrumentation, and operational measures were found to address the events that have resulted in waterborne outbreaks in conventional systems in the past decade. Syndromic surveillance has emerged as a tool in outbreak detection and was useful in detecting some outbreaks; increases in emergency department visits and GP consultations being the most common data source, suggesting potential for an increasing role in public health surveillance of waterborne outbreaks. These results highlight desirable characteristics of potable reuse schemes from a public health perspective with potential for guiding policy on surveillance activities.

  9. Treatment and desalination of domestic wastewater for water reuse in a four-chamber microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have been studied for contaminant removal from wastewater and salinity reduction in saline water. However, in an MDC wastewater treatment and desalination occurs in different streams, and high salinity of the treated wastewater creates challenges for wastewater reuse. Herein, a single-stream MDC (SMDC) with four chambers was developed for simultaneous organic removal and desalination in the same synthetic wastewater. This SMDC could achieve a desalination rate of 12.2-31.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) and remove more than 90 % of the organics and 75 % of NH4 (+)-N; the pH imbalance between the anode and cathode chambers was also reduced. Several strategies such as controlling catholyte pH, increasing influent COD concentration, adopting the batch mode, applying external voltage, and increasing the alkalinity of wastewater were investigated for improving the SMDC performance. Under a condition of 0.4 V external voltage, anolyte pH adjustment, and a batch mode, the SMDC decreased the wastewater salinity from 1.45 to below 0.75 mS cm(-1), which met the salinity standard of wastewater for irrigation. Those results encourage further development of the SMDC technology for sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  10. Reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in a continuous stirred tank reactor for phosphate removal from urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    This work proposed a new approach of reusing drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to remove phosphate (P) from urban wastewater. The results revealed that the P removal efficiency of the WTR was more than 94% for urban wastewater, in the condition of initial P concentration (P0) of 10 mg L⁻¹, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h and WTR dosage (M0) of 10 g L⁻¹. The P mass transfer from the bulk to the solid-liquid interface in the CSTR system increased at lower P0, higher M0 and longer HRT. The P adsorption capacity of WTR from urban wastewater was comparable to that of the 201 × 4 resin and unaffected by ions competition. Moreover, WTR had a limited effect on the metals' (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni) concentrations of the urban wastewater. Based on the principle of waste recycling, the reuse of WTR in CSTR is a promising alternative technology for P removal from urban wastewater.

  11. Circular economy in drinking water treatment: reuse of ground pellets as seeding material in the pellet softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, M J A; van der Hoek, J P; Kramer, O J I; Kors, L J; Palmen, L J; Hofs, B; Koppers, H

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate pellets are produced as a by-product in the pellet softening process. In the Netherlands, these pellets are applied as a raw material in several industrial and agricultural processes. The sand grain inside the pellet hinders the application in some high-potential market segments such as paper and glass. Substitution of the sand grain with a calcite grain (100% calcium carbonate) is in principle possible, and could significantly improve the pellet quality. In this study, the grinding and sieving of pellets, and the subsequent reuse as seeding material in pellet softening were tested with two pilot reactors in parallel. In one reactor, garnet sand was used as seeding material, in the other ground calcite. Garnet sand and ground calcite performed equally well. An economic comparison and a life-cycle assessment were made as well. The results show that the reuse of ground calcite as seeding material in pellet softening is technologically possible, reduces the operational costs by €38,000 (1%) and reduces the environmental impact by 5%. Therefore, at the drinking water facility, Weesperkarspel of Waternet, the transition from garnet sand to ground calcite will be made at full scale, based on this pilot plant research.

  12. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalytic treatment of organics, including regulated and contaminants of emerging concern, has been an important area of this field. Details are provided on the mechanism of degradation, reaction intermediates, kinetics, and nanointerfacial adsorption phenomena. The degradat...

  13. Wastewater infiltration percolation for water reuse and receiving body protection: thirteen years' experience in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F; Salgot, M; Folch, M; Auset, M; Huertas, E; Torrens, A

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration percolation (IP) is an extensive technology to treat primary or secondary effluents of small and middle size communities before reuse or disposal to sensitive receiving bodies. Thirteen years of implementation of IP in Spain has highlighted the necessity to abide by defined design and construction rules and operation conditions in order to achieve consistently the treatment objectives and guarantee a long lasting treatment capacity. From this experience, high care should be taken of (i) the characteristics of the sand constituting the filter, (ii) the drainage conditions, (iii) the influent spreading over the infiltration surface and (iv) the risks related to recurrent overloading. Simple monitoring measures are suggested in order to improve the reliability of IP plants.

  14. Mobil pilot unit of the advanced oxidation process for waste water treatment and reuse of the hydrics effluents; Unidade piloto movel de processo oxidativo avancado aplicado a tratamento e reuso de efluentes hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Lucia Maria Limoeiro; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Henriques, Sheyla de Oliveira Carvalho; Jacinto Junior, Agenor [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The chemical oxidation processes which generate free hydroxyl radicals are called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). These processes have been studied, in the last decades, as a new alternative for pollutants degradation. In the (AOP)'s there are in situ formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}), which are highly oxidant. Its high oxidation strength becomes it indicated in the treatment of effluent with highly refractory contaminants. It can be used as a partial treatment (taking the effluent to more degradable compounds), as a final treatment (taking the effluent to complete mineralization) or as a complementary treatment to other processes, allowing, for example, its reuse. The applicability of this technology in oily water effluents in all segments of the oil industry, has taken to the development, in the LARA (Laboratory of Treatment and Reuse of Waters - CENPES), of the Advanced Oxidation Process Mobile Pilot Unit (AOP's- MU) with capacity up to 1 m3/h. The (AOP's- MU) are able to produce hydroxyl radical from Fenton's reaction, titanium dioxide heterogeneous photo catalysis and hydrogen peroxide, photo-radiated or not. It is equipped with ultraviolet reactors of different wave lengths and power. (author)

  15. Study to Urban Wastewater Reuse and Water Resources Recycling%城市污水资源化与水资源循环利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪彪; 武伟亚

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present situation of water resources shortage, and puts forward the concept of urban wastewater reuse strategies. For the purpose of effectively recycling water resources, the paper suggests a more concrete realization of wastewater reuse policy.%  分析了我国水资源匮乏的现状,提出了城市污水资源化的策略理念。为了实现水资源有效循环利用,提出了较为具体的实现污水资源化的政策路径与方法。

  16. Characterization and treatment of grey water : option for (re)use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Addressing the issues of water shortage and appropriate sanitation in Jordan, domestic grey water treatment receives growing interest. Grey water comprises the domestic wastewater flows excluding waters associated with the toilet. The topics of concern for grey water are its characteristics, treatme

  17. Water Cycle Management: A New Paradigm of Wastewater Reuse and Safety Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Chongmiao; Ma, Xiaoyan; Luo, Li

    2015-01-01

    .... It introduces a new water cycle management concept for designing water systems that mimic the hydrological cycle, where reclaimed water is produced, stored/regulated, supplied and used in a semi...

  18. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  19. Antibiotic resistance genes fate and removal by a technological treatment solution for water reuse in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luprano, Maria Laura; De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Lopez, Antonio; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-11-15

    In order to mitigate the potential effects on the human health which are associated to the use of treated wastewater in agriculture, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are required to be carefully monitored in wastewater reuse processes and their spread should be prevented by the development of efficient treatment technologies. Objective of this study was the assessment of ARGs reduction efficiencies of a novel technological treatment solution for agricultural reuse of municipal wastewaters. The proposed solution comprises an advanced biological treatment (Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor, SBBGR), analysed both al laboratory and pilot scale, followed by sand filtration and two different disinfection final stages: ultraviolet light (UV) radiation and peracetic acid (PAA) treatments. By Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the presence of 9 ARGs (ampC, mecA, ermB, sul1, sul2, tetA, tetO, tetW, vanA) were analysed and by quantitative PCR (qPCR) their removal was determined. The obtained results were compared to the reduction of total bacteria (16S rDNA gene) and of a faecal contamination indicator (Escherichia coli uidA gene). Only four of the analysed genes (ermB, sul1, sul2, tetA) were detected in raw wastewater and their abundance was estimated to be 3.4±0.7 x10(4) - 9.6±0.5 x10(9) and 1.0±0.3 x10(3) to 3.0±0.1 x10(7) gene copies/mL in raw and treated wastewaters, respectively. The results show that SBBGR technology is promising for the reduction of ARGs, achieving stable removal performance ranging from 1.0±0.4 to 2.8±0.7 log units, which is comparable to or higher than that reported for conventional activated sludge treatments. No reduction of the ARGs amount normalized to the total bacteria content (16S rDNA), was instead obtained, indicating that these genes are removed together with total bacteria and not specifically eliminated. Enhanced ARGs removal was obtained by sand filtration, while no reduction was achieved by both UV and PAA disinfection

  20. Wastewater and greywater reuse on irrigation in centralized and decentralized systems--an integrated approach on water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, C; Pereira, S; Amorim, E V; Bentes, I; Briga-Sá, A

    2014-09-15

    Wastewater and greywater have different scales of end-uses in irrigation in Portugal. Wastewater is treated in a central wastewater treatment plant and reused in public/private large areas of irrigation, like agriculture, public gardens and golf courses. On the contrary, greywater reuse is generally applied in in situ small scales, treated and used in the same place, generally in the production site. The main aim of this paper is to compare the two types of systems: a wastewater centralized reuse system (WWCRS) and a greywater decentralized reuse system (GWDRS) in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper, the main characteristics of both streams are presented and the degree of treatment required in each stream is analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of its reuse in different scales, in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are discussed. A methodology to calculate the energy consumptions and CO2 emissions related to wastewater treatment that may be applied in different cases is presented. A hypothetical example of the two systems: one referring to a WWCRS and the other to a GWDRS is presented. The energy consumption and the CO2 emissions are analyzed and compared. The WWCRS needs a higher degree of treatment and so it spends more energy and leads to more CO2 emissions to the environment than the GWDRS that consumed between 11.8 and 37.5% of the energy consumed in the WWCRS considering the same number of inhabitants served.

  1. 基于水资源再利用的自动蓄水循环系统%Automatic water storage and recycling system based on water reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    角文滨; 徐镇标; 林普靖; 严庆东; 温耀龙; 李克天

    2011-01-01

    Automatic water storage and recycling system for water reuse,as well as a new type of concept house were put forward.It was suggested to avoid rush hour of water use in summer,and make use of high water pressure at night to replenish the water tank automa%提出一种居民家庭自动蓄水循环系统和二次循环水利用及新型概念房的构想。通过错过夏天用水高峰时段,合理利用夜晚水压进行水箱日常用水的自动补给。中水回用和雨水收集使得在概念房的有限面积内达到最大的水循环利用效率。

  2. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  3. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  4. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J F; Esteves, V I; Santos, E B H

    2016-06-01

    Oxytracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic authorized for use in European aquaculture. Its photo-degradation has been widely studied in synthetic aqueous solutions, sometimes resorting to expensive methods and without proven effectiveness in natural waters. Thus, this work studied the possibility to apply the solar photo-degradation for removal of OTC from marine aquaculture's waters. For that, water samples were collected at different locals of the water treatment circuit, from two different aquaculture companies. Water samples were firstly characterized regarding to pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), organic carbon and UV-Vis spectroscopic characteristics. Then, the samples were spiked with OTC and irradiated using simulated sunlight in order to evaluate the matrix effects on OTC photo-degradation. From kinetic results, the apparent quantum yields and the outdoor half-life times, at 40°N for midsummer and midwinter days were estimated by the first time for these conditions. For a midsummer day, at sea level, the outdoor half-life time predicted for OTC in these aquaculture's waters ranged between 21 and 25 min. Additionally, the pH and salinity effects on the OTC photo-degradation were evaluated and it has been shown that high pH values and the presence of sea salt increase the OTC photo-degradation rate in aquaculture's waters, compared to results in deionised water. The results are very promising to apply this low-cost methodology using the natural sunlight in aquaculture's waters to remove OTC.

  5. Water reuse for domestic consumption. A key element for environmental and economic sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, José; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de

    2013-01-01

    In a context of increasing social awareness about resources conservation, residential water management is essential in ensuring environmental and economic sustainability. An adequate management is attained with integrated solutions, which simultaneously reduce potable water consumption at least in 25% and enable the storage of recovered water. The recovery and storage of underground water can be ensured with the installation of a groundwater drainage network and an underground water deposi...

  6. "Recovery of Iron Coagulants From Tehran Water-Treatment-Plant Sludge for Reusing in Textile Wastewater Treatment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vaezi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water treatment plants in Iran discharge their sludge to the environment whithout consideration of possible side effects. Since this kind of sludge is generally considered pollutant, the sludge treatment of water industry seems to be an essential task. Obviously theweight and volume of solids produced during the coagulation process are much more than other wastes of water treatment operations, and their treatment is much more difficult as well. Besides, this sludge contains metal hydroxide so disposing of it would waste considerable amounts of valuable metal salts. To face the mentioned problems, reclamation of coagulatns from waste sludges for reuse has been investigated in this research. Among different chemicals used in the experiments of recovery, sulfuric-acid showed better results from both practical and cost viewpoints. Three important phenomena were observed by sludge acidificantion: dissolution of metal hydroxide, reduction of sludge volume and finally faster settleability and dryness of remainder sludge. The salt recovered by sulfuric acid from the sludges of Tehran Water-Treatment Plant was ferric sulfate which showed good results in the treatment of two different types of wastewaters from textile industry.

  7. The potential role of biochar in the removal of organic and microbial contaminants from potable and reuse water: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the potential benefits, economics, and challenges of applying biochar in water treatment operations to remove organic and microbial contaminants was reviewed. Minimizing the use of relatively more expensive traditional sorbents in water treatment is a motivating aspect of biochar production, e.g., $246/ton non-activated biochar to $1500/ton activated carbon. Biochar can remove organic contaminants in water, such as some pesticides (0.02-23 mg g(-1)), pharmaceutical and personal care products (0.001-59 mg g(-1)), dyes (2-104 mg g(-1)), humic acid (60 mg g(-1)), perfluorooctane sulfonate (164 mg g(-1)), and N-nitrosomodimethylamine (3 mg g(-1)). Including adsorption/filtration applications, biochar can potentially be used to inactivate Escherichia coli via disinfection, and transform 95% of 2-chlorobiphenyl via advanced oxidation processes. However, more sorption data using biochar especially at demonstration-scale, for treating potable and reuse water in adsorption/filtration applications will help establish the potential of biochars to serve as surrogates for activated carbons.

  8. Reuse of reclaimed water in production%“中水”在生产中的重复利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李缙一; 刘兴胜

    2013-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water was one of effective ways in many aspects, such as developing resources and reducing expenditure; lightening the water pollution degree, improving the environment, coordinating the imbalance between supply and demand of water resource, promoting sustainable development of urban economy and society, etc. The paper introduced by example the method of recovery and utilization of reclaimed water, together with required cost and economic benefit possibly gained, which could be used as a reference by relevant people.%  “中水”回用是开源节流、减轻水体污染、改善生态环境、缓解水资源供需矛盾和促进城市经济社会可持续发展的有效途径。通过实例介绍了“中水”回收利用的方法、需要的资金及产生的经济效益等,可供相关人士参考。

  9. Analysis and Thoughts on Water Reuse%对再生水利用的分析及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏蔚; 高菲

    2015-01-01

    With the development of social economy and urbanization, people's needs for water are growing constantly.While water resources are limited, reclaimed water has received lots of attentions from the public thanks to its stable water quantity and environmentally friendly characteristics.It has been widely applied in cities all over the world.Now the research on techniques is relatively mature.It's necessary to see from the view of planning in order to review reclaimed water usage and the reasonable water reuse percentage as well as prevent homogeneity of water reclaiming standards in different areas.This paper provides reference for decision-making and promotes sustainable development of water resources.%随着社会经济的持续发展和城市化步伐的加快,人们对水资源的需求日益增加;面对有限的水资源,再生水因水量稳定可控、环保可持续的特点而倍受关注,再生水的应用也在国内外城市广泛开展.现阶段对再生水技术层面的研究已经较为成熟,有必要从规划的角度出发,对国内外再生水回用的方向和不同阶段的再生水回用率情况进行梳理,避免不同地区再生水回用率标准的同质化,为科学合理的确定再生水回用途径和回用目标提供参考和依据,有效推动水资源可持续发展.

  10. Potential for mine water reuse in an abandoned coal mine in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A.; Garcia-Ordiales, E.; Loredo, J. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated the potential re-utilization of mine water in industrial activities. Mine water characterization studies were conducted to evaluate mine waters from the abandoned La Camocha Mine in northwestern Spain. Hydrochemical studies have indicated that the water is bicarbonated with a low sulphate and iron content, and a neutral pH. The concentrations of trace metals are below water legislation for human consumption levels. The water can economically be transported for use in the irrigation of a botanical garden and sports centre located in the same region as the mine. Use of the water will help to preserve rivers and other waterways in the region, and may also minimize the environmental impacts of pumping activities at the mine. Fluid properties for various water samples were provided. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  11. Degradation of crosslinked polyethylene in water by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsuro; Takano, Tadao; Takayama, Shigeru; Ito, Masayuki; Narisawa, Ikuo

    2002-02-01

    The degradation of crosslinked polyethylene by gamma-irradiation in water was studied. Change in the physical properties and the growth of carbonyl group after irradiation showed a good correlation. The degradation observed at 80°C is the least, and that at 60°C is the severest. The distribution of the oxidized layer in the sample was measured and was also calculated from the diffusion model using the observed parameters. Comparison of both results suggest that some products caused by gamma-irradiation of water supress the degradation of XLPE at 80°C.

  12. A Procedure for Evaluating Subpotable Water Reuse Potential at Army Fixed Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Information Systems Co., 1980). Eckenfelder , W. W., Principles of Water Quality Management (CBI Publishing Co., 1980), p 11. Energy Conservation in Municipal...August 1979). 2. W. W. Eckenfelder , Principles of Water Quality Management (CBI Publishing Co., 1980), p 11. 3. David K. Todd, ed., The Water... Eckenfelder , W. W., Jr., "Removal of ABS and Phosphate From Laundry Waste Waters," Proc. 19th Purdue Conference (1964), pp 467-478. 19. Redux Corporation, Redux

  13. Use of a phytotoxicity test to screen drain water before re-use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Boer-Tersteeg, de P.M.; Maas, van der A.A.; Khodabaks, M.R.; Enthoven, N.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recycling of the nutrient solution during cultivation of greenhouse crops reduces the total input of water and fertilizers and decreases emission of nutrients to the environment. However growers fear accumulation of harmful substances in the drain water. For this reason drain water in practice is

  14. Use of a phytotoxicity test to screen drain water before re-use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Boer-Tersteeg, de P.M.; Maas, van der A.A.; Khodabaks, M.R.; Enthoven, N.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recycling of the nutrient solution during cultivation of greenhouse crops reduces the total input of water and fertilizers and decreases emission of nutrients to the environment. However growers fear accumulation of harmful substances in the drain water. For this reason drain water in practice is re

  15. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  16. Financial feasibility of end-user designed rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse systems for high water use households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Ocaña, Edgar Ricardo; Dominguez, Isabel; Ward, Sarah; Rivera-Sanchez, Miryam Lizeth; Zaraza-Peña, Julian Mauricio

    2017-03-30

    Water availability pressures, competing end-uses and sewers at capacity are all drivers for change in urban water management. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) and greywater reuse (GWR) systems constitute alternatives to reduce drinking water usage and in the case of RWH, reduce roof runoff entering sewers. Despite the increasing popularity of installations in commercial buildings, RWH and GWR technologies at a household scale have proved less popular, across a range of global contexts. For systems designed from the top-down, this is often due to the lack of a favourable cost-benefit (where subsidies are unavailable), though few studies have focused on performing full capital and operational financial assessments, particularly in high water consumption households. Using a bottom-up design approach, based on a questionnaire survey with 35 households in a residential complex in Bucaramanga, Colombia, this article considers the initial financial feasibility of three RWH and GWR system configurations proposed for high water using households (equivalent to >203 L per capita per day). A full capital and operational financial assessment was performed at a more detailed level for the most viable design using historic rainfall data. For the selected configuration ('Alt 2'), the estimated potable water saving was 44% (equivalent to 131 m(3)/year) with a rate of return on investment of 6.5% and an estimated payback period of 23 years. As an initial end-user-driven design exercise, these results are promising and constitute a starting point for facilitating such approaches to urban water management at the household scale.

  17. Osmotic versus conventional membrane bioreactors integrated with reverse osmosis for water reuse: Biological stability, membrane fouling, and contaminant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Phan, Hop V; Xie, Ming; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-02-01

    This study systematically compares the performance of osmotic membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) and conventional membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Both systems achieved effective removal of bulk organic matter and nutrients, and almost complete removal of all 31 trace organic contaminants investigated. They both could produce high quality water suitable for recycling applications. During OMBR-RO operation, salinity build-up in the bioreactor reduced the water flux and negatively impacted the system biological treatment by altering biomass characteristics and microbial community structure. In addition, the elevated salinity also increased soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances in the mixed liquor, which induced fouling of the forward osmosis (FO) membrane. Nevertheless, microbial analysis indicated that salinity stress resulted in the development of halotolerant bacteria, consequently sustaining biodegradation in the OMBR system. By contrast, biological performance was relatively stable throughout conventional MBR-RO operation. Compared to conventional MBR-RO, the FO process effectively prevented foulants from permeating into the draw solution, thereby significantly reducing fouling of the downstream RO membrane in OMBR-RO operation. Accumulation of organic matter, including humic- and protein-like substances, as well as inorganic salts in the MBR effluent resulted in severe RO membrane fouling in conventional MBR-RO operation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial degradation of xenobiotic, aromatic pollutants in humic water.

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, P.; Okla, L; Tranvik, L.

    1988-01-01

    The microbial degradation of a number of 14C-labeled, recalcitrant, aromatic pollutants, including trichloroguaiacol and di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenol, was investigated in aquatic model systems in the laboratory. Natural, mixed cultures of microorganisms in the water from a brown-water lake with a high content of humic compounds mineralized all of the tested substances to a higher degree than did microorganisms in the water from a clear-water lake. Dichlorophenol was the most rapidly degra...

  19. Degrading and Detoxifying Industrial Waste Water using Bioremediation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, P K; Sangeet Prabha; Shalu Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation uses various microorganisms to detoxify or degrade various harmful substances in the nature, particularly soil and water. In the proposed work, five species of micro-organisms were used to analyse their impact on various physico-chemical parameters of water. In the first attempt the actual physico chemical parameters of the collected sample water were noted down (Fresh sample parameters). Then the sample water was treated with micro-organisms (one at a time). The growth of micr...

  20. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura

    2017-03-10

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil. Results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the commercial hydroponic nutrient solution (i.e. solution containing water and essential nutrients) exhibited similar performance (i.e., water flux and reverse salt flux) to other inorganic draw solutions when treating synthetic wastewater. The use of hydroponic solution is highly advantageous since it provides all the required macro- (i.e., N, P and K) and micronutrients (i.e., Ca, Mg, S, Mn, B, Zn and Mo) in a single balanced solution and can therefore be used directly after dilution without the need to add any elements. After long-term operation (i.e. up to 75% water recovery), different physical cleaning methods were tested and results showed that hydraulic flushing can effectively restore up to 75% of the initial water flux while osmotic backwashing was able to restore the initial water flux by more than 95%; illustrating the low-fouling potential of the FDFO process. Pilot-scale studies demonstrated that the FDFO process is able to produce the required nutrient concentration and final water quality (i.e., pH and conductivity) suitable for hydroponic applications. Coupling FDFO with pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) in the later stages could help in saving operational costs (i.e., energy and membrane replacement costs). Finally, the test application of nutrient solution produced by the pilot FDFO process to hydroponic lettuce showed similar growth pattern as the control without any signs of nutrient deficiency.

  1. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Mackie, Roderick I

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the "perfect microbial storm". Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  2. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick I. Mackie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  3. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  4. Produced water reuse aiming reinjection; Reuso de agua produzida visando reinjecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Hora, Jairo Maynard da Fonseca; Guilherme, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As an oil reservoir goes aging, the BSW (water and solid content associated to the crude oil ) from the produced oil increase acutely. As this associated water is isolated from the crude oil, it presents several contaminants with concentrations above to that specified in the environmental norms for its discharge. Attending the environmental legislation, some times, is very difficult and can even enable the entire project. As the reservoir becomes old, enhance techniques are necessary to maintain the oil producing. A common recovery mechanism, called secondary recovery, is the water injection. Commonly the water for secondary recovery is not easily available. The main objective of this work is present a treatment system for produced water used in a specific field in the Northwest region. This treatment involves reinjection of this water after filtration. We will have a high environmental benefited, avoiding the discharge of produced water, highly toxic, and at the same time enhanced the oil production. In this work, we develop a method to modify the physical chemistry characteristics of the produced water and increase the treatment process efficiency. (author)

  5. Growth inhibition caused by reused drainage water; quest for cause and measuring method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der A.A.; Blok, C.; Driever, S.M.; Warmenhoven, M.G.; Meijer, R.J.M.; Marrewijk, van I.; Holtman, W.; Oppedijk, B.

    2014-01-01

    Growth inhibition is often a reason for growers to refresh the recirculation water and to discharge the excess water. The cause of growth inhibition other than a high concentration of sodium or a disease is usually unclear. Objectives of the study were the determination of the cause of growth

  6. Degradation of tributyltin in San Diego Bay, California, waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, P.F.; Valkirs, A.O.; Lee, R.F.

    1986-12-01

    Several experiments were carried out to determine the degradation rate of tributyltin (TBT) in microcosms containing harbor water. Unlabeled or /sup 14/C-labeled tributyltin was added to water samples collected from two stations in San Diego Bay, CA. Degradation rates were determined by calculating the rate of loss of the added parent TBT compound. Calculated half-lives in water collected from a yacht harbor (ambient concentration was 0.5 ..mu..g of TBT/L) were 6 and 7 days for light and dark treatments, respectively. Half-lives from a clean-water site (< 0.03 ..mu..g of TBT/L) were 9 and 19 days for light and dark treatments, respectively. The principal degradation product in all experiments was dibutyltin with lesser amounts of monobutyltin. Complete mineralization, measured by the formation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, proceeded slowly with a half-life of 50-75 days. Tributyltin at high concentrations (744 ..mu..g/L) was not degraded in sunlight, indicating that photolysis was not taking place and that biological degradation was the primary degradative process for TBT at low ambient concentrations.

  7. Regenerated water reuse as a merging alternative for water stress reduction and sustainable management of water resources; La reutilizacion de aguas depuradas como alternative emergente para la reduccion del estres hidrico y la gestion sostenible del recurso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urkiaga, A.; Fuentes, L de as; Etxebarria, J.

    2003-07-01

    This work offers a wide and updated overview of the potential of reuse of treated wastewater. This option, together with desalination are the two most promising alternatives to overcome the increasing water stress (as alternative sources of water) and valuable tools to fulfil with a sustainable water management. In this article legislative, quality and technology issues are tackled both in the national and world levels. Furthermore, some experiences of Gaiker on this topic are pointed out. (Author) 26 refs.

  8. Impact of treated wastewater reuse and floods on water quality and fish health within a water reservoir in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibel, Inbal; Zilberg, Dina; Groisman, Ludmila; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-15

    Treated wastewater (TWW) reuse for agricultural irrigation is a well-established approach to coping with water shortages in semi-arid and arid environments. Recently, additional uses of TWW have emerged, including streamflow augmentation and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the water quality and fish health, in an artificial reservoir located in an arid climate (the Yeruham Reservoir, Israel), which regularly receives TWW and sporadic winter floods. The temporal distribution of water levels, nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) were measured during the years 2013-2014. OMPs were also measured in sediment and fish tissues. Finally, the status of fish health was evaluated by histopathology. Water levels and quality were mainly influenced by seasonal processes such as floods and evaporation, and not by the discharge of TWW. Out of 16 tested OMPs, estrone, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bezafibrate were found in the reservoir water, but mostly at concentrations below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for fish. Concentrations of PCBs and dioxins in fish muscle and liver were much lower than the EU maximal permitted concentrations, and similar to concentrations that were found in food fish in Israel and Europe. In the histopathological analysis, there were no evident tissue abnormalities, and low to moderate infection levels of fish parasites were recorded. The results from the Yeruham Reservoir demonstrated a unique model for the mixture effect between TWW reuse and natural floods to support a unique stable and thriving ecosystem in a water reservoir located in an arid region. This type of reservoir can be widely used for recreation, education, and the social and economic development of a rural environment, such as has occurred in the Yeruham region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic Analysis on Wastewater Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushan WAN; Na LI

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The shortage of water resources social development. Wastewater reuse is an has become a major limiting factor for effective solution to solve water short- ages, which not only has economic benefits, but also has significant social and en- vironmental benefits. The economic evaluation is an important component in the study of wastewater reuse feasibility and the basis for the program optimization and economic feasibility determination.

  10. Quantifying human exposure to contaminants for multiple-barrier water reuse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S J; McDonald, J A

    2010-01-01

    Reliance upon advanced water treatment processes to provide safe drinking water from relatively compromised sources is rapidly increasing in Australia and other parts of the world. Advanced treatment processes such as reverse osmosis have the ability to provide very effective treatment for a wide range of chemicals when operated under optimal conditions. However, techniques are required to comprehensively validate the performance of these treatment processes in the field. This paper provides a discussion and demonstration of some effective statistical techniques for the assessment and description of advanced water treatment plant performance. New data is provided, focusing on disinfection byproducts including trihalomethanes and N-nitrosamines from a recent comprehensive quantitative exposure assessment for an advanced water recycling scheme in Australia.

  11. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a “bath” to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum, and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1 days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals

  12. A flexible modelling environment for integrated urban water harvesting and re-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graddon, A R; Kuczera, G; Hardy, M J

    2011-01-01

    The steady increase of urban population and the possible effects of climate change that may adversely affect the amount of water available in current water supply systems, makes the study of stormwater and rainwater harvesting and wastewater recycling a high priority. The basic proposition is that any system of water supply that can reduce the amount of water drawn from main reservoirs will be of benefit to the whole supply region especially in terms of drought security. This paper describes a versatile modelling framework which can simulate a wide variety of combinations of centralised and decentralised Integrated Urban Water Management schemes from the allotment to the whole suburb scale. The framework combines two modelling approaches. The first, called urbanCycle, simulates water supply and demand, stormwater and wastewater using allotments as the basic building block. Although urbanCycle can simulate processes in great detail, it assumes that the network forms a directed acyclic graph. This simplifies the connectivity logic but precludes investigation of systems with decentralised storage, feedbacks and multiple supply paths. To overcome this, a second model, called urbanNet, based on network linear programming, is embedded in the urbanCycle framework to enable the modelling of recycling and harvesting options, as well as on-the-fly supply and demand decision making, based on objectives rather than pre-set operating rules.

  13. Microbiological implications of periurban agriculture and water reuse in Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Mazari-Hiriart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recycled treated or untreated wastewater represents an important health challenge in developing countries due to potential water related microbiological exposure. Our aim was to assess water quality and health implications in a Mexico City periurban agricultural area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study in the Xochimilco wetland area was conducted, and 42 sites were randomly selected from 211, including irrigation water canals and effluents of treatment plants. Sample collection took place during rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001. Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci/enterococci, and bacteria other than Vibrio grown on TCBS, Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters including trihalomethanes (THM were determined. Fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci are appropriate indicators of human or animal fecal contamination. Fecal coliform counts surpass Mexican and World Health Organization irrigation water guidelines. Identified microorganisms associated with various pathologies in humans and domestic animals comprise Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp., Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp; H. pylori was also present in the water. An environmental characteristic of the canal system showed high Total Organic Carbon content and relatively low dissolved oxygen concentration; residual chlorine as a disinfection control is not efficient, but THMs do not represent a problem. During the rainy season, temperature and conductivity were higher; in contrast, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, and residual chlorine were lower. This is related with the continuous load of feces from human and animal sources, and to the aquatic systems, which vary seasonally and exhibit evidence of lower water quality in effluents from treatment plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for improvement of wastewater treatment systems, as well as more efficient

  14. Deficit irrigation of a landscape halophyte for reuse of saline waste water in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.P.; Mckeon, C.; Gerhart, V.; Nagler, P.L.; Jordan, F.; Artiola, J.

    2009-01-01

    Saline waste waters from industrial and water treatment processes are an under-utilized resource in desert urban environments. Management practices to safely use these water sources are still in development. We used a deeprooted native halophyte, Atriplex lentiformis (quailbush), to absorb mildly saline effluent (1800 mg l-1 total dissolved solids, mainly sodium sulfate) from a water treatment plant in the desert community of Twentynine Palms, California. We developed a deficit irrigation strategy to avoid discharging water past the root zone to the aquifer. The plants were irrigated at about one-third the rate of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological data over five years and soil moisture levels were monitored to a soil depth of 4.7 m at monthly intervals with a neutron hydroprobe. The deficit irrigation schedule maintained the soil below field capacity throughout the study. Water was presented on a more or less constant schedule, so that the application rates were less than ETo in summer and equal to or slightly greater than ETo in winter, but the plants were able to consume water stored in the profile in winter to support summer ET. Sodium salts gradually increased in the soil profile over the study but sulfate levels remained low, due to formation of gypsum in the calcic soil. The high salt tolerance, deep roots, and drought tolerance of desert halophytes such as A. lentiformis lend these plants to use as deficit-irrigated landscape plants for disposal of effluents in urban setting when protection of the aquifer is important. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  15. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  16. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  17. Degradation of cyanotoxins (microcystin in drinking water using photoelectrooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACA Garcia

    Full Text Available The discharge of sewage and industrial effluents containing high concentrations of pollutants in water bodies increases eutrophication. Cyanobacteria, some of the organisms whose growth is promoted by high nutrient concentrations, are resistant and produce several types of toxins, known as cyanotoxins, highly harmful to human beings. Current water treatment systems for the public water supply are not efficient in degradation of toxins. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP have been tested for the removal of cyanotoxins, and the results have been positive. This study examines the application of photoelectrooxidation in the degradation of cyanotoxins (microcystins. The performance of the oxidative processes involved was evaluated separately: Photocatalysis, Electrolysis and Photoelectrooxidation. Results showed that the electrical current and UV radiation were directly associated with toxin degradation. The PEO system is efficient in removing cyanotoxins, and the reduction rate reached 99%. The final concentration of toxin was less than 1 µg/L of microcystin in the treated solution.

  18. Relative Abundance and the Relationships between Aniline,Phenol and Catechol Degraders in Fresh Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MasaoNasu; NevilGOONEWARDENA; 等

    1993-01-01

    Relative abundance and relationships between aniline,phenol and catechol degraders were investigated in unpolluted and polluted fresh waters in Osaka prefectur,Japan,Phenol and catechol degraders were found more frequently compared to aniline degraders.The results indicate that these degraders were more abundant in polluted waters than in unpolluted waters.Aniline degraders isolated from the Ina River water showed a higher capability of degrading catechol than phenol.Analysis on sequence homology among these three kinds of degraders indicated a possible relationship between aniline degraders and certain strains of both catechol and phenol degraders.

  19. Odorous compounds in municipal wastewater effluent and potable water reuse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Eva; Lim, Mong Hoo; Zhang, Lifeng; Sedlak, David L

    2011-11-01

    The presence of effluent-derived compounds with low odor thresholds can compromise the aesthetics of drinking water. The potent odorants 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and geosmin dominated the profile of odorous compounds in wastewater effluent with concentrations up to 2 orders of magnitude above their threshold values. Additional odorous compounds (e.g., vanillin, methylnaphthalenes, 2-pyrrolidone) also were identified in wastewater effluent by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry and olfactometry detection. Full-scale advanced treatment plants equipped with reverse osmosis membranes decreased odorant concentrations considerably, but several compounds were still present at concentrations above their odor thresholds after treatment. Other advanced treatment processes, including ozonation followed by biological activated carbon and UV/H(2)O(2) also removed effluent-derived odorants. However, no single treatment technology alone was able to reduce all odorant concentrations below their odor threshold values. To avoid the presence of odorous compounds in drinking water derived from wastewater effluent, it is necessary to apply multiple barriers during advanced treatment or to dilute wastewater effluent with water from other sources.

  20. Nanotechnology applications to desalination : a report for the joint water reuse & desalination task force.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Mayer, Tom; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology methods have been an integral part of international research over the past decade. Because many traditional water treatment technologies (e.g. membrane filtration, biofouling, scale inhibition, etc.) depend on nanoscale processes, it is reasonable to expect one outcome of nanotechnology research to be better, nano-engineered water treatment approaches. The most immediate, and possibly greatest, impact of nanotechnology on desalination methods will likely be the development of membranes engineered at the near-molecular level. Aquaporin proteins that channel water across cell membranes with very low energy inputs point to the potential for dramatically improved performance. Aquaporin-laced polymer membranes and aquaporin-mimicking carbon nanotubes and metal oxide membranes developed in the lab support this. A critical limitation to widespread use of nanoengineered desalination membranes will be their scalability to industrial fabrication processes. Subsequent, long-term improvements in nanoengineered membranes may result in self-healing membranes that ideally are (1) more resistant to biofouling, (2) have biocidal properties, and/or (3) selectively target trace contaminants.

  1. [Changes of bacterial community structure on reusing domestic sewage of Daoxianghujing Hotel to landscape water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-nan; Wang, Xiao-dan; Zhai, Zhen-hua; Ma, Wen-lin; Li, Rong-qi; Wang, Xue-lian; Li, Yan-hong

    2010-05-01

    A 16S rDNA library was used to evaluate the bacterial diversity and identify dominant groups of bacteria in different treatment pools in the domestic sewage system of the Beijing Daoxianghujing Hotel. The results revealed that there were many types of bacteria in the hotel domestic sewage, and the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was 3.12. In addition, epsilon Proteobacteria was found to be the dominant group with the ratio of 32%. In addition, both the CFB phylum, Fusobacteria, gamma Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were also reached to 9%-15%. After treated with the reclaimed water station, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was reduced to 2. 41 and beta Proteobacteria became the dominant group and occupied 73% of the total clones. However, following artificial wetland training, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the sample increased to 3.38, Actinobacteria arrived to 33% and became the most dominant group; Cyanobacteria reached to 26%, and was the second dominant group. But, the control sample comprised 38% Cyanobacteria, and mainly involved in Cyanobium, Synechoccus and Microcystis, with ratios of 47.1%, 17.6% and 8.8%, respectively. Some bacteria of Microcystis aenruginosa were also detected, which probably resulted in the light bloom finally. Therefore, the bacterial diversity and community structures changed in response to treatment of the hotel domestic sewage; there was no cyanobacteria bloom explosion in the treated water. This study will aid in investigation the changes of microbial ecology in different types of water and providing the useful information for enhancing the cyanobacteria blooms control from ecological angle.

  2. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated.

  3. Aerobic degradation and photolysis of tylosin in water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2007-05-01

    Veterinary antibiotics enter the environment through the application of organic fertilizers to cropland. In this study, the aerobic degradation of tylosin, a widely used antibiotic in the production of livestock and poultry, was conducted in water and in soil in an effort to further investigate its environmental fate. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic, which consists of four factors (A, B, C, D). Water and soil were sampled at selected times and analyzed for tylosin and its degradation products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with product identification confirmed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Tylosin A is degraded with a half-life of 200 d in the light in water, and the total loss of tylosin A in the dark is 6% of the initial spiked amount during the experimental period. Tylosin C and D are relatively stable except in ultrapure water in the light. Slight increases of tylosin B after two months and formation of two photoreaction isomers of tylosin A were observed under exposure to light. However, tylosin probably would degrade faster if the experimental containers did not prevent ultraviolet transmission. In soil, tylosin A has a dissipation half-life of 7 d, and tylosin D is slightly more stable, with a dissipation half-life of 8 d in unsterilized and sterilized soil. Sorption and abiotic degradation are the major factors influencing the loss of tylosin in the environment, and no biotic degradation was observed at the test concentration either in pond water or in an agronomic soil, as determined by comparing dissipation profiles in sterilized and unsterilized conditions.

  4. Estimation of water quality by UV/Vis spectrometry in the framework of treated wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Erwan; Pérot, Jean; Jauzein, Vincent; Lin, Liming; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrometry as a complementary method for routine monitoring of reclaimed water production. Robustness of the models and compliance of their sensitivity with current quality limits are investigated. The following indicators are studied: total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrate. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) is used to find linear correlations between absorbances and indicators of interest. Artificial samples are made by simulating a sludge leak on the wastewater treatment plant and added to the original dataset, then divided into calibration and prediction datasets. The models are built on the calibration set, and then tested on the prediction set. The best models are developed with: PLSR for COD (Rpred(2) = 0.80), TSS (Rpred(2) = 0.86) and turbidity (Rpred(2) = 0.96), and with a simple linear regression from absorbance at 208 nm (Rpred(2) = 0.95) for nitrate concentration. The input of artificial data significantly enhances the robustness of the models. The sensitivity of the UV/Vis spectrometry monitoring system developed is compatible with quality requirements of reclaimed water production processes.

  5. A decision model for selecting sustainable drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems for developing communities with a case study in Cimahi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Justin J; Louis, Garrick E

    2011-01-01

    Capacity Factor Analysis is a decision support system for selection of appropriate technologies for municipal sanitation services in developing communities. Developing communities are those that lack the capability to provide adequate access to one or more essential services, such as water and sanitation, to their residents. This research developed two elements of Capacity Factor Analysis: a capacity factor based classification for technologies using requirements analysis, and a matching policy for choosing technology options. First, requirements analysis is used to develop a ranking for drinking water supply and greywater reuse technologies. Second, using the Capacity Factor Analysis approach, a matching policy is developed to guide decision makers in selecting the appropriate drinking water supply or greywater reuse technology option for their community. Finally, a scenario-based informal hypothesis test is developed to assist in qualitative model validation through case study. Capacity Factor Analysis is then applied in Cimahi Indonesia as a form of validation. The completed Capacity Factor Analysis model will allow developing communities to select drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems that are safe, affordable, able to be built and managed by the community using local resources, and are amenable to expansion as the community's management capacity increases.

  6. 染整加工的水热循环利用%Recycle and reuse of water and heat in textile wet processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永彬; 张建祥; 陈明; 吕文泉

    2011-01-01

    Innovative techniques of source reduction, procedure control and recycling are used to realize water and heat balance instead of the backward conventional end-of-pipe treatment of pollution, including PVA recovery in desizing machine, alkali recovery in mercerizing machine, heat reuse in washing machine, heat reuse of high temperature exhausted gas in stenter and conduction oil furnace, and reuse of cooling, condensate and reclaimed water.With this reformation, 17 288 tons of steam,300 thousands m3 water and 180 thousand m3 natural gas can be saved per year, recycling utilization ratio of water can reach more than 80%.%采用以源头消减、过程控制和回收利用的技术方法,改变传统被动落后的末端治理污染控制手段.即退浆机回收PVA、丝光机回收液碱、水洗机回收余热、定形机和导热油炉高温烟气余热回收利用,以及冷却水、冷凝水回收和中水回用等.改造完成后可节约蒸汽17 288 t/年,节约用水30万m/年,节约天然气18万m/年,水的循环利用率80%以上.

  7. 中水回用技术在城市发展中的应用探讨%Water Reuse Technology in the Application of City Development are Discussed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝章平

    2012-01-01

    Collapse of water resource deficient city, as the second city water water has been widely promotion. This paper mainly discusses the basic concept of water reuse, water treatment technology and the operation mode of the current water reuse, water reuse of urumqi city as an example, the analysis of the current water reuse technology in the city the application and development problems, analyses the water reuse technology benefits and water reuse outlook.%对水资源溃乏的城市,中水作为城市的第二水源已被广泛的推广。本文主要论述了中水回用的基本概念、中水处理工艺及目前中水回用的运营模式,以乌鲁木齐城市中水回用为例,分析了目前中水回用技术在城市发展中的应用及存在问题,分析了中水回用技术产生的效益和中水回用的展望。

  8. Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow-Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore Tsotsis

    2010-01-08

    Arsenic (As) and Selenium (Se) are found in water in the form of oxyanions. Relatively high concentrations of As and Se have been reported both in power plant discharges, as well as, in fresh water supplies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently classifies As as a group 1 chemical, that is considered to be carcinogenic to humans. In Phase I of this project we studied the adsorption of As and Se by uncalcined and calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH). The focus of the present work is a systematic study of the adsorption of As and Se by conditioned LDH adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the Mg and Al dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been investigated in batch experiments using particles of four different particle size ranges. As(V) adsorption is shown to follow a Sips-type adsorption isotherm. The As(V) adsorption rate on conditioned LDH increases with decreasing adsorbent particle size; the adsorption capacity, on the other hand, is independent of the particle size. A homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and a bi-disperse pore model (BPM) - the latter viewing the LDH particles as assemblages of microparticles and taking into account bulk diffusion in the intraparticle pore space, and surface diffusion within the microparticles themselves - were used to fit the experimental kinetic data. The HSDM estimated diffusivity values dependent on the particle size, whereas the BPM predicted an intracrystalline diffusivity, which is fairly invariant with particle size. The removal of As(V) on conditioned LDH adsorbents was also investigated in flow columns, where the impact of important solution and operational parameters such as influent As concentration, pH, sorbent particle size and flow rate were studied. An early breakthrough and saturation was observed at higher flow rates and at higher influent concentrations, whereas a decrease in the sorbent particle

  9. Application of Forward Osmosis Membrane in a Sequential Batch Reactor for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qingyu

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a novel membrane process that potentially can be used as an energy-saving alternative to conventional membrane processes. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of a FO membrane to draw water from wastewater using seawater as draw solution. A study on a novel osmotic sequential batch reactor (OsSBR) was explored. In this system, a plate and frame FO cell including two flat-sheet FO membranes was submerged in a bioreactor treating the wastewater. We found it feasible to treat the wastewater by the OsSBR process. The DOC removal rate was 98.55%. Total nitrogen removal was 62.4% with nitrate, nitrite and ammonium removals of 58.4%, 96.2% and 88.4% respectively. Phosphate removal was almost 100%. In this OsSBR system, the 15-hour average flux for a virgin membrane with air scouring is 3.103 LMH. After operation of 3 months, the average flux of a fouled membrane is 2.390 LMH with air scouring (23% flux decline). Air scouring can help to remove the loose foulants on the active layer, thus helping to maintain the flux. Cleaning of the FO membrane fouled in the active layer was probably not effective under the conditions of immersing the membrane in the bioreactor. LC-OCD results show that the FO membrane has a very good performance in rejecting biopolymers, humics and building blocks, but a limited ability in rejecting low molecular weight neutrals.

  10. -coated nanostructures for dye photo-degradation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Viviana; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Scuderi, Mario; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Bergum, Kristin; Irrera, Alessia; Svensson, Bengt G.; Privitera, Vittorio

    2014-09-01

    The photocatalytic efficiency of a thin-film TiO2-coated nanostructured template is studied by dye degradation in water. The nanostructured template was synthesized by metal-assisted wet etching of Si and used as substrate for the deposition of a thin film of TiO2 (10 nm thick) by atomic layer deposition. A complete structural characterization was made by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The significant photocatalytic performance was evaluated by the degradation of two dyes in water: methylene blue and methyl orange. The relevance of the reported results is discussed, opening the route toward the application of the synthesized nanostructured TiO2 for water purification.

  11. Degradation of toxaphene in water during anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LacayoR, M; van Bavel, B; Mattiasson, B

    2004-08-01

    The degradation of technical toxaphene in water with two kinds of bioreactors operating in sequence was studied. One packed bed reactor was filled with Poraver (foam glass particles) running at anaerobic conditions and one suspended carrier biofilm reactor working aerobically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, pH, dissolved oxygen, total toxaphene and specific toxaphene isomers were measured. After 6 weeks approx. 87% of the total toxaphene was degraded reaching 98% by week 39. The majority of the conversion took place in the anaerobic reactor. The concentrations of toxaphene isomers with more chlorine substituents decreased more rapidly than for isomers with less chlorine substituents.

  12. Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Elena Duek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews with qualified informants from different organizations and food-processing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required.

  13. Rapid degradation of dyes in water by magnetic Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shan; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang; Zhao, He

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene has been successfully synthesized by a one-step reduction method and investigated in rapid degradation of dyes in this work. The material was characterized by N2 sorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene had a layered structure with Fe crystals highly dispersed in the interlayers of graphene, which could enhance the mass transfer process between Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene and pollutants. Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene exhibited ferromagnetism and could be easily separated and re-dispersed for reuse in water. Typical dyes, such as Methyl Orange, Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet, could be decolorized by Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene rapidly. After 20min, the decolorization efficiencies of methyl orange, methylene blue and crystal violet were 94.78%, 91.60% and 89.07%, respectively. The reaction mechanism of Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene with dyes mainly included adsorption and enhanced reduction by the composite. Thus, Fe(0)/Fe3O4/graphene prepared by the one-step reduction method has excellent performance in removal of dyes in water.

  14. Coupled model of root water uptake, mucilage exudation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Although the fact that root mucilage plays a prominent role in soil-plant water relations is becoming more and more accepted, many aspects of how mucilage distribution and root water uptake interact with each other remain unexplored. First, it is not clear how long mucilage persists in soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and root water uptake (i.e. convective fluxes) on the diffusion of mucilage from the root surface into the soil are not included in current models of water uptake. The aims of this study were: i) to measure the effect of soil moisture on mucilage decomposition; ii) to develop a coupled model of root water uptake and mucilage diffusion and degradation during root growth. C4 root mucilage from maize was added as single pulses to a C3 soil of two different moisture levels. We have then employed the Richards Equation for water flow and an advection-dispersion equation to describe the dynamic distribution of mucilage in a single-root model. Most of the mucilage was decomposed under optimum water supply. Drought significantly suppressed mucilage mineralization. Opposed to classical solute transport models the water flow in the rhizosphere was affected by the local concentration of mucilage. Namely a higher concentration of mucilage results in (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content and (c) a non-equilibrium water retention curve caused by swelling and shrinking dynamics of mucilage in the pore space. The dispersion coefficient, on the other hand, depends on the water content. The parameters of mucilage diffusion have been fitted to observations on real plants. The model shows that mucilage exuded in wet soils diffuses far from the roots and it is rapidly degraded. On the contrary, mucilage of plants growing in dry soil is not easily degradable and it remains at higher concentrations in a narrow region around the roots, resulting in a marked increase in water

  15. Greywater reuse for toilet flushing at a university academic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water reuse, with water reuse applications requiring little to ... is categorised into light and dark greywater, with light grey- water ... location-specific, and most often present problems where GWR ... guidelines for GWR for small-scale agricultural irrigation. ...... Greywater reuse for toilet flushing in high-density urban buildings.

  16. Photochemical degradation of marbofloxacin and enrofloxacin in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturini, Michela; Speltini, Andrea; Maraschi, Federica; Profumo, Antonella; Pretali, Luca; Fasani, Elisa; Albini, Angelo

    2010-06-15

    The photochemical fate of Marbofloxacin (MAR) and Enrofloxacin (ENR), two Fluoroquinolones (FQs) largely used as veterinary bactericides known to be present in surface waters, was investigated in aqueous solution. The degradation of these pollutants (5-50 microg L(-1) starting concentration) was complete in about 1 h by exposure to solar light (summer) and obeyed a first-order kinetics. The structure of the primary photoproducts was determined. Those from ENR arose through three paths, namely, oxidative degradation of the piperazine side-chain, reductive defluorination, and fluorine solvolysis. More heavily degraded products that had been previously reported were rationalized as secondary photoproducts from the present ones. As for MAR, this underwent homolytic cleavage of the tetrahydrooxadiazine moiety to give two quinolinols. All of the primary products were themselves degraded in about 1 h. The photoreactions rates were scarcely affected by Ca(2+) (200 mg L(-1)), Mg(2+) (30 mg L(-1)), Cl(-) (30 mg L(-1)), and humic acid (1 mg L(-1)), but increased in the presence of phosphate (20 mg L(-1)). The fastest degradation of ENR occurred at pH about 8 where the zwitterionic form was present, while in the case of MAR the cationic form was the most reactive.

  17. Degradation Kinetics of Petroleum Contaminants in Soil-Water Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xilai; WANG Bingchen; LI Yuying; XIA Wenxiang

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of site investigation and sample collection of petroleum contaminants in the soil-water-crop system in the Shenyang-Fushun sewage irrigation area, the physical-chemical-biological compositions of the unsaturated zone is analyzed systematically in this paper. At the same time, the degradation kinetics of residual and aqueous oils is determined through biodegradation tests. The studies show that dominant microorganisms have been formed in the soils after long-term sewage irrigation. The microorganisms mainly include bacteria, and a few of fungus and actinomycetes.After a 110-days' biodegradation test, the degradation rate of residual oil is 9.74%-10.63%, while the degradation rate of aqueous oil reaches 62.43%. This indicates that the degradation rate of low-carbon aqueous oil is higher than that of highcarbon residual oil. In addition, although microbial degradation of petroleum contaminants in soils is suitable to the firstorder kinetics equation, the half-lives of aqueous oil, No. 20 heavy diesel and residual oil in the surface soils (L2-1, S1-1 and X1-1) are 1732 h, 3465 h and 17325 h, respectively.

  18. Reuse of urban waste water, recovered by deep on in farms; Reutilizacion de aguas residuales urbanas, regeneradas mediante lagunaje profundo, en riego de praderas forrajeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arauzo Sanchez, M.; Colmenarejo Morcillo, M.F.; Bustos Aragon, A.; Hernaiz Algarra, P.J.; Martinez Alavarez, E.

    1998-10-01

    The reuse of regenerated urban wastewater in agriculture irrigation is a practice that is having an increasing leading role in Mediterranean Countries. it is, therefore, fundamental to safeguard the chemical and sanitary qualities of the regenerated wastewater by regeneration technologies improvement, as well as storing-regulation flow systems. The Research Group has started up a deep wastewater stabilization pond and a nearby experimental agricultural system, to study the reuse of regenerated wastewater in agriculture irrigation. The deep stabilization pond, 4,75 m deep and 2161 m``3 volume, is supplied continuously with urban wastewater from the secondary effluent of a conventional purifying plant. Hydraulic retention time is about 9 days. The experimental agricultural system consists of 6 plots (12.5x8 m each) sown with Festuca arundianacea Schreber, next to the deep stabilization pond. Plots were surface flooding irrigated from spring to autumn, and corp was cut 2 times, in July and October. Two treatments have been established; the irrigation with the deep stabilization pond effluent, and the second, irrigation with water from the Jarama river (which is normally used by farmers nearby the experimental area). Our intention is to compare both treatments in order to verify the suitability of wastewater reuse, stabilised and stored in a deep pond, in surface flooding irrigation of pastures. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Degrading and Detoxifying Industrial Waste Water using Bioremediation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Agrawal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation uses various microorganisms to detoxify or degrade various harmful substances in the nature, particularly soil and water. In the proposed work, five species of micro-organisms were used to analyse their impact on various physico-chemical parameters of water. In the first attempt the actual physico chemical parameters of the collected sample water were noted down (Fresh sample parameters. Then the sample water was treated with micro-organisms (one at a time. The growth of microbes was noted carefully over 96 hours after inoculation. The physico chemical parameters were recorded again and were compared with the fresh sample parameters. The results were analysed for any change and on this basis an impact factor was developed. The study reveals all the selected microbes have a great capacity of degrading and simplifying the complex molecules into simpler ones. Bioremediative treatment further enhances this capacity and therefore this approach can be utilized on large scale to minimize pollution of water bodies.

  20. Research on the reclaimed water reuse project in urban sewage plants%城市污水处理厂中水回用规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐圃青; 谢翠萍

    2013-01-01

    The tail water quality and quantity of various kinds of urban sewage plants have been studied systematically.Based on the water supply quantity needed and water quality required by clients of different trades,the advanced treatment project on reclaimed water for different sewage water treatment plants-specific clients are established.The economic feasibilities of various projects are analyzed in detail.The secondary environmentalhealth risk in the course of reclaimed water reuse is discussed.It is suggested that water should be obtained from many sources,be supplied according to different water quality,and be treated differently according to categories.Reclaimed water reuse systems in urban centralized sewage treatment plants should be schemed from the viewpoint of water supply and drainage integration.%系统研究了城市各类污水处理厂尾水水质和水量,根据不同行业用户给水规模与水质需求,构建了不同污水处理厂—特征用户的再生水深度处理方案,详细分析了各类方案的经济可行性,探讨了中水回用过程中的次生环境健康风险,提出应从多源取水、分质供水、分类处理人手,以给排水一体化角度来规划城市集中污水处理厂中水回用系统的理念.

  1. Vortex Stabilized Plasma for Rapid Water Disinfection & Pharmaceutical Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2016-10-01

    Good quality drinking water is dwindling for large segments of the world population. Aggravating the problem is proliferation of antibiotics in the water supply, which give rise to drug resistant pathogens. One option for water supply increase is recycling waste and polluted water by inexpensive, environmentally friendly methods. Presently disinfection uses chemicals and UV radiation. Chemicals are limited by residual toxicity, while UV consumes much electricity. Current methods can remove only certain classes of drugs due to their large variety of physical and chemical properties. Plasmas in water are very attractive for degrading all pharmaceuticals and deactivating pathogens: intense arc current can physically break up any molecular bonds. UV radiation, ozone, etc. generation inside the water volume disinfects. Present utilized plasmas: glow, pulsed arcs are not power efficient; vortex stabilized plasmas are power efficient that can advance water treatment state-of-the-art by orders of magnitude. Proposed techniquefeatures novel components facilitating large diameter vortex stabilized in-water arcs with optimized plasma parameters for maximal UV-C emission; and harvests hydrogen centered by the vortex.

  2. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60,???

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the key issue with materials aging and cable/piping as the top concerns for plant reliability. Materials degradation within a nuclear power plant is very complex. There are many different types of materials within the reactor itself: over 25 different metal alloys can be found with can be found within the primary and secondary systems, not to mention the concrete containment vessel, instrumentation and control, and other support facilities. When this diverse set of materials is placed in the complex and harsh environment coupled with load, degradation over an extended life is indeed quite complicated. To address this issue, the USNRC has developed a Progressive Materials Degradation Approach (NUREG/CR-6923). This approach is intended to develop a foundation for appropriate actions to keep materials degradation from adversely impacting component integrity and safety and identify materials and locations where degradation can reasonably be expected in the future. Clearly, materials degradation will impact reactor reliability, availability, and potentially, safe operation. Routine surveillance and component replacement can mitigate these factors, although failures still occur. With reactor life extensions to 60 years or beyond or power uprates, many components must tolerate the reactor environment for even longer times. This may increase

  3. Design and assessment of urban drainage and water reuse systems for the reconstruction of formerly industrial areas: a case in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Zeng, S; Dong, X; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    The Shougang Group is an industrial steel enterprise occupying 800 ha in Beijing that will cease production by 2010. The area will be converted to a new financial and commercial zone. The rebuilding of the water infrastructure in this area should address water shortages in Beijing and retain the industrial landmark of a large cooling water tank. A design framework and an assessment system with 11 indicators were developed for this purpose. Four reconstruction schemes are presented here. Scheme 1 is a traditional system that completely depends on outside the municipal facility. Schemes 2, 3, and 4 are systems to separately discharge greywater and blackwater. Scheme 4 uses a vacuum system that allows the reclamation of nutrients. Schemes 2 and 4 use wetland-treated greywater to fill the water tank. Scheme 3 reuses greywater for toilets after on-site treatment. Scheme 2 is recommended due to its lower cost, greater environmental benefit, moderate resource reclamation, and higher technical feasibility.

  4. Disposal and Reuse Of Industrial Waste Water%工业污废水处理与循环再利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤久升; 刘芳; 汤雪川

    2012-01-01

    The disposal and reuse of industrial waste water in float glass factory were discussed. It is pointed out that the treatment of waste water can reduce environment pollution, reutilize the treated water, economize water resource and bring great economical benefits and social benefits to the glass factory.%介绍了我国水资源的现状及背景,以及浮法玻璃工程中实施污废水综合处理的措施,污废水的治理和再利用,可减少环境污染,节约水资源,同时给企业带来巨大的经济和社会效益。

  5. 高校校园实施中水回用的可行性探析%Feasibility analysis on the implementation of water reuse in Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦玮; 陆夏铭; 杨青

    2015-01-01

    With that of sewage reuse or recycling of reclaimed water. Analysis on the characteristics of campus sewage, the feasibility of the implementation of water reusein universities are discussed, and put forward the construction mode of the campuswith the back water, and points out that using the comprehensive benefit of technology and good prospects of application of reclaimed water in Campus.%中水回用即污水的再利用或资源化。分析校园污水的特性,对在高校实施中水回用的可行性进行了探讨,并提出校园中水回用建设模式,指出高校校园应用中水回用技术的综合效益及良好前景。

  6. Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning implications in Katsina metropolis, Nigeria. ... In Nigeria, there is a paucity of information on reuse of waste water in urban farming. The purpose of this paper is to ... Article Metrics.

  7. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  8. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbyla, M.E., E-mail: verbylam@mail.usf.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States); Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M. [Centro de Aguas y Saneamiento Ambiental, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Mihelcic, J.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g{sup −1} for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g{sup −1} for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g{sup −1} for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in

  9. Limits of Software Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, L.

    2006-01-01

    Software reuse is considered one of the main techniques to increasesoftware productivity. We present two simple mathematical argumentsthat show some theoretical limits of reuse. It turns out that the increase of productivity due to internal reuse is at most linear, farfrom the needed exponential gr

  10. Photochemical, thermal, biological and long-term degradation of celecoxib in river water. Degradation products and adsorption to sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Pardo, Rafael; Sánchez, María I; Muñoz, Beatriz E

    2017-08-19

    Celecoxib is an anti-inflammatory drug with antibacterial activity whose fate in surface water is unknown. Thus, some assays have been conducted under forced biological, photochemical and thermal conditions, and non-forced conditions, to establish its persistence and degradation products in river water. The results suggest that celecoxib dissolved in river water is not biologically degraded while it is minimally altered after its exposure to sunlight or high temperature (70°C). Only the irradiation at 254nm promotes its complete degradation. Celecoxib is degraded about 3%, in 36 weeks, when water was kept at room temperature and the exposure to sunlight was partially limited as it happens inside a body of water. Residues were monitored by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction; eleven degradation products were detected and the structures of nine of them were unequivocally proposed from the molecular formulae and fragmentation observed in high-resolution tandem mass spectra. The long-term transformation products under non-forced conditions were 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonic acid, 4-[1-(4-sulfoaminephenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]benzoic acid and a hydroxylated derivative. The degradation over time in presence of sediment was monitored, being slightly higher, about 4%. The adsorption equilibrium constants of celecoxib and degradation products on river sediment were estimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  12. Legal regulation of the reuse of water resources in the oil, natural gas and biofuels industry; A regulamentacao juridica do reuso dos recursos hidricos na Industria do petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Flaviana Marques de; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Constitution of 1988 is a guide for protect natural resources in the country, it was from her that the right to an ecologically balanced environment was elevated to the category of fundamental human right of all was changed understanding regarding the use water resources, irrigation water is characterized as a resource with economic value. In this scenario emerging legal standards for protecting the environment and water resources, which must necessarily be committed to the development of economic activities that use natural resources, and still worry about their conservation and preservation for the use of present and future generations, in line with the desires dictated by sustainable development. Therefore, this work has the scope to verify the legal regulation of reuse of water resources in the context of activities developed by the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, to promote optimum use of water resources in the country, and this can lead to benefits social, economic and environmental. The importance of the study emerges precisely in the industrial sector, and specifically in the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, in order that through these activities is increased the negative potential of natural resources, consequently increasing the ability to cause negative externalities either by adopting systematic contrary to sustainable development, as the high standards of environmental degradation caused by the activities of this kind. The methodology for conducting this study is theoretical and descriptive, developing through the analysis and interpretation of data obtained from the verification of magazines, books and monographs, concerning the subject of water resources and, by examining done about the current environmentalist doctrine and appreciation of constitutional and legislative documents infra constitutional above existing on the subject. (author)

  13. Membrane bioreactor: an advanced technology for the treatment and reuse of waste waters; Biorreactores de menbrana: una tecnologia vanzada para la depuracion y reutilizacion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artiga Acuna, P.; Garcia-Toriello Romero, G.; Garrido Fernandez, J. M.; Mendez Pampin, R.

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the results obtained in a pilot experiment in which a new hybrid biological reactor with a submerged membrane was used to treat urban sewage, with one part of the biomass in suspension and the other attached to a plastic support. The reactor was operated with hollow fibre membrane modules from different manufacturers. Operation of the ultrafiltration module was stable and required very little maintenance, whereas the micro filtration module was beset by frequent fouling problems and loss of capacity. The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the treated water enable it to re-used for growing vegetables or to water lawns, and also reduced the need for external fertilisers. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, M E; Iriarte, M M; Mercado Guzmán, A; Coronado, O; Almanza, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1mLg(-1) for coliphage, between 1 and 100mLg(-1) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000mLg(-1) for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.

  15. Optical monitoring of Disinfection By-product Precursors with Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping (F-EEM): Practical Application Issues for Drinking, Waste and Reuse Water Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water, wastewater and reuse plants must deal with regulations associated with bacterial contamination and halogen disinfection procedures that can generate harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HOAAs) and other compounds. The natural fluorescent chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is regulated as the major DBP precursor. This study outlines the advantages and current limitations associated with optical monitoring of water treatment processes using tcontemporary Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping (F-EEM). The F-EEM method coupled with practical peak indexing and multi-variate analyses is potentially superior in terms of cost, speed and sensitivity over conventional total organic carbon (TOC) meters and specific UV-absorbance (SUVA) measurements. Hence there is strong interest in developing revised environmental regulations around the F-EEM technique instruments which can incidentally simultaneously measure the SUVA and DOC parameters. Importantly, the F-EEM technique, compared to the single-point TOC and SUVA signals can resolve CDOM classes distinguishing those that strongly cause DBPs. The F-EEM DBP prediction method can be applied to surface water sources to evaluate DBP potential as a function of the point sources and reservoir depth profiles. It can also be applied in-line to rapidly adjust DOC removal processes including sedimentation-flocculation, microfiltration, reverse-osmosis, and ozonation. Limitations and interferences for F-EEMs are discussed including those common to SUVA and TOC in contrast to the advantages including that F-EEMs are less prone to interferences from inorganic carbon and metal contaminations and require little if any chemical preparation. In conclusion, the F-EEM method is discussed in terms of not only the DBP problem but also as a means of predicting (concurrent to DBP monitoring) organic membrane fouling in water-reuse and desalination plants.

  16. Reuso de efluentes em torres de resfriamento - estudo conceitual: Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro = Water reuse for cooling towers – conceptual study: Rio de Janeiro International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O reuso de água é ferramenta valiosa na gestão da água, que promove a otimização da utilização do recurso desta, que reduz e, muitas vezes, até elimina os impactos no meio ambiente. Neste trabalho foi investigada a composição do efluente secundário da estação de tratamento de efluentes (ETE APOIO do Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de propor o processo adequado à reutilização deste efluente como água de reposição nas torres de resfriamento desse Aeroporto. Com base nas análises de cátions, ânions, DBO e DQO, verificou-se o parâmetro SDT - Cl- como crítico para processamento do efluente. Foi proposta uma sequência para reutilização do efluente que continha o tratamento de osmose inversa, o custo do m3 produzido por essa sequência foi estimado em R$ 2,90 m-3. Water reuse is an important tool in water management; it is a conceptthat promotes optimization of the water resource, reducing and often even eliminating environmental impacts. In this work, the composition of a secondary effluent (from the effluent treatment station (ETE APOIO at Rio de Janeiro International Airport was analyzed, with theaim of determining an adequate process for the reutilization of this effluent as replacement cooling water. Chemical analyses such as cation and anion analysis, BOD and COD were performed. Based on these analyses, it was found that TDS - Cl- was the critical parameter foreffluent processing. A treatment system was proposed for effluent reuse including reverse osmosis; the cost estimate per m3 produced by this system was R$ 2.90 m-3.

  17. Application of novel Modified Biological Aerated Filter (MBAF) as a promising post-treatment for water reuse: Modification in configuration and backwashing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoonahad, Ali; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Ali Asghar; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Salamehnejad, Sima

    2017-12-01

    Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) reactors due to their plentiful biomass, high shockability, high efficiency, good filtration, availability and lack of need for large land areas, are enjoying from great importance in advanced wastewater treatment. Therefore, in this study, Polystyrene Coated by Sand (PCS) was produced as a novel media and its application in a modified down-flow BAF structure for advanced wastewater treatment was assessed in two steps. In step one, the backwash effluent did not return to the system, while in step two backwash effluent returned to increase the water reuse efficiency. The backwash process was also studied through three methods of Top Backwashing (TB), Bottom Backwashing (BB), as well as Top and Bottom Backwashing Simultaneously (TBBS). The results showed that return of backwash effluent had no significant effect on the BAF effluent quality. In the second step similar to the first one with slight differences, the residual average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and COD at the effluent were about 2.5, 8.2, and 25.5 mg/L, respectively. Additionally, in step two, the mean volume of disposal sludge/volume of treated water (vds/vtw) decreased a large extent to about 0.088%. In other words, the water reuse has increased to more than 99.91%. The backwash time in methods of TB and BB were 65 and 35 min, respectively; however, it decreased in TBBS methods to 25 min. The concentrations of most effluent parameters in this system are in concordance with the 2012 EPA Agriculture Standards, even for irrigation of Non-processed agricultural crops and livestock water consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for impact assessment of regional consumptive and degradative water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te

    2017-12-31

    Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating regional scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the impact of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pressurized-water reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, K.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I study on the effects of aging degradations on pr internals. Primary stressers for internals an generated by the primary coolant flow in the they include unsteady hydrodynamic forces and pump-generated pressure pulsations. Other stressors are applied loads, manufacturing processes, impurities in the coolant and exposures to fast neutron fluxes. A survey of reported aging-related failure information indicates that fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and mechanical wear are the three major aging-related degradation mechanisms for PWR internals. Significant reported failures include thermal shield flow-induced vibration problems, SCC in guide tube support pins and core support structure bolts, fatigue-induced core baffle water-jet impingement problems and excess wear in flux thimbles. Many of the reported problems have been resolved by accepted engineering practices. Uncertainties remain in the assessment of long-term neutron irradiation effects and environmental factors in high-cycle fatigue failures. Reactor internals are examined by visual inspections and the technique is access limited. Improved inspection methods, especially one with an early failure detection capability, can enhance the safety and efficiency of reactor operations.

  20. Roles of the combined irrigation, drainage, and storage of the canal network in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts along the lower Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Luo, Yi; He, Chansheng; Lai, Jianbin; Li, Xiubin

    2010-09-01

    SummaryThe commonly used irrigation system in the irrigation districts (with a combined irrigation area of 3.334 × 10 6 ha) along the lower Yellow River of China is canal network. It delivers water from the Yellow River to the fields, collects surface runoff and drainage from cropland, and stores both of them for subsequent irrigation uses. This paper developed a new combined irrigation, drainage, and storage (CIDS) module for the SWAT2000 model, simulated the multiple roles of the CIDS canal system, and estimated its performance in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts under different irrigation and water diversion scenarios. The simulation results show that the annual evapotranspiration (ET) of the double-cropping winter wheat and summer maize was the highest under the full irrigation scenario (automatic irrigation), and the lowest under the no irrigation scenario. It varied between these two values when different irrigation schedules were adopted. Precipitation could only meet the water requirement of the double-cropping system by 62-96% on an annual basis; that of the winter wheat by 32-36%, summer maize by 92-123%, and cotton by 87-98% on a seasonal basis. Hence, effective irrigation management for winter wheat is critical to ensure high wheat yield in the study area. Runoff generation was closely related to precipitation and influenced by irrigation. The highest and lowest annual runoff accounted for 19% and 11% of the annual precipitation under the full irrigation and no irrigation scenarios, respectively. Nearly 70% of the annual runoff occurred during months of July and August due to the concentrated precipitation in these 2 months. The CIDS canals play an important role in delivering the diversion water from the Yellow River, intercepting the surface runoff and drainage from cropland (inflow of the CIDS canal) and recharging the shallow aquifer for later use. Roughly 14-26% of the simulated total flow in the CIDS canal system recharged

  1. Boiling-Water Reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, K.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of an aging assessment study for boiling water reactor (BWR) internals. Major stressors for BWR internals are related to unsteady hydrodynamic forces generated by the primary coolant flow in the reactor vessel. Welding and cold-working, dissolved oxygen and impurities in the coolant, applied loads and exposures to fast neutron fluxes are other important stressors. Based on results of a component failure information survey, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue are identified as the two major aging-related degradation mechanisms for BWR internals. Significant reported failures include SCC in jet-pump holddown beams, in-core neutron flux monitor dry tubes and core spray spargers. Fatigue failures were detected in feedwater spargers. The implementation of a plant Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) program is considered as a promising method for controlling SCC problems in BWR. More operating data are needed to evaluate its effectiveness for internal components. Long-term fast neutron irradiation effects and high-cycle fatigue in a corrosive environment are uncertainty factors in the aging assessment process. BWR internals are examined by visual inspections and the method is access limited. The presence of a large water gap and an absence of ex-core neutron flux monitors may handicap the use of advanced inspection methods, such as neutron noise vibration measurements, for BWR.

  2. Enhancement of Video Images Degraded by Turbid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    I o o i^ipipP^^iW^ NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS ENHANCEMENT OF VIDEO IMAGES DEGRADED BY TURBID WATER by Jorge A...OUTPUT ARRAY » « • DOL = I.IHG DO M - 1 .IM6Y SALIDA (L.M) = 0 END DO END DO c c c c c c c TYPE «/OUTPUT ARRAY INITIALIZED’ CALL riCHECK...MM((J-1)»16>+1 IXX=LL+IX-1 IYY =MM+IY-1 SALIDA (IXX.IYY) = SALIDA (IXX.IYY>+INTE(IX.IY) TYPEMXX AND IYY =>’.IXX.IYY 50 ^&&J^i£aJ^^ ’» 100 c

  3. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nasr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L, Ca (175.00 mg/L, Cd (1.87 mg/L, Co (2.23 mg/L, Cu (1.71 mg/L, Fe (1.64 mg/L, K (20.50 mg/L, and Pb (2.81 mg/L. According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  4. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Nasr; Hoda Farouk Zahran

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L), Ca (175.00 mg/L), Cd (1.87 mg/L), Co (2.23 mg/L), Cu (1.71 mg/L), Fe (1.64 mg/L), K (20.50 mg/L), and Pb (2.81 mg/L). According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  5. Reúso de água em indústria de reciclagem de plástico tipo PEAD Water reuse on HDPE plastics recycling pack industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Orsi Bordonalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A discussão acerca da viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do reúso da água em processos industriais tem sido uma preocupação constante. Neste trabalho propõe-se uma alternativa simplificada para o tratamento de efluentes com vistas ao seu reúso em uma indústria de reciclagem de plásticos. A água, no presente caso, é componente fundamental para o processo, já que participa como elemento de remoção de detritos e impurezas que contaminam a matriz da matéria-prima utilizada, proveniente, principalmente, de aterros sanitários e lixões. As embalagens plásticas recicladas pela indústria em questão são, em sua grande maioria, de uso doméstico e, em menor escala, frascos contaminados com óleos lubrificantes. Os resultados demonstraram a viabilidade do tratamento através de processo físico-químico por coagulação, floculação, decantação e filtração em manta geotêxtil, com o uso do hidroxicloreto de alumínio (PAC como coagulante, soda cáustica (50% como alcalinizante e polieletrólito como auxiliar de floculação e desidratação do lodo, bem como a exequibilidade do reúso dos efluentes em circuito fechado.The discussion about technical, economical and environmental feasibility of water reuse in industrial process has been a constant concern. This paper purposes a simplified choice for waste water treatment seeking reuse in a plastic recycle industry. The water, in this case, is a prime component because it is the main element for the debris and impurities removal that contaminates the matrix of plastic raw material, which comes, mostly, from landfill and waste disposals. The recycled plastic packages, from the company that had been used for this research, come mostly from domestic use and, in a minor scale, the plastic package contaminated by lubricant oil. The final results show feasible for the treatment through physical-chemical process by coagulation, flocculation, decantation and filtration on geotextile

  6. An Integrated Approach to Identification, Assessment and Management of Watershed-Scale Risk for Sustainable Water Use Through Reuse and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C. K.; Bolster, D.; Gironas, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources are essential to development, not only economically but also socially, politically and ecologically. With growing demand and potentially shrinking supply, water scarcity is one of the most pressing socio-ecological problems of the 21st century. Considering implications of global change and the complexity of interrelated systems, uncertain future conditions compound problems associated with water stress, requiring hydrologic models to re-examine traditional water resource planning and management. The Copiapó water basin, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile exhibits a complex resource management scenario. With annual average precipitation of only 28 mm, water intensive sectors such as export agriculture, extensive mining, and a growing population have depleted the aquifeŕs reserves to near critical levels. Being that global climate change models predict a decrease in already scarce precipitation, and that growing population and economies demand will likely increase, the real future situation might be even worse than that predicted. A viable option for alleviation of water stress, water reuse and recycling has evolved through technological innovation to feasibly meet hydraulic needs with reclaimed water. For the proper application of these methods for resource management, however, stakeholders must possess tools by which to quantify hydrologic risk, understand its factors of causation, and choose between competing management scenarios and technologies so as to optimize productivity. While previous investigations have addressed similar problems, they often overlook aspects of forecasting uncertainty, proposing solutions that while accurate under specific scenarios, lack robustness to withstand future variations. Using the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) platform for hydrologic modeling, this study proposes a methodology, applicable to other stressed watersheds, to quantify inherent risk in water management positions, while considering

  7. Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheevaporn, Voravit; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to be the most serious problems of the country due to limited waste water treatment facilities in the area. (2) Eutrophication is an emerging problem in the gulf of Thailand. Fortunately, the major species of phytoplankton that have been reported as the cause of red tide phenomena were non-toxic species such as Noctiluca sp. and Trichodesmium sp. (3) Few problems have been documented from trace metals contamination in the Gulf of Thailand and public health threat from seafood contamination does not appear to be significant yet. (4) Petroleum hydrocarbon residue contamination is not a problem, although a few spills from small oil tankers have been recorded. A rapid decrease in mangrove forest, coral reefs, and fisheries resources due to mismanagement is also discussed.

  8. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders.

  9. Suzuki Reactions in Water Catalyzed by an Active and Reus- able PMO-Type Pd(ll) Organometal Catalyst with Cage-Like Mesoporous Structure%Suzuki Reactions in Water Catalyzed by an Active and Reus- able PMO-Type Pd(ll) Organometal Catalyst with Cage-Like Mesoporous Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤霞; 李和兴

    2012-01-01

    A novel Pd(ll) organometal catalyst with three-dimensional (3D) cage-like la3d cubic mesoporous structure and high surface area was prepared. In comparison with the corresponding catalyst with two-dimensional (2D) P6mm hexagonal mesoporous structure, the as-prepared catalyst exhibited higher activities in the water-medium Suzuki coupling reactions owing to the diminished diffusion limit. It showed comparable efficiencies with the Pd(PPh3)2C12 homogeneous catalyst and could be easily recycled and reused for five times without significant loss of activity.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of industrial pulp and paper mill effluent using synthesized magnetic Fe2O3-TiO2: Treatment efficiency and characterizations of reused photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramonian, Wennie; Wu, Ta Yeong; Chai, Siang-Piao

    2017-02-01

    In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis was used to treat pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME). Magnetically retrievable Fe2O3-TiO2 was fabricated by employing a solvent-free mechanochemical process under ambient conditions. Findings elucidated the successful incorporation of Fe2O3 into the TiO2 lattice. Fe2O3-TiO2 was found to be an irregular and slightly agglomerated surface morphology. In comparison to commercial P25, Fe2O3-TiO2 exhibited higher ferromagnetism and better catalyst properties with improvements in surface area (58.40 m(2)/g), pore volume (0.29 cm(3)/g), pore size (18.52 nm), and band gap (2.95 eV). Besides, reusability study revealed that Fe2O3-TiO2 was chemically stable and could be reused successively (five cycles) without significant changes in its photoactivity and intrinsic properties. Additionally, this study demonstrated the potential recovery of Fe2O3-TiO2 from an aqueous suspension by using an applied magnetic field or sedimentation. Interactive effects of photocatalytic conditions (initial effluent pH, Fe2O3-TiO2 dosage, and air flow-rate), reaction mechanism, and the presence of chemical oxidants (H2O2, BrO3(-), and HOCl) during the treatment process of PPME were also investigated. Under optimal conditions (initial effluent pH = 3.88, [Fe2O3-TiO2] = 1.3 g/L, and air flow-rate = 2.28 L/min), the treatment efficiency of Fe2O3-TiO2 was 98.5% higher than the P25. Based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, apparent rate constants of Fe2O3-TiO2 and P25 were 9.2 × 10(-3) and 2.7 × 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. The present study revealed not only the potential of using magnetic Fe2O3-TiO2 in PPME treatment but also demonstrated high reusability and easy separation of Fe2O3-TiO2 from the wastewater.

  11. Suspended solids moderate the degradation and sorption of waste water-derived pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminot, Yann; Fuster, Laura; Pardon, Patrick; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène

    2017-08-26

    This study focuses on the fate of pharmaceuticals discharged into an estuarine environment, particularly into the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ). Batch experiments were set up to investigate the factors regulating the degradation of 53 selected pharmaceuticals. Treated effluents from Bordeaux city (France) were mixed with water from the estuarine Garonne River during 4weeks under 6 characterized conditions in order to assess the influence of suspended particulates, sterilization, untreated wastewater input and dilution on the degradation kinetics. Of the 53 pharmaceuticals monitored, 43 were quantified at the initial time. Only 7 exhibited a persistent behavior (e.g. carbamazepine, meprobamate) while biotic degradation was shown to be the main attenuation process for 38 molecules (e.g. abacavir, ibuprofen highly degradable). Degradation was significantly enhanced by increasing concentrations of suspended solids. A persistence index based on the half-lives of the compounds has been calculated for each of the 43 pharmaceuticals to provide a practical estimate of their relative stability. The stability of pharmaceuticals in estuarine environments is likely to be highly variable and attenuated primarily by changes in suspended solid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rejection of Emerging Organic Contaminants by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Effects of Fouling, Modelling and Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali Quintanilla, V.

    2010-01-01

    The book contains a description of the presence of micropollutants (medicines, hormones, pesticides) in surface water and shows that conventional water treatment poorly removes micropollutants. Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are more appropriate technologies; however removals can vary depending

  13. Rejection of Emerging Organic Contaminants by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Effects of Fouling, Modelling and Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali Quintanilla, V.

    2010-01-01

    The book contains a description of the presence of micropollutants (medicines, hormones, pesticides) in surface water and shows that conventional water treatment poorly removes micropollutants. Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are more appropriate technologies; however removals can vary depending

  14. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available to the label of any given instance, it can choose to act through a process of policy reuse from a library in contrast to policy learning. In policy reuse, the agent has prior experience from the class of tasks in the form of a library of policies that were...

  15. A Study on Membrane Bioreactor for Water Reuse from the Effluent of Industrial Town Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the toxic effects of heavy metals and microbial pathogens in industrial wastewaters, it is necessary to treat metal and microbial contaminated wastewater prior to disposal in the environment. The purpose of this study is to assess the removal of heavy metals pollution and microbial contamination from a mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater using membrane bioreactor. Methods: A pilot study with a continuous stream was conducted using a 32-L-activated sludge with a flat sheet membrane. Actual wastewater from industrial wastewater treatment plant was used in this study. Membrane bioreactor was operated with a constant flow rate of 4 L/hr and chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids concentration, six heavy metals concentration, and total coliform amounts were recorded during the operation. Results: High COD, suspended solids, heavy metals, and microbial contamination removal was measured during the experiment. The average removal percentages obtained by the MBR system were 81% for Al, 53% for Fe, 94% for Pb, 91% for Cu, 59% for Ni, and 49% for Cr which indicated the presence of Cu, Ni, and Cr in both soluble and particle forms in mixed liquor while Al, Fe, and Pb were mainly in particulate form. Also, coliforms in the majority of the samples were <140 MPN/100mL that showed that more than 99.9% of total coliform was removed in MBR effluent. Conclusion: The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR showed a good performance to remove heavy metals and microbial matters as well as COD and suspended solids. The effluent quality was suitable for reusing purposes.

  16. Integration of biofiltration and advanced oxidation processes for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater aiming at water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A A; Bassin, J P; Cerqueira, A C; Dezotti, M

    2016-05-01

    The combination of biological and chemical oxidation processes is an interesting approach to remove ready, poor, and non-biodegradable compounds from complex industrial wastewaters. In this study, biofiltration followed by H2O2/UV oxidation (or microfiltration) and final reverse osmosis (RO) step was employed for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Biofiltration alone allowed obtaining total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), ammonium, and turbidity removal of around 46, 46, 23, 50, and 61 %, respectively. After the combined biological-chemical oxidation treatment, TOC and UV254 removal amounted to 88 and 79 %, respectively. Whereas, the treatment performance achieved with different UV lamp powers (55 and 95 W) and therefore distinct irradiance levels (26.8 and 46.3 mW/cm(2), respectively) were very similar and TOC and UV254 removal rates were highly affected by the applied C/H2O2 ratio. Silt density index (SDI) was effectively reduced by H2O2/UV oxidation, favoring further RO application. C/H2O2 ratio of 1:4, 55 W UV lamp, and 20-min oxidation reaction corresponded to the experimental condition which provided the best cost/benefit ratio for TOC, UV254, and SDI reduction from the biofilter effluent. The array of treatment processes proposed in this study has shown to be adequate for tertiary treatment of the oil refinery wastewater, ensuring the mitigation of membrane fouling problems and producing a final effluent which is suitable for reuse applications.

  17. Waste Water Recycling and Reuse Treatment Technology Practice of Gold Smelting%黄金冶炼废水回收及回用处理技术实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安理; 李建政; 刘晓勃

    2016-01-01

    黄金冶炼废水主要由酸性废水和含氰废水组成,按照废水“回收+回用处理”的处理原则,采用3项专利技术,废水处理回收了氰化钠和硫氰化亚铜,实现了废水100%回用。%Waste water of gold smelting mainly consists of acid waste water and cyanide-containing waste. In accordance with the principle of " recycling and reuse treatment" for waste water, three patent technologies are adopted. The waste water treatment recovers sodium cyanide and cuprous rhodanide, achieving the goal that waste water is 100% reused.

  18. New and Simple Ways to Minimize Water Uptake and Hydrolytic Degradation in Cyanate Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Hydrolytic Degradation in Cyanate Esters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew J. Guenthner...Water Uptake and Hydrolytic Degradation in Cyanate Esters 27 January 2016 Andrew J. Guenthner1, Christopher M. Sahagun2, Michael D. Ford3, Kevin R...cyanate esters can degrade on long-term exposure to hot water U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Torrey W. Lee (public domain

  19. Degradation of microcystin-RR in water by chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Ying; HUANG Jun-li; FU Jiao; WU Ming-song; CUI Chong-wei

    2008-01-01

    Due to the potent hepatotoxicity and tumor-promoting activity of microcystins, a successful removal of these toxins during drinking water treatment processes is of increasing concern. The oxidation kinetics of MC-RR by chlorine dioxide (C1O2)was studied with HPLC and characterization of the reacdon products was performed with UV-spectrometry, TOC and LC-MS. Our experimental results show that the oxidation process is a second order overall and a first order with respect to C1O2 and MC-RR.The activation energy of MC-RR degradation by C1O2 is 53.07 kJ/mol. The rate constant k of the action can be increased by increasing temperature and decreasing pH value and ranged from 6. 11x102 L/(mol.min) to 5.29x 102 L/(mol-min) at pH from 3.44 to 10.41 at 10 ℃. Reaction products were determined to be organic and volatile, because they could be almost removed from aqueous solution by heating for 15 min at 60 ℃. In addition, the main oxidation products have m/z values of 1072 and are identified as dihydroxy isomers of MC-RR.

  20. Bisphenol A degradation in water by ligninolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D

    2013-08-01

    Many endocrine disruptor compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA) are used today and released into the environment at low doses but they are barely degraded in wastewater treatment plants. One of the potential alternatives to effectively degrade endocrine disruptor compounds is based on the use of the oxidative action of extracellular fungal enzymes. The aim of this work is to study the ability of free and encapsulated enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase and laccase) to degrade BPA. Higher degradation of BPA (90%) by ligninolytic enzymes encapsulated on polyacrylamide hydrogel and pectin after 8h was obtained. The degradation of BPA while using the free enzyme (26%) was lower than the value obtained with encapsulated enzymes. The presence of pectin in the formulation significantly (p>0.05) enhanced the activity of enzymes. Kinetics of BPA degradation showed an increase in Vm, while Km remained constant when enzymes were encapsulated. Hence, encapsulation protected the enzymes from non-competitive inhibition.

  1. Effluent characterization and different modes of reuse in agriculture-a model case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhumita; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    . Usability of these was also evident from a groundwater exploitation status-based approach. The approaches of assessing industrial effluents differing in compositions systematically reflected the ability and applicability of certain effluents in agriculture. The context-specific assessment of effluent offers options to compare effluent from a range of viewpoints and enhances its reasonability of use for growing crops. Chemical characterization of various industrial effluents first disclosed their potential of reuse. The soil-properties-based compatibility of effluent focused their prospects of use and groundwater-exploitation-status-based portrayed its area of use in a specific region. Assessment of effluent through these enhances reliability and appropriateness of its reuse in agriculture. Options of industrial effluent (prospective) reuse in agriculture provide ways to combat freshwater crisis without degrading environmental quality. It may be applied for assessing effluent before its reuse in several water-starved countries.

  2. Research on the potential health risks of recycled water reuse and their countermeasures%再生水回用的潜在健康风险及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建国; 牛志广; 王晨晨; 张颖

    2012-01-01

    随着水资源短缺的日益加剧,再生水作为城市第二水源在一定程度上缓解了水资源的供需矛盾.阐述了国内外再生水回用情况,并分析了再生水回用过程中对人体健康的潜在风险,在此基础上对再生水安全回用的对策与建议进行了总结.最后,对再生水回用在今后的发展方向进行了展望.%With the increasing shortage of water resources, recycled water, as the second source of water, has alleviated the shortage of water supply to some extent. The current situation of recycled water reuse in China and abroad is expounded. Then, potential health risks produced in the process of recycled water reuse are analyzed. And, based on this, corresponding countermeasures for safe utilization of recycled water are summarized. At the end, the development of recycled water reuse is predicted.

  3. Analysis of Diurnal Variations in Energy Footprint and Its Associated Carbon Emission for Water Supply and Reuse in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Reza

    Arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world face water scarcity. Conventional water supply portfolio of these regions encompassed limited surface water, groundwater, and imported water. Current technological innovations technically and economically supplemented new water sources i.e., reclaimed water, desalted water and the groundwater sources that were not potable. The need for more efficient and alternative sources of drinking water supply necessitates studying the impediments e.g., intensive energy required, and emerging concern of the carbon emission. This dissertation discusses the challenges of energy footprint and its carbon emission among the processes involved in water supplies in the aforementioned regions. The conducted studies present time-dependent energy footprint analyses of different water reclamation and reuse processes. This study discusses the energy consumption in four main energy intensive processes inclusive of: activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with UV/ H2O2. The results indicate how the diurnal variations of different environmental parameters (e.g. flow and pollutant concentration) amplify the energy footprint variation among these processes. Meanwhile, the results show, due to the different power sources diurnally employed to provide electrical energy, the energy-associated carbon emission has more drastic variation in diurnal period compared to the energy footprint variation. In addition, this study presents the energy footprint of a modular process for treating local brackish groundwater by employing a combination of pellet reactor for radium and hardness minimization, reverse osmosis with intermediate precipitation, and concentrated brine crystallization to achieve high recovery with zero liquid discharge. Also it compares the energy footprint of the aforementioned process with the alternative option (i.e. desalted seawater conveyance with substantial lift). Finally, in coastal regions

  4. Degradation of bisphenol A in water by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanrui; Xu, Zhencheng; Guo, Qingwei; Zhuo, Qiongfang

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a kind of a controversial endocrine disruptor, and is ubiquitous in environment. The degradation of BPA with the heterogeneous photo-Fenton system was demonstrated in this study. The Fe-Y molecular sieve catalyst was prepared with the ion exchange method, and it was characterized by X-ray radiation diffraction (XRD). The effects ofpH, initial concentration of H2O2, initial BPA concentration, and irradiation intensity on the degradation of BPA were investigated. The service life and iron solubility of catalyst were also tested. XRD test shows that the major phase of the Fe-Y catalyst was Fe2O3. The method of heterogeneous photo-Fenton with Fe-Y catalyst was superior to photolysis, photo-oxidation with only hydrogen, heterogeneous Fenton, and homogeneous photo-Fenton approaches. pH value had no obvious effects on BPA degradation over the range of 2.2-7.2. The initial concentration of H2O2 had an optimal value of 20 x 10(-4) mol/L. The decrease in initial concentration of BPA was favourable for degradation. The intensity of ultraviolet irradiation has no obvious effect on the BPA removal. The stability tests indicated that the Fe-Y catalyst can be reused and iron solubility concentration ranged from NA to 0.0062 mg/L. Based on the results, the heterogeneous photo-Fenton treatment is the available method for the degradation of BPA.

  5. Integrating wastewater reuse in water resources management for hotels in arid coastal regions - Case Study of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water (using reverse osmosis) for their domestic water supply, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their potable and non-potable water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum amount of water that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). Hotels have to carefully analyse their water requirements in order to determine which percentage of the hotel's peak water demand should be used in the contract in order to reduce water costs and avoid the risk of water shortage. This paper describes a model to optimise the contracted-for irrigation water supply with the objective function to minimise total water cost to hotels. It analyses what the contracted-for irrigation water supply of a given hotel should be, based on the size of the green irrigated area on one hand and the unit prices of the different types of water on the other hand. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm), Egypt. This paper presents costs of wastewater treatment using waste stabilisation ponds, which is the prevailing treatment mechanism in the case study area for centralised plants, as well as aerobic/anaerobic treatment used for decentralised wastewater treatment plants in the case study area. There is only one centralised wastewater treatment plant available in the city exerting monopoly and selling treated wastewater to hotels at a much higher price than the actual cost that a hotel would bear if it treated its own wastewater. Contracting for full peak irrigation demand is the highest total cost option. Contracting for a portion of the peak irrigation demand and complementing the rest from desalination water is a cheaper option. A better option still is to complement the excess irrigation demand

  6. Reuse/disposal of agricultural drainage water with high levels of salinity and toxic trace elements in central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural drainage waters in the western San Joaquin Valley of Central California contain high levels of salts, boron (B) and selenium (Se). Discharge of the drainage water directly into the Kesterson Reservoir in 1980's was hazardous to plants and wildlife. To investigate the plausibility of usi...

  7. Degradation of pollutants and elimination of pathogens of waste water by adsorption of accelerated electrons; Degradacion de contaminantes y eliminacion de patogenos de aguas residuales por adsorcion de electrones acelerados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, I

    1991-10-15

    This report presents a position of the pollutants degradation of the industrial residual waters, it intends a method that consists on making pass residual water, treated biologically by a packed column with activated carbon. The carbon retains the pollutants and the water goes out with a purity that allows the reuse. In simultaneous form to the adsorption of pollutants are made pass electrons through the column of carbon, the electrons will destroy to the polluting adsorbed in the carbon; the pollutants degrade until CO{sub 2} that escapes as gas. The active sites of the carbon are empty and clever to be occupied by other pollutants. This process is continuous and it is repeated while water is passing by the column and electrons through this. (Author)

  8. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    regions, and across sectors demand for an integrated approach to assess main causes of water quality degradation.

  9. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    2012-03-29

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (Methane in the Arctic Shelf or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (metagenomes ). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in

  10. Carbonated water (CW) process waste reuse for ammonium-uranyl-carbonate (AUC) production and its gains on the environmental, economic and social aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo R.; Santos, Rafael D. dos; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Lauer, Sergio, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: rafaelsantos@inb.gov.br, E-mail: rodrigobarbosa@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lauer@inb.gov.br [Industias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the INB nuclear fuel cycle, the pellets production is based on UO{sub 2} powder made by AUC (Ammonium-Uranyl-Carbonate) route. AUC formation occurs by fluidising of UF{sub 6}, NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in a vase containing usually pure water, and this exothermal reaction has AUC as direct product. The mass formed is filtered, washed with CW, washed again with methano solution, dried with air and conducted to the fluidized bed furnace, to be converted to UO{sub 2} powder. At this point, the dried AUC decompounds to UO{sub 3}, NH{sub 3} and C0{sub 2}, these 2 gases are absorbed at the gases washer, formin go the carbonated water (CW), whit is basically a (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. The UO{sub 2+x} is reduced and stabilized to UO{sub 2} powder, which is conducted to pellets production. During the process, a considerable amount of this aqueous waste is generated and goes for effluent treatment. After that, the solution is sent for spray-dryer for power formation, and stock. This treatment demands equipment, energy and time, representing considerable costs of the company beyond the human risks involved on the drying step. The purpose of this work is to present a study of the carbonated water use as substitute of pure water in the AUC formation step. At this point, tests were made varying the CW loads for the AUC precipitation, and the control was made by the UO{sub 2} powder properties. The carbonated water used for AUC precipitation has been tested at several levels and the results has demonstrated full viability to become a definitive process step (INB, Resende site). It has been demonstrated the great resources economy caused by the waste reuse and the guarantee product quality. This represents such an environmental gain and also economic and social aspects got improved. (author)

  11. Local Level Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse: A Practical Solution to the Water Security Challenges Faced by Urban Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. B. Nichols

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD treatment devices are often used to restore natural drainage properties in developed catchments. WSUD can make positive contributions to the restoration of natural ecosystem processes, by supporting trees and habitats in urban areas without taking up limited urban space. This paper reports on the development and testing of a new WSUD device, the Wicking Tank. It is designed to supply sufficient volumes of water to urban trees through periods of drought via synthetic wicks from an underground storage tank to support adequate tree health. Relying on gravity fed stormwater, and the natural capillarity, adhesion, and cohesion properties of water and the process of hydraulic redistribution, water is transferred from the tank and into the rhizosphere of the tree. Water demand is controlled passively by the water potential differential across the root zone. Proof of concept testing of the Wicking Tank has shown the device to successfully draw water into soil to support the ongoing survival of a potted plant for over 20 weeks. Substantial differences are anticipated between this proof of concept test and an in-situ field trial. A field-based demonstration style version of the Wicking Tank is planned for construction and testing in 2015.

  12. Degradation of specific aromatic compounds migrating from PEXpipes into drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryssel, Sune Thyge; Arvin, Erik; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten;

    2015-01-01

    extractions and spiked samples. 4-ethylphenol was degraded within 22 days. Eight compounds were, however, only partially degradable under abiotic and biotic conditions within the timeframe of the experiments (2e4 weeks). Neither inhibition nor co-metabolism was observed in the presence of acetate or PEX pipe......Nine specific compounds identified to migrate from polyethylene (PE) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) to drinking water were investigated for their degradation in drinking water. Three sample types were studied: field samples (collected at consumer taps), PEX pipe water extractions, and water...... samples spiked with target compounds. Four compounds were quantified in field samples at concentrations of 0.15e8.0 mg/L. During PEX pipe water extraction 0.42 ± 0.20 mg NVOC/L was released and five compounds quantified (0.5e6.1 mg/L). The degradation of these compounds was evaluated in PEX-pipe water...

  13. Optimization, water reuse and biomass energy potential from waste water poultry slaughterhouse in Matelandia-Parana, Brazil; Otimizacao, reuso de agua e potencial energetico da biomassa presente nas aguas residuarias de abatedouro de aves em Matelandia, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formentini, Diana Fatima [Fundacao Parque Tecnologico de Itaipu (PTI), Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mpbambiental@yahoo.com.br; Costanzi, Ricardo Nagamine [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UFTPR), PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The alternative sources for energy generation through anaerobic digestion assist in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and increase the efficiency removing wastewater organic load. This study aimed to identify opportunities for optimization and water reuse in industry and energy potential of biomass present in wastewater from poultry slaughterhouse in Matelandia Parana state, through the anaerobic digestion process. The company slaughtered 130,000 poultries d{sup -1} and generates a wastewater flow of 3,398.77 m{sup 3}.d{sup -}1. Measurements of water consumption were made by water meters installed at seven points of the production process, which resulted in consumption values by sector. The treatment system used consists of pre-treatment in sieve flotator static and physical, followed by stabilization ponds. Two anaerobic ponds were covered with a geo membrane and installed a gas meter to measure the flow of biogas production. The average production of biogas produced in each month was approximately 2,100 m{sup 3}. The use of biomass poultry slaughterhouse is viable for generating electricity and that you can reuse 255.80 m{sup 3}.d{sup -1}. (author)

  14. PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF WASTE WATER ON. THIN FILMS OF TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhenghuang

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of organic phosphorous pesticide waste water using thin films of TiO2, which was prepared in an atmospheric vertical chemical vapor deposition system, was studied. The results show that the wafer material for coating TiO2, the photocatalytic time, the TiO2 crystal phase, the pH value and the concentration of pesticides in waste water influence the degradation rate. These facts indicate some potential for photocatalytic treatment of waste water by utilizing sunlight.

  15. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  16. Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents a reliable alternative water resource, capturing part of this energy and reclaiming the water would offset or even eliminate energy requirements for wastewater treatment and provide a means to augment traditional water supplies. Microbial electrochemical technology is a novel technology platform that uses bacteria capable of producing an electric current outside of the cell to recover energy from wastewater. These bacteria do not require oxygen to respire but instead use an insoluble electrode as their terminal electron acceptor. Two types of microbial electrochemical technologies were investigated in this dissertation: 1) a microbial fuel cell that produces electricity; and 2) a microbial electrolysis cell that produces hydrogen with the addition of external power. On their own, microbial electrochemical technologies do not achieve sufficiently high treatment levels. Innovative approaches that integrate microbial electrochemical technologies with emerging and established membrane-based treatment processes may improve the overall extent of wastewater treatment and reclaim treated water. Forward osmosis is an emerging low-energy membrane-based technology for seawater desalination. In forward osmosis water is transported across a semipermeable membrane driven by an osmotic gradient. The microbial osmotic fuel cell described in this dissertation integrates a microbial fuel cell with forward osmosis to achieve wastewater treatment, energy recovery and partial desalination. This system required no aeration and generated more power than conventional microbial fuel cells using ion exchange membranes by minimizing electrochemical losses. Membrane bioreactors incorporate semipermeable membranes within a biological wastewater

  17. Influence of water solubility, side chain degradability and side chain configuration on the degradation of phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnervik, M.

    1996-12-31

    Water solubility and degradability of side chains estrifying phthalic acid are factors possible to influence the degradation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To investigate the importance of these factors degradation of butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) were examined under methanogenic conditions as well as was the degradability of the alcohols estrifying these PAEs. We also investigated if the degradation of resistant PAEs could be stimulated by the addition of a degradable PAE. Synthesis of degradation intermediates and two methods for PAE analyses are presented. The investigation showed that all alcohols were degraded to methane and carbon dioxide and that the degradation of PAE occurred in incubations amended with BBP, BEHP, DHP and DBP, whilst DEHP, DOP and DDP were unaffected throughout the experimental period. BBP added to incubations with DEHP, could not stimulate DEHP degradation. In conclusion, the degradability of alcohols estrifying phthalic acid in this study does not affect the anaerobic degradability of PAEs. Water solubility of a PAE can not be rejected as a factor limiting phthalate degradation under methanogenic conditions. Anaerobic degradation of persistent PAEs can not be stimulated by mixing it with a degradable phthalate. 23 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Reuse and Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Like members of all pre-modern societies, ancient Egyptians practiced various forms of recycling. The reuse of building materials by rulers is attested throughout Egyptian history and was motivated by ideological and economic concerns. Reuse of masonry from the dilapidated monuments of royal predecessors may have given legitimacy to newer constructions, but in some cases, economic considerations or even antipathy towards an earlier ruler were the decisive factors. Private individuals also mad...

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of the diazo dye naphthol blue black in water using MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 nanocomposites under simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamba, Gcina; Mbianda, Xavier Yangkou; Mishra, Ajay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    A simple sol-gel method was employed to prepare gadolinium, nitrogen and sulphur tridoped titania decorated on oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2), using titanium (IV) butoxide and thiourea as titanium and nitrogen and sulphur source, respectively. Samples of varying gadolinium loadings (0.2%, 0.6%, 1.0% and 3.0% Gd3+) relative to titania were prepared to investigate the effect of gadolinium loading and the amounts of carbon nanotubes, nitrogen and sulphur were kept constant for all the samples. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated for the degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB) in water under simulated solar light irradiation. Higher degradation efficiency (95.7%) was recorded for the MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) nanocomposites. The higher photocatalytic activity is attributed to the combined effect of improved visible light absorption and charge separation due to the synergistic effect of Gd, MWCNTs, N, S and TiO2. Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis revealed a higher degree of complete mineralisation of naphthol blue black (78.0% TOC removal) which minimises the possible formation of toxic degradation by-products such as the aromatic amines. The MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) was fairly stable and could be re-used for five times, reaching a maximum degradation efficiency of 91.8% after the five cycles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Point Sources of Emerging Contaminants Along the Colorado River Basin: Impact on Water Use and Reuse in the Arid Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf...

  1. Re-use of invasive plants (water hyacinth) as organic fertilizer through composting and vermicomposting (Extremadura, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Moreno, Marta M.

    2015-04-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation

  2. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  3. A review of proton exchange membrane water electrolysis on degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Liu, Gaoyang; Wei, Bing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang

    2017-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) is an advanced and effective solution to the primary energy storage technologies. A better understanding of performance and durability of PEMWE is critical for the engineers and researchers to further advance this technology for its market penetration, and for the manufacturers of PEM water electrolyzers to implement quality control procedures for the production line or on-site process monitoring/diagnosis. This paper reviews the published works on performance degradations and mitigation strategies for PEMWE. Sources of degradation for individual components are introduced. With degradation causes discussed and degradation mechanisms examined, the review emphasizes on feasible strategies to mitigate the components degradation. To avoid lengthy real lifetime degradation tests and their high costs, the importance of accelerated stress tests and protocols is highlighted for various components. In the end, R&D directions are proposed to move the PEMWE technology forward to become a key element in future energy scenarios.

  4. Reuse of recalcitrant-rich anaerobic effluent as dilution water after enhancement of biodegradability by Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Namango, Saul S; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is used to treat effluents with a lot of organics, such as molasses distillery wastewater (MDW) which is the effluent of bioethanol production from molasses. The raw MDW requires a lot of dilution water before biodigestion, while the digested MDW has high level of recalcitrants which are problematic for its discharge. This study investigated ferric coagulation, Fenton, Fenton-like (with ferric ions as catalyst) processes and their combinations on the biodegradability of digested MDW. The Fenton and Fenton-like processes after coagulation increased the MDW biodegradability defined by (BOD5/COD) from 0.07 to (0.4-0.6) and saved 50% of H2O2 consumed in the classic Fenton process. The effluent from coagulation coupled to a Fenton-like process was used as dilution water for the raw MDW before the anaerobic digestion. The process was stable with volumetric loading of approx. 2.7 g COD/L/d. It resulted in increased overall biogas recovery and significantly decreased the demand for the dilution water.

  5. Photocatalytic oxidation of biologically treated greywater: a sustainable tool for high-quality water re-use in ecological sanitation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyas, H.; Jahn, M.; Li, Z.; Turp, Z.; Otterpohl, R. [Inst. of Wastewater Management, Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Furmanska, M.; Jarzemska, M.; Wojcik, A. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering Systems, Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    For further TOC removal from separately collected greywater pre-treated in constructed wetlands, the advanced oxidation process TiO{sub 2} assisted photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated in laboratory scale batch experiments. Besides disinfection, almost complete mineralization of the residual TOC of the pre-treated greywater (about 10 mg/l) was possible by photocatalytic oxidation. Dependence of process velocity on photocatalyst concentration follows a saturation curve. From the derived kinetic constants (based on UV-A energy introduction into the wastewater instead of time) it can be estimated that areas required for simple sequential batch reactors (like lagoons) powered by solar radiation are rather high resulting in thin layers of the greywater/photocatalyst suspension of about 1 cm with the consequence of complete evaporation of the water. Therefore, double-skin sheet reactors would be a better choice because they prevent evaporation and improve hydrodynamics. Hydrodynamics affect photocatalytic greywater oxidation rate. For (indirect) potable reuse, greywater reclaimed by biotreatment and photocatalytic oxidation should be finally treated by slow sand filtration or soil passage. (orig.)

  6. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin

    2017-06-01

    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  7. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  8. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties.

  9. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2017-03-01

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m(-3) for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. HydroShare for iUTAH: Collaborative Publication, Interoperability, and Reuse of Hydrologic Data and Models for a Large, Interdisciplinary Water Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Jones, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Data and models used within the hydrologic science community are diverse. New research data and model repositories have succeeded in making data and models more accessible, but have been, in most cases, limited to particular types or classes of data or models and also lack the type of collaborative, and iterative functionality needed to enable shared data collection and modeling workflows. File sharing systems currently used within many scientific communities for private sharing of preliminary and intermediate data and modeling products do not support collaborative data capture, description, visualization, and annotation. More recently, hydrologic datasets and models have been cast as "social objects" that can be published, collaborated around, annotated, discovered, and accessed. Yet it can be difficult using existing software tools to achieve the kind of collaborative workflows and data/model reuse that many envision. HydroShare is a new, web-based system for sharing hydrologic data and models with specific functionality aimed at making collaboration easier and achieving new levels of interactive functionality and interoperability. Within HydroShare, we have developed new functionality for creating datasets, describing them with metadata, and sharing them with collaborators. HydroShare is enabled by a generic data model and content packaging scheme that supports describing and sharing diverse hydrologic datasets and models. Interoperability among the diverse types of data and models used by hydrologic scientists is achieved through the use of consistent storage, management, sharing, publication, and annotation within HydroShare. In this presentation, we highlight and demonstrate how the flexibility of HydroShare's data model and packaging scheme, HydroShare's access control and sharing functionality, and versioning and publication capabilities have enabled the sharing and publication of research datasets for a large, interdisciplinary water research project

  11. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  12. Degradation of specific aromatic compounds migrating from PEX pipes into drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Sune Thyge; Arvin, Erik; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Procházková, Zuzana; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2015-09-15

    Nine specific compounds identified to migrate from polyethylene (PE) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) to drinking water were investigated for their degradation in drinking water. Three sample types were studied: field samples (collected at consumer taps), PEX pipe water extractions, and water samples spiked with target compounds. Four compounds were quantified in field samples at concentrations of 0.15-8.0 μg/L. During PEX pipe water extraction 0.42 ± 0.20 mg NVOC/L was released and five compounds quantified (0.5-6.1 μg/L). The degradation of these compounds was evaluated in PEX-pipe water extractions and spiked samples. 4-ethylphenol was degraded within 22 days. Eight compounds were, however, only partially degradable under abiotic and biotic conditions within the timeframe of the experiments (2-4 weeks). Neither inhibition nor co-metabolism was observed in the presence of acetate or PEX pipe derived NVOC. Furthermore, the degradation in drinking water from four different locations with three different water works was similar. In conclusion, eight out of the nine compounds studied would - if being released from the pipes - reach consumers with only minor concentration decrease during water distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  14. Guidance Manual for Separation of Graywater from Blackwater for Graywater Reuse (WERF Report INFR4SG09a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Increasing efforts in water conservation have prompted home and business owners to learn more about water reuse. One reuse application of interest is separating graywater (all wastewater excluding kitchen and toilet water) from other wastewater to supplement irrigatio...

  15. A pilot scale test of ozonization treatment of ethene wastewater for reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A pilot scale test of advanced treatment of ethene wastewater by ozonization was carried out for industrial water reuse.Effects of different operating conditions on COD degradation,such as wastewater flow rate,ozonized gas flow rate,operating voltage of ozonizer and two ozone generation means,using pure oxygen or air,was investigated.The results show that the increase of ozonizer operating voltage,the decrease of wastewater flow rate and the suitable ozonized gas flow rate improve the removal of COD in wastewater and that ozone generated respectively from air and pure oxygen can effectively remove COD of ethene wastewater to meet the industrial water reuse criterion.

  16. Analysis of the effects of wastewater reuse means on the carbon footprint of water network systems%废水回用方式对水网络碳足迹的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永利; 徐竞成; 黄菊文; 米小娟; 阮星; 李光明

    2011-01-01

    针对典型高耗水化工企业,分析其水网络的碳足迹,对推进清洁生产、优化水资源配置、降低二氧化碳排放具有重要意义.选择新鲜水和电能这两项决定性因素.计算水网络的碳足迹,分析了钛白粉厂不同废水回用方式对水网络碳足迹的影响.研究结果表明,钛白粉厂直接回用水网络和再生回用水网络的碳足迹分别比初始水网络降低了24.69%和26.38%;与直接回用水网络相比,再生回用水网络在新鲜水使用、废水排放和废水回用方面碳足迹的改变量小.%Since the chemical enterprises whose water consumption is typically high, analyzing their carbon footprint of water network systems has great significance for the promotion of clean production, optimization of water resource distribution, and reduction of carbon dioxide emission. Fresh water and electric energy are chosen as the two deciding factors for calculating the carbon footprint of water network systems. The effects of different kinds of wastewater reuse means on the carbon footprint of water network systems are analyzed for a titanium plant. The study demonstrates that the carbon footprint of direct wastewater reuse network systems and regenerated wastewater reuse network systems can be lower by 24.69% and 26.38% ,respectively. Compared with the direct water network systems,the regenerated wastewater reuse network systems have smaller carbon footprint change,in the aspects, such as fresh water consumption, wastewater discharge and wastewater reuse.

  17. Degraded core analysis for the pressurized-water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-02-09

    An analysis of the likelihood and the consequences of 'degraded-core accidents' has been undertaken for the proposed Sizewell B PWR. In such accidents, degradation of the core geometry occurs as a result of overheating. Radionuclides are released and may enter the environment, causing harmful effects. The analysis concludes that degraded-core accidents are highly improbable, the plant having been designed to reduce the frequency of such accidents to a value of order 10/sup -6/ per year. Tbe building containing the reactor would only fail in a small proportion of degraded-core accidents. In the great majority of cases the containment would remain intact and the release of radioactivity to the environment would be small. The risk to individuals have been calculated for both immediate and long term effects. Although the estimates of risk are approximate, studies to investigate the uncertainties, and sensitivities to different assumptions, show that potential errors are small compared with the very large 'margin of safety' between the risks estimated for Sizewell B and those that already exist in society.

  18. Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro; Nishiyama, Kyohei; Onishi, Shingo; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Nomura, Shinfuku; Kawashima, Ayato

    2010-02-15

    The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the excitation of mercury vapor by stray RF power. Such an enhancement is explained by the fact that after hydrogen peroxide is produced via the recombination process of OH radicals around the plasma, OH radicals reproduced from hydrogen peroxide via the photolysis process degrade methylene blue.

  19. Forward Osmosis/Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis for Water Reuse: Removal of Organic Micropollutants, Fouling and Cleaning

    KAUST Repository

    Linares, Rodrigo

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a natural process in which a solution with high concentration of solutes is diluted when being in contact, through a semipermeable membrane, with a low concentration solution. This osmotic process has been demonstrated to be efficient to recover wastewater effluents while diluting a saline draw solution. Nevertheless, the study of the removal of micropollutants by FO is barely described in the literature. This research focuses on the removal of these substances spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, while diluting water from the Red Sea, generating feed water that can be desalinated with a low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) system. Another goal of this work is to characterize the fouling of the FO membrane, and its effect on micropollutants rejection, as well as the membrane cleaning efficiency of different methods. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% to 95.2%, 48.7% to 91.5% and 96.9% to 98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the surface, related to the foulants. However, when coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis, the rejections for both, the clean and fouled membrane, increased above 98%. The fouling layer, after characterizing the wastewater effluent and the concentrated wastewater after the FO process, proved to be composed of biopolymers, which can be removed with air scouring during short periods

  20. Nitrification-denitrification biological treatment of a high-nitrogen waste stream for water-reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W Andrew; Morse, Audra; McLamore, Eric; Wiesner, Ted; Xia, Shu

    2009-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the use of biological nitrification-denitrification systems as pre-processors for recycling wastewater to potable water in support of space exploration. A packed-bed bioreactor and membrane-aerated nitrification reactor were operated in series with a 10:1 recycle ratio over varying loading rates. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal exceeded 80% for all loading rates (theta = 1 to 6.8 days), while total nitrogen removal generally increased with decreasing retention time, with a maximum removal of 55%. The degree of nitrification generally declined with decreasing retention time from a high of 80% to a low of 60%. Maximum DOC and total nitrogen volumetric removal rates exceeded 1000 and 800 g/m3 x d, respectively, and maximum nitrification volumetric conversion rates exceeded 300 g/m3 x d. At low hydraulic loading rates, the system was stoichiometrically limited, while kinetic limitations dominated at high hydraulic loading rates. Incomplete nitrification occurred at high loading rates, likely as a result of the high pH and large concentrations of ammonia.

  1. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water by ozone-hydrogen peroxide process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ying-hui; MA Jun; HOU Yan-jun

    2006-01-01

    This study reports an investigation into the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in bubble contactor column by O3/H2O2 process, which is widely used as a principal advanced oxidation process. The degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was studied under different H2O2/O3 molar ratio and pH value. Meanwhile, TOC removal was investigated both in distilled water and tap water. The influences of ozone transfer and consumed hydrogen peroxide were also discussed. The degradation products and oxidation intermediates were identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. A possible reaction mechanism was thus proposed.

  2. Influence of Environmental Conditions in Ichthyophthiriasis Trigger to the Europeans Catfish Juveniles (Silurus Glanis Stocked into a Production System with Partially Reused Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandita (Placinta Ion

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in Romanian aquaculture, the rearing of the European catfish into intensive production systems raises a growing interest determined by its higher technological performances. In comparison with pond traditional aquaculture, the new farming systems are characterized by modified environmental conditions that may lead, in case of exceeding thresholds of tolerability, to occurrence of stress factors, thus setting the disease conditions. From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is to present the association circumstances of the predisposed environmental conditions that have weakened the fish body resistance promoting the pathological action of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis after the transfer of European catfish juveniles (G=33.6±1.7 g, L=17.5±2.9 cm from a pond system into a tank culture system with partially reused water. During a 21-day period, some restrictive parameters of water quality have registered values far beyond the optimum interval for wells juveniles growth (t≤16oC, CmaxN-NH4+=3.62mg/l, CmaxNO2-=9.18mg/l, CmaxCl2=0.1mg/l which caused the appearance of some characteristic symptoms, such as the gills brown coloration, masking the first symptoms of ichthyophthiriasis and contributing to the subclinical evolution of the disease. The concentrations of water chemical parameters were determined by spectrophotometer methods using Merck kits, analogous to standard methods. Subsequently, the “ich” diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of the gills and skin scrapings highlighting the presence of parasites. In order to alleviate methaemoglobinaemia and parasite treatment, sodium chloride was gradually added in water till 1 ppt concentration. Maintaining the salinity of the system led to a reduction of gills parasitic intensity, while mature trophonts encapsulated in the skin were protected by mucus hypersecretion. Finally, the destruction of gill epithelium seriously affected the osmoregulation

  3. Alginate immobilized enrichment culture for atrazine degradation in soil and water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anup; Nain, Lata; Singh, Neera

    2017-04-03

    An atrazine degrading enrichment culture, a consortium of bacteria of genus Bacillus along with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, was immobilized in sodium alginate and was used to study atrazine degradation in mineral salts medium (MSM), soil and wastewater effluent. Sodium alginate immobilized consortium, when stored at room temperature (24 ± 5°C), was effective in degrading atrazine in MSM up to 90 days of storage. The survival of bacteria in alginate beads, based on colony formation unit (CFU) counts, suggested survival up to 90 days and population counts decreased to 1/5(th) on 120 days. Comparison of atrazine degrading ability of the freely suspended enrichment culture and immobilized culture suggested that the immobilized culture took longer time for complete degradation of atrazine as a lag phase of 2 days was observed in the MSM inoculated with alginate immobilized culture. The free cells resulted in complete degradation of atrazine within 6 days, while immobilized cells took 10 days for 100% atrazine degradation. Further, immobilized cultures were able to degrade atrazine in soil and wastewater effluent. Alginate beads were stable and effective in degrading atrazine till 3rd transfer and disintegrated thereafter. The study suggested that immobilized enrichment culture, due to its better storage and application, can be used to degrade atrazine in soil water system.

  4. The applicability of nanofiltration for the treatment and reuse of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... that permeate from NF90 met the reuse criteria for feed water to the dye bath. Keywords: textile effluent, nanofiltration, reactive dyes, water ..... respect to colour, there were still residual colours sustained in ... article writing.

  5. TiO2 BEADS FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF HUMIC ACID IN PEAT WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Andayani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of humic acid in aqueous solution containing TiO2 coated on ceramics beads under irradiation of 254 nm UV light has been conducted in batch reactor. The aim of this experiment was to study photocatalytic degradation of humic acid in peat water. The irradiation of the humic acid in aqueous solution was conducted in various conditions i.e solely uv, in the presence of TiO2-slurry and TiO2 beads. The color intensity, humic acid residue, conductivity and COD (chemical oxygen demand of the solution were analyzed before and after irradiation.  The compounds produced during photodegradation were identified using HPLC. The results showed that after photocatalytic degradation, the color intensity and the COD value of the solution decreased, while the conductivity of water increased indicating mineralization of the peat water occurred. In addition, oxalic acid as the product of degradation was observed.

  6. Markov Chain for Reuse Strategies of Product Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jia; JIANG Lan

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is presented to plan reuse strategies of common modules in a product family by using the concepts of function degradation, reliability, function requirement, cost and life time. Markov chain model is employed to predict function degradation and reliability. A utility model is used to evaluate the preference between used modules and new modules. An example of cascading-requirment product family illustrates the main ideas of our work. The Markov models are used effectively to predict function degradation and reliability. Utility theory is helpful to evaluate the reuse options of common modules.

  7. Degradation of C.I. Reactive Red 2 through photocatalysis coupled with water jet cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Jia, Jinping; Wang, Yalin

    2011-01-15

    The decolorization of an azo dye, C.I. Reactive Red 2 was investigated using TiO(2) photocatalysis coupled with water jet cavitation. Experiments were performed in a 4.0 L solution under ultraviolet power of 9 W. The effects of TiO(2) loading, initial dye concentration, solution pH, geometry of cavitation tube, and the addition of anions on the degradation of the dye were evaluated. Degradation of the dye followed a pseudo-first order reaction. The photocatalysis coupled with water jet cavitation elevated degradation of the dye by about 136%, showing a synergistic effect compared to the individual photocatalysis and water jet cavitation. The enhancement of photocatalysis by water jet cavitation could be due to the deagglomeration of catalyst particles as well as the better contact between the catalyst surfaces and the reactants. Venturi tube with smaller diameter and shorter length of throat tube favored the dye decolorization. The degradation efficiency was found to increase with decreasing initial concentration and pH. The presence of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) enhanced the degradation of RR2, while Cl(-), and especially HCO(3)(-) significantly reduced dye decolorization. The results of this study indicated that the coupled photocatalysis and water jet cavitation is effective in degrading dye in wastewater and provides a promising alternative for treatment of dye wastewater at a large scale. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Community analysis and recovery of phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui eGu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 d. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC, the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in DGGE profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on GAC. This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources.

  9. Community Analysis and Recovery of Phenol-degrading Bacteria from Drinking Water Biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihui; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Huiqing; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 days. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC), the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on granular active carbon (GAC). This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources.

  10. A hybrid process of biofiltration of secondary effluent followed by ozonation and short soil aquifer treatment for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, I; Mamane, H; Cikurel, H; Jekel, M; Hübner, U; Avisar, D

    2015-11-01

    The Shafdan reclamation project facility (Tel Aviv, Israel) practices soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of secondary effluent with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of a few months to a year for unrestricted agricultural irrigation. During the SAT, the high oxygen demand (>40 mg L(-1)) of the infiltrated effluent causes anoxic conditions and mobilization of dissolved manganese from the soil. An additional emerging problem is the occurrence of persistent trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in reclaimed water that should be removed prior to reuse. An innovative hybrid process based on biofiltration, ozonation and short SAT with ∼22 d HRT is proposed for treatment of the Shafdan secondary effluent to overcome limitations of the existing system and to reduce the SAT's physical footprint. Besides efficient removal of particulate matter to minimize clogging, coagulation/flocculation and filtration (5-6 m h(-1)) operated with the addition of hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen source efficiently removed dissolved organic carbon (DOC, to 17-22%), ammonium and nitrite. This resulted in reduced effluent oxygen demand during infiltration and oxidant (ozone) demand during ozonation by 23 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Ozonation (1.0-1.2 mg O3 mg DOC(-1)) efficiently reduced concentrations of persistent TrOCs and supplied sufficient dissolved oxygen (>30 mg L(-1)) for fully oxic operation of the short SAT with negligible Mn(2+) mobilization (process provided DOC reduction of 88% to a value of 1.2 mg L(-1), similar to conventional SAT, while improving the removal of TrOCs and efficiently preventing manganese dissolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective degradation of organic water pollutants by atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch and analysis of degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Avinash S; More, Supriya E; Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Satpute, Shruti; Ahmad, Absar; Bhoraskar, Sudha V; Mathe, Vikas L

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports the use of atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch as a catalyst for degradation of various organic pollutants dissolved in water. A flow of He mixed with air was used to produce the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), at the tip of the torch, using pulsed electric excitation at 12 kV. The torch, operated at a power of 750 mW/mm(2), was seen to completely degrade the aqueous solutions of the pollutants namely methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine-B (RB), at around 10(-4) M concentrations, the concentration of polluants is one order higher than of routinely used heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, within 10 min of irradiation time at room temperature. UV Visible spectra of the organic dye molecules, monitored after different intervals of plasma-irradiation, ranging between 1 and 10 min, have been used as tools to quantify their sequential degradation. Further, instead of using He, only air was used to form plasma plume and used for degradation of organic dye which follow similar trend as that of He plasma. Further, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS) technique has been used to understand degradation pathway of methylene blue (MB) as a representative case. Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements indicates significant decrease in its content as a function of duration of plasma exposure onto methylene blue as a representative case. Toxicity studies were carried out onto Gram negative Escherichia coli. This indicated that methylene blue, without plasma treatment, shows growth inhibition, whereas with plasma treatment no inhibition was observed.

  12. Biostimulation and enhancement of pesticide degradation around water abstraction fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi

    Groundwater contamination by pesticides is a widespread environmental problem and a major threat to drinking water supplies. Diffuse source contamination of groundwater that enters from an extensive area is characterized by low pesticide concentrations (nanogram-microgram per liter) in large...... volumes of water. It is regarded as one of the major threats to groundwater quality originating from agriculture, roads and railways. These large volumes of water in combination with the low concentration cause difficulties in preventing contamination of drinking water supplies and this is a challenge...... to develop remediation solutions. Abstraction fields often include several wells. Even if only one of the wells is contaminated, this water mixes with uncontaminated groundwater from the other wells and causes excessive volumes of water to be treated at the waterworks. An alternative approach...

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of hexazinone and its determination in water via UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Mei; Du, Zhenxia; Xu, Ruifen; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Haojie; Qu, Shuping

    2012-06-30

    Degradation of hexazinone has been investigated by means of photocatalysis of mixed-phase crystal nano-TiO(2). Influences of adsorption, amount of nano-TiO(2), pH and irradiation time on the photocatalytic process are studied. Results show that hexazinone is totally degraded within 40min of irradiation under pH neutral conditions. This compares favorably with Degussa P25 TiO(2) when conducted under the same experimental conditions. Preliminary photocatalytic kinetic information for hexazinone degradation is proposed. First order kinetics is obtained for the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation reactions, which fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. A rapid, sensitive and accurate UPLC-MS/MS technique is developed and utilized to determine the level of hexazinone in water in support of the degradation kinetics study. The results indicate a limit of detection (LOD) at 0.05μg/l and the recoveries between 90.2 and 98.5% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 12%. A LC-MS/MS technique is used to trace the degradation process. Complete degradation is achieved into final products including nontoxic water, carbon dioxide and urea. A probable pathway for the total photocatalytic degradation of hexazinone is proposed.

  14. Polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis: Restraining degradation in the presence of fluctuating power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakousky, Christoph; Reimer, Uwe; Wippermann, Klaus; Kuhri, Susanne; Carmo, Marcelo; Lueke, Wiebke; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolysis generates 'green' hydrogen when conducted with electricity from renewable - but fluctuating - sources like wind or solar photovoltaic. Unfortunately, the long-term stability of the electrolyzer performance is still not fully understood under these input power profiles. In this study, we contrast the degradation behavior of our PEM water electrolysis single cells that occurs under operation with constant and intermittent power and derive preferable operating states. For this purpose, five different current density profiles are used, of which two were constant and three dynamic. Cells operated at 1 A cm-2 show no degradation. However, degradation was observed for the remaining four profiles, all of which underwent periods of high current density (2 A cm-2). Hereby, constant operation at 2 A cm-2 led to the highest degradation rate (194 μV h-1). Degradation can be greatly reduced when the cells are operated with an intermittent profile. Current density switching has a positive effect on durability, as it causes reversible parts of degradation to recover and results in a substantially reduced degradation per mole of hydrogen produced. Two general degradation phenomena were identified, a decreased anode exchange current density and an increased contact resistance at the titanium porous transport layer (Ti-PTL).

  15. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale wa

  16. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale

  17. Degradation of florfenicol in water by UV/Na2S 2O 8 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Qiong; Gao, Nai-Yun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Da-Qiang; Zhang, Yan-Sen

    2015-06-01

    UV irradiation-activated sodium persulfate (UV/PS) was studied to degrade florfenicol (FLO), a phenicol antibiotic commonly used in aquaculture, in water. Compared with UV/H2O2 process, UV/PS process achieves a higher FLO degradation efficiency, greater mineralization, and less cost. The quantum yield for direct photolysis of FLO and the second-order rate constant of FLO with sulfate radicals were determined. The effects of various factors, namely PS concentration, anions (NO3 (-), Cl(-), and HCO3 (-)), ferrous ion, and humic acid (HA), on FLO degradation were investigated. The results showed that the pseudo-first-order rate constant increased linearly with increased PS concentration. The tested anions all adversely affected FLO degradation performance with the order of HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > NO3 (-). Coexisting ferrous ions enhanced FLO degradation at a Fe(2+)/PS molar ratio under 1:1. HA significantly inhibited FLO degradation due to radical scavenging and light-screening effect. Toxicity assessment showed that it is capable of controlling the toxicity for FLO degradation. These findings indicated that UV/PS is a promising technology for water polluted by antibiotics, and the treatment is optimized only after the impacts of water characteristics are carefully considered.

  18. Promoter reuse in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search

  19. Aligning the economic modeling of software reuse with reuse practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, D.; Meijler, 27696

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to current practices where software reuse is applied recursively and reusable assets are tailored trough parameterization or specialization, existing reuse economic models assume that (i) the cost of reusing a software asset depends on its size and (ii) reusable assets are developed from

  20. Electrochemical degradation of clofibric acid in water by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sires, Ignasi [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cabot, Pere Lluis [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centellas, Francesc [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garrido, Jose Antonio [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rodriguez, Rosa Maria [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arias, Conchita [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: brillas@ub.edu

    2006-10-05

    Aqueous solutions containing the metabolite clofibric acid (2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid) up to close to saturation in the pH range 2.0-12.0 have been degraded by anodic oxidation with Pt and boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anodes. The use of BDD leads to total mineralization in all media due to the efficient production of oxidant hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH). This procedure is then viable for the treatment of wastewaters containing this compound. The effect of pH, apparent current density, temperature and metabolite concentration on the degradation rate, consumed specific charge and mineralization current efficiency has been investigated. Comparative treatment with Pt yields poor decontamination with complete release of stable chloride ion. When BDD is used, this ion is oxidized to Cl{sub 2}. Clofibric acid is more rapidly destroyed on Pt than on BDD, indicating that it is more strongly adsorbed on the Pt surface enhancing its reaction with {center_dot}OH. Its decay kinetics always follows a pseudo-first-order reaction and the rate constant for each anode increases with increasing apparent current density, being practically independent of pH and metabolite concentration. Aromatic products such as 4-chlorophenol, 4-chlorocatechol, 4-chlororesorcinol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol are detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and reversed-phase chromatography. Tartronic, maleic, fumaric, formic, 2-hydroxyisobutyric, pyruvic and oxalic acids are identified as generated carboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography. These acids remain stable in solution using Pt, but they are completely converted into CO{sub 2} with BDD. A reaction pathway for clofibric acid degradation involving all these intermediates is proposed.

  1. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

  2. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxian Zhang; Fang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several clim...

  3. Catalytical degradation of relevant pollutants from waters using magnetic nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadejde, C.; Neamtu, M.; Schneider, R. J.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Ababei, G.; Panne, U.

    2015-10-01

    The catalytic efficiency of two magnetically responsive nanocatalysts was evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84) azo dyes using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant under very mild conditions (atmospheric pressure, room temperature). In order to obtain the nanocatalysts, the surface of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, prepared by a co-precipitation method, was further modified with ferrous oxalate, a highly sensitive non-hazardous reducing agent. The sensitized nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, and used in the catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation (CWHPO) of RB5 and RY84, in laboratory-scale experiments. The effect of important variables such as catalyst dosage, H2O2 concentration, and contact time was studied in the dye degradation kinetics. The results showed that it was possible to remove up to 99.7% dye in the presence of 20 mM H2O2 after 240 min of oxidation for a catalyst concentration of 10 g L-1 at 25 °C and initial pH value of 9.0. CWHPO of reactive dyes using sensitized magnetic nanocatalysts can be a suitable pre-treatment method for complete decolorization of effluents from textile dyeing and finishing processes, once the optimum operating conditions are established.

  4. THE WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION OF UPPER AWASH RIVER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-11

    Jan 11, 2013 ... industries, power production and recreation. Combinations of ... generation, fish production, serving as water source for .... total phosphorus (TP), ortho phosphate (SRP), .... biomagnifications in the food chain (Eisler, 1988).

  5. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    ) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...

  6. Oxidative degradation of chemical warfare agents in water by bleaching powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lihong; Zuo, Guomin; Cheng, Zhenxing; Zhu, Haiyan; Li, Shanmao

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of sulfur mustard (HD), S-2-(di-isopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) and Soman (GD) in water by bleaching powder was investigated. The degradation products were comprehensively analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and ion chromatography. Degradation pathways were deduced based on the identified products. The product analysis results indicated that HD could be degraded through oxidation and chlorination reactions, and a small portion of sulfur atoms could be mineralized into SO(4)(2-) ion. Oxidative degradation of VX could finally generate O-ethyl methylphosphonate acid (EMPA), sulfonic acids, SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) ions. GD would be converted into non-toxic pinacolyl methylphosphonate via nucleophilic substitution.

  7. Rapid Degradation of Concrete Anchorage Performance by Liquid Water

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sludge ejection from the foundation of a wind turbine tower fixed by the anchor-ring method and the resulting sludge buildup have been confirmed to cause the undesirable phenomenon of lifting of the tower. Using specimen that is a pirtial model of the wind turbine foundation, this study investigates the influence of liquid water, differences in W/C, and differences in loading speed, to analyze developing factors on the concrete damage . The results shows that penetration of liquid water from ...

  8. 中水在炼油循环冷却水系统中的应用%The Application of Water Reused into Circulating Cooling Water System in Oil Refining Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建权; 刘丽娜; 王炜; 魏志朝

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of recycled water reusing as circulating cooling water for oil refining plants were analyzed.The results of corrosion and scale inhibitor experiment indicated that the water treatment agents for recycled water can inhibit the corrosion and scale completely.After eight months' system optimization and industrial application,the circulating cooling system was still in good working order with five ratio cyele of concentration or more.%分析了中水作为炼油循环冷却水系统补水的特点及对循环水系统的影响。缓蚀和阻垢实验结果表明,中水回用水处理剂完全可以有效控制系统的腐蚀和结垢。经过8个月的不断优化和工业运行,系统在浓缩倍数为5以上的情况下,运行状况良好。

  9. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  10. Rapid Screen for Bacteria Degrading Water-Insoluble, Solid Hydrocarbons on Agar Plates

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A rapid procedure was devised for detecting on solid media bacteria able to degrade water-insoluble, solid hydrocarbons such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene, anthracene, and biphenyl. After Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2 was inoculated on a plate containing mineral salts agar, an ethereal solution of phenanthrene (about 10%, wt/vol) was sprayed on the surface of the plate, and the plate was incubated at 30°C for 2 to 3 days. Colonies showing degradation were surrounded with cl...

  11. 河南某内燃机配件股份公司污水治理及中水回用%Sewage Treatment and Water Reuse of an Internal Combustion Engine Parts Companyin Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了一个生产生活污水处理规模850t/d和含油废清洗液污水处理规模40t/m的中水回用工程。该工程采用A2/O+混凝沉淀工艺处理生产生活污水,破乳+隔油沉淀+气浮工艺处理含油废清洗液污水,并将产水回用于园区绿化、冲扫地面、冲洗厕所。探讨了该工艺关键单元的作用及特点,并考察了其运行效果。结果表明,该工艺运行稳定,产水及各项水质指标满足了该公司对回用水的要求。%This paper introduces an 850t/d production and domestic sewage treatment and 40t/m oily waste clean⁃ing liquid sewage treatment and water reuse project. The project adopts A2/O+ coagulation sedimentation process for treatment of production and domesticwastewater and demulsification and oil separation precipitation + flotation treatment of oily waste cleaning liquid sewage, and will produce water reuse for park greening, floor brushing, toi⁃let flushing. The function and characteristics of the key elements of the process are discussed, and the operation effect is investigated. The results show that the process is stable, the water productionand the water quality meet the requirements of the company on water reuse.

  12. Ceramic Ultra- and Nanofiltration for Municipal Wastewater Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shang

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, water reuse has been widely recognized in many regions of the world. Fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In addition, the reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, that are often used for water reuse plant, frequently face the problem of bio-fouling. The main objective of this thesis is to develop innovative applications of the ceramic ul...

  13. Degradation of carbofuran-contaminated water by the Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Shih; Kumar, Mathava; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2009-07-15

    In this study, the Fenton process was applied for the degradation of carbofuran from aqueous system. Batch experiments were conducted at two different carbofuran concentrations i.e., 10 and 50 mg/L, and at pH 3. Batch experiments at each carbofuran concentration were designed by central composite design (CCD) with two independent variables i.e. Fe2+ and H2O2. Experimental results indicate that more than 90% of carbofuran removal was observed within 5 mins of Fenton reaction at 5 mg/L of Fe2+ concentration and 100 mg/L of H202 concentration. Increases in Fe2+ and/or H2O2 concentrations beyond 5 and 100 mg/L, respectively produced 100% carbofuran removal. Based on the experimental observations, the optimal Fe2+ and H2O2 dosages required for 10 mg/L of aqueous carbofuran removal were estimated as 7.4 and 143 mg/L, respectively. During this study, three carbofuran intermediates such as 7-benzofuranol,2,3,-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl, 7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-benzofuran-3-one and 1,4-Benzene-di-carboxaldehyde were identified using GC/MS analyses.

  14. Influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and enzymatic in vitro degradation of alginate hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rúben F; Carvalho, Anabela; Gil, M H; Mendes, Ausenda; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates the influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of Aloe vera-Ca-alginate hydrogel films, for wound healing and drug delivery applications. The influence of A. vera content (5%, 15% and 25%, v/v) on water absorption was evaluated by the incubation of the films into a 0.1 M HCl solution (pH 1.0), acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and simulated body fluid solution (pH 7.4) during 24h. Results show that the water absorption is significantly higher for films containing high A. vera contents (15% and 25%), while no significant differences are observed between the alginate neat film and the film with 5% of A. vera. The in vitro enzymatic degradation tests indicate that an increase in the A. vera content significantly enhances the degradation rate of the films. Control films, incubated in a simulated body fluid solution without enzymes, are resistant to the hydrolytic degradation, exhibiting reduced weight loss and maintaining its structural integrity. Results also show that the water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of the films can be tailored by changing the A. vera content.

  15. Enantioselective degradation and chiral stability of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanli; Liu, Donghui; Luo, Mai; Jing, Xu; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The stereoselective degradation and transformation of the enantiomers of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water were studied to investigate the environmental behavior and chiral stability of the optical pure product. Its main chiral metabolite fluazifop was also monitored. LC/MS/MS with Chiralpak IC chiral column was used to separate the enantiomers of fluazifop-butyl and fluazifop. Validated enantioselective residue analysis methods were established with recoveries ranging from 77.1 to 115.4% and RSDs from 0.85 to 8.9% for the enantiomers. It was found the dissipation of fluazifop-butyl was rapid in the three studied soils (Beijing, Harbin and Anhui soil), and the degradation half-lives of the enantiomers ranged from 0.136 to 2.7 d. Enantioselective degradations were found in two soils. In Beijing soil, R-fluazifop-butyl was preferentially degraded leading to relative enrichment of S-enantiomer, but in Anhui soil, S-fluazifop-butyl dissipated faster. There was no conversion of the R-fluazifop-butyl into S-fluazifop-butyl or vice versa in the soils. The formation of fluazifop in the soils was rapidly accompanied with the fast degradation of fluazifop-butyl, and the enantioselectivity and the transformation of S-fluazifop to R-fluazifop were found. The degradation of fluazifop-butyl in water was also quick, with half-lives of the enantiomers ranging from 0.34 to 2.52 d, and there was no significant enantioselectivity of the degradation of fluazifop-butyl and the formation of fluazifop. The effects of pH on the degradation showed fluazifop-butyl enantiomers degraded faster in alkaline conditions. This study showed an evidence of enantioselective behavior and enantiomerization of the chiral herbicide fluazifop-butyl.

  16. Enhanced degradation of organic contaminants in water by peroxydisulfate coupled with bisulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Chengdu, E-mail: qichengdu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Xitao, E-mail: liuxt@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Yang; Lin, Chunye; Ma, Jun; Li, Xiaowan; Zhang, Huijuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • S(IV)/PDS system showed synergistic degradation of BPA than S(IV) and PDS. • BPA degradation involved hydroxyl and oxysulfur radicals in the S(IV)/PDS system. • Based on the identified intermediates, the BPA degradation pathway was proposed. - Abstract: In this study, the bisulfite-peroxydisulfate system (S(IV)/PDS) widely used in polymerization was innovatively applied for organic contaminants degradation in water. The addition of S(IV) into PDS system remarkably enhanced the degradation efficiency of bisphenol A (BPA, a frequently detected endocrine disrupting chemical in the environments) from 17.0% to 84.7% within 360 min. The degradation efficiency of BPA in the S(IV)/PDS system followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constant values ranging from 0.00005 min{sup −1} to 0.02717 min{sup −1} depending on the operating parameters, such as the initial S(IV) and PDS dosage, solution pH, reaction temperature, chloride and water type. Furthermore, nitrogen purging experiment, radical scavenging experiment and electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis were used to elucidate the possible mechanism. The results revealed that sulfate radical was the dominant reactive species in the S(IV)/PDS system. Finally, based on the results of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), the BPA degradation pathway was proposed to involve β-scission (C−C), hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative skeletal rearrangement, and ring opening. This study helps to characterize the combination of PDS and inorganic S(IV), a common industrial contaminant, to generate reactive species to enhance organic contaminants degradation in water.

  17. Degradation of starch-poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastic in tropical coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, S H; Gordon, S H; Shogren, R L; Tosteson, T R; Govind, N S; Greene, R V

    1999-02-01

    Extruded bioplastic was prepared from cornstarch or poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) or blends of cornstarch and PHBV. The blended formulations contained 30 or 50% starch in the presence or absence of polyethylene oxide (PEO), which enhances adherence of starch granules to PHBV. Degradation of these formulations was monitored for 1 year at four stations in coastal water southwest of Puerto Rico. Two stations were within a mangrove stand. The other two were offshore; one of these stations was on a shallow shoulder of a reef, and the other was at a location in deeper water. Microbial enumeration at the four stations revealed considerable flux in the populations over the course of the year. However, in general, the overall population densities were 1 order of magnitude less at the deeper-water station than at the other stations. Starch degraders were 10- to 50-fold more prevalent than PHBV degraders at all of the stations. Accordingly, degradation of the bioplastic, as determined by weight loss and deterioration of tensile properties, correlated with the amount of starch present (100% starch >50% starch > 30% starch > 100% PHBV). Incorporation of PEO into blends slightly retarded the rate of degradation. The rate of loss of starch from the 100% starch samples was about 2%/day, while the rate of loss of PHBV from the 100% PHBV samples was about 0.1%/day. Biphasic weight loss was observed for the starch-PHBV blends at all of the stations. A predictive mathematical model for loss of individual polymers from a 30% starch-70% PHBV formulation was developed and experimentally validated. The model showed that PHBV degradation was delayed 50 days until more than 80% of the starch was consumed and predicted that starch and PHBV in the blend had half-lives of 19 and 158 days, respectively. Consistent with the relatively low microbial populations, bioplastic degradation at the deeper-water station exhibited an initial lag period, after which degradation

  18. Discussion on the Popularization and Application of Intermediate Water Reuse in Residential Quarter%中水回用在城镇住宅小区的推广应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦玮; 杨青; 陆夏铭; 李晓征

    2013-01-01

    Reclaimed water resource, quality, quantity status, main forms of recycling, processing technique in urban residential quarters were analyzed, as well as reclaimed water application way. Finally, the extension benefits of reclaimed water reuse in urban residential quarter was discussed with examples, it was pointed out that reclaimed water reuse has broad prospects.%对城镇住宅小区中水水源水质水量状况、中水回用系统的主要形式、中水处理技术的选择,以及分析中水在小区中的应用途径等进行了分析,最后通过实例对中水回用在城镇住宅小区的推广应用效益进行了初步探讨,指出中水回用在城镇住宅小区中的推广具有广阔前景.

  19. Postharvest Degradation of Microalgae: Effect of Temperature and Water Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    Though usually a nuisance in swimming pools and ponds, algae has the potential to be a valuable commodity for use as food and fuel. But before algae butter and biofuel become commonplace, issues with harvesting and storing this new crop need to be overcome. Though there has been ample research into how to grow and use algae, scientists have spent little time figuring out what to do after you pull it out of the water and before you eat it (or turn it into biodiesel). Algae, like all food produ...

  20. Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water by Catalytic Ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; YAO Jun-hai; QI Jing-yao

    2007-01-01

    Different series of transition metal catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method. The catalytic activity was measured in a batch reactor with ozone as the oxidizing reagent. The experimental results indicate that Cu/Al2O3 has a very effective catalytic activity during the ozonation of organic pollutants in water. The optimum conditions for preparing Cu/Al2O3 were systematically investigated with the orthogonal testing method. Furthermore, the results also show that the surface properties of catalyst are not compulsory for effective oxidation.

  1. Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic degradations of polylactic acid/rice hulls (PLA/RH composites with various rice hulls contents due to water absorptions at 23, 51 and 69°C were investigated by studying the thermal properties, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphology of the degraded products. The results have attested that the stability of PLA/RH composites in water depends slightly on rice hulls contents but it is significantly influenced by water temperature. Water absorption in 30 days at 23°C was between 0.87 and 9.25% depending on rice hull contents. However, at thermophilic temperatures, the water absorption and degradation of these products were increased significantly. Saturations were achieved in less than 25 and 9 days at 51°C and 69°C, respectively, while hydrolytic degradation was demonstrated by an increase in fragility and development of crystallinity. At 69°C, there were significant reductions of the decomposition and glass transition temperatures of the polymer by 13°C. These changes were associated with the reduction of the molecular weight of PLA from 153.1 kDa to ~10.7 kDa due to hydrolysis of its ester group.

  2. Degradation of indomethacin in river water under stress and non-stress laboratory conditions: degradation products, long-term evolution and adsorption to sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Sánchez, María I; Pardo, Rafael; Muñoz, Beatriz E

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical compound indomethacin is not totally removed in wastewater treatment plants, whose effluents flow into aquatic environments; concentrations in the 0.1-100ng/L range are commonly found in surface waters, and its fate is unknown. Here, biological, photochemical and thermal degradation assays were conducted under stress and non-stress conditions to estimate its degradation rate in river water and establish its degradation products over time. The results revealed that direct sunlight irradiation promoted the complete degradation of indomethacin (2μg/L) in less than 6hr, but indomethacin was detected over a period of 4months when water was kept under the natural day-night cycle and the exposure to sunlight was partially limited, as occurs inside a body of water. The biological degradation in water was negligible, while the hydrolysis at pH7.8 was slow. Residues were monitored by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction, and six degradation products were found; their structures were proposed based on the molecular formulae and fragmentation observed in high-resolution tandem mass spectra. 4-Chlorobenzoic and 2-acetamido-5-methoxybenzoic acids were the long-term transformation products, persisting for at least 30weeks in water kept under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, the degradation in the presence of sediment was also monitored over time, with some differences being noted. The adsorption coefficients of indomethacin and degradation products on river sediment were calculated; long-term degradation products did not have significant adsorption to sediment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Quantum efficiencies of the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquén, T B; Isla, M A; Alfano, O M

    2012-01-01

    An experimental work in a well-stirred batch recycling reactor for the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water is presented. A study of the quantum efficiency is performed to assess the effectiveness of the photo-Fenton process on the atrazine degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization. Apparent and absolute quantum efficiencies of degradation and mineralization of an atrazine-based commercial herbicide are determined under different experimental conditions. Higher apparent efficiencies were found for both atrazine degradation and TOC mineralization when the ferric ion and hydrogen peroxide concentrations are increased. Because of the well known stability of the triazine ring, atrazine was not completely mineralized by the photo-Fenton process. However, a TOC reduction of 40% was achieved, being 62.5% of the maximum value that can be reached.

  4. Fast degradation of dyes in water using manganese-oxide-coated diatomite for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Tran, Quang-Tung; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-11-01

    By a simple wet-chemical procedure using a permanganate in the acidic medium, diatomite coated with amorphous manganese oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. The structural, microstructural and morphological characterizations of the as-synthesized catalysts confirmed the nanostructure of MnO2 and its stabilization on the support - diatomite. The highly efficient and rapid degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange over synthesized MnO2 coated Diatomite has been carried out. The results revealed considerably faster degradation of the dyes against the previously reported data. The proposed mechanism of the dye-degradation is considered to be a combinatorial effect of chemical, physicochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the fabricated catalysts have potential application in waste water treatment, and pollution degradation for environmental remediation.

  5. Reuse technology of reclaimed water in corn starch plant%反渗透膜用于玉米淀粉厂的中水回用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜培; 赵琳琳; 程兆鹏; 魏翠兰

    2012-01-01

    The reverse osmosis membrane was used to treat reclaimed water in corn starch plant. The results indicated that: by reverse osmosis membrane treatment , COD value of the reclaimed water was reduced to below 15 mg/L, the ammonia nitrogen was reduced to below 15 mg/L and the total salt content was reduced to below 130 mg/L, AII of the properties of the reclaimed water were accord with the quality of the reused water.%研究了反渗透膜在玉米淀粉厂中水处理中的效果.试验表明,采用反渗透膜处理后的中水COD降低到15 mg/L以下,氨氮含量降低到15 mg/L以下,全盐量降低到130 mg/L以下,各项指标均符合回用水的水质指标.

  6. 中水回用在化肥循环水系统的应用%APPLICATION OF MIXED-UP WATER RE-USE IN FERTILIZER CIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐安中; 雷云光

    2011-01-01

    After the mixed-up water is being re-used in the fertilizer circulation water system in Sinopec Jiujiang Branch the corrosion rate of monitoring test tube is over the standard for successive months. With the result of the cause for the fluctuation of wate%中国石化九江分公司化肥循环水场回用混合补充水(简称中水)后,监测试管的腐蚀速率连续数月超标,通过分析水质波动原因,确认中水水质超标与水量波动有关。经改进水处理过程中加药、杀菌方式及多项配套管理措施,控制水中总磷及细菌,连续回用中水,大幅减少新鲜水消耗和污水排放,取得较好节水减排效益。

  7. Degradation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by ferrate(VI): Effects of water constituents and oxidized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Sui, Yunxia; Cizmas, Leslie; Wang, Zunyao; Sharma, Virender K

    2016-10-15

    The degradation of five fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics (flumequine (FLU), enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL) and marbofloxacin (MAR)) by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)) was examined to demonstrate the potential of this iron-based chemical oxidant to treat antibiotics in water. Experiments were conducted at different molar ratios of Fe(VI) to FQs at pH 7.0. All FQs, except FLU, were degraded within 2 min at [Fe(VI)]:[FQ] ≤ 20.0. Multiple additions of Fe(VI) improved the degradation efficiency, and provided greater degradation than a single addition of Fe(VI). The effects of anions, cations, and humic acid (HA), usually present in source waters and wastewaters, on the removal of FLU were investigated. Anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), and HCO3(-)) and monovalent cations (Na(+) and K(+)) had no influence on the removal of FLU. However, multivalent cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+)) in water decreased the efficiency of FLU removal by Fe(VI). An increase in the ionic strength of the solution, and the presence of HA in the water, also decreased the percentage of FLU removed by Fe(VI). Experiments on the removal of selected FQs, present as co-existing antibiotics in pure water, river water, synthetic water and wastewater, were also conducted to demonstrate the practical application of Fe(VI) to remove the antibiotics during water treatment. The seventeen oxidized products (OPs) of FLU were identified using solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The reaction pathways are proposed, and are theoretically confirmed by molecular orbital calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  9. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  10. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross-

  11. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross

  12. Investigations of PAA degradation in aqueous solutions: Impacts of water hardness, salinity and DOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is used in aquaculture under various conditions for disinfection purposes. However, there is lack of information about its environmental fate. Therefore, the impact of water hardness, salinity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on PAA-degradation within 5 hours was investigat...

  13. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  14. The Effect of Degradation of Ground water Resources on Capital of Pistachio Growers in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mortazavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real cost evaluation of water is necessary in agricultural products depending on obtained value by this input. In most areas of world especially in arid and semiarid areas, exist over pumping of ground water because the real value of water is much most than the costs of water supply and the lack of fit management water resources. In this study, using a sample of 110 farmers, water dealing value of over using of groundwater in Rafsanjan pistachio production area were investigated. Analysis and regression methods were used in this regard. The average determined value obtained 24 cents, for each share of water in this region which with over drafting of ground water, and decreasing quality and quantity of water has had significant relationship in the one percent significance level. Finally, for elimination or reduction of ground water degradation and its effects, this paper recommended in addition to reduction of licenses for ground water pumping. Determination of optimal economic water/land ratio in new and old pistachio producing areas is the other proposal of this research for alleviation groundwater over drafting effects. Permission for water conduction between wells and combination of fresh and saline water and also using desalination systems are methods for solving low quality of ground water.

  15. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  16. Persistence of alprazolam in river water according to forced and non-forced degradation assays: adsorption to sediment and long-term degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Sánchez, María I; Muñoz, Beatriz E; Pardo, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Alprazolam is a pharmaceutical compound that it is detected in surface waters. Some degradation studies in aqueous solutions and pharmaceutical products are available, but there is no reliable information about its stability in river water. Here, assays have been conducted under forced biological, photochemical, and thermal conditions, and under non-forced conditions, to estimate the fate of alprazolam in river water and know its degradation products. The forced assays indicated that the biological and photochemical degradation of alprazolam was negligible; heating at 70°C for a long time barely affected it. The degradation of alprazolam in river water at 100 μg/L was about 5% after 36 weeks, keeping the water under a natural day-night cycle at room temperature and limiting partially the exposure to sunlight as happens inside a body of water; no change in concentration was observed when the monitoring was performed at 2 μg/L. The results suggest the persistence of alprazolam in surface water and a possible accumulation over time. Residues were monitored by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction; nine degradation products were found and the structures for most of them were proposed from the molecular formulae and fragmentation observed in high-resolution tandem mass spectra. (5-chloro-2-(3-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)(phenyl)methanol was the main long-term transformation product in conditions that simulate those in a mass of water. The degradation rate in presence of sediment was equally very low under non-forced conditions; adsorption coefficients of alprazolam and major degradation products were calculated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Assessment of Water Treatment Plant Sludge Properties and the Feasibility of Its Re-use according to Environmental Standards: Shahid Beheshti Water Treatment Plant Case Study, Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pourmand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Water treatment leads to produce large volumes of sludges in water treatment plants which are considered as solid waste, and should be managed appropriately and logically to avoid bioenvironmental effects. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the required samples were taken from the sludge of Shahid Beheshti water treatment plant to assay physical and chemical characteristics during one year from summer, autumn and winter 93 until spring 94. Sampling and testing procedures were full fit according to standard methods. Results: The average concentration of total solids parameters (TSS, total suspended solids (TSS, and total dissolved solids (TDS were 22346, 21350 and 1005 mg/L, respectively. Among the heavy metals, aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc have the highest concentrations with the values of 1400, 956, 588 and 100 mg per kg of dry solids, respectively. The measured concentrations for cadmium were also higher than the permissible limits for agricultural purposes and discharges into the environment. The average concentrations of nickel were more than the recommended standard for industrial, agricultural and parkland application purposes. The concentrations were also slurry higher than the dry sludge. Conclusion: According to the past studies and results of this study, it could be concluded that contamination of heavy metals in sludge and slurry samples are more than dried sludge, .Therefore, if they are discharged into the environment, it is better to be disposed as dry sludges. Furthermore, because these types of waste sludges are routinely disposed in the environment, it is recommended to take the routine samples in order to measure the heavy metals and other relevant parameters contents of sludge before discharging it. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:57-64

  18. Catalytic Degradation of Water Fluorene%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向林; 黄文章; 李林; 邓磊; 朱力敏; 沈丽

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs ) as persistent organic pollutants ( POPs ) are carcinogenic, terato-genic, mutagenic. It is widely present in the atmosphere, water, soil and plants and animals. Selected polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons fluorene as a research object, nano Fe-Ni bimetallic amount of orthogonal experiment, the initial concentration, pH value and temperature were optimzed to find the best conditions for the removal of fluorene. The results showed that under the conditions of the bimetallic dosage of 3 g/L, fluorene initial concentration of 0. 5 mg/L, temperature of 30 ℃, pH value of 5, the best removal was received, removal rate was 96. 2%.%多环芳烃( PAHs)是一类难降解性,致癌、致畸、致突变且易在生物体内富集的持久性有机污染物( POPs),它广泛存在于大气、水、动植物和土壤中。本研究选取多环芳烃中芴作为研究对象,通过正交实验优化纳米Fe-Ni双金属添加量、初始浓度、 pH值及温度,寻找芴的最佳去除条件。实验结果表明:当纳米Fe-Ni双金属添加量为3 g/L、芴初始浓度为0.5 mg/L、温度为30℃、 pH为5的条件下,去除效果最好,去除率可达到96.2%。

  19. High-Capacity and Photoregenerable Composite Material for Efficient Adsorption and Degradation of Phenanthrene in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Cai, Zhengqing; Zhao, Xiao; Wang, Ting; Li, Fan; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-10-18

    We report a novel composite material, referred to as activated charcoal supported titanate nanotubes (TNTs@AC), for highly efficient adsorption and photodegradation of a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrene. TNTs@AC was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal method, and is composed of an activated charcoal core and a shell of carbon-coated titanate nanotubes. TNTs@AC offered a maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 12.1 mg/g for phenanthrene (a model PAH), which is ∼11 times higher than the parent activated charcoal. Phenanthrene was rapidly concentrated onto TNTs@AC, and subsequently completely photodegraded under UV light within 2 h. The photoregenerated TNTs@AC can then be reused for another adsorption-photodegradation cycle without significant capacity or activity loss. TNTs@AC performed well over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter. Mechanistically, the enhanced adsorption capacity is attributed to the formation of carbon-coated ink-bottle pores of the titanate nanotubes, which are conducive to capillary condensation; in addition, the modified microcarbon facilitates transfer of excited electrons, thereby inhibiting recombination of the electron-hole pairs, resulting in high photocatalytic activity. The combined high adsorption capacity, photocatalytic activity, and regenerability/reusability merit TNTs@AC a very attractive material for concentrating and degrading a host of micropollutants in the environment.

  20. Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

    2010-06-01

    Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season.

  1. [Degradation of endocrine disruptor atrazine in drinking water by UV radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Nai-yun; Wei, Hong-bin; Xia, Li-hua; Cui, Jing

    2006-06-01

    The degradation of atrazine with low concentration in drinking water by UV radiation was studied. The main influencing factors and degradation mechanism of this technology were discussed. Experimental results show that the photolytic degradation of atrazine by UV radiation alone is very efficient. Under 205 microW/cm2 irradiation intensity, atrazine removal ratio is 92.38% after 120 minutes. The rate of photodecomposition in aqueous solution follows first-order kinetics. The removal ratio of atrazine can be greatly enhanced by increasing the intensity of UV radiation. The initial concentration of atrazine has no effect on the oxidation reaction. The organic matter and various ion in tap water will decrease the degradation rate. The primary degradation pathway is dechlorination. The reaction rate is high. The hydroxylated compound is the major intermediate product. Hydroyatrazine can be further decomposed by UV radiation and form dealkylated derivatives. But the rate of dealkylated reaction is very low. There is intimate relationship between the change of pH in the solution and the formation of intermediate products.

  2. Heavy metals in a degraded soil treated with sludge from water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Sandra Tereza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of water treatment sludge (WTS to degraded soil is an alternative for both residue disposal and degraded soil reclaim. This study evaluated effects of the application of water treatment sludge to a Typic Hapludox soil degraded by tin mining in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondonia, Brazil, on the content of heavy metals. A completely randomized experimental design with five treatments was used: control (n = 4; chemical control, which received only liming (n = 4; and rates D100, D150 and D200, which corresponded to 100, 150 and 200 mg of N-sludge kg-1 soil (n = 20, respectively. Thirty days after liming, period in which soil moisture was kept at 70% of the retention capacity, soil samples were taken and analyzed for total and extractable Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr. The application of WTS increased heavy-metal contents in the degraded soil. Although heavy metals were below their respective critical limits, sludge application onto degraded areas may cause hazardous environmental impact and thus must be monitored.

  3. Natural organic matter and sunlight accelerate the degradation of 17ss-estradiol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, Dina M. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3431 Arendell Street, Morehead City, NC 28557 (United States)], E-mail: dmleech@email.unc.edu; Snyder, Matthew T.; Wetzel, Robert G. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of steroid hormones such as 17{beta}-estradiol can influence the reproductive development and sex ratios of invertebrate and vertebrate populations. Thus their release into surface and ground waters from wastewater facilities and agricultural applications of animal waste is of environmental concern. Many of these compounds are chromophoric and susceptible to photolytic degradation. High intensity UV-C radiation has been demonstrated to degrade some of these compounds in engineered systems. However, the degradation efficacy of natural solar radiation in shallow fresh waters is less understood. Here photolytic experiments with 17{beta}-estradiol demonstrated modest photodegradation ({approx} 26%) when exposed to simulated sunlight between 290 and 720 nm. Photodegradation significantly increased ({approx} 40-50%) in the presence of 2.0-15.0 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from humic acids of the Suwannee River, GA. However, rates of photodegradation reached a threshold at approximately 5.0 mg/l DOC. Observed suppression of photolysis in the presence of a radical inhibitor (i.e. 2-propanol) indicated that a significant proportion of the degradation was due to radicals formed from the photolysis of DOC. Although photodegradation was greatest in full sunlight containing UV-B (290-320 nm), degradation was also detected with UV-A (320-400 nm) and visible light (400-720 nm) alone.

  4. Enantioselective degradation of amphetamine-like environmental micropollutants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and MDA) in urban water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sian E; Bagnall, John; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to understand enantioselective transformation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) and MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters. In order to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the processes occurring, stereoselective transformation of amphetamine-like compounds was studied, for the first time, in controlled laboratory experiments: receiving water and activated sludge simulating microcosm systems. The results demonstrated that stereoselective degradation, via microbial metabolic processes favouring S-(+)-enantiomer, occurred in all studied amphetamine-based compounds in activated sludge simulating microcosms. R-(-)-enantiomers were not degraded (or their degradation was limited) which proves their more recalcitrant nature. Out of all four amphetamine-like compounds studied, amphetamine was the most susceptible to biodegradation. It was followed by MDMA and methamphetamine. Photochemical processes facilitated degradation of MDMA and methamphetamine but they were not, as expected, stereoselective. Preferential biodegradation of S-(+)-methamphetamine led to the formation of S-(+)-amphetamine. Racemic MDMA was stereoselectively biodegraded by activated sludge which led to its enrichment with R-(-)-enantiomer and formation of S-(+)-MDA. Interestingly, there was only mild stereoselectivity observed during MDMA degradation in rivers. This might be due to different microbial communities utilised during activated sludge treatment and those present in the environment. Kinetic studies confirmed the recalcitrant nature of MDMA.

  5. Seasonal variations in degradation of tributyltin in the Brest Naval Harbour waters in relation to water temperature and insolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumery, C J; Michel, P

    2001-02-01

    Changes of the concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products were monitored in Brest naval harbour waters from September 1993 to December 1997. But for some exceptional values, the levels of contamination were more or less the same during the four year study period. Dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations showed seasonal variations, and these are discussed in relation with the seasonal changes of water temperature and the total number of sunlight hours preceding sampling dates. The extent of the phase shift between the peaks of DBT concentrations and the sunlight hours is much higher than the residence time of waters in the study zone, suggesting that photolysis is unlikely to be an important factor in the degradation of TBT.

  6. Application of Acoustical Processor Reactors for Degradation of Diazinon from Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayeghi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since organophosphorus pesticides are widely used for industry and insect control in agricultural crops, their fate in the environment is very important. Pesticide contamination of surface water has been recog­nized as a major contaminant in world because of their potential toxicity towards human and animals. The objec­tive of this research was to investigate the influence of various parameters including the influence of time, power, and initial concentration on degradation of diazinon pesticide.Methods: The sonochemical degradation of diazinon was investigated using acoustical processor reactor. Acous­tical processor reactor with 130 kHz was used to study the degradation of pesticide solution. Samples were ana­lyzed using HPLC at different time intervals. Effectiveness of APR at different times (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min, concentrations (2, 4 and 8 mg/L and powers (300W, 400W, 500W were compared.Results: The degradation of the diazinon at lower concentrations was greater in comparison to higher concentra­tions. There was also direct correlation between power and diazinon degradation. In addition, when the power increased, the ability to degraded diazinon increased.Conclusion: The sonodegradation of diazinon pesticide at different concentrations and powers was successfully provided. It has been shown that APR can be used to reduce the concentration of dissolved pesticide using high frequency.

  7. Application of Acoustical Processor Reactors for Degradation of Diazinon from Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayeghi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract"nBackground: Since organophosphorus pesticides are widely used for industry and insect control in agricultural crops, their fate in the environment is very important. Pesticide contamination of surface water has been recog­nized as a major contaminant in world because of their potential toxicity towards human and animals. The objec­tive of this research was to investigate the influence of various parameters including the influence of time, power, and initial concentration on degradation of diazinon pesticide."nMethods: The sonochemical degradation of diazinon was investigated using acoustical processor reactor. Acous­tical processor reactor with 130 kHz was used to study the degradation of pesticide solution. Samples were ana­lyzed using HPLC at different time intervals. Effectiveness of APR at different times (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min, concentrations (2, 4 and 8 mg/L and powers (300W, 400W, 500W were compared."nResults: The degradation of the diazinon at lower concentrations was greater in comparison to higher concentra­tions. There was also direct correlation between power and diazinon degradation. In addition, when the power increased, the ability to degraded diazinon increased."nConclusion: The sonodegradation of diazinon pesticide at different concentrations and powers was successfully provided. It has been shown that APR can be used to reduce the concentration of dissolved pesticide using high frequency.  Keywords: Diazinon, acoustical processor reactor, initial concentration, power, time

  8. Re-use of waste water in a textile factory. Trials in a semi-industrial pilot plant with membranes; Reutilizacion de aguas residuales en una industrial textil. Ensayos en una planta piloto semiindustrial con membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2008-07-01

    This article reports on the results obtained in a semi-industrial pilot plant (1.5 m{sup 3}/h) with biologically treated waste water with a quality of 80-120 mg COD/l, 3,500-4,000 {mu}S/cm and dark red in colour. A treatment line was applied consisting of sand filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. The ultrafiltration was extremely efficient as a pre-treatment in ensuring the normal functioning of the osmosis, and in this way the water obtained was of the ideal quality for re-use in the factory. An economic study found that the cost of the treated water was 0.238 Euros/m{sup 3} and examined the economic viability of this solution taking into account the tax saving involved. (Author)

  9. Atrazine and its degradation products in surface and ground waters in Zhangjiakou District, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method using the solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyse atrazine and its degradation products at levels of low nanograms per liter in water has been developed. The environmental water samples were filtered and then extracted by SPE with a new sulfonation of poly(divinylbenzene-co-N- vinylpyrrolidone) sorbents MCX. HPLC/APCIMS was used for the analysis of atrazine and its degradation products, desethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), didealkylatrazine (DEDIA), and hydroxyatrazine (HYA). The detection limits ranged from 10-50 ng/L in water samples. Samples were collected from deep wells and a reservoir near a plant that produced atrazine. Atrazine concentration levels in most surface samples were above the limit of the China Surface Water Regulation (3 mg/L). In ground water, the levels of degradation product were more than 0.1 mg/L and 5-10 times greater than those of atrazine. The highest DEA concentration in the groundwater sample taken at the 130 m depth was 7.2 ug/L.

  10. Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds in water by non-thermal plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magureanu, Monica; Mandache, Nicolae Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I

    2015-09-15

    Pharmaceutical compounds became an important class of water pollutants due to their increasing consumption over the last years, as well as due to their persistence in the environment. Since conventional waste water treatment plants are unable to remove certain non-biodegradable pharmaceuticals, advanced oxidation processes was extensively studied for this purpose. Among them, non-thermal plasma was also recently investigated and promising results were obtained. This work reviews the recent research on the oxidative degradation of pharmaceuticals using non-thermal plasma in contact with liquid. As target compounds, several drugs belonging to different therapeutic groups were selected: antibiotics, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, lipid regulators, vasodilatators, contrast media, antihypertensives and analgesics. It was found that these compounds were removed from water relatively fast, partly degraded, and partly even mineralized. In order to ensure the effluent is environmentally safe it is important to identify the degradation intermediates and to follow their evolution during treatment, which requires complex chemical analysis of the solutions. Based on this analysis, degradation pathways of the investigated pharmaceuticals under plasma conditions were suggested. After sufficient plasma treatment the final organic by-products present in the solutions were mainly small molecules in an advanced oxidation state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and ecotoxicity of degradation products of chloroacetamide herbicides from UV-treatment of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souissi, Yasmine; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Bourcier, Sophie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Sablier, Michel; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-08-01

    The widespread occurrence of chlorinated herbicides and their degradation products in the aquatic environment raises health and environmental concerns. As a consequence pesticides, and to a lesser degree their degradation products, are monitored by authorities both in surface waters and drinking waters. In this study the formation of degradation products from ultraviolet (UV) treatment of the three chloroacetamide herbicides acetochlor, alachlor and metolachlor and their biological effects were investigated. UV treatment is mainly used for disinfection in water and wastewater treatments. First, the chemical structures of the main UV-degradation products were identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main transformation reactions were dechlorination, mono- and multi-hydroxylation and cyclizations. The ecotoxicity of the mixed photoproducts formed by UV-treatment until 90% of the original pesticide was converted was compared to the toxicity of chloroacetamides using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri as test organisms. UV-treatment of alachlor and metolachlor increased the toxicity compared to the parent compounds while an equal toxicity was found for photolysis products of acetochlor. This suggests that toxic photodegradation products are generated from chloroacetamides under UV-treatment. An important perspective of this finding is that the photolysis products are at least as toxic as the parent compounds.

  12. TiO2-coated nanostructures for dye photo-degradation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Viviana; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Scuderi, Mario; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Bergum, Kristin; Irrera, Alessia; Svensson, Bengt G; Privitera, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic efficiency of a thin-film TiO2-coated nanostructured template is studied by dye degradation in water. The nanostructured template was synthesized by metal-assisted wet etching of Si and used as substrate for the deposition of a thin film of TiO2 (10 nm thick) by atomic layer deposition. A complete structural characterization was made by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The significant photocatalytic performance was evaluated by the degradation of two dyes in water: methylene blue and methyl orange. The relevance of the reported results is discussed, opening the route toward the application of the synthesized nanostructured TiO2 for water purification.

  13. Identification and ecotoxicity of degradation products of chloroacetamide herbicides from UV-treatment of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souissi, Yasmine; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Bourcier, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of chlorinated herbicides and their degradation products in the aquatic environment raises health and environmental concerns. As a consequence pesticides, and to a lesser degree their degradation products, are monitored by authorities both in surface waters and drinking...... and metolachlor increased the toxicity compared to the parent compounds while an equal toxicity was found for photolysis products of acetochlor. This suggests that toxic photodegradation products are generated from chloroacetamides under UV-treatment. An important perspective of this finding...... is that the photolysis products are at least as toxic as the parent compounds....

  14. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  15. Improving AOC degradation rate by intensified biological process in advanced water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Dong; LI Wei-guang; SONG Jia-xiu; CUI Fu-yi

    2007-01-01

    The object of is to evaluate assimilable organic carbon(AOC) degradation rate by intensified biological technique in advanced water treatment. By artificially acclimating and cultivating strains attached onto carbon surface, the selected strains can be intensified for their degradation to organic matters. The research indicates that ozonation process increases AOC concentration considerably, however, it is beneficial to microdegradation. Temperature and empty bed contact time ( TEBC ) are two important factors affecting microbiology. From 14 to 27 ℃, intensified biological carbon can remove AOC better compared with granular activated carbon (GAC). Under identical TEBC, intensified technique increases more than 10% AOC reduction.

  16. Water and oxygen induced degradation of small molecule organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermenau, Martin; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule organic solar cells were studied with respect to water and oxygen induced degradation by mapping the spatial distribution of reaction products in order to elucidate the degradation patterns and failure mechanisms. The active layers consist of a 30 nm bulk heterojunction formed...... with isotopic labeling using H218O and 18O2 provided information on where and to what extent the atmosphere had reacted with the device. A comparison was made between the use of a humid (oxygen free) atmosphere, a dry oxygen atmosphere, and a dry (oxygen free) nitrogen atmosphere during testing of devices...

  17. 合流污水处理系统中水回用改建工程的效果分析%Process and Effect Analysis of Reclaimed Water Reuse Reconstruction Project in Combined Sewerage Treatment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翌栋; 程晓波; 王松

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction process of realizing reclaimed water reuse on combined sewer advanced treatment was introduced.Basing on the practical case of reconstruction project of the Pengyuepu substation, new and old techniques were compared and the actual effect of new techniques was analyzed.Result shows the sewage of combined sewer treatment after reconstruction meets the standard of reclaimed water reuse and can satisfy the demand of vehicle washing and greening.%介绍了实现中水回用的合流污水深度处理改建过程.结合上海合流污水管理所彭越浦分所内原中水回用设施改造的实际案例,对比了新老工艺并分析了新工艺的实际效果.结果表明污水经改建后的合流污水处理可达到中水回用标准,同时可以满足周边停车场车辆清洗和附近绿化的用水需求.

  18. Application of Combined Process of Ozone/Activated Carbon and UF in Bean Sprouts Spray Water Reuse Project%臭氧活性炭/超滤工艺用于豆芽喷淋水回用工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟芳; 陈国伟; 韩东梅; 郭浩

    2011-01-01

    The combined process of ozone/activated carbon, UF membrane and UV disinfection was used for treatment and reuse of bean sprouts spray water. The effluent quality can reach Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749 -2006 ). The quality of bean sprouts has no significant difference compared with the control group, and it can reach Hygienic Standard for Bean Sprouts (GB 22556 - 2008). This combined process is feasible in economy and reliable in technology, and it provides a new idea for high-quality miscellaneous wastewater reclamation and reuse.%采用臭氧活性岌/超滤/紫外消毒组合工艺对豆芽喷淋水进行处理后回用,出水水质可满足国家(GB 5749-2006),豆芽品质与对照试验相比没有显著性差异,达到国家(GB 22556-2008).该组合工艺技术可靠,经济可行,为优质杂排水再生回用提供了新思路.

  19. Eco-efficiency assessment of dairy wastewater reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Skrydstrup, Julie; Larsen, Sille Lyster

    The food processing industry is a major water user in many countries and, for example, in Denmark the food sector’s water use amounts to 43% of the total industrial water use. The large water consumption is related to an equally important wastewater production. Besides being costly, both water...... for a proposed decentralized wastewater reuse scheme in a dairy. The life-cycle assessment covered "gate-to-retail" under the assumption that wastewater reuse at the dairy would not affect primary production and consumers' behavior. We included upstream processes like power generation and water production...... imports compared to business-as-usual. The decentralized reuse facility was found to slightly increase global warming potential by 0.4 mPE/ton raw milk due to intensified water treatment. On the other hand, large reductions (-1.2 to -19 mPE/ton) were seen for impacts on the freshwater resource...

  20. Membrane bio-reactors for decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuler, S; Paris, S; Hackner, T

    2008-01-01

    Decentralized wastewater treatment is the key to sustainable water management because it facilitates effluent (and nutrient) reuse for irrigation or as service water in households. Membrane bioreactors (MBR) can produce effluents of bathing water quality. Septic tanks can be retrofitted to MBR units. Package MBR plants for wastewater or grey water treatment are also available. Systems for decentralized treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater or grey water are also feasible for hotels, condominiums and apartment or office complexes. This paper presents the effluent qualities of different decentralized MBR applications. The high effluent quality allows infiltration even in sensitive areas or reuse for irrigation, toilet flushing and cleaning proposes in households. Due to the reusability of treated water and the possibility to design the systems for carbon reduction only, these systems can ideally and easily serve to close water and nutrient loops. IWA Publishing 2008.

  1. TNT and RDX degradation and extraction from contaminated soil using subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Shin, Moon-Su; Jo, Young-Tae; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-01-01

    The use of explosives either for industrial or military operations have resulted in the environmental pollution, poses ecological and health hazard. In this work, a subcritical water extraction (SCWE) process at laboratory scale was used at varying water temperature (100-175 °C) and flow rate (0.5-1.5 mL min(-1)), to treat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil, to reveal information with respect to the explosives removal (based on the analyses of soil residue after extraction), and degradation performance (based on the analyses of water extracts) of this process. Continuous flow subcritical water has been considered on removal of explosives to avoid the repartitioning of non-degraded compounds to the soil upon cooling which usually occurs in the batch system. In the SCWE experiments, near complete degradation of both TNT and RDX was observed at 175 °C based on analysis of water extracts and soil. Test results also indicated that TNT removal of >99% and a complete RDX removal were achieved by this process, when the operating conditions were 1 mL min(-1), and treatment time of 20 min, after the temperature reached 175 °C. HPLC-UV and ion chromatography analysis confirmed that the explosives underwent for degradation. The low concentration of explosives found in the process wastewater indicates that water recycling may be viable, to treat additional soil. Our results have shown in the remediation of explosives contaminated soil, the effectiveness of the continuous flow SCWE process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Avaliação de tecnologias avançadas para o reúso de água em indústria metal-mecânica Evaluation of advanced technologies for water reuse in mechanical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Oenning Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de água e o descarte do efluente tratado de uma indústria metal-mecânica foi proposta a avaliação técnica e econômica de cinco tecnologias de tratamento que pudessem proporcionar a reutilização do efluente. Foram levantados quatro locais para reúso e sugeridos critérios para cada um deles. Foi constatado que na adsor-ção com carvão ativado e na osmose reversa o efluente tratado por estes processos poderia ser reutilizado nos locais propostos e, com vazão de reúso de 2,5m³/h, os custos ficaram em US$ 1,14/m³ e US$ 1,70/m³ respectivamente. Para o ozônio e o dióxido de cloro, mesmo desinfetando o efluente, obteve-se apenas resultados satisfatórios, com custo de US$ 0,54/m³ e US$ 0,71/m³ respectivamente. Na coagulação/floculação todos os parâmetros analisados atenderam a dois locais de reúso, com exceção dos SDT e se obteve custo de US$ 1,57/m³With the objective to reduce the water consumption and the discharge of effluents in a metal industry, a technical and economical evaluation of five treatment technologies was proposed in order to reuse the effluents. Four sites for water reuse were chosen and for each of them criteria were suggested. It was evidenced that in the adsorption with activated carbon and reverse osmosis the effluent treated by these processes could be reused and, with the flowrate projected of 2.5m³/h, the cost attained US$ 1.14/m³ and US$ 1.70/m³ respectively. For the ozone and chlorine dioxide, even so the effluent was disinfected, gave only satisfactory results and the cost attained US$ 0.54/m³ and US$ 0.71/m³ respectively. For the treatment with coagulation/flocculation, all the analyzed parameters were successful in two reuse places, with exception of the TDS. The cost for this technology attained US$ 1.57/m³

  3. Reúso da água como ferramenta de revitalização de uma estação de tratamento de efluentes Water reuse as a wastewater treatment plant revitalization tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Corrêa Weber

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar o emprego do reúso de água como ferramenta de revitalização de uma estação de tratamento de efluentes (ETE. Para comprovação em um caso real, este estudo foi desenvolvido em uma indústria de embalagens de papelão ondulado, cuja ETE apresentava baixo desempenho. A identificação de oportunidades de reúso e a simulação matemática de seu impacto sobre a ETE, por meio do balanço de cargas, apontaram para o reúso do efluente de tratamento primário como oportunidade de revitalização. Por conseguinte, esse efluente foi reusado na produção de adesivo de amido, reduzindo em mais de 60% a carga de DBO5 afluente ao processo de lodos ativados (59,14 para 22,15 kg/dia. Assim, a eficiência da ETE foi aumentada significativamente, resultando em uma redução substancial da carga despejada no corpo hídrico, com consequente observação dos padrões de lançamento estabelecidos pelo órgão ambiental.The objective of this article was to evaluate the water reuse as a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP revitalization tool. To verify a real case, this study was developed in a corrugated paperboard package industry whose WWTP presented a low performance. The identification of reuse opportunities and the mathematic simulation of its impact on the WWTP, by the means of load balance, pointed out the reuse of primary treatment effluent as a revitalization opportunity. Therefore, this effluent was reused in starch adhesive production, reducing the affluent BOD5 into the activated sludge over 60% (59.14 to 22.15 kg/day. Thus, the WWTP performance was significantly raised, resulting in a substantial reduction in contaminant load dumped into the water body with consequent observation of the standards of effluent release environmental regulation.

  4. Treated wastewater reuse on potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A.; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... increased by 635 and 765 euro ha-1y-1 with FTS and MBR, respectively. Tubers were not contaminated by E. coli found in treated wastewater used for irrigation. The frequency of heavy metal and nitrate detection in tubers were comparable among water sources, as well as for the average contents. Only for boron...

  5. COOPERATIVE LAND REUSE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-07-30

    The objective of this study was to determine what financial return, if any, DOE would realize if they invest solely in removal of the asbestos from these three Hanford steam plants and the associated large bore distribution piping at the site. Once the asbestos was removed the strategy was to bring in companies that specialize in salvage and material re-use and have them remove, at no cost to DOE, the plants and the associated large bore piping. The salvage companies we contacted had said that if they didn't have to remove asbestos, they may be able to realize enough value from these plants to offset their demolition and/or dismantling cost. The results were not what we expected but they do offer DOE some favorable financial alternatives to their present approach. The study concluded that there was very little salvage and/or re-use value remaining in the steam plant material that could be used to offset the demolition and/or dismantling cost. The notable exception to this is the removal of the 24 inch steam piping that runs from 200E to 200W areas (see IDM executive summary under Dismantling cost). It is estimated that the re-use value of the 24-inch piping would more than pay for the dismantling cost of this piping. On a more favorable note, it does appear as though the cost of conventional demolition can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 5 if the asbestos is removed first and the demolition is performed using competitive and commercial practices. Both estimates in this study are similar except that IDM did not include floor slab removal nor remove the same quantity of piping. This is why we are using a range of 3 to 5 as a reduction factor. The IDM estimate (using union labor) for demolition after removal of asbestos was approximately $1.5M versus $10.0M for accomplishing the work using Hanford practices and rates.

  6. Catalytic degradation of the nerve agent VX by water-swelled polystyrene-supported ammonium fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Daniele; Goldvaser, Michael; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2011-10-21

    The catalytic degradation of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) by water-swelled polymer-supported ammonium fluorides is described. VX (0.06-0.53 mol/mol F(-)) is rapidly degraded (t(1/2) ∼ 10-30 min) to form the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate), which hydrolyzes (t(1/2) ∼ 1-1.5 h) to the nontoxic EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). The toxic desethyl-VX is not formed. The catalytic effect of fluoride is maintained even when 6 equiv of VX are loaded. GB (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and desethyl-VX agents are also degraded under these conditions.

  7. Hygiene Aspects of Greywater and Greywater Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ottosson, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Greywater is domestic household wastewater without inputfrom the toilet, i.e. wastewater from sinks, the shower,washing machine and dishwasher in a home. Source separation ofgreywater can be a strategy to enhance recirculation of plantnutrients and/or improve water use. The risk for transmissionof disease when reusing greywater is largely dependent on thecross-contamination by faeces. High levels of faecalindicators, mainly thermotolerant coliform bacteria, have beenreported in greywater, ind...

  8. Degradation of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A in drinking water by ozone oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin; GAO Naiyun; RUI Min; WANG Hong; WU Haihui

    2007-01-01

    The ozone oxidation of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A in drinking water was investigated.A stainless completely mixed reactor was employed to carry out the degradation experiments by means of a batch model.With an initial concentration of 11.0 mg/L,the removal efficiencies of BPA (bisphenol A) could be measured up to 70%,82%,and 90% when the dosages of ozone were 1,1.5,and 2 mg/L,respectively.The impacts on BPA degradation under the conditions of different ozone dosages,water background values,BPA initial concentrations,and ozone adding time were analyzed.The results showed that ozone dosage plays a dominant role during the process of BPA degradation,while the impact of the contact time could be ignored.UV wavelength scanning was used to confirm that the by-products were produced,which could be absorbed at UV254.The value of UV254 was observed to have changed during the ozonation process.Based on the change of UV254,it could be concluded that BPA is not completely degraded at low ozone dosage,while shorter adding time of total ozone dosage,high ozone dosage,and improvement of dissolved ozone concentration greatly contribute to the extent of BPA degradation.The effects of applied H2O2 dose in ozone oxidation of BPA were also examined in this study.The O3-H2O2 processes proved to have similar effects on the degradation of BPA by ozone oxidation.

  9. Biological assessment of bisphenol A degradation in water following direct photolysis and UV advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Linden, Karl G; Hinton, David E; Kashiwada, Shosaku; Rosenfeldt, Erik J; Kullman, Seth W

    2006-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are exogenous environmental chemicals that can interfere with normal hormone function and present a potential threat to both environmental and human health. The fate, distribution and degradation of EDCs is a subject of considerable investigation. To date, several studies have demonstrated that conventional water treatment processes are ineffective for removal of most EDCs and in some instances produce multiple unknown transformation products. In this study we have investigated the use of direct photolysis with low-pressure (LP) Hg UV lamps and UV+hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of a prototypic endocrine disrupter, bisphenol A (BPA), in laboratory water. Removal rates of BPA and formation of degradation products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Changes in estrogenic activity were evaluated using both in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and in vivo vitellogenin (VTG) assays with Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Our results demonstrate that UV alone did not effectively degrade BPA. However, UV in combination with H(2)O(2) significantly removed BPA parent compound and aqueous estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Removal rates of in vivo estrogenic activity were significantly lower than those observed in vitro, demonstrating differential sensitivities of these bioassays and that certain UV/AOP metabolites may retain estrogenic activity. Furthermore, the UV/H(2)O(2) AOP was effective for reducing larval lethality in treated BPA solutions, suggesting BPA degradation occurred and that the degradation process did not result in the production of acutely toxic intermediates.

  10. Degradation properties and identification of metabolites of 6-Cl-PMNI in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihu; Sun, Qianqian; Tian, Chunxia; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-03-01

    In order to provide the scientific basis for the environmental risk assessment of cycloxaprid and 6-Cl-PMNI (intermediate of cycloxaprid), the degradation properties of 6-Cl-PMNI in aerobic, anaerobic and/or sterile soil, as well as in water with different pH values at different temperature were explored under laboratory conditions using HPLC for its kinetics study and UPLC-MS/MS for the identification of its metabolites/degradation products. Fortification study showed that the recoveries of 71.4-100.5% with the maximum coefficient variation (CV) of 7.47% were obtained. The linear range was 0.1-10 mg/L with the good linearity of R(2) = 0.9990. For standard, the method LOD (limit of detection) and LOQ (limit of quantification) was 0.03 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. Results demonstrated the good performance of the developed method. Kinetics study indicated that the degradation half-lives (t0.5) in pH 3-pH 10 buffers varied from 111.8 d to 288.8 d at 25 °C but rapidly shortened to 1.6-25.7 d at 70 °C. Good negative linear ships (R(2) ≥ 0.8423) between half life and temperature were found. 6-Cl-PMNI could be readily degraded in non-sterile soil (t0.5 0.8-7.5 d) while slowly degraded in sterile soil (t0.5 64.8-91.2 d). Three hydrolytic products and one metabolite of 6-Cl-PMNI in aerobic soil were identified. The CC olefinic bond reacted with H2O by Markovnikov Additive Reaction and the split of C-Cl were mainly proposed as the possible reaction pathway for 6-Cl-PMNI degradation in water and in soil, respectively.

  11. Wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of Municipal wastewaters (TMWW) for irrigation of crops, and of sludge for the amendment of soils, is a multidimensional disposal practice aiming at: (i) minimizing the environmental problems by releasing the pressure exerted by these two inputs on the environment, (ii) providing the growing plants with water and nutrients and (ii) improving soil fertility and productivity, The research work conducted in our University in relation to accomplishing a safe reuse has been focused on the study of the following aspects of reuse: (i) heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants with emphasis on their edible part. This aspect has been studied by conducting a series of experiments aiming at the study of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils, and in plant roots, stalks, leaves and fruits. The conclusions drawn so far with regard to the order of accumulation of heavy metals are: Roots>leaves>stalks>fruits ( edible parts) (ii) interactions between heavy metals, plant nutrients and soil chemical and physical properties. After the examinations of hundreds of interactions, and the development of a quantification of the interactions contribution, it was found that considerable quantities of heavy metals and nutrients are contributed to the soil and to various plant parts , emphasizing the important role of the elemental interactions in plants.(iii) assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals based on pollution indices, Three pollution Indices have been established by our research team and were proposed internationally for application in actual practice for the prediction of soil pollution due to long term reuse of wastewater and sludge. These indices are as follows: (a) Elemental pollution Index (EPI), (b) Heavy Metal Load (HML), and (c) Total Concentration Factor (TCF) and (iv) construction of a computer program for the control of the reuse of TMWW and sludge, and forecasting soil pollution due to accumulation of heavy metal by means of pollution indices.

  12. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments coupling changes of surface properties and processes with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan plateau. We coupled measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labeling, and eddy-covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyze how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while the total sum of evapotranspiration remains unaffected. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by enhanced evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a~significant influence on larger scales.

  13. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments investigating changes of surface properties and processes together with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau. We connected measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labelling, and eddy covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyse how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while a change in the sum of evapotranspiration over a longer period cannot be confirmed. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by a shift in evapotranspiration timing when dominated by evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a significant influence on larger scales.

  14. Bioremediation of pesticide contaminated water using an organophosphate degrading enzyme immobilized on nonwoven polyester textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Truong, Yen Bach; Cacioli, Paul; Butler, Phil; Kyratzis, Ilias Louis

    2014-01-10

    Bioremediation using enzymes has become an attractive approach for removing hazardous chemicals such as organophosphate pesticides from the environment. Enzymes immobilized on solid carriers are particularly suited for such applications. In this study, the organophosphate degrading enzyme A (OpdA) was covalently immobilized on highly porous nonwoven polyester fabrics for organophosphate pesticide degradation. The fabrics were first activated with ethylenediamine to introduce free amine groups, and the enzyme was then attached using the bifunctional crosslinker glutaraldehyde. The immobilization only slightly increased the Km (for methyl parathion, MP), broadened the pH profile such that the enzyme had significant activity at acidic pH, and enhanced the stability of the enzyme. The OpdA-functionalized fabrics could be stored in a phosphate buffer or in the dry state at 4°C for at least 4 weeks without a large loss of activity. When used in batch mode, the functionalized textiles could degrade 20 μM MP in un-buffered water at liquor to fabric ratios as high as 5000:1 within 2h, and could be used repeatedly. The fabrics could also be made into columns for continuous pesticide degradation. The columns were able to degrade 50 μM MP at high flow rates, and could be used repeatedly over 2 months. These results demonstrate that OpdA immobilized on nonwoven polyester fabrics is useful in environmental remediation of organophosphate compounds.

  15. 印染产品质量与废水重复利用相关问题的探讨%Discussion on the related problems of the quality of dyeing and finishing products and the reuse of waste water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方彧

    2016-01-01

    印染产品生产中尽可能地使用回用水,有利于提高水重复利用率,降低重生产成本,但使用不当会影响印染产品质量,印染企业应给予重视。%Using reusing water in the production of dyeing and finishing as much as possible is helpful to improve the rate of water recycle and reduce the production cost but improper using will affect the quality of dyeing and finishing, so the enterprises of dyeing and finishing should give attention to it.

  16. Research on the degradation mechanism of pyridine in drinking water by dielectric barrier discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yi, Rongjie; Yi, Chengwu; Zhou, Biyun; Wang, Huijuan

    2017-03-01

    Pyridine, an important chemical raw material, is widely used in industry, for example in textiles, leather, printing, dyeing, etc. In this research, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system was developed to remove pyridine, as a representative type of nitrogen heterocyclic compound in drinking water. First, the influence of the active species inhibitors tertiary butanol alcohol (TBA), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) on the degradation rate of pyridine was investigated to verify the existence of active species produced by the strong ionization discharge in the system. The intermediate and final products generated in the degradation process of pyridine were confirmed and analyzed through a series of analytical techniques, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion chromatography (IC), total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, etc. The results showed that the degradation of pyridine was mainly due to the strong oxidizing power of ozone and hydroxyl radical produced by the DBD system. Several intermediate products including 3-hydroxyl pyridine, fumaric acid, 2, 3-dihydroxypyridine, and oxalic acid were detected. Nitrogen was removed from the pyridine molecule to form nitrate. Through analysis of the degradation mechanism of pyridine, the oxidation pathway was deduced. The study provided a theoretical and experimental basis for the application of DBD strong ionization discharge in treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in drinking water. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Pulse Response Measurement Aiming for Locating Water Tree Degradation in XLPE Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiei, Susumu; Hozumi, Naohiro; Kurihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Uchida, Katsumi; Tsuji, Taizo

    Water treeing is a degradation mode of power cable with polymeric insulation. A water tree is composed of small droplets filled with water. As the conductivity in water tree is very high, it leads to dielectric breakdown when it grows up. As inside of the water tree is filled with trap sites, it is polarized with a certain distribution of relaxation time when a DC poling voltage is applied. Although its depolarization process after removing the poling voltage is determined by ambient temperature, applying a “depolarizing voltage” with the opposite polarity can accelerate the process. If a short pulse propagating through the cable is employed as a depolarization voltage, we may locate the water tree through looking at the time-resolved pulse response. This would lead to a diagnosing method with spatial resolution. In order to retain 100 m of spatial resolution, the response should be as sharp as 1 μs. As a preliminary study, a coaxial communication cable was aged to form water trees. A DC poling voltage was applied followed by a pulse voltage with opposite polarity. The rising time of the pulse was several hundreds of microseconds. A sharp pulse current response with 50 μs in width was observed, suggesting that a rapid depolarization took place. No such response was seen when the cable specimen was not aged. We concluded that the technique is quite feasible. As the response was found to be as quick as several microseconds, an experiment using 405 m-long cable, with 5 m of degraded length in the middle, was performed. It was shown that the degraded point was successfully located.

  18. When Bioelectrochemical Systems Meet Forward Osmosis: Accomplishing Wastewater Treatment and Reuse through Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobin Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES and forward osmosis (FO are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient water/wastewater treatment. BES takes advantage of microbial interaction with a solid electron acceptor/donor to accomplish bioenergy recovery from organic compounds, and FO can extract high-quality water driven by an osmotic pressure. The strong synergy between those two technologies may complement each other and collaboratively address water-energy nexus. FO can assist BES with achieving water recovery (for future reuse, enhancing electricity generation, and supplying energy for accomplishing the cathode reactions; while BES may help FO with degrading organic contaminants, providing sustainable draw solute, and stabilizing water flux. This work has reviewed the recent development that focuses on the synergy between BES and FO, analyzed the advantages of each combination, and provided perspectives for future research. The findings encourage further investigation and development for efficient coordination between BES and FO towards an integrated system for wastewater treatment and reuse.

  19. Potential of pulsed corona discharges generated in water for the degradation of persistent pharmaceutical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschik, Robert; Lukes, Petr; Jablonowski, Helena; Hammer, Malte U; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kolb, Juergen F

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants and in particular pharmaceutical residues are a potential risk for potable water where they are found in increasing concentrations. Different environmental effects could already be linked to the presence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters even for low concentrations. Many pharmaceuticals withstand conventional water treatment technologies. Consequently, there is a need for new water purification techniques. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP), and especially plasmas with their ability to create reactive species directly in water, may offer a promising solution. We developed a plasma reactor with a coaxial geometry to generate large volume corona discharges directly in water and investigated the degradation of seven recalcitrant pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diatrizoate, diazepam, diclofenac, ibuprofen, 17α-ethinylestradiol, trimethoprim). For most substances we observed decomposition rates from 45% to 99% for treatment times of 15-66 min. Especially ethinylestradiol and diclofenac were readily decomposed. As an inherent advantage of the method, we found no acidification and only an insignificant increase in nitrate/nitrite concentrations below legal limits for the treatment. Studies on the basic plasma chemical processes for the model system of phenol showed that the degradation is primarily caused by hydroxyl radicals.

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EASY DEGRADATION COAL FINES IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏

    1997-01-01

    The separation of ultrafine coal from three Chinese coal samples of easy degradation coal fines in water has been investigated by the application of a hydrophobic agglomeration process. In addition to yielding clean coal with high recovery, this process requires significantly less oil concentration for agglomeration (less than 0.4% in oil-water weight ratio) and produces stabler agglomerates than general oil agglomeration process, the cost of the oil would no longer be an important consideration for its commercial application. Neutral diesel oil was used to make oleophilic coal particles agglomerated with good rejection of clay minerals under little oil consumption and certain agitation speed at 2000 r/min. An important advantage of this process compared with other cleaning fine coal methods is that it can extremely reduce or eliminate the effects of coal degradation and some clay minerals on coal preparation.

  1. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical degradation of reactive dye in the presence of water jet cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Jia, Jinping; Wang, Yalin

    2010-03-01

    Degradation of a reactive dye, Brilliant Red X-3B, induced by electrolysis coupled with water jet cavitation was studied. The experiment was performed in 4.5L of aqueous solution containing X-3B concentrations ranging from 40 to 120mg/L by applying Ti-IrO(2) as anode and graphite as cathode. The water jet cavitation process decreased the diffusion layer thickness and consequently increased the current density. Compared to water jet cavitation and electrolysis alone, the combination of the two methods enhanced X-3B removal and showed a synergistic effect. The azo bond of the dye molecule was broken down and the naphthalene ring was transformed to multi-substituted benzene during the combined process. The dye degradation rate increased with increasing concentration. Acidic conditions (e.g., pH 1) favored the decolorization of the reactive dye. The use of TiO(2) coated with IrO(2) as anode and graphite as cathode showed the best performance for the dye removal efficiency, compared to other electrode pairs. Addition of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and especially Cl(-) ions into solution significantly enhanced the degradation. However, CO(3)(2-) inhibited the dye decolorization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wastewater re-use and groundwater quality: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenvoorden, J.H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many parts of the world regional water resources and future water supply are at risk as a result of climate change and population increase. Innovative measures are necessary to find socio-economically acceptable solutions to combat the existing scarcity of water. Re-use of (pre-)treated wastewate

  4. Wastewater re-use and groundwater quality: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenvoorden, J.H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many parts of the world regional water resources and future water supply are at risk as a result of climate change and population increase. Innovative measures are necessary to find socio-economically acceptable solutions to combat the existing scarcity of water. Re-use of (pre-)treated

  5. Possibilities for reuse of treated domestic wastewater in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, L C; Norton-Brandão, D; Shang, R; van Agtmaal, J; van Lier, J B

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of wastewater reuse is becoming an increasingly important means of supplementing water supply needs and/or reducing costs. The present paper provides examples of possible uses of treated domestic effluent for the three sectors, i.e. public water supply, industrial and agricultural uses with the aim to address the feasibility of these applications. It is concluded that, although The Netherlands as a whole is considered to be a low water stressed country, regional fresh water scarcity and costs can result in the need for applications of domestic wastewater reuse.

  6. Pyrite-enhanced methylene blue degradation in non-thermal plasma water treatment reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Luís Otávio de Brito; Cadorin, Bruno Mena; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon; Geremias, Reginaldo; de Souza, Ivan Gonçalvez; Debacher, Nito Angelo

    2012-10-30

    In this study, methylene blue (MB) removal from an aqueous phase by electrical discharge non-thermal plasma (NTP) over water was investigated using three different feed gases: N(2), Ar, and O(2). The results showed that the dye removal rate was not strongly dependent on the feed gas when the electrical current was kept the same for all gases. The hydrogen peroxide generation in the water varied according to the feed gas (N(2)degradation occurs via high energy electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation in the benzene rings of the dye molecules.

  7. Photo catalytic degradation of methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) from contaminated water: complete mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, A.; Nasseri, S.; Maleki, A.; Aghvami, T.

    2009-07-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been commercially used as an octane enhancer to replace tetraethyl lead in gasoline since 1979. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with MTBE may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this investigation the degradation of aqueous MTBE at relatively high concentrations was studied by UV-vis/TiO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} photo catalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as ph, oxygen flow, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. (Author)

  8. Software reuse environment user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document describes the services provided by the prototype Software Reuse Environment, which was developed by CTA for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 520. This is one of three guides delivered by CTA as part of the environment. The other two guides are: Software Generation and Installation Guide; and SEMANTX--Defining the Schema. The Software Generation and Installation Guide describes the software source modules that make up the Reuse Environment, with instructions on how to generate and install an executable system from the source code. SEMANTX--Defining the Schema describes how a reuse database is created. Actually this guide is more general than the reuse database, as it describes how to generate a SEMANTX database. SEMANTX is an off-the-shelf tool that we have used to implement the reuse database. It is a product of Semantyk Systems, Inc. The Software Reuse Environment is built upon SEMANTX as well as on the IDE Structured Analysis Integrated Environment. (IDE is Interactive Development Environments, Inc.) SEMANTX itself is built on top of the Unify Database Management System. To use the Software Reuse Environment you should have the User's Manuals for SEMANTX, for Unify, and for the IDE software. CTA has provided all of these with the environment.

  9. Stability and Degradation Mechanisms of Radiation-Grafted Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Water Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Albert; Lochner, Tim; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, L

    2016-06-22

    Radiation-grafted membranes are a promising alternative to commercial membranes for water electrolyzers, since they exhibit lower hydrogen crossover and area resistance, better mechanical properties, and are of potentially lower cost than perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid membranes, such as Nafion. Stability is an important factor in view of the expected lifetime of 40 000 h or more of an electrolyzer. In this study, combinations of styrene (St), α-methylstyrene (AMS), acrylonitrile (AN), and 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DiPB) are cografted into 50 μm preirradiated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) base film, followed by sulfonation to produce radiation-grafted membranes. The stability of the membranes with different monomer combinations is compared under an accelerated stress test (AST), and the degradation mechanisms are investigated. To mimic the conditions in an electrolyzer, in which the membrane is always in contact with liquid water at elevated temperature, the membranes are immersed in water for 5 days at 90 °C, so-called thermal stress test (TST). In addition to testing in air atmosphere tests are also carried out under argon to investigate the effect of the absence of oxygen. The water is analyzed with UV-vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), swelling degree, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the membranes are compared before and after the test. Furthermore, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic analysis of the membrane cross-section is performed. Finally, the influence of the TST to the membrane area resistance and hydrogen crossover is measured. The stability increases along the sequence St/AN, St/AN/DiPB, AMS/AN, and AMS/AN/DiPB grafted membrane. The degradation at the weak-link, oxygen-induced degradation, and hydrothermal degradation are proposed in addition to the "swelling-induced detachment" reported in the literature. By mitigating the possible paths of degradation, the AMS

  10. Degradation of sulfamethoxazole in water by solar photo-Fenton. Chemical and toxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovó, Alam G; Nogueira, Raquel F P; Agüera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R; Sirtori, Carla; Malato, Sixto

    2009-09-01

    In this work, the photocatalytic degradation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by solar photo-Fenton at pilot plant scale was evaluated in distilled water (DW) and in seawater (SW). Degradation and mineralization of SMX were strongly hindered in SW compared to DW. The influence of H(2)O(2) and iron concentration on the efficiency of the photocatalytic process was evaluated. An increase in iron concentration from 2.6 to 10.4 mg L(-1) showed only a slight improvement in SMX degradation and mineralization. However, an increase in H(2)O(2) concentration up to 120 mg L(-1) during photo-Fenton in DW decreased SMX solution toxicity from 85% to 20%, according to results of Daphnia magna bioassays. The same behaviour was not observed after photo-Fenton treatment in SW. Despite 45% mineralization in SW, toxicity increased from 16% to 86% as shown by Vibrio fischeri bioassays, which suggests that the intermediates generated in SW are different from those in DW. A SMX degradation pathway during the photo-Fenton treatment in DW is proposed.

  11. Recovery of energy, water and carbon exchange in degraded forests in eastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Brando, Paulo; Oliveira dos Santos, Claudinei; Silvério, Divino; Coe, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Large regions in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil have been deforested and converted to pasture and soy agriculture. In addition to deforestation, remnant forests in the region are degraded by repeated fire and edge related effects. We are combining eddy covariance with other measures to study the impact of these changes in land cover on energy, water and carbon balance, in a region that sits at the ecotone between continuous forest and savanna. The degraded forest plot is part of a multi-year experimental fire treatment and had experienced large-scale mortality in the years prior to tower installation. Leaf area was strongly reduced in degraded forest, but surprisingly latent energy fluxes nearly equaled those in the intact forest. Carbon uptake rates in the intact forest exceeded those in the degraded forest, though not when expressed on a leaf-area basis. Overall, these results corroborate those found in experimentally logged tropical forest showing rapid recovery of fluxes, despite losses of biomass. Compared to both forests, the soy field reflected more incoming energy, and lost a greater proportion of absorbed radiation as sensible rather than latent heat.

  12. Competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from environmental waters by adsorption and photocatalytic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, N; Benguria, P; Peñas, F J; Zorita, S

    2014-10-01

    This work explores the competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from synthetic and environmental waters by combined adsorption-photolysis treatment. Five drugs usually present in waterways have been used as target compounds, some are pseudo-persistent pollutants (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and sulfamethoxazole) and others are largely consumed (diclofenac and ibuprofen). The effect of the light source on adsorption of drugs onto activated carbons followed by photolysis with TiO2 was assessed, being UV-C light the most effective for drug removal in both deionized water and river water. Different composites prepared from titania nanoparticles and powdered activated carbons were tested in several combined adsorption-photocatalysis assays. The composites prepared by calcination at 400 °C exhibited much better performance than those synthesized at 500 °C, being the C400 composite the most effective one. Furthermore, some synthetic waters containing dissolved species and environmental waters were used to investigate the effect of the aqueous matrix on each drug removal. In general, photocatalyst deactivation was found in synthetic and environmental waters. This was particularly evident in the experiments performed with bicarbonate ions as well as with wastewater effluent. In contrast, tests conducted in seawater showed adsorption and photocatalytic degradation yields comparable to those obtained in deionized water. Considering the peculiarities of substrate competition in each aqueous matrix, the combined adsorption-photolysis treatment generally increased the overall elimination of drugs in water.

  13. Water Environmental Degradation of the Source Area of the Yellow River on Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shanzhong; Luo Fang; Xiao Honglang

    2005-01-01

    The issue on water environmental degradation in the source area of the Yellow River has been one of very serious ecological and socially economic problems. The temporal-spatial changes of water environment led to the decreasing of land capacity and river disconnecting. The status of water environmental degradation in this paper was analyzed based on the data and field investigation. The results indicated that the surface water area in the region has obviously decreased owing to the climate changes and human irrational use of water resources and the continuous lowering of the regional groundwater table and the steadily decreasing tendency of the flow rate in the source areas of the Yellow River.

  14. Wastewater Treatment and Its Reuse as Circulating Cooling Water in Coking Plant%焦化厂废水处理及回用于循环冷却水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁秀美

    2015-01-01

    以宁夏宝丰能源集团有限公司焦化废水处理及回用为例,说明采用“预处理+强化生物脱氮+深度处理”工艺处理焦化废水,出水达到《城市污水再生利用·工业用水水质》(GB/T19923—2005)敞开式循环冷却水系统补充水水质标准,回用于循环冷却水补充水,实现焦化废水资源化循环利用,节约水资源,保护水环境。%Taking coking wastewater treatment in Ningxia Baofeng Energy Group Co., Ltd as an example, it is proved that"pretreatment plus enhanced biological nitrogen removal plus advanced treatment" could make the wastewater become addi-tional water for the opening circulating cooling water system, which meets the standard of Reuse of Urban Recycling Wa-ter--Water Quality Standard for Industrial Use(GB/T19923-2005). This kind of process can realize coking wastewater recy-cling, save water resource and protect water environment.

  15. Water-Induced Degradation in Lead Zinc Niobate-Lead Zirconate Titanate Soft Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiang-Ping; CHEN Wan-Ping; PENG Zhi; ZENG Min; CHANWANG Li-Hua; YIN Qing-Rui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Water-induced degradation of lead zinc niobate-lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(ZrTi)O3) soft piezoelectric ceramics is studied using electrochemical hydrogen charging, in which the silver electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramics constitute a cathode in 0.01-M NaOH solution to evolve hydrogen by electrolysis of water.It is found that with the increasing hydrogen charging time, the resonance impedance increases, the difference between the resonance frequency and the anti-resonance frequency decreases, the spontaneous polarization, the remanent polarization and the piezoelectric coefficient d33 decrease. The degradation behaviour of the soft piezoelectric ceramics can be explained to hydrogen incorporating into the lattice and forming hydroxy (OH-)bonds in the perovskite structure, which prevents the Ti ions from switching and increases the coercive field Ec.The degradation characteristics of the soft piezoelectric ceramics are quite different from that of lead zirconate titanate hard piezoelectric ceramics.

  16. Application Study of Reclaimed Water Reuse Technology for Secondary Biochemical Effluent of Shipyard%船厂二级生化出水的回用技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵浩; 王振旗; 戴荣海

    2012-01-01

    通过小试模拟船厂二级生化出水的中置式混凝沉淀工艺运行过程,研究了PAC和PAM投加量对出水水质的影响.结果表明,PAC和PAM最佳投量分别为40和0.3 mg/L.根据小试结果进行中试投药,结果显示NaClO的最佳投量为10 mg/L、PAC和PAM最佳投量与小试一致;中试对COD的去除率要高于小试,且出水水质达到《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》(GB/T18920-2002)与《城市污水再生利用景观环境用水水质》(GB/T 18921-2002)水质标准;除总氮外,中试出水其余指标均达到《地表水环境质量标准》( GB 3838-2002)的Ⅳ类水质要求,且部分指标达到Ⅰ类和Ⅲ类水质要求.回用水处理总价为0.65元/t,厂区自来水费为2.38元/t,中水回用装置流量按30 t/h来计,则企业每年可节约自来水量为26.3×104 t,每年将节省45.5万元;同时还可以减排污水量为26.3×104 t,削减COD量为10.52 t、NH3-N量为0.39 t、rP量为0.26 t.%In the small-scale test simulating the operation of intermediate flocculation and sedimentation tank of secondary biochemical effluent of shipyard, the effect of PAC and PAM dosages on the effluent quality was investigated. The results show that the optimal dosages of PAC and PAM are 40 mg/L and 0. 3 mg/L respectively. The pilot-scale test results based on the small-scale test show that the optimal dosage of NaCIO is 10 mg/L, and the optimal dosages of PAC and PAM are the same to those in the small-scale test. The removal rate of COD in the pilot-scale test is superior to that in the small-scale test, and the effluent quality meets the requirements of the Reuse of Urban Recycling Water-Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920 -2002) and the Reuse of Urban Recycling Water -. Water Quality Standard for Scenic Environment Use (GB/T 18921 -2002). Except for total nitrogen, other indexes meet the IV criterion specified in the Environmental Quality Standards for

  17. Occurrence of pesticides and some of their degradation products in waters in a Spanish wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Hernández, E.; Andrades, M. S.; Álvarez-Martín, A.; Pose-Juan, E.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M. S.; Sánchez-Martín, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA multi-residual analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed to monitor pesticides in natural waters. Fifty-eight compounds, including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and some of their degradation products, were surveyed to evaluate the quality of natural waters throughout the wine-growing region of La Rioja (Rioja DOCa). Ninety-two sampling points were selected, including surface and ground waters that could be affected by agricultural activities covering the region's three sub-areas. Different parameters that may affect the efficiency of the SPE procedure were optimised (sorbent type, elution solvent and sample volume), and matrix-matched standards were used to eliminate the variable matrix effect and ensure good quantification. The developed method allows the determination of target compounds below the level established by the European Union for waters for human use with suitable precision (relative standard deviations lower than 18%) and accuracy (with recoveries over 61%). Forty compounds included in this study (six insecticides, 12 herbicides, 16 fungicides and six degradation products) were detected in one or more samples. The herbicides terbuthylazine, its metabolite desethyl terbuthylazine, fluometuron and ethofumesate and the fungicides pyrimethanil and tebuconazole were the compounds most frequently detected in water samples (present in more than 60% of the samples). Concentrations above 0.1 μg L-1 were detected for 37 of the compounds studied, and in several cases recorded values of over 18 μg L-1. The results reveal the presence of pesticides in most of the samples investigated. In 64% of groundwaters and 62% of surface waters, the sum of compounds detected was higher than 0.5 μg L-1 (the limit established by EU legislation for the sum of all pesticides detected in waters for human use).

  18. A Simple Electrochemical Approach for Determination and Direct Monitoring of Drug Degradation in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahir Soomro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of electrochemical techniques for the determination of pharmaceutical drugs in water is reported here. The experiment is designed for use in undergraduate chemistry courses. Two most commonly used pharmaceutical drugs e.g., ibuprofen (IBP and paracetamol (PCM were investigated for their identification and electrochemical investigations using cyclic votlammetry (CV and square wave (SQW voltammetry. The major objective of this communication is to enable students to get familiar and use sophisticated electrochemical techniques. A detailed protocol for the detection of IBP and PCM is presented in this work. The developed protocol was used to study sunlight photocatalytic degradation of IBP and PCM in photocatalytic degradation experiments carried out in the presence of ZnO based photocatalyst. This easy and efficient approach can easily be included in undergraduate chemistry courses.

  19. Efficient degradation of trichloroethylene in water using persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide-iron nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayyaz; Gu, Xiaogang; Li, Li; Lv, Shuguang; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and nano-sized zero-valent iron-reduced graphene oxide (nZVI-rGO) composite were prepared. The GO and nZVI-rGO composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy. The size of nZVI was about 6 nm as observed by TEM. The system of nZVI-rGO and persulfate (PS) was used for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water, and showed 26.5% more efficiency as compared to nZVI/PS system. The different parameters were studied to determine the efficiency of nZVI-rGO to activate the PS system for the TCE degradation. By increasing the PS amount, TCE removal was also improved while no obvious effect was observed by varying the catalyst loading. Degradation was decreased as the TCE initial concentration was increased from 20 to 100 mg/L. Moreover, when initial solution pH was increased, efficiency deteriorated to 80%. Bicarbonate showed more negative effect on TCE removal among the solution matrix. To better understand the effects of radical species in the system, the scavenger tests were performed. The •SO4(-) and •O2(-) were predominant species responsible for TCE removal. The nZVI-rGO-activated PS process shows potential applications in remediation of highly toxic organic contaminants such as TCE present in the groundwater. Graphical abstract Persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide and nano-sized zero-valent iron composite can be used for efficient degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water.

  20. Effect of degrading yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density polyethylene films to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, B. A.; Pajarito, B. B.

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) contributes largely to plastic wastes that are disposed in aquatic environment as a consequence of its widespread use. In this study, yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density PE films were immersed in deionized water at 50°C for 49 days. Indicators of water quality: pH, oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, and total dissolved solids (TDS), were monitored at regular intervals. It was observed that pH initially rises and then slowly decreases with time, oxidation-reduction potential decreases then slowly increases with time, turbidity rises above the control at varied rates, and TDS increases abruptly and rises at a hindered rate. Moreover, the films potentially leach out lead chromate. The results imply that degrading oxo-biodegradable LDPE films results to significant reduction of water quality.

  1. Efficiency and mechanism of degradation of alachlor in water by O3/H2O2 catalyst system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金胜; 于颖慧; 孙志忠; 马军

    2003-01-01

    Alachlor is used widely as a herbicide,but is an environmental endocrine disruptor. O3/H2O2 systemis used as catalyst to delve on the degradation efficiency of alachlor. The amount of the catalyst-H2O2 ,the pHvalue of the soluble, the temperature and quality of water sample are changed to investigate the effect of thesefactors on the degradation of alaehlor. The degradation of alachlor is qualitatively analyzed through their GS-MSspectra and the possible mechanism of the degradation of alachlor is discussed as well.

  2. Preparation of the GO/Pd nanocomposite and its application for the degradation of organic dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Afshan; Jaleh, Babak; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-06-15

    A GO/Pd nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized applying a simple method via immobilizing Pd on the surface of the graphene oxide (GO). The GO/Pd nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The surface morphology of Pd NPs was viewed by TEM, the particles are spherical with an average particle size of 11nm. The catalytic activity of the GO/Pd nanocomposite is excellent for the degradation of organic dyes such as Congo red (CR), methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous media at room temperature. For the first time, the degradation of CR, MB and MO was reported using GO/Pd nanocomposite as a heterogeneous catalyst. The excellent catalytic effect for the degradation of dyes was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at regular time intervals. When GO/Pd nanocomposite was added into the solution containing dye and NaBH4, the intensity of the strong absorption peak gradually decreased and the whole peak disappeared. It followed the pseudo-first order reaction and time of the reduction reactions is short. In addition, the catalyst can be recovered and reused up to multiple runs without any marked loss in its catalytic activity.

  3. TiO2 photocatalysis of naproxen: effect of the water matrix, anions and diclofenac on degradation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraju, Devagi; Motti, Cherie A; Glass, Beverley D; Oelgemöller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) naproxen (NPX) has been studied using a laboratory-scale photoreactor equipped with a medium pressure mercury lamp. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis proved highly efficient in the elimination of NPX from a variety of water matrices, including distilled water, unfiltered river water and drinking water, although the rate of reaction was not always proportional to TiO2 concentration. However, the NPX degradation rate, which follows first-order kinetics, was appreciably reduced in river water spiked with phosphate and chloride ions, a dual anion system. Addition of chloride into drinking water enhanced the TiO2-photocatalysed degradation rate. Competitive degradation studies also revealed that the NPX degradation was greatly reduced in the presence of increased concentrations of another API, diclofenac (DCF). This was established by (i) the extent of mineralization, as determined by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and (ii) the formation of intermediate NPX by-products, identified using liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization (positive and negative mode) mass spectrometry techniques. This study demonstrates that competition for active sites (anions or DCF) and formation of multiple photoproducts resulting from synergistic interactions (between both APIs) are key to the TiO2-photocatalysed NPX degradation.

  4. 浅析健身器械发电应用于家庭中水回用装置%Analyses the equipment power applied to household water reuse equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军辉; 罗卫东; 刘晶茹; 王晶

    2015-01-01

    With the improvement of life rhythm, people's bodybuilding arena gradually turn outdoor from indoor, it will promote the development of indoor fitness equipment industry.If we can achieve the goal of exercise by using of exercise fitness equipment ,and meanwhile make the energy produced by fitness equipment recycled,then we can form a set of energy-saving exercise system with reciprocity.Water reuse can be used for toilet flushing after the appropriate dealing ,and it can be used for toilet flushing. Combining the advantages with purposes,we design a set of water reuse device which aimed at domestic toilet's drainage patterns,that collects the bathing lightly waste water and treats them as flushing water, simultaneously I use family treadmill to provide energy to the device in order to save water and achieve the purpose of energy recycle.%随着生活节奏的提高,人们的健身场所逐渐由户外转移到户内,这就促进了室内健身器械产业的发展,如果在使用健身器材达到锻炼目的的同时,能将健身器械产生的能量收集再利用,则能形成一套具有互惠性的节能运动健身系统.中水回用可以将生活污水处理后用于厕所冲洗.结合俩者的优点与用途,针对家庭卫生间排水规律设计了一套中水回用装置,将卫生间内污染较轻的洗浴污水收集再处理作为冲厕水源,同时利用家庭跑步机为该装置提供能量,达到节约水源,能量再利用的目的.

  5. A role of Bradyrhizobium elkanii and closely related strains in the degradation of methoxychlor in soil and surface water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsuma, Koji; Masuda, Minoru; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that a leguminous bacterial strain, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 17-4, isolated from river sediment, phylogenetically very close to Bradyrhizobium elkanii, degraded methoxychlor through O-demethylation and oxidative dechlorination. In the present investigation, we found that B. elkanii (USDA94), a standard species deposited in the Culture Collection, degraded methoxychlor. Furthermore, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 4-1, also very close to B. elkanii, isolated from Japanese paddy field soil, degraded methoxychlor. These B. elkanii and closely related strains degraded methoxychlor through almost identical metabolic pathways, and cleaved the phenyl ring and mineralized. In contrast, another representative Bradyrhizobium species, B. japonicum (USDA110), did not degrade methoxychlor at all. Based on these findings, B. elkanii and closely related strains are likely to play an important role not only in providing the readily biodegradable substrates but also in completely degrading (mineralizing) methoxychlor by themselves in the soil and surface water environment.

  6. Incomplete degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants in Brazilian surface waters and pursuit of their polar metabolites in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Peter; Rodrigues, Silvana V; Baumann, Wolfram; Knepper, Thomas P

    2002-02-04

    In Brazil more than 90% of the population are not connected to municipal wastewater treatment plants. As a consequence, surface waters receive continuously considerable amounts of untreated domestic sewage containing surfactants as a major constituent. Such polluted waters gave rise to special interest if they are used as a source for the production of drinking water. In this work, the river Rio Macacu (State Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was monitored for the occurrence of the most widely used anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) together with its main degradative product, sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPC). In order to pursue the fate of both compounds after emission into the river, samples were collected at several locations along the river bank, and analyzed applying liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after enrichment by solid-phase extraction. The LAS concentrations ranged between 14 and 155 microg l(-1) and the levels of their metabolic intermediates were found from 1.2 to 14 microg l(-1). The self-purification capacity of the water was impressively demonstrated in the upper course of the river downstream of a town considered as one major discharge point, whereas in the lower course the relative constant concentrations of both analytes were detected which was explained with an overall increasing level of pollution. Furthermore, a series of drinking water samples from Niterói and São Gonçalo, supplied by the same waterworks treating surface waters from the Rio Macacu, were taken during two sampling periods and examined for the presence of the strongly polar SPC which is suspected of by-passing the purification processes. The levels detected in the drinking water ranged between 1.6 and 3.3 microg l(-1). For the analyses of drinking and surface waters the peak pattern of a selected SPC homologue composed by several positional isomers served as an indicator to describe the progression of SPC degradation occurred in the river and could be used to

  7. Solar photo-ozonation: A novel treatment method for the degradation of water pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chávez, Ana M.; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J.; Álvarez, Pedro M., E-mail: pmalvare@unex.es

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Aqueous ozone decomposition is accelerated by solar radiation. • Hydrogen peroxide is identifies as a main intermediate of decomposition of aqueous ozone under solar irradiation. • Solar photo-ozonation leads to higher Rct ratios than single ozonation. • Solar photo-ozonation is a promising AOP for the degradation of water pollutants. - Abstract: The decomposition of aqueous ozone by UV–vis radiation has been investigated with focus on the impact of ozone photolysis on the degradation of water pollutants during solar ozonation processes. The apparent first-order rate constants of the decomposition of ozone (k{sub obs}) have been determined at various pHs in the 4–9 range using radiation of different wavelengths in the UV–vis range. It was found that UVA–visible radiation (λ > 320 nm) highly enhanced ozone decomposition, especially at pH 4, for which k{sub obs} was three-folded with respect to the process in the absence of radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was identified as a main intermediate of ozone photo-decomposition at pH 4. Experiments of degradation of oxalic acid by ozone showed that solar irradiation brings about an increase in the hydroxyl radical to ozone exposures ratio (R{sub ct}). Finally, photo-ozonation (λ > 300 nm) was shown advantageous over single ozonation in the mineralization of a selection of emerging contaminants (metoprolol, ibuprofen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and clofibric acid) in both ultrapure water and a synthetic secondary effluent. Thus, TOC removal in 2-h treatments increased from 10 to 25% in the absence of radiation to about 50% in the presence of radiation.

  8. Degradation kinetics of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface waters: photolysis vs biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2017-07-15

    Poor removal of many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage treatment leads to their discharge into the receiving waters, where they may cause negative effects. Their elimination from the water column depends of several processes, including photochemical and biological degradation. We have focused this research on comparing the degradation kinetics of a wide number (n=33) of frequently detected PPCPs considering different types of water, pH and solar irradiation. For those compounds that were susceptible of photodegradation, their rates (k) varied from 0.02 to 30.48h(-1) at pH7, with the lowest values for antihypertensive and psychiatric drugs (t1/2>1000h). Modification of the pH turned into faster disappearance of most of the PPCPs (e.g., k=0.072 and 0.066h(-1) for atenolol and carbamazepine at pH4, respectively). On the other hand, biodegradation was enhanced by marine bacteria in many cases, for example for mefenamic acid, caffeine and triclosan (k=0.019, 0.01 and 0.04h(-1), respectively), and was faster for anionic surfactants. Comparing photodegradation and biodegradation processes, hydrochlorothiazide and diclofenac, both not biodegradable, were eliminated exclusively by irradiation (t1/2=0.15-0.43h and t1/2=0.14-0.17h, respectively). Salicylic acid and phenylbutazone were efficiently photo (t1/2<3h) and biodegraded (t1/2=116-158h), whereas some compounds such as ibuprofen, carbamazepine and atenolol had low degradation rates by any of the processes tested (t1/2=23-2310h), making then susceptible to persist in the aquatic media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 不同再生水处理工艺出水水质回用途径适应性分析%Analysis about reuse approach adaptability for effluent quality from different reclaimed water treatment processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆康; 郝瑞霞; 刘峰; 赵继成; 杨英杰

    2013-01-01

    为分析典型再生水处理工艺出水的回用途径适应性,采用标准指数法评价了4座不同处理工艺的再生水厂出水质量,为再生水处理工艺选择和安全回用提供参考.结果表明,4种再生水处理工艺出水用于市政杂用水时基本是安全的;除反渗透(RO)工艺外,其他工艺出水回用于景观环境用水时都存在氮磷指标超标问题;膜处理工艺的出水可以满足工业用水标准,但是常规絮凝过滤工艺出水用作工业用水应注意氮磷等指标的进一步处理;各种再生水处理工艺出水质量均不能满足地下水回灌用水标准,主要是氨氮和环境激素DBP超标问题,用作地下水回灌用水时存在一定的环境风险.%The treated effluent quality of four different technologies types of reclaimed water treatment plants was evaluated with the standard index method in order to analyze the adaptability of the reuse approaches of treated effluents from typical reclaimed water treatment processes. This study could be a valuable reference to the selection of reclaimed water treatment processes and the security of reuse. The results of the study indicated that the reclaimed water treated by the four types of the treatment processes was basically safe to be used for municipal water usage. However, they all have different problems with meeting the relevant standards on certain kinds of water utilisation. The reclaimed waters treated by the treatment processes, except treated by RO process, all have problems with their nitrogen and phosphorus concentration exceeding the scandalised concentration in the case of being used for landscape purpose. The effluent water treated by membrane process could meet the requirements of the standard on industrial water usage. The reclaimed water treated by conventional floccula-tion filtration process requires further treatment on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. According to the water quality standard for recharging ground

  10. Ceramic Ultra- and Nanofiltration for Municipal Wastewater Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, water reuse has been widely recognized in many regions of the world. Fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In addition, the reverse osm

  11. Ceramic Ultra- and Nanofiltration for Municipal Wastewater Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, water reuse has been widely recognized in many regions of the world. Fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In addition, the reverse

  12. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  13. Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of reaction products in multilayer polymer solar cells induced by water and oxygen atmospheres was mapped and used to elucidate the degradation