WorldWideScience

Sample records for degradation electronic resource

  1. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  2. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  6. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  7. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  10. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  11. Grazing Resource Management and Grassland Degradation in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; HAO Ruimin

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction Grassland degradation in China's northem steppe has been a major and increasingly serious problem affecting the productivity and sustainability of pastoral systems.The economic and property rights reforms in the early 1980s dramatically modified grazing management and resource institutions in the area.Livestock were privatized,but most of the pastures were jointly used by all herding households or small groups within villages.When a seemingly accelerating deterioration of grassland condition was observed through the 1980s and 1990s,numerous research and government reports suggested that the reform had created the classic problem of resource degradation from privately owned animals grazing on common land (Hardin 1968).At the same time,pastures allocated to and actually controlled by individual households also were subject to overexploitation caused by perceived institutional uncertainties (Longworth and Williamson 1993).

  12. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  13. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  14. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  15. Children as a resource: environmental degradation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, S

    1994-06-01

    Through the use of case studies from Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, and Morocco, the influence of environmental degradation on women's livelihoods and fertility is broadly examined. The aim is to show how the environment impacts on women's childbearing decisions, and the consequences. The evidence appears to support the notion that environmental pressures on women will contribute to higher fertility, under conditions of gender division of labor, a very low social status for women, and women's limited educational opportunity. The Kenya experiences were among rural villages in various agro-ecological zones in Embu, on the slopes of Mt. Kenya, and involved coping strategies with poor soils and very little rainfall. The Malaysian research focused on river communities in the rain forests of Limbang River Basin in Sarawak and the logging industry and government regulation of tribal land use rights. In mountainous Tetouan and A1 Hoceimain, Moroccan populations struggle with poor social services and little rainfall. The study areas in Morocco and Kenya had very high population growth, but declining growth rates nationally. The study areas suffered from deforestation, declines in water quality and availability, and soil erosion and depletion. Family planning services would be welcome: 1) when women do not have to solely bear the responsibility for the additional work involved in environmentally degraded areas; and 2) when the value of children is not increased. Policy must recognize that where rigid gender division of labor is prominent, children are a crucial resource for women in the provision of household support. The Morocco case exemplified the extremes of men's refusal to ease women's workloads with time and labor saving technology. Family planning promotion in such situations must be accompanied by provision of alternative resources to address the adverse environmental impacts on women. Blaming women for environmental problems and family planning promotion will fail to

  16. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  17. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  18. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  19. The rheology, degradation, processing, and characterization of renewable resource polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jason David

    Renewable resource polymers have become an increasingly popular alternative to conventional fossil fuel based polymers over the past couple decades. The push by the government as well as both industrial and consumer markets to go "green" has provided the drive for companies to research and develop new materials that are more environmentally friendly and which are derived from renewable materials. Two polymers that are currently being produced commercially are poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers, both of which can be derived from renewable feedstocks and have shown to exhibit similar properties to conventional materials such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and PET. PLA and PHA are being used in many applications including food packaging, disposable cups, grocery bags, and biomedical applications. In this work, we report on the rheological properties of blends of PLA and PHA copolymers. The specific materials used in the study include Natureworks RTM 7000D grade PLA and PHA copolymers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate). Blends ranging from 10 to 50 percent PHA by weight are also examined. Shear and extensional experiments are performed to characterize the flow behavior of the materials in different flow fields. Transient experiments are performed to study the shear rheology over time in order to determine how the viscoelastic properties change under typical processing conditions and understand the thermal degradation behavior of the materials. For the blends, it is determined that increasing the PHA concentration in the blend results in a decrease in viscosity and increase in degradation. Models are fit to the viscosity of the blends using the pure material viscosities in order to be able to predict the behavior at a given blend composition. We also investigate the processability of these materials into films and examine the resultant properties of the cast films. The mechanical and thermal properties of the

  20. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  1. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh

    2014-01-01

    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  2. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  3. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  4. Monte Carlo model for electron degradation in xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Mukundan, Vrinda

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a Monte Carlo model for studying the local degradation of electrons in the energy range 9-10000 eV in xenon gas. Analytically fitted form of electron impact cross sections for elastic and various inelastic processes are fed as input data to the model. Two dimensional numerical yield spectrum, which gives information on the number of energy loss events occurring in a particular energy interval, is obtained as output of the model. Numerical yield spectrum is fitted analytically, thus obtaining analytical yield spectrum. The analytical yield spectrum can be used to calculate electron fluxes, which can be further employed for the calculation of volume production rates. Using yield spectrum, mean energy per ion pair and efficiencies of inelastic processes are calculated. The value for mean energy per ion pair for Xe is 22 eV at 10 keV. Ionization dominates for incident energies greater than 50 eV and is found to have an efficiency of 65% at 10 keV. The efficiency for the excitation process is 30%...

  5. Monte Carlo model for electron degradation in methane

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Anil

    2015-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for degradation of 1-10,000 eV electrons in an atmosphere of methane. The electron impact cross sections for CH4 are compiled and analytical representations of these cross sections are used as input to the model.model.Yield spectra, which provides information about the number of inelastic events that have taken place in each energy bin, is used to calculate the yield (or population) of various inelastic processes. The numerical yield spectra, obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations, is represented analytically, thus generating the Analytical Yield Spectra (AYS). AYS is employed to obtain the mean energy per ion pair and efficiencies of various inelastic processes.Mean energy per ion pair for neutral CH4 is found to be 26 (27.8) eV at 10 (0.1) keV. Efficiency calculation showed that ionization is the dominant process at energies >50 eV, for which more than 50% of the incident electron energy is used. Above 25 eV, dissociation has an efficiency of 27%. Below 10 eV, vibrational e...

  6. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  7. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  8. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vrogovschi@ipen.br; Aquino, Simone; Goncalez, Edlayne [Instituto Biologico (IB-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2009-07-01

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B{sub 1} was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1{mu}g kg{sup -1}. The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  9. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  10. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  11. MSW: From pollution/degradation source to resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste is one of the biggest challenges that cities are facing: MSW is considered of the main sources of energy consumption, urban degradation and pollution. This paper defines the major negative effects of MSW on cities and proposes new solutions to guide waste policies. Most contemporary waste management efforts are focused at regional government level and based on high tech waste disposal by methods such as landfill and incineration. However, these methods are becoming increasingly expensive, energy inefficient and pollutant: waste disposal is not sustainable and will have negative implications for future generations. In this paper are proposed all the principle solutions that could be undertaken. New policy instruments are presented updating and adapting policies and encouraging innovation for less wasteful systems. Waste management plans are fundamental to increase the ability of urban areas to effectively adapt to waste challenges. These plans have to give an outline of waste streams and treatment options and provide a scenario for the following years that significantly reduce landfills and incinerators in favor of prevention, reuse and recycling. The key aim of an urban waste management plan is to set out the work towards a zero waste economy as part of the transition to a sustainable economy. Other questions remain still opened: How to change people’s behavior? What is the role of environmental education and risk perception? It is sure that the involvement of the various stakeholders and the wider public in the planning process should aim at ensuring acceptance of the waste policy.

  12. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  13. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  14. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  15. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  16. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  17. Anaerobic Degradation of Tetrachloroethylene Using Different Co-substrates as Electron Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by acclimated anaerobic sludge using different co-substrates, I.e., glucose, acetate, and lactate as electron donors. Methods HP-6890 gas chromatograph (GC) in combination with auto-sampler was used to analyze the concentration of PCE and its intermediates. Results PCE could be degraded by reductive dechlorination and the degradation reaction conformed to the first-order kinetic equation. The rate constants are k1actate>kglucose>kacetate. The PCE degradation rate was the highest in the presence of lactate as an electron donor.Conclusion Lactate is the most suitable electron donor for PCE degradation and the electron donors supplied by co-metabolic substrates are not the limiting factors for PCE degradation.

  18. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  19. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  20. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  1. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  2. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  3. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  4. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  5. On the importance of electron-electron scattering for hot-carrier degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyaginov, Stanislav; Bina, Markus; Franco, Jacopo; Wimmer, Yannick; Kaczer, Ben; Grasser, Tibor

    2015-04-01

    Using our physics based model for hot-carrier degradation (HCD) we analyze the importance of the effect of electron-electron scattering (EES) on HCD in transistors with different channel lengths. The model is based on a thorough treatment of carrier transport and is implemented into the deterministic Boltzmann transport equation solver ViennaSHE. Two competing mechanism of Si-H bond-breakage are captured by the model: the one triggered by the multiple vibrational excitation of the bond and another which is due to excitation of one of the bonding electrons to an antibonding state by a solitary hot carrier. These processes are considered self-consistently as competing pathways of the same dissociation reaction. To analyze the importance of the EES process we use a series of nMOSFETs with identical architecture but different gate lengths. The gate length varies in the wide range of 44-300 nm to cover short-channel MOSFETs as well as their longer counterparts. According to previous findings, EES starts to become important at a channel length of 180 nm. This situation is captured in the targeted gate length interval. Our results show that the channel length alone is not a sufficient criterion on the importance of EES and that the applied bias conditions have to be taken into account as well.

  6. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  7. Degradation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Structures through Light and Electron Beam Driven Ion Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haifeng; Debroye, Elke; Janssen, Kris; Naiki, Hiroyuki; Steuwe, Christian; Lu, Gang; Moris, Michèle; Orgiu, Emanuele; Uji-I, Hiroshi; De Schryver, Frans; Samorì, Paolo; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten

    2016-02-04

    Organometal halide perovskites show promising features for cost-effective application in photovoltaics. The material instability remains a major obstacle to broad application because of the poorly understood degradation pathways. Here, we apply simultaneous luminescence and electron microscopy on perovskites for the first time, allowing us to monitor in situ morphology evolution and optical properties upon perovskite degradation. Interestingly, morphology, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence of perovskite samples evolve differently upon degradation driven by electron beam (e-beam) or by light. A transversal electric current generated by a scanning electron beam leads to dramatic changes in PL and tunes the energy band gaps continuously alongside film thinning. In contrast, light-induced degradation results in material decomposition to scattered particles and shows little PL spectral shifts. The differences in degradation can be ascribed to different electric currents that drive ion migration. Moreover, solution-processed perovskite cuboids show heterogeneity in stability which is likely related to crystallinity and morphology. Our results reveal the essential role of ion migration in perovskite degradation and provide potential avenues to rationally enhance the stability of perovskite materials by reducing ion migration while improving morphology and crystallinity. It is worth noting that even moderate e-beam currents (86 pA) and acceleration voltages (10 kV) readily induce significant perovskite degradation and alter their optical properties. Therefore, attention has to be paid while characterizing such materials using scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  8. The Soil Degradation Paradox: Compromising Our Resources When We Need Them the Most

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine DeLong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation can take many forms, from erosion to salinization to the overall depletion of organic matter. The expression of soil degradation is broad, and so too are the causes. As the world population nears eight billion, and the environmental uncertainty of climate change becomes more manifest, the importance of our soil resources will only increase. The goal of this paper is to synthesize the catalysts of soil degradation and to highlight the interconnected nature of the social and economic causes of soil degradation. An expected three billion people will enter the middle class in the next 20 years; this will lead to an increased demand for meat, dairy products, and consequently grain. As populations rise so do the economic incentives to convert farmland to other purposes. With the intensity and frequency of droughts and flooding increasing, consumer confidence and the ability of crops to reach yield goals are also threatened. In a time of uncertainty, conservation measures are often the first to be sacrificed. In short, we are compromising our soil resources when we need them the most.

  9. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  10. Diversity and dynamics of management of gum and resin resources in Ethiopia: a trade-off between domestication and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemenih, M.; Wiersum, K.F.; Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale; Bongers, F.

    2014-01-01

    Although the human domestication of forest and tree resources is often considered to result in resource degradation, it may also lead to improved resource potentials. This paper assesses the nature and dynamics of gum and resin focused woodland exploitation and management systems in Ethiopia in the

  11. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  12. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Škerget

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  13. Electron Spin Resonance Study of Fuel Cell Polymer Membrane Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Panchenko; Elena Aleksandrova; Emil Roduner

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The long term stability of the membrane is an important factor limiting the fuel cell lifetime. During extended use the membrane degrades, probably via reaction with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals which are regular intermediates of the oxygen reduction at the cathode. Only extremely stable membranes can withstand the aggressive chemical and physical environment in an operating fuel cell. Within a given set of operating conditions, intrinsic chemical and mechanical properties of the membrane as well as its water content impact its durability dramatically.

  14. Identification of Degradation Products of Lincomycin and Iopromide by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yongbyoung; Ham, Hyunsun; Myung, Seungwoon [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Lincomycin and Iopromide are major species among the Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from four major rivers in Korea. The structure characterization of six lincomycin's and two iopromide's degradation products formed under the irradiation of electron beam was performed, and the degradation efficiency as a function of the various irradiation dose and sample concentration was investigated. Electron beam (10 MeV, 0.5 mA and 5 kW) experiments for the structural characterization of the degradation products, which is fortified with lincomycin, were performed at the dose of 10 kGy. The separation of its degradation products and lincomycin was carried by C18 column (2.1 {Chi} 100 mm, 3.5 {mu}m), using gradient elution with 20 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The structures of degradation products of lincomycin and iopromide were proposed by interpretation of mass spectra and chromatograms by LC/MS/MS, and also the mass fragmentation pathways of mass spectra in tandem mass spectrometry were proposed. The experiments of the degradation efficiency as a function of the irradiation dose intensity and the initial concentration of lincomycin in aqueous environment were performed, and higher dose of electron beam and lower concentration was observed the increased degradation efficiency.

  15. A resource recycling technique of hydrogen production from the catalytic degradation of organics in wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XiaoNian; ZHANG QunFeng; KONG LingNiao; XIANG YiZhi; JU YaoMing; WU XiaoQiong; FENG Feng; YUAN JunFeng; MA Lei; LU ChunShan

    2008-01-01

    A resource recycling technique of hydrogen production from the catalytic degradation of organics in wastewater by aqueous phase reforming (APR) has been proposed. It is worthy of noting that this technique may be a potential way for the purification of refractory and highly toxic organics in water for hydrogen production. Hazardous organics (such as phenol, aniline, nitrobenzene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and cyclohexanol) in water could be completely de-graded into H2 and CO2 with high selectivity over Raney Ni, and Sn-modified Raney Ni (Sn-Raney-Ni) or Pd/C catalyst under mild conditions. The experimental results operated in tubular and autoclave reactors, indicated that the degradation degree of organics and H2 selectivity could reach 100% under the optimal reaction conditions. The Sn-Raney-Ni (Sn/Ni=0.06) and Pd/C catalysts show better catalytic performances than the Raney Ni catalyst for the degradation of organics in water into H2 and CO2 by the aqueous phase reforming process.

  16. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  17. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  18. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  19. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the degradation of monochlorophenols in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADELEKE Olukunle Francis; ZHOU Rui-min; Zu Jian-hua; Ekoko Bakambo Gracien

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam was successfully used for the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in aqueous solutions in this research. The effect of radiation dose on substrate degradation and dechlorination of solutions with concentration of 50 mg/L was investigated. The effect of initial concentration, pH and presence of oxygen was also investigated. The concentration of 2-CP and 4-CP remaining in solution after irradiation were measured by HPLC. The results showed that increased radiation dose led to increased degradation of the chlorophenols and increased Cl- yield. Deaeration was also found to significantly increase the rate of degradation of chlorophenols in water while degradation and dechlorination under alkaline condition was lower than at low to neutral pH.

  1. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  2. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  3. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  4. Scanning electron microscopy and roughness study of dental composite degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Cortez, Louise Ribeiro; Zarur, Raquel de Oliveira; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the use of mouthwashes, consumption of soft drinks, as well as the type of light curing unit (LCU), would change the surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of a nanofilled composite resin (Z350® 3M ESPE). Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: Halogen LCU, group 1, saliva (control); group 2, Pepsi Twist®; group 3, Listerine®; group 4, Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, group 5, saliva; group 6, Pepsi Twist®; group 7, Listerine®; group 8, Colgate Plax®. Ra values were measured at baseline, and after 7 and 14 days. One specimen of each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis after 14 days. The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc test. All the treatments resulted in morphological changes in composite resin surface, and the most significant change was in Pepsi Twist® groups. The samples of G6 had the greatest increase in Ra. The immersion of nanofilled resin in mouthwashes with alcohol and soft drink increases the surface roughness. Polymerization by halogen LCU (reduced light intensity) associated with alcohol contained mouthwash resulted in significant roughness on the composite.

  5. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  6. Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process driven by microbial fuel cells for triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Yuan-Dong [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Yan, Zhi-Ying [Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xia-Yuan [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Wei, Ping [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Jia, Hong-Hua [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Zheng, Tao, E-mail: zhengtao@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Nengyuan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yong, Yang-Chun, E-mail: ycyong@ujs.edu.cn [Biofuels Institute, School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process for TPTC degradation. - Highlights: • A Bio-Electro-Fenton process was performed for TPTC degradation. • TPTC removal efficiency achieved 78.32 ± 2.07% within 100 h. • The TPTC degradation rate (0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}) was much higher than previous reports. - Abstract: The intensive use of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) has caused serious environmental pollution. In this study, an effective method for TPTC degradation was proposed based on the Bio-Electron-Fenton process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum voltage of the MFC with graphite felt as electrode was 278.47% higher than that of carbon cloth. The electricity generated by MFC can be used for in situ generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to a maximum of 135.96 μmol L{sup −1} at the Fe@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3(*)}/graphite felt composite cathode, which further reacted with leached Fe{sup 2+} to produce hydroxyl radicals. While 100 μmol L{sup −1} TPTC was added to the cathodic chamber, the degradation efficiency of TPTC reached 78.32 ± 2.07%, with a rate of 0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This Bio-Electron-Fenton driving TPTC degradation might involve in Sn−C bonds breaking and the main process is probably a stepwise dephenylation until the formation of inorganic tin and CO{sub 2}. This study provides an energy saving and efficient approach for TPTC degradation.

  7. Developments in application of light and scanning electron microscopy techniques for cell wall degradation studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    The results of recent technological developments in light and scanning electron microscopy closely used for research on forage cell wall degradation in ruminants, are reviewed. The indigestibility of forages by rumen microorganisms used to be ascribed mainly to an overall presence of lignin in the p

  8. Degradation and toxicity assessment of sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline using electron beam, ozone and UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Sang Don; Kim, Hyun Young; Lim, Seung Joo; Lee, Myunjoo; Yu, Seungho

    2012-08-15

    Recently, the occurrence of antibiotics in sewage treatment plant effluent, as well as drinking water, has raised concern about their potential impacts on the environment and public health. Antibiotics are found in surface and ground waters, which indicate their ineffective removal by conventional wastewater treatment processes. Therefore, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have received considerable attention for the removal of antibiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline) using an electron beam, ozone and UV, and the change of toxicity. Also, the electrical energy consumption based on the EE/O parameter (the electrical energy required per order of pollutants removal in 1 m(3) wastewater) was used to quantify the energy cost associated with the different AOPs (electron beam, ozone and UV) for the degradation of antibiotics. The results showed that an electron beam effective for the removals of both sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline in aqueous solutions. However, degradation of the target compounds by ozone and UV showed different trends. The oxidation efficiency of each organic compound was very dependent upon the AOP used. Algal toxicity was significantly reduced after each treatment. However, based on the electrical energy, the electron beam was more efficient than ozone and UV. Electron beam treatment could be an effective and safe method for the removal of antibiotic compounds.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Francisco J., E-mail: fjcervantes@ipicyt.edu.mx [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. {yields} Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. {yields} Several species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 {mu}M of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 {+-} 27 micro-electron equivalents ({mu}Eq) L{sup -1}, linked to the reduction of 619 {+-} 81 {mu}Eq L{sup -1} of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two {gamma}-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  10. Spatial and temporal analysis of natural resources degradation in the Likodra River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important natural resource whose proper use requires a good knowledge of all endogenous and exogenous factors that cause different types of degradation. Erosion is one of the forms of soil degradation. Erosion processes are characterized by a distinctive complexity and the factors affecting them are dynamics and change in space and time. A complex system degradation requires a multidisciplinary approach to the use of modern methods and techniques. Today, a large number of models are available for the assessment of soil loss through erosion as well as the levels of risk from erosion, today. Most of these are based on the logics of GIS thanks to its ability to sublimate heterogeneous information. In this paper, the analysis of spatial and temporal degradation of natural resources is carried out in the Likodra River watershed. The Likodra River is located in the northwestern part of the Republic of Serbia, and is positioned in the municipality of Krupanj. The main stream in the immediate vicinity of the town of Krupanj formed from four small streams that have expressed torrential character (the Bogoštica with the Kržava and the Čađavica with the Brštica. In May 2014, the urban area and rural parts of the municipality Krupanj were affected by catastrophic flash floods that resulted in the loss of human lives and enormous material damage. Soil degradation in the study area was analyzed using the Erosion Potential Method (EPM. The method is characterized by a high degree of reliability for determining the intensity of erosion, calculation of sediment yield and transport. The advantage of this method compared to other methods its lower complexity in terms of quantity of input parameters, simplicity and the possibility of application in GIS. In addition, the method has the advantage of choice, because it was developed in this area. The method is based on the analytical processing of data on factors affecting erosion. As the erosion

  11. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  13. High-energy electron induced gain degradation in bipolar junction transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, S.R. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, SBMJC, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560 011 (India)]. E-mail: srinivask24@hotmail.com; Ravindra, M. [Components Division, ICG, ISRO Satellite Centre, Airport Road, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Joshi, G.R. [Components Division, ICG, ISRO Satellite Centre, Airport Road, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056 (India)]. E-mail: damleraju@yahoo.com

    2006-09-15

    This paper describes the effect of 8 MeV electron beam on the forward current gain of space borne commercial indigenous bipolar junction transistors 2N2219A (npn), 2N3019 (npn) and 2N2905A (pnp). The devices are exposed to 8 MeV electron in the biased condition. The collector characteristics and Gummel plots are obtained as a function of accumulated dose. An excess base current model as well as Messenger-Spratt equation have been used to account for the observed gain degradation. The results indicate that 8 MeV electrons of high dose rate induce gain degradation by increasing the base current as well as decrease in collector current. The current gain degradation appears to be predominantly due to displacement damage in the bulk of the transistor. Off-line measurements of the h {sub FE} of the irradiated transistors indicate that the displacement induced defect and recombination centers do not anneal even at 150 {sup o}C.

  14. Against 'green development fantasies': resource degradation and the lack of community resistance in the middle Mahakam wetlands, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, G.; de Jong, E. B .P.

    2010-01-01

    In the middle Mahakam wetlands, East Kalimantan, local populations are hit hard by ecological deterioration in the form of degraded water quality, floods, depletion of fish stocks, and increasing sedimentation and aquatic weeds. In the short term, resources such as fish and wood are being depleted,

  15. Against 'Green Development Fantasies': Resource Degradation and the Lack of Community Resistance in the Middle Mahakam Wetlands, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, G.; Jong, E.B.P. de

    2010-01-01

    In the middle Mahakam wetlands, East Kalimantan, local populations are hit hard by ecological deterioration in the form of degraded water quality, floods, depletion of fish stocks, and increasing sedimentation and aquatic weeds In the short term, resources such as fish and wood are being depleted, w

  16. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  17. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Sergio [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@igg.cnr.i; Cortecci, Gianni; Squarci, Paolo [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO{sub 3} pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO{sub 3}, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO{sub 3} contamination to depth, as clearly shown by {delta}{sup 18}O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge.

  18. Hot-Electron Degradation of Gallium Arsenide Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Yevgeniy A.

    1995-01-01

    The physical mechanism of gradual degradation of GaAs MESFETs during RF overdrive is investigated in detail. A hot-electron effect was found responsible for this so-called "power slump" problem. Hot electrons produced by a large drain-gate voltage swing, tunnel from the MESFET channel and get trapped in SiN. These trapped electrons (i) increase surface depletion, hence reduce maximum channel current, transconductance and transistor gain, (ii) increase knee voltage through an increase in series channel resistance, (iii) relax gate-drain field distribution, thereby suppressing avalanche breakdown, (iv) decrease gate-drain capacitance, hence rm S_{22} under open-channel condition, and (v) increase surface leakage through trap hopping in SiN. The damage to SiN can only be partially recovered by deep UV illumination or 200^circrm C anneal. The evidence supports that trapping occurs in the bulk SiN, instead of at the GaAs/SiN interface. The possible chemical reaction responsible for this trap formation is breaking of the Si-H bond in SiN. An analytical theory of hot-electron effects, which combines hot-electron trapping with gate-drain breakdown and pinched-channel electro-luminescence, was developed and verified using experimental data and numerical simulations. Based on this theory, the rate of hot electron trapping was obtained and the threshold energy for trap formation was determined. The square-root time dependence given by the theory and the threshold energy of 1.9 eV were found consistent with gate current and electro-luminescence measurements. Numerical analysis was consistent with a trap density of the order of 5times10^{12}/rm cm^2 over a distance of approximately 0.1 murm m from the gate toward the drain, and it predicted the experimentally observed open-channel current reduction and gate-drain field relaxation. The spatial distribution of trapped electrons was directly observed by a novel high-voltage electron-beam-induced -current imaging technique. It

  19. The Effect of Degradation of Ground water Resources on Capital of Pistachio Growers in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mortazavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real cost evaluation of water is necessary in agricultural products depending on obtained value by this input. In most areas of world especially in arid and semiarid areas, exist over pumping of ground water because the real value of water is much most than the costs of water supply and the lack of fit management water resources. In this study, using a sample of 110 farmers, water dealing value of over using of groundwater in Rafsanjan pistachio production area were investigated. Analysis and regression methods were used in this regard. The average determined value obtained 24 cents, for each share of water in this region which with over drafting of ground water, and decreasing quality and quantity of water has had significant relationship in the one percent significance level. Finally, for elimination or reduction of ground water degradation and its effects, this paper recommended in addition to reduction of licenses for ground water pumping. Determination of optimal economic water/land ratio in new and old pistachio producing areas is the other proposal of this research for alleviation groundwater over drafting effects. Permission for water conduction between wells and combination of fresh and saline water and also using desalination systems are methods for solving low quality of ground water.

  20. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  1. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  2. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  3. Why do forest products become less available?A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans-Neumann, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing the factors driving changes in tropical forest products in the perception of rural smallholder communities. Using the poverty and environment network global dataset, we studied recently perceived trends of forest product availability considering firewood, charcoal, timber, food, medicine, forage and other forest products. We looked at a pan-tropical sample of 233 villages with forest access. Our results show that 90% of the villages experienced declining availability of forest resources over the last five years according to the informants. Timber and fuelwood together with forest foods were featured as the most strongly affected, though with marked differences across continents. In contrast, availability of at least one main forest product was perceived to increase in only 39% of the villages. Furthermore, the growing local use of forest resources is seen as the main culprit for the decline. In villages with both growing forest resource use and immigration—vividly illustrating demographic pressures—the strongest forest resources degradation was observed. Conversely, villages with little or no population growth and a decreased use of forest resources were most likely to see significant forest-resource increases. Further, villages are less likely to perceive resource declines when local communities own a significant share of forest area. Our results thus suggest that perceived resource declines have only exceptionally triggered adaptations in local resource-use and management patterns that would effectively deal with scarcity. Hence, at the margin this supports neo-Malthusian over neo-Boserupian explanations of local resource

  4. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  5. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  6. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  7. Electron emission degradation of nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhan-Ling; Wang Chang-Qing; Jia Yu; Zhang Bing-Lin; Yao Ning

    2007-01-01

    The initial field electron emission degradation behaviour of original nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon films has been observed.which can be attributed to the increase of the work function of the film in the field emission process analysed using a Fowler-Nordheim plot.The possible re.on for the change of work function is suggested to be the desorption of hydrogen from the original hydrogen termination film surface due to field emission current-induced local heating.For the explanation of the emission degradation behaviour of the nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon film,a cluster model with a series of graphite(0001) basal surfaces has been presented,and the theoretical calculations have been performed to investigate work functions of graphite(0001) surfaces with different hydrogen atom and ion chemisorption sites by using first principles method based on density functional theory-local density approximation.

  8. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons; Degradacion de naftaleno y fluoreno por radiolisis empleando electrones acelerados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores de Jesus, I

    2003-07-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  9. DESERTIFICATION IN THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL: THE NATURAL RESOURCES USE AND THE LAND DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edneida Rabêlo Cavalcanti

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Agenda 21 and the United Nations Convention for Desertification Combat definesdesertification as the degradation of lands in arid regions, semi-arid and sub-wet dried,resulting from various factors, among them the weather variations and the human activities.This understanding, besides marking the geographical space to be taken into consideration,undoes with the clearly climatic view of the question and proves that desertification has itsorigin in complex interactions of physical factors, biologics, political, socials, cultural andeconomics. However, it’s necessary to recognize that there are generally more serious causes,as the poverty, that leaves no alternative for the husbandmen only get from land the maximumpossible to supply the family’s immediate necessity even affecting its subsistence for a longtime. In terms of world, semi-arid regions represent 1/3 of the planet's surface, where lives 1/5of the population, more than 1 million people. Twenty-two per cent is the participation ofthese areas in the production of foods. The Semi-arid of Brazil is registered as one of thephysiographic zones of the Northeast Region, representing about 57% of this territory. Theorganization of the economical process, historically based on extensive cattle breeding andagriculture, and on the existence of some products of larger importance in the market, like thecase of cotton was, always based on an agrarian structure dominated by land concentrations.In the more diffused desertification process in the North-eastern semi-arid this pattern hasbeen constructed on alarming proportions, aggravated and reaffirmed by the occurrence ofperiodic droughts and the peculiarities due to the systems of production that appear from thisprocess directly contrary to the correct manners of use of the natural resources, in option to,where and how to develop the agricultural activities.

  10. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  11. Role of Stress Voltage on Structural Degradation of GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    GaN high-electron-mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) under high- voltage electrical stress degradation in the drain and gate current is electric field... GaN HEMTs after long-term DC and RF life tests at high voltage [12–16]. Crystallographic defects such as pits and cracks have been observed at the...created by high-voltage stress in GaN HEMTs . A complementary study of the evolution of these de- fects in the cross section as a function of stress

  12. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  13. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  14. The impact of alkali metal halide electron donor complexes in the photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuzwayo, Z., E-mail: zack.khuzwayo@up.ac.za; Chirwa, E.M.N

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Facilitation of photocatalysis using simple metal-halides as VB hole scavengers. • Recombination prevention by coupled valence and conduction band approaches. • Determination of anions critical levels beyond which process retardation occurs. • Determination of the photocatalytic process rate of reaction kinetics. - Abstract: The performance of photocatalytic oxidation of chemical pollutants is subjected to the presence of anion complexes in natural waters. This study investigated the influence of alkali metal (Na{sup +} (sodium), K{sup +} (potassium)) halides (Cl{sup −} (chloride), Br{sup −} (bromide), F{sup −} (fluoride)) as inorganic ion sources in the photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in batch systems. It was found that the exclusive presence of halides in the absence of an electron acceptor adequately facilitated the photocatalyst process below critical levels of anion populations, where beyond the critical point the process was significantly hindered. Below the determined critical point, the performance in some cases near matches that of the facilitation of the photocatalytic process by exclusive oxygen, acting as an electron scavenger. The coupling of halide ions and oxygenation presented significantly improved photo-oxidation of PCP, this was confirmed by the inclusion of formic acid as a comparative electron donor. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression was used to calculate the performance rate kinetics. The probable impact of the halide anions was discussed with regards to the process of electron hole pair recombination prevention.

  15. An instant photo-excited electrons relaxation on the photo-degradation properties of TiO2-x films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available %. The prepared films were characterized by XRD, SEM and AFM.A connection between the photocatalytic degradation performance and photo-excited electron recovery/relaxation was observed. It was found that longer photo-excited electron recovery/relaxation leads...

  16. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  17. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  18. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  19. Modeling microbial degradation of propylene glycol: electron acceptors and their related redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathe, Annette; Fernandez, Perrine M.; Bloem, Esther; Meeussen, Johannes C. L.; French, Helen K.

    2014-05-01

    De-icing chemicals are applied in large amounts at airports during winter conditions to keep the runways and aircrafts ice-free. The commonly used propylene glycol (PG) is easily degradable by local microbial communities, but anoxic zones develop and soluble Fe+2 and Mn+2 ions can reach the groundwater. To enhance microbial induced remediation and reduce the release of iron and manganese, it was proposed to add NO3- together with PG. However, experiments conducted in the unsaturated zone at Gardermoen airport, Norway, revealed that manganese and iron were preferred over NO3- as electron acceptor [1]. The objectives of this study are to quantify mechanisms which control the order of reduction processes in an unsaturated sandy soil, and to test whether measured redox potentials can help to determine underlying biogeochemical reactions. We are modelling the microbial degradation of PG using Monod kinetics described for the chemical equilibrium tool ORCHESTRA [2], following an approach of [1]. The model is calibrated against gas measurements of CO2, NO2 and N2 released from batch experiments performed under controlled conditions. Fe+2 and Mn+2 were measured for the start and end of the experiment, as well as bulk resistivity, pH and electrical conductivity. With the calibrated model we are working towards a tool to quantify microbial induced redox reactions under different soil water saturations to account for seasonal water fluxes especially during snowmelt. [1] Schotanus, D., Meeussen, J.C.L., Lissner, H., van der Ploeg, M.J., Wehrer, M., Totsche, K.U., van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M., 2013. Transport and degradation of propylene glycol in the vadose zone: model development and sensitivity analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. [2] Meeussen, J.C.L., 2003. ORCHESTRA: An Object-Oriented Framework for Implementing Chemical Equilibrium Models. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 1175-1182.

  20. In situ degradation of antibiotic residues in medical intravenous infusion bottles using high energy electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Lele; Zhang, Guilong; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2017-01-01

    This study reported an immediate approach for the degradation of three antibiotic (amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and cefradine) residues in medical intravenous infusion bottles (MIIBs) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The effects of irradiation doses, initial concentrations, initial pH, and scavengers of active radicals on the degradation of three antibiotic residues (ARs) were investigated, and the results displayed that 97.02%, 97.61% and 96.87% of amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and cefradine residues could be degraded in situ through HEEB irradiation respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis demonstrated that ARs were mainly decomposed into inorganic ions and alkanes. Typically, the detailed degradation mechanism of ARs was also investigated, and the dominant active particle inducing the degradation of antibiotics during the HEEB irradiation process was demonstrated to be hydroxyl radical.

  1. Degradation of catechol by ionizing radiation, ozone and the combined process ozone-electron-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubesch, K. E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Zona, R.; Solar, S.; Gehringer, P

    2005-03-01

    The influence of oxygen on the radiation-induced degradation of catechol (5x10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3}, 55 mg dm{sup -3}) in distilled water was studied by gamma-radiolysis in the presence of air (A) and using air saturation (AS) during irradiation. Under AS conditions a complete decomposition of catechol as well as of the trihydroxybenzene products was obtained by a dose of 6 kGy, without air saturation all phenolic compounds were still present at 10 kGy. Using AS, at 12 kGy the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced by 63%, without air saturation by 17.5%. Detoxification was only obtained in AS solutions. In the presence of the natural matrix of the local tap water no trihydroxybenzene products were formed and for total decomposition of catechol in AS solutions 9 kGy were required. The comparison of the effectiveness of an electron beam (EB), an ozone (O{sub 3}) and a combined EB/O{sub 3} process showed, that by EB/O{sub 3} the extent of catechol degradation corresponded to the sum of the decay with EB and with ozone, whereas for the chemical oxygen demand and TOC reduction a synergistic effect was evident.

  2. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  3. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  4. Study of Degradation Processes in Dielectric Materials Used in Electronic Control Equipment Operated in ``Kozloduy'' NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Nayden; Popov, Angel

    2007-04-01

    The electronic equipment for control of different systems of Units 5 and 6 is studied for presence of degradation processes occurring in result of continuous usage in conditions of controlled radiation background in compliance with ``Kozloduy'' NPP safety codes. Systems, operated in a continuous mode in the course of about 10 years were chosen - separate units containing different dielectric materials (varnish coating, circuit board bases, cable insulations, electro protective elements, etc.) were extrapolated. Series of test samples were prepared which were connected with flat or coaxial condensers and their characteristic parameters were measured: tgδ, ɛ, low voltage conductivity and leak currents at voltages that exceed the working ones several times. When comparing the obtained data with the reference ones, a conclusion is made about the effectiveness of electric ageing during operation in the course of time.

  5. Degradation of non-vulcanized natural rubber - renewable resource for fine chemicals used in polymer synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fainleib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario, there is growing interest in the products of degradation of rubber (natural and synthetic for specific applications in different industry sectors, whose benefits in replacing conventionally used products are mainly related to sustainability. Since the degradation products of rubber can be used in different areas, several research groups may have the interest aroused by these products, but are not familiar with the aspects related to the chemical behavior of rubber. This review aims to bring together the key information in the published literature on the degradation of natural rubber, emphasizing metatheses reactions, oxidative damage and splitting of the double bond, in order to serve as a reference source for researchers from different fields interested in obtaining such kind of products. The structures and properties as well as additional chemical transformations resulting in oligomers of isoprene, functionalised oligomers and polymers based on both are also described.

  6. Deciphering effects of functional groups and electron density on azo dyes degradation by graphene loaded TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian [College of Chemical Engineering, HuaQiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liang, Xiao [School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Chen, Bor-Yann [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, 26047, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chang-Tang, E-mail: ctchang@niu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, 26047, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The degradation pathways of RB5, RB171 and RR198 have been identified. • The favorable bond to be broken under photo degradation was deciphered in this research. • The breakages of the bonds were due to the electron density changes around the bonds. • The hydroxyl radicals as the main oxidized species were confirmed by positive hole trapper and ESR. - Abstract: This study tended to decipher the mechanism of photo degradation of azo dyes, which bond was favorable to be broken for application of wastewater decolorization. That is, from chemical structure perspective, the critical substituents to affect electron donor/acceptor for dye degradation would be identified in this research. The model reactive blacks (RB5), reactive blue 171 (RB171) and reactive red 198 (RR198) were degraded by graphene loaded TiO{sub 2}, indicating how the electron withdrawing and releasing groups affect azo dye degradability. The byproducts and intermediate products were analyzed by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Furthermore, the radicals involved in the reaction were found by electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR) to confirm the main oxidized species of hydroxyl radicals rather than the light generated positive holes. The finding revealed that the breakages of the bonds were due to the electron density changes around the bonds. This principle can be applicable not only for RB5 degradation, but also for reactive blue 171 (RB171), reactive red 198 (RR198) and some other textile dyes.

  7. Deciphering effects of functional groups and electron density on azo dyes degradation by graphene loaded TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-12-01

    This study tended to decipher the mechanism of photo degradation of azo dyes, which bond was favorable to be broken for application of wastewater decolorization. That is, from chemical structure perspective, the critical substituents to affect electron donor/acceptor for dye degradation would be identified in this research. The model reactive blacks (RB5), reactive blue 171 (RB171) and reactive red 198 (RR198) were degraded by graphene loaded TiO2, indicating how the electron withdrawing and releasing groups affect azo dye degradability. The byproducts and intermediate products were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Furthermore, the radicals involved in the reaction were found by electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR) to confirm the main oxidized species of hydroxyl radicals rather than the light generated positive holes. The finding revealed that the breakages of the bonds were due to the electron density changes around the bonds. This principle can be applicable not only for RB5 degradation, but also for reactive blue 171 (RB171), reactive red 198 (RR198) and some other textile dyes.

  8. Defining the radiation chemistry during liquid cell electron microscopy to enable visualization of nanomaterial growth and degradation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehl, T J; Abellan, P

    2017-02-01

    We present a critical review of methods for defining the chemical environment during liquid cell electron microscopy investigation of electron beam induced nanomaterial growth and degradation. We draw from the radiation chemistry and liquid cell electron microscopy literature to present solution chemistry and electron beam-based methods for selecting the radiolysis products formed and their relative amount during electron irradiation of liquid media in a transmission electron microscope. We outline various methods for establishing net oxidizing or net reducing reaction environments and propose solvents with minimal overall production of radicals under the electron beam. Exemplary liquid cell electron microscopy experiments in the fields of nanoparticle nucleation, growth, and degradation along with recommendations for best practices and experimental parameters are reported. We expect this review will provide researchers with a useful toolkit for designing general chemistry and materials science liquid cell electron microscopy experiments by 'directing' the effect of the electron beam to understand fundamental mechanisms of dynamic nanoscale processes as well as minimizing radiation damage to samples. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  10. Use of rural energy resources and eco-environmental degradation in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xing-hu; YANG Ping; WANG Ya-jun; XIE Zhong-kui

    2004-01-01

    Cattle dung, firewood, and crop straw have being used as survival necessities by farmers and herdsmen for thousands of years in Tibet. Until recently such biotic energy source still constitutes more than 92 per cent of total rural energy consumption due to lack of petroleum, coal and new alternative energy sources. As a result, environmental degradation such as land desertification, soil erosion, grassland degradation and soil fertility reduction is increasingly aggravated, the area of desertified land has increased 1467.5 km2 from 1991 to 1997. Degraded area of grassland has reached 2.60×107 hm2, increased by 116.1% from 1987 to 1996. To prevent further deterioration of eco-environment in Tibet great efforts should be made to make full use of ample solar energy, wind energy and other biotic energy of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The solar cooking stoves and solar hothouse; expand forest area and replace existing abiotic energy sources with firewood forest should be popularized. This is an urgent task to protect the eco-environment of Tibet today.

  11. Characterization of U(VI) reduction in contaminated sediments with slow-degrading electron donor source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Watson, D. B.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Earles, J.; Phillips, J.; Kelly, S. D.; Boyanov, M.; Kemner, K. M.; Schadt, C.; Criddle, C. S.; Jardine, P. M.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    In order to select sustainable, high efficiency and cost effective electron donor source, oleate and emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) were tested uranium (VI) reduction in comparison with ethanol in microcosms using uranium contaminated sediments and groundwater from the US DOE Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site. The effect of initial sulfate concentration on U(VI) reduction was also tested. Both oleate and EVO were effective electron donor sources for U(VI) reduction. Accumulation of acetate as a major product and the removal of aqueous U(VI) were observed and were associated with sulfate reduction. Both oleate and EVO supported U(VI) reduction but at slower rates with a comparable but slightly lower extent of reduction than ethanol. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis confirmed reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). The extent of U(VI) reduction in solid phase was negatively influenced by aqueous calcium concentration. The majority of electrons of the three substrates were consumed by sulfate reduction, Fe(III) reduction, and methanogenesis. Initial U(VI) concentration in the aqueous phase increased with increased sulfate concentration (1 versus 5 mM), likely due to U(VI) desorption from the solid phase. At the higher initial sulfate concentration more U(VI) was reduced and fewer electrons were used in methanogenesis. Analysis of bacterial and archeal populations using 16S rRNA gene libraries showed a significant increase in Deltaproteobacteria after biostimulation. The microbial community structures developed with oleate and EVO were significantly distinct from those developed with ethanol. Bacteria similar to Desulforegula spp. was predominant for oleate and EVO degradation but were not observed in ethanol-amended microcosms. Known U(VI)-reducing bacteria in the microcosms amended with the three electron donor sources included iron(III) reducing Geobacter spp. but in lower abundances than sulfate-reducing Desulfovibrio spp. The

  12. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  13. Non-electron transfer chain mitochondrial defects differently regulate HIF-1α degradation and transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina N. Shvetsova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the main consumers of molecular O2 in a cell as well as an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Both, molecular oxygen and ROS are powerful regulators of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-subunit (HIF-α. While a number of mechanisms in the oxygen-dependent HIF-α regulation are quite well known, the view with respect to mitochondria is less clear. Several approaches using pharmacological or genetic tools targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC indicated that ROS, mainly formed at the Rieske cluster of complex III of the ETC, are drivers of HIF-1α activation. However, studies investigating non-ETC located mitochondrial defects and their effects on HIF-1α regulation are scarce, if at all existing. Thus, in the present study we examined three cell lines with non-ETC mitochondrial defects and focused on HIF-1α degradation and transcription, target gene expression, as well as ROS levels. We found that cells lacking the key enzyme 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (MECR, and cells lacking manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD showed a reduced induction of HIF-1α under long-term (20 h hypoxia. By contrast, cells lacking the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome channel protein Mpv17 displayed enhanced levels of HIF-1α already under normoxic conditions. Further, we show that ROS do not exert a uniform pattern when mediating their effects on HIF-1α, although all mitochondrial defects in the used cell types increased ROS formation. Moreover, all defects caused a different HIF-1α regulation via promoting HIF-1α degradation as well as via changes in HIF-1α transcription. Thereby, MECR- and MnSOD-deficient cells showed a reduction in HIF-1α mRNA levels whereas the Mpv17 lacking cells displayed enhanced HIF-1α mRNA levels under normoxia and hypoxia. Altogether, our study shows for the first time that mitochondrial defects which are not related to the ETC and Krebs cycle

  14. Effects of Electron Acceptors, Reducing Agents, and Toxic Metabolites on Anaerobic Degradation of Heterocyclic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Dorthe; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Arvin, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of four heterocyclic compounds was examined under nitrate-reducing, sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Soil samples from a creosote-polluted site in Denmark were used as inoculum. Indole and quinoline were degraded under all redox conditions with the highest degradation...

  15. On the bulk degradation of yttria-stabilized nanocrystalline zirconia dental implant abutments : an electron backscatter diffraction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Schepke, U.; Rasoul, H. Haji; Cune, M. S.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia dental implants abutments due to the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation was studied in detail by microstructural characterization using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD). The amount and distribution of the monoclinic phase, the grain-size d

  16. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  17. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  18. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  19. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  20. Displacement damage dose used for analyzing electron irradiation-induced degradation of GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Displacement damage dose (Dd) approach was applied to analyze the electron irradiation-induced degradation of GaInP/ GaAs/Ge space solar cells by effective 1 MeV electron Dd, the electron irradiation-induced maximum power Pmax degradation of the solar cells is plotted as a function of the effective 1 MeV electron Dd , and the result shows that all the measured electron data can be represented by a single curve using displacement damage dose. Obviously, the displacement damage dose approach simplifies the description of electron irradiation-induced degradation of GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells, and also offers an alternative for handling the case where degradation occurs as a result of combined electron and proton irradiation.

  1. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenein, Yousri

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  2. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  3. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  4. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  5. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚林

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  6. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  7. Cationic dye-sensitized degradation of sodium hyaluronate through photoinduced electron transfer in the upper excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, M; Takahashi, K; Nakamura, K

    2001-09-01

    The formation of ground-state complexes of methylene blue (MB) and thionine (TN) with sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) was clearly observed by means of absorption spectra in aqueous solution. Irradiation of the complexes using 313 nm light caused significant degradation of NaHA under oxygen and argon. However, the use of visible light over 400 nm, which gives the lowest excited singlet state of the cationic dyes, caused no degradation. MB and TN were more efficient sensitizers for the degradation of NaHA than rose bengal (RB), although RB is a more efficient singlet oxygen (1O2) sensitizer than the cationic dyes. Under similar conditions the polysaccharides with carboxyl groups, such as alginic acid and polygalacturonic acid, also photodecomposed. However, the polysaccharides without carboxyl groups, such as pullulan and methyl cellulose, did not. The irradiation of the polysaccharides in the presence of powdered titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst to generate the hydroxyl radical (.OH) in aerated aqueous solution caused the fragmentation of all the polymers. It was confirmed that methyl viologen, an electron-accepting sensitizer, formed a charge-transfer complex with NaHA, the irradiation of which caused the efficient degradation of NaHA. In the presence of beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins the MB- and TN-sensitized photodegradation of NaHA was markedly suppressed. This was probably due to the formation of the inclusion complexes comprising the cationic dyes and the cyclodextrins. On the basis of the results obtained we propose that the cationic dye-sensitized degradation of NaHA involves a photoinduced electron-transfer process between the upper excited dyes and the ground-state NaHA and that .OH and 1O2 do not participate in the degradation.

  8. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  9. [Concentrations, distribution characteristics and electron beam radiolysis degradation of PCDD/Fs in waste water from a paper mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xian; Huang, Jin-Qiong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Su-Kun; Yang, Yan-Yan; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Wen, Yu-Long

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations and distribution characteristics of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in waste water from a paper mill. And concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in waste water before and after electron beam irradiation with different doses were compared. The feasibility, mechanism and rates of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs degradation were discussed. The PCDD/Fs concentrations and corresponding I-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were 239 pg x L(-1) and 41.0 pg x L(-1), respectively, in the waste water. The concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs decreased after electron beam radiolysis at a dose of 30 kGy and 60 kGy with degradation rates of 5.27% and 23.6%, respectively.

  10. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  11. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals the responses of PBDE-degrading microbial communities to electron donor amendments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    Full Text Available Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs can be reductively degraded by microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. However, little is known about the effect of electron donors on microbial communities involved in PBDEs degradation. Here we employed 454 Titanium pyrosequencing to examine the phylogenetic diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of microbial communities from microcosms under the conditions of different electron donor amendments. The community structures in each of the five alternate electron donor enrichments were significantly shifted in comparison with those of the control microcosm. Commonly existing OTUs between the treatment and control consortia increased from 5 to 17 and more than 50% of OTUs increased around 13.7 to 186 times at least in one of the microcosms after 90-days enrichment. Although the microbial communities at different taxonomic levels were significantly changed by different environmental variable groups in redundancy analysis, significant correlations were observed between the microbial communities and PBDE congener profiles. The lesser-brominated PBDE congeners, tri-BDE congener (BDE-32 and hexa-BDE, were identified as the key factors shaping the microbial community structures at OTU level. Some rare populations, including the known dechlorinating bacterium, Dehalobacter, showed significant positive-correlation with the amounts of PBDE congeners in the consortia. The same results were also observed on some unclassified bacteria. These results suggest that PBDEs-degrading microbial communities can be successfully enriched, and their structures and compositions can be manipulated through adjusting the environmental parameters.

  12. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  13. Fully Coupled Thermoelectromechanical Analysis of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    multi-dimensional continuum model of the thermoelectromechanics of GaN HEMTs is presented and discussed. The governing equations are those of linear...understanding the mechanisms of both electrical and mechanical degradation in GaN HEMTs . Various possible contributors to degradation are discussed...layers in conventional GaN HEMTs , there is another limit, observed following sustained operation at high current/voltage levels, wherein highly

  14. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  15. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  16. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  17. Degradation processes of hydrological resources by human and climate - example of small lakes in Northern Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Burghard; Schreiner, Vera

    2014-05-01

    The presentation discusses (on the basis of an actual application in the development of a curriculum for Integrated Water Cycle Management in Kazakhstan; TEMPUS I-WEB project) the diverse scientific approaches to explain the degradation of hydrological resources in West-Siberia and Nord-Kazakhstan by focussing on natural and anthropogenic causes by the example of the dry out of small lakes. Since Pleistocene in the region a diverse mosaic of large and small lakes of at total shrinking surface area was formed. On natural causes it includes (1) climatic cycling, (2) lake developments since the Pleistocene originate by the Northern glaciations by ice dammed lakes (without tectonics). The man made causes are (1) the sediment accumulation in lakes, (2) the (problematic) water management and water usage and (3) the land use changes in the watersheds. Climate change includes finally both natural and climatic causes of the change. The latter is explained using actual reports of (1) IPCC on extreme events and (2) gives a note about radiative forcing components as proxy to integrate.

  18. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  19. Anaerobic microbial degradation of organic pollutants with chlorate as electron acceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehboob, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are two groups of compounds that are widespread pollutants. The aerobic microbial degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons proceeds in general fast and has been widely studied, while the biodegradation in anoxic environments is often incomplete, proceeds

  20. Identical locations transmission electron microscopy study of Pt/C electrocatalyst degradation during oxygen reduction reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Alonso, Francisco; Elkjær, Christian Fink; Shim, Signe Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The degradation mechanisms of Pt nanoparticles supported on Carbon have been characterized during oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) conditions using IL-TEM. A TEM grid is used as the sole working electrode allowing a direct correlation between the electrochemical response and the TEM analysis. We...

  1. Atomistic- and Meso-Scale Computational Simulations for Developing Multi-Timescale Theory for Radiation Degradation in Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-13

    RADIATION DEGRADATION IN ELECTRONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES Fei Gao University of Michigan 2355 Bonisteel Blvd. Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2014...for Radiation Degradation in Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-15-1-0084 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Fei Gao 5e. TASK NUMBER PPM00015486 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER EF126376 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  2. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  3. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  4. Reverse Gate Bias-Induced Degradation of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    contributions from hot electrons and self-heating.13,19,20 In this article, we report on the degradation of AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs under step-stressing of...characteristic of the AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs before and after stress. FIG. 6. !Color online" PL spectra of stressed and unstressed devices. FIG. 7. EL images of stressed...high electric fields present under reverse bias stressing of AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs , the devices exhibit a five order of magnitude increase in gate current

  5. Evaluation of thermal degradation of polymer based electronic materials by non-destructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, P.; Khatibi, G.; Lederer, M.; Zehetbauer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal degradation of polymeric materials used in microelectronic packages was studied by means of experimental modal analysis in combination with finite element methods. The devices were subjected to vibrational loads subsequent to various stages of high temperature storage and their modal response was recorded. Statistical methods and finite element analysis were applied to quantify and evaluate the alteration of the modal response of the packages due to the degradation / delamination of the silver filled epoxy adhesive and the glass filled epoxy resin molding compound. It was shown that changes in the material properties of the molding compound due to surface oxidation is the dominant cause for alteration of the modal response of encapsulated packages exposed to high temperatures.

  6. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-03-01

    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.

  7. Resource degradation, marginalization, and poverty in small-scale fisheries: threats to social-ecological resilience in India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep K. Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine poverty in local fisheries using a social-ecological resilience lens. In assessing why "fishery may rhyme with poverty", Christophe Béné suggests a typology of impoverishment processes, which includes economic exclusion, social marginalization, class exploitation, and political disempowerment as key mechanisms that accelerate poverty. We extend his analysis by exploring these four mechanisms further and by intertwining them with processes of environmental change and degradation. Our goal is to understand poverty in local fisheries as a process rooted in social and institutional factors as influenced by ecological dynamics. We argue that understanding poverty will require a focus on the social-ecological system (SES as a whole, and addressing poverty will mean rebuilding not only collapsed stocks but the entire social-ecological system, including restoring relationships between resources and people. Information from two cases, the Chilika Lagoon on the Bay of Bengal in India, and the Paraty region on the southeastern coast of Brazil, is used to understand how fishery social-ecological systems come under pressure from drivers at multiple levels, resulting in a range of impacts and pushing the system to a breaking point or collapse. We analyze elements of what it takes for the whole system to break down or collapse and push fishers into poverty and marginalization. The Chilika SES has already broken down, and the Paraty SES is under pressure from multiple drivers of change. The two cases help contrast key dynamics in the social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental spheres, for lessons on system collapse and recovery. Rebuilding fisheries may be examined as a process of building and strengthening resilience. The challenge is to make the fishery social-ecological system more resilient, with more flexibility and options, not only within fishing activities but also within a range of other sectors.

  8. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  9. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  10. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  11. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  12. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  13. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  14. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  15. Is electronic life-cycle tracking of aircraft parts degrading readiness?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Naval Aviation Logistics Command Managed Information System (NALCOMIS), the current Navy and Marine Corps electronic tracking system for aircraft components, provides complete, up-to-date life-cycle information about aircraft and associated components to all maintenance agencies across the Naval Aviation Enterprise (NAE). By design, the system is meant to facilitate efficient receipt, repair, documentation, and transfer of all air...

  16. Confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy investigation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm degradation using passive and active sodium hypochlorite irrigation within a simulated root canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmmed, Saifalarab A; Vianna, Morgana E; Penny, Matthew R; Hilton, Stephen T; Mordan, Nicola; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Root canal irrigation is an important adjunct to control microbial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2.5% (wt/vol) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) agitation on the removal, killing, and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. A total of 45 root canal models were manufactured using 3D printing with each model comprising an 18 mm length simulated root canal of apical size 30 and taper 0.06. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm of the models for 10 days. A total of 60 s of 9 ml of 2.5% NaOCl irrigation using syringe and needle was performed, the irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or agitated using manual (Gutta-percha), sonic, and ultrasonic methods for 30 s. Following irrigation, the residual biofilms were observed using confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc tests at a level of significance p ≤ .05. Consequence of root canal irrigation indicate that the reduction in the amount of biofilm achieved with the active irrigation groups (manual, sonic, and ultrasonic) was significantly greater when compared with the passive and untreated groups (p < .05). Collectively, finding indicate that passive irrigation exhibited more residual biofilm on the model surface than irrigant agitated by manual or automated (sonic, ultrasonic) methods. Total biofilm degradation and nonviable cells were associated with the ultrasonic group. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Degraded model of radiation-induced acceptor defects for GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Long; Hao Yue; Zhao Yuan-Fu; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Gao Zhi-Yuan; Li Pei-xian

    2009-01-01

    Using depletion approximation theory and introducing acceptor defects which can characterize radiation induced deep-level defects in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, we set up a radiation damage model of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) to separately simulate the effects of several main radiation damage mechanisms and the complete radiation damage effect simultaneously considering the degradation in mobility. Our calculated results,consistent with the experimental results, indicate that thin AlGaN barrier layer, high Al content and high doping concentration are favourable for restraining the shifts of threshold voltage in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT; when the acceptor concentration induced is less than 1014cm-3, the shifts in threshold voltage are not obvious; only when the acceptor concentration induced is higher than 1016cm-3, will the shifts of threshold voltage remarkably increase; the increase of threshold voltage, resulting from radiation induced acceptor, mainly contributes to the degradation in drain saturation current of the current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristic, but has no effect on the transconductance in the saturation area.

  18. Role of Fe impurity complexes in the degradation of GaN/AlGaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Y. S.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2015-02-01

    Recent experiments show that GaN/AlGaN high-electron-mobility transistors suffer from significant current collapse, which is caused by an increase in the concentration of traps with energy levels 0.5-0.6 eV below the conduction-band edge. This increase in trap concentration is consistent with thermally activated defect diffusion, but the responsible defect complexes have not been identified. It has been suggested that the defect complex may contain iron because of the proximity of the Fe-doped GaN substrate. Here, we report first-principles density-functional calculations of substitutional iron complexes, investigate their properties, and show that the FeGa-VN complex has properties that account for the observed degradation.

  19. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  20. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  1. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis

    2003-12-01

    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  2. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  3. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight MS for identification of electron beam from accelerator degradation products of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqi; Liu, Ruijie; Chang, Ming; Jin, Qingzhe; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-02-01

    Electron beam irradiation was proven to be a successful method in aflatoxin degradation in earlier researches. However, the exact nature of the result radiation products generated by the aflatoxins remains unknown. Based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) analysis, the solution of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in acetonitrile irradiated by electron beam degraded to two kinds of major products. The doses employed were in the range of 0 (control) to 8.60 kGy. The absorbed doses were monitored with FWT-60-00 radio-chromic dosimeters. By using UPLC-Q-TOF MS, accurate masses and proposed molecular formula for the degradation products, 261.1233 m/z (C14H13O5) and 299.1104 m/z (C17H15O5), were obtained from low mass error and high matching properties. Structural formula for the radio-degradation products and the degradation pathways leading to the compounds were proposed, based on the molecular formula and MS-MS spectra. The results showed that electron beam (EB) irradiation is an effective method for degrading AFB1.

  4. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  5. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  6. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  7. Probing the degradation mechanisms in electrolyte solutions for Li-ion batteries by in situ transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, Patricia; Mehdi, B Layla; Parent, Lucas R; Gu, Meng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Yaohui; Arslan, Ilke; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel D

    2014-03-12

    Development of novel electrolytes with increased electrochemical stability is critical for the next generation battery technologies. In situ electrochemical fluid cells provide the ability to rapidly and directly characterize electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions under conditions directly relevant to the operation of practical batteries. In this paper, we have studied the breakdown of a range of inorganic/salt complexes relevant to state-of-the-art Li-ion battery systems by in situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). In these experiments, the electron beam itself caused the localized electrochemical reaction that allowed us to observe electrolyte breakdown in real-time. The results of the in situ (S)TEM experiments matches with previous stability tests performed during battery operation and the breakdown products and mechanisms are also consistent with known mechanisms. This analysis indicates that in situ liquid stage (S)TEM observations could be used to directly test new electrolyte designs and identify a smaller library of candidate solutions deserving of more detailed characterization. A systematic study of electrolyte degradation is also a necessary first step for any future controlled in operando liquid (S)TEM experiments intent on visualizing working batteries at the nanoscale.

  8. Why do forest products become less available? A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our

  9. 150 years of land degradation and development: loss of habitats, natural resources due to quarrying and industrialization followed by land reclamation in the heart of Budapest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The urban development and land degradation is an accelerated process in the 21st century; however several examples are known when this happened in the past. A historic case study is discussed in this research when clump of three former small towns (named: Buda, Pest and Óbuda) became a million population city more than hundred years ago invoking significant land degradation, drastic and surprising changes in land use. Budapest which is now the capital of Hungary has seen rapid land use changes in the past 150 years especially from 1850'ies to early 20th century. The population of the city rapidly grown from the end of 19th century to early 20th century; i.e. it is tripled from 1880 to 1920 and reached nearly 1 million in 40 years. This population boom induced significant land degradation, changes in land use and loss of habitats. The paper presents examples how the land use has changed in the past 105 years with historic maps and interpreted cases suggesting different pathways leading to land degradation. The first one focuses on vineyards and grape cultivation and explains how these areas were first converted to limestone quarries to provide construction material to the city and then transformed to urban habitat in the early 20th century again. The cellars - former quarry galleries - than were used for housing (urban habitat) and later were used as storage facilities and mushroom cultivation sites. At present these subsurface openings cause high risk of land development (collapse) and limit the land use of the given area. The current paper also outlines the development of the city via the perspective of natural resources, since drinking water and industrial water need modified the land development and urbanization. Another example is also given how the brewery industry exploited natural resources and the surface water use was shifted to exploitation of karstic waters causing land degradation and drop of water table. Additional example demonstrates how the former

  10. Degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells due to the ionization effect of low-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Shirou, E-mail: kawakita.shirou@jaxa.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Imaizumi, Mitsuru [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Ishizuka, Shogo; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Okuda, Shuichi [Osaka Prefecture University (OPU), Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Kusawake, Hiroaki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Cu (In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells were irradiated with 100 keV electrons to reveal the characteristics of created radiation defects. 100 keV electrons cannot produce any displacement defects in CIGS. Low-fluence electrons improve the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells due to the change in the conductive type of donor to acceptor in a metastable defect, which is equivalent to the light-soaking effect. However, high fluence electrons cause the cell performance to decline. From analysis based on changes in carrier density and electroluminescence, defects causing the decline in performance include donor- and non-radiative types. In addition, red-on-bias experiments showed an increase in III{sub Cu} defects due to electron irradiation. Based on these results, the degradation in the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells irradiated with high electron fluence would be attributable to a change in the conductive type of III{sub Cu} defects. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar cells were irradiated with 100 and 250 keV electrons at low temperature. • These electrons degraded the electrical performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 sola cells. • The electrons induced ⅢCu defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2.

  11. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  12. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  13. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  14. Analysis of material characteristics for the construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam skin radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Antunes, Paula C.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.br, e-mail: hyoriyas@ipen.br, e-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, e-mail: pacrisguian@usp.br; Furnari, Laura; Santos, Gabriela R. [Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com, e-mail: reis.gabby@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    There are many radiosensitive diseases associated to the skin such as mycosis fungoids and the syndrome of Sezary that are part of a sub-group of cutaneous diseases type T-cell lymphoma. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary a very large field size radiation beam, and also, it should deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report nr. 23 of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine), the present study will develop an energy scattering and degrading plates, supplying subsidies for a future installation for skin treatment at the - Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built the design of the plates has been performed analyzing several materials, shapes and dimensions most adequate on the basis of radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulations will be validated with experimental measurements using copper and aluminum. (author)

  15. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A' aisah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi 43000 Kajang Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Pauzi [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  16. Can resilience be reconciled with globalization and the increasingly complex conditions of resource degradation in Asian coastal regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armitage, D.; Johnson, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between resilience and globalization. We are concerned, most importantly, with whether resilience is a suitable conceptual framework for natural resource management in the context of the rapid changes and disruptions that globalization causes in social-ecological

  17. Poverty targeting, resource degradation and heterogeneous endowments - A micro-simulation analysis of a less-favored Ethiopian village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.; Ruben, R.

    2007-01-01

    Persistent and widespread poverty in less-favored areas (LFAs) is attributed to fragile natural resources and poor markets. Limited assets may keep households outside the reach of poverty policies targeted at LFAs. We explored in a stylized manner the role of heterogeneous household assets for (1) p

  18. Poverty targeting, resource degradation and heterogeneous endowments - A micro-simulation analysis of a less-favored Ethiopian village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.; Ruben, R.

    2007-01-01

    Persistent and widespread poverty in less-favored areas (LFAs) is attributed to fragile natural resources and poor markets. Limited assets may keep households outside the reach of poverty policies targeted at LFAs. We explored in a stylized manner the role of heterogeneous household assets for (1)

  19. High-electric-field-stress-induced degradation of SiN passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Wen-Ping; Duan Huan-Tao; Ni Jin-Yu; Hao Yue; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Feng Qian; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors(HEMTs)are fabricated by employing SiN passivation,this paper investigates the degradation due to the high-electric-field stress.After the stress,a recoverable degradation has been found,consisting of the decrease of saturation drain current IDsat,maximal transconductance gm,and the positive shift of threshold voltage VTH at high drain-source voltage VDS.The high-electric-field stress degrades the electric characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs because the high field increases the electron trapping at the surface and in AlGaN barrier layer.The SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs decreases the surface trapping and 2DEG depletion a little during the high-electric-field stress.After the hot carrier stress with VDS=20 V and VGS=0 V applied to the device for 104 sec,the SiN passivation decreases the stress-induced degradation of IDsat from 36% to 30%.Both on-state and pulse-state stresses produce comparative decrease of IDsat,which shows that although the passivation is effective in suppressing electron trapping in surface states,it does not protect the device from high-electric-field degradation in nature.So passivation in conjunction with other technological solutions like cap layer,prepassivation surface treatments.or field-plate gate to weaken high-electric-field degradation should be adopted.

  20. Free energies for degradation reactions of 1,2,3-trichloropropane from ab initio electronic structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska, Eric J; Glaesemann, Kurt R; Felmy, Andrew R; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2010-11-25

    Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the gas and aqueous phase reaction energies for reductive dechlorination (i.e., hydrogenolysis), reductive β-elimination, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH− of 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The thermochemical properties ΔH(f)°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K, 1 bar), and ΔG(S)(298.15 K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for 1,2,3-trichloropropane and several likely degradation products: CH3−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CH2−CH2Cl, C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2Cl, cis-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, CH2═CH−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CHCl−CH2OH, CH2Cl−CHOH−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2OH, CH2═COH−CH2Cl, cis-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, CH(═O)−CH2−CH2Cl, and CH3−C(═O)−CH2Cl. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, together with a Fe(II)/Fe(III) chemical equilibrium model for natural reducing environments, all of the reactions studied were predicted to be very favorable in the standard state and under a wide range of pH conditions. The most favorable reaction was reductive β-elimination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −32 kcal/mol), followed closely by reductive dechlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), dehydrochlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), and nucleophilic substitution by OH− (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −25 kcal/mol). For both reduction reactions studied, it was found that the first electron-transfer step, yielding the intermediate C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl and the CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl species, was not favorable in the standard state (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ +15 kcal/mol) and was predicted to occur only at relatively high pH values. This result suggests that reduction by natural attenuation is unlikely.

  1. Impacts of SiN passivation on the degradation modes of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under reverse-bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Wei; Ma, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: xhma@xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn; Hou, Bin; Zhu, Jie-Jie [School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Chen, Yong-He; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue, E-mail: xhma@xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-10-27

    Impacts of SiN passivation on the degradation modes of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors are investigated. The gate leakage current decreases significantly upon removing the SiN layer and no clear critical voltage for the sudden degradation of the gate leakage current can be observed in the reverse-bias step-stress experiments. Gate-lag measurements reveal the decrease of the fast-state surface traps and the increase of slow-state traps after the passivation layer removal. It is postulated that consistent surface charging relieves the electric field peak on the gate edge, thus the inverse piezoelectric effect is shielded.

  2. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the enzymatic degradation of composites based on biodegradable polymers and coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.b, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usp.b, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Derval dos Santos, E-mail: derval.rosa@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of polymeric materials that are susceptible to microbiological degradation and that have properties similar to the conventional polymers would reduce waste deposit. Degradable plastics suffer significant change on chemical structure when submitted to specific environmental condition. PCL and PLLA have been extensively investigated due to their bio-assimilation and because they are considered as eco-friendly. So the degradation of PCL and PLLA homopolymers, PCL:PLLA 20:80 (w:w) blend and coconut fiber-modified composites were studied by means of their degradation under lipase enzyme from Pseudomonas cepacia. Non-irradiated and EB-irradiated samples at 50 kGy and 100 kGy were exposed during 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours to the enzyme-buffer solution and the retained mass of dried samples was accompanied over time. The results were compared to the not submitted to the enzyme solution samples. Degradation rate of PCL was higher than PLLA in the presence of Pseudomonas lipase. PLLA presence reduced PCL's enzymatic degradation in the PCL:PLLA 20:80 w:w blend. After 120 h exposure, blend mass loss variation approached pure PLLA behavior. Composites degradation behavior through time was similar to the blend. Values of retained mass for composites were superior to the blends suggesting that coconut fiber did not significantly degrade in the period of test. Degradation rate of 50 kGy-irradiated PCL slightly reduced, and it was observed increase of degradation rate of samples irradiated with 100 kGy, probably attributed to its crystallinity decrease. Degradation rate of irradiated composite was similar to the blend, suggesting that fiber presence did not affect significantly this parameter. Samples tested during 168 h were affected by the water absorption by PLLA or coconut fibers through time testing. Studied samples degraded accentuatedly in the enzyme presence and were not negatively affected by the radiation processing. (author)

  3. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  4. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  5. Degradation of pollutants and elimination of pathogens of waste water by adsorption of accelerated electrons; Degradacion de contaminantes y eliminacion de patogenos de aguas residuales por adsorcion de electrones acelerados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, I

    1991-10-15

    This report presents a position of the pollutants degradation of the industrial residual waters, it intends a method that consists on making pass residual water, treated biologically by a packed column with activated carbon. The carbon retains the pollutants and the water goes out with a purity that allows the reuse. In simultaneous form to the adsorption of pollutants are made pass electrons through the column of carbon, the electrons will destroy to the polluting adsorbed in the carbon; the pollutants degrade until CO{sub 2} that escapes as gas. The active sites of the carbon are empty and clever to be occupied by other pollutants. This process is continuous and it is repeated while water is passing by the column and electrons through this. (Author)

  6. Self-induced bio-potential and graphite electron accepting conditions enhances petroleum sludge degradation in bio-electrochemical system with simultaneous power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-10-01

    Bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) documented effective degradation of real field petroleum sludge over the conventional anaerobic treatment (AnT). BET (41.08%) operation showed enhanced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal over AnT (20.72%). Aromatic fraction visualized higher removal (75.54%) compared to other TPH fractions viz., aliphatics, asphaltenes and NSO (nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen) during BET operation. Higher ring aromatics (5-6) documented easy degradation in BET, while AnT was limited to lower ring (2-3) compounds. Voltammetric analysis evidenced simultaneous redox behavior during BET operation due to presence of graphite electrode as electron acceptor, while AnT showed extended reduction behavior only. Self-induced primary and secondary oxidation reactions and capacitive-deionization might have enhanced the degradation capability of BET. BET documented higher charge/capacitance (2810 mJ/1120 mF) than AnT (450 mJ/180 mF). Power output corroborated well with observed results supporting BET performance as fuel cell. Electrodes offer a potential alternative electron acceptor for promoting the degradation of organic contaminants.

  7. Can Resilience be Reconciled with Globalization and the Increasingly Complex Conditions of Resource Degradation in Asian Coastal Regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Armitage

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between resilience and globalization. We are concerned, most importantly, with whether resilience is a suitable conceptual framework for natural resource management in the context of the rapid changes and disruptions that globalization causes in social-ecological systems. Although theoretical in scope, we ground this analysis using our experiences in two Asian coastal areas: Junagadh District in Gujarat State, India and Banawa Selatan, in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We present the histories of resource exploitation in the two areas, and we attempt to combine a resilience perspective with close attention to the impact of globalization. Our efforts serve as a basis from which to examine the conceptual and practical compatibility of resilience with globalization. The first challenge we address is epistemological: given that resilience and globalization have roots in different disciplines, do they share a sufficiently common perception of change and human action to be compatible? Second, we address the issue of how resilience can be a viable management objective in the rapidly changing context of globalization. We identify scale as particularly important in this regard.

  8. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  9. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  10. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  11. Degradable Polymers and Block Copolymers from Electron-deficient Carbonyl Compounds (STIR) (7.3 Polymer Chemistry - Synthesis: Architecture and Composition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-23

    patterned surfaces and in a range of applications as surfactants and drug delivery agents. There are very few synthetic routes to polyacetals that have...deficient Carbonyl Compounds (STIR) (7.3 Polymer Chemistry - Synthesis: Architecture and Composition) The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...Degradable Polymers and Block Copolymers from Electron-deficient Carbonyl Compounds (STIR) (7.3 Polymer Chemistry - Synthesis: Architecture and

  12. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  13. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Phase Separation and d Electronic Orbitals on Cyclic Degradation in Li-Mn-O Compounds: First-Principles Multiscale Modeling and Experimental Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duho; Lim, Jin-Myoung; Park, Min-Sik; Cho, Kyeongjae; Cho, Maenghyo

    2016-07-06

    A combined study involving experiments and multiscale computational approaches is conducted to propose a theoretical solution for the suppression of the Jahn-Teller distortion which causes severe cyclic degradation. As-synthesized pristine and Al-doped Mn spinel compounds are the focus to understand the mechanism of the cyclic degradation in terms of the Jahn-Teller distortion, and the electrochemical performance of the Al-doped sample shows enhanced cyclic performance compared with that of the pristine one. Considering the electronic structures of the two systems using first-principles calculations, the pristine spinel suffers entirely from the Jahn-Teller distortion by Mn(3+), indicating an anisotropic electronic structure, but the Al-doped spinel exhibits an isotropic electronic structure, which means the suppressed Jahn-Teller distortion. A multiscale phase field model in nanodomain shows that the phase separation of the pristine spinel occurs to inactive Li0Mn2O4 (i.e., fully delithiated) gradually during cycles. In contrast, the Al-doped spinel does not show phase separation to an inactive phase. This explains why the Al-doped spinel maintains the capacity of the first charge during the subsequent cycles. On the basis of the mechanistic understanding of the origins and mechanism of the suppression of the Jahn-Teller distortion, fundamental insight for making tremendous cuts in the cyclic degradation could be provided for the Li-Mn-O compounds of Li-ion batteries.

  15. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  16. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  17. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  18. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  19. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  20. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  1. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  2. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  3. Non-ionizing energy loss calculations for modeling electron-induced degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Xu, Jing; Huang, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-01

    The lowest energies which make Cu, In, Ga, and Se atoms composing Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) material displaced from their lattice sites are evaluated, respectively. The non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) for electron in CIGS material is calculated analytically using the Mott differential cross section. The relation of the introduction rate (k) of the recombination centers to NIEL is modified, then the values of k at different electron energies are calculated. Degradation modeling of CIGS thin-film solar cells irradiated with various-energy electrons is performed according to the characterization of solar cells and the recombination centers. The validity of the modeling approach is verified by comparison with the experimental data. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11547151).

  4. A Doping Lattice of Aluminum and Copper with Accelerated Electron Transfer Process and Enhanced Reductive Degradation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Zhixuan; Zhang, Mingbo; Cheng, Yiqian; Su, Jixin

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of azo dye effluents has received increasing concerns over the years due to their potential harms to natural environment and human health. The present study described the degrading ability of the as-synthesized crystalline Al-Cu alloys for removal of high-concentration Acid Scarlet 3R in alkaline aqueous solutions and its degradation mechanism. Al-Cu alloy particles with Al/Cu ratios 19:1 were successfully synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling. Characterization results showed that 10 h mechanical alloying process could lead to the formation of crystalline Al(Cu) solid solution. Batch experiment results confirmed the excellent ability of Al-Cu alloy particles for the degradation of 3R in aqueous solution. Under a certain condition ([Al-Cu]0 = 2 g/L, [3R]0 = 200 mg/L, [NaCl]0 = 25 g/L, initial pH = 10.9), the 3R could be completely degraded within only 3 min. It was also found that the degradation reaction followed zero-order kinetics model with respect to the initial dye concentration. The intermediate compounds were identified by UV-vis, FT-IR and HPLC-MS, and a pathway was proposed. Additionally, post-treatment Al-Cu alloy particles were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the results showed that the degradation might be attributed to the corrosion effect of Al-Cu alloys.

  5. Electron density window for best frequency performance, lowest phase noise and slowest degradation of GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulionis, Arvydas

    2013-07-01

    The problems in the realm of nitride heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of a novel fluctuation-dissipation-based approach impelled by a recent demonstration of strong correlation of hot-electron fluctuations with frequency performance and degradation of the devices. The correlation has its genesis in the dissipation of the LO-mode heat accumulated by the non-equilibrium longitudinal optical phonons (hot phonons) confined in the channel that hosts the high-density hot-electron gas subjected to a high electric field. The LO-mode heat causes additional scattering of hot electrons and facilitates defect formation in a different manner than the conventional heat contained mainly in the acoustic phonon mode. We treat the heat dissipation problem in terms of the hot-phonon lifetime responsible for the conversion of the non-migrant hot phonons into migrant acoustic modes and other vibrations. The lifetime is measured over a wide range of electron density and supplied electric power. The optimal conditions for the dissipation of the LO-mode heat are associated with the plasmon-assisted disintegration of hot phonons. Signatures of plasmons are experimentally resolved in fluctuations, dissipation, hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, transistor phase noise and transistor reliability. In particular, a slower degradation and a faster operation of GaN-based HFETs take place inside the electron density window where the resonant plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of the LO-mode heat comes into play. A novel heterostructure design for the possible improvement of HFET performance is proposed, implemented and tested.

  6. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  7. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  8. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, Behdja

    2010-10-01

    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  9. Measurements of output factors with different detector types and Monte Carlo calculations of stopping-power ratios for degraded electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Peter; Knöös, Tommy; Nilsson, Per

    2004-10-07

    The aim of the present study was to investigate three different detector types (a parallel-plate ionization chamber, a p-type silicon diode and a diamond detector) with regard to output factor measurements in degraded electron beams, such as those encountered in small-electron-field radiotherapy and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate mass collision stopping-power ratios between water and the different detector materials for these complex electron beams (nominal energies of 6, 12 and 20 MeV). The diamond detector was shown to exhibit excellent properties for output factor measurements in degraded beams and was therefore used as a reference. The diode detector was found to be well suited for practical measurements of output factors, although the water-to-silicon stopping-power ratio was shown to vary slightly with treatment set-up and irradiation depth (especially for lower electron energies). Application of ionization-chamber-based dosimetry, according to international dosimetry protocols, will introduce uncertainties smaller than 0.3% into the output factor determination for conventional IORT beams if the variation of the water-to-air stopping-power ratio is not taken into account. The IORT system at our department includes a 0.3 cm thin plastic scatterer inside the therapeutic beam, which furthermore increases the energy degradation of the electrons. By ignoring the change in the water-to-air stopping-power ratio due to this scatterer, the output factor could be underestimated by up to 1.3%. This was verified by the measurements. In small-electron-beam dosimetry, the water-to-air stopping-power ratio variation with field size could mostly be ignored. For fields with flat lateral dose profiles (>3 x 3 cm2), output factors determined with the ionization chamber were found to be in close agreement with the results of the diamond detector. For smaller field sizes the lateral extension of the ionization chamber hampers

  10. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  11. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S

    2009-07-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with water depth) or at risk of being waterlogged (17.1% area with 2-3 m ground water depth). Local resource inventory showed prevalence of several illegal private channels in Mewat district. These private channels divert degraded canal waters into the nearby intersecting drains and thereby increase extent of surface irrigated agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm), manganese (Mn: 0

  12. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  13. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  14. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  15. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  16. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  17. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, T

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  18. Influence of the reactive diluent on electron beam curable funtionalized N-(4-hydroxyl phenyl) maleimide derivatives – Studies on thermal degradation kinetics using model free approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitchaimari, G. [Department of Polymer Technology, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, S.P.G.C. Nagar, K. Vellakulam, Tamil Nadu 625 701 (India); Sarma, K.S.S.; Varshney, Lalit [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayakumar, C.T., E-mail: ctvijay22@yahoo.com [Department of Polymer Technology, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, S.P.G.C. Nagar, K. Vellakulam, Tamil Nadu 625 701 (India)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Materials with maleimide and NVP ratio of 80:20 show better thermal stability. • The initial degradation temperatures are high at higher NVP concentration. • The E{sub a} values for ENVP are low compared to other materials investigated. • Polymers derived from DCNX needs highest E{sub a} value. • Cyanate ester functionalized materials offers better thermal stability. - Abstract: Electron beam curing of N-(4-acryloyloxy phenyl) maleimide, N-(4-methacryloyloxy phenyl) maleimide, and N-(4-cyanato phenyl) maleimide with different concentrations (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80) of the reactive diluent N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and pure NVP were investigated. The structures of all the polymers prepared were confirmed by FTIR studies and to understand the effect of the diluent concentration on the thermal stabilities of the E-beam cured polymers detailed thermogravimetric analyses were carried out. The thermal degradation kinetics is investigated using Vyazovkin, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Friedman methods. Of all the liquid compositions investigated materials with functionalized maleimide to NVP concentration in the ratio of 80:20 need highest activation energies for the thermal degradation and are found to have better thermal stabilities. The composition N-(4-cyanato phenyl) maleimide (80%) and NVP (20%) cured by E-beam radiation (400 kGy) lead to thermoset which showed the highest char value (30%) at 600 °C in nitrogen atmosphere.

  19. Self-powering/self-cleaning electronic-skin basing on PVDF/TiO2 nanofibers for actively detecting body motion and degrading organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanyi; Fu, Yongming; Zang, Weili; He, Haoxuan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2017-09-01

    A flexible self-powering/self-cleaning electronic-skin (e-skin) for actively detecting body motion and degrading organic pollutants has been fabricated from PVDF/TiO2 nanofibers. PVDF/TiO2 nanofibers are synthesized by high voltage electrospinning method. The e-skin can be driven by external mechanical vibration, and actively output piezoelectric impulse. The outputting piezoelectric voltage can be significantly influenced by different applied deformation, acting as both the body-motion-detecting signal and the electricity power for driving the device. The e-skin can detect various body motions, such as pressing, stretching, bending finger and clenching fist. The e-skin also has distinct self-cleaning characteristic through piezo-photocatalytic coupling process. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and the piezoelectric effect of PVDF are coupled in a single physical/chemical process, which can efficiently degrade organic pollutants on the e-skin. For example, methylene blue (MB) can be completely degraded within 40 min under UV/ultrasonic irradiation. The present results could provoke a possible new research direction for realizing self-powering multifunctional e-skin.

  20. Investigation of gate-diode degradation in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapajna, M.; Hilt, O.; Bahat-Treidel, E.; Würfl, J.; Kuzmík, J.

    2015-11-01

    Gate diode conduction mechanisms were analyzed in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors grown on Si wafers before and after forward bias stresses. Electrical characterization of the gate diodes indicates forward current to be limited by channel electrons injected through the AlGaN/p-GaN triangular barrier promoted by traps. On the other hand, reverse current was found to be consistent with carrier generation-recombination processes in the AlGaN layer. Soft breakdown observed after ˜105 s during forward bias stress at gate voltage of 7 V was attributed to formation of conductive channel in p-GaN/AlGaN gate stack via trap generation and percolation mechanism, likely due to coexistence of high electric field and high forward current density. Possible enhancement of localized conductive channels originating from spatial inhomogeneities is proposed to be responsible for the degradation.

  1. DEGRADATION OF SOLAR CELLS PARAMETERS FABRICATED ON THE BASIS OF Cu(In,GaSe2 SEMICONDUCTOR SOLID SOLUTIONS UNDER ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mudryi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS thin films were grown on molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass substrates by co-evaporation of the elements Cu, In, Ga and Se from independent sources. The effect of electron irradiation on the electrical and optical properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells with the structure ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/glass was studied. It was found that the degradation of the electrical parameters of solar cells (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and efficiency took place due to the formation of radiation defects (recombination centers with deep energy levels in the bandgap of CIGS. It was revealed that after electron irradiation intensity of near band-edge luminescence band at about 1,1 eV decreased considerably and bands of luminescence with maxima at 0,93 and 0,75 eV appeared.

  2. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  3. Application of {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N stable isotope probing to characterize RDX degrading microbial communities under different electron-accepting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kun-Ching; Lee, Do Gyun [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States); Fuller, Mark E.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Condee, Charles W. [CB& I Federal Services, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States); Chu, Kung-Hui, E-mail: kchu@civil.tamu.edu [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • SIP characterized RDX-degrading communities under different e-accepting conditions. • Dominant RDX degradation pathways differed under different e-accepting conditions. • More complete detoxification of RDX occurred under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions than under manganese(IV) and iron(III)-reducing conditions. - Abstract: This study identified microorganisms capable of using the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) or its metabolites as carbon and/or nitrogen sources under different electron-accepting conditions using {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N stable isotope probing (SIP). Mesocosms were constructed using groundwater and aquifer solids from an RDX-contaminated aquifer. The mesocosms received succinate as a carbon source and one of four electron acceptors (nitrate, manganese(IV), iron(III), or sulfate) or no additional electron acceptor (to stimulate methanogenesis). When RDX degradation was observed, subsamples from each mesocosm were removed and amended with {sup 13}C{sub 3}- or ring-{sup 15}N{sub 3}-, nitro-{sup 15}N{sub 3}-, or fully-labeled {sup 15}N{sub 6}-RDX, followed by additional incubation and isolation of labeled nucleic acids. A total of fifteen 16S rRNA sequences, clustering in α- and γ-Proteobacteria, Clostridia, and Actinobacteria, were detected in the {sup 13}C-DNA fractions. A total of twenty seven sequences were derived from different {sup 15}N-DNA fractions, with the sequences clustered in α- and γ-Proteobacteria, and Clostridia. Interestingly, sequences identified as Desulfosporosinus sp. (in the Clostridia) were not only observed to incorporate the labeled {sup 13}C or {sup 15}N from labeled RDX, but also were detected under each of the different electron-accepting conditions. The data suggest that {sup 13}C- and {sup 15}N-SIP can be used to characterize microbial communities involved in RDX biodegradation, and that the dominant pathway of RDX biodegradation may differ under different

  4. Electron Barrier Formation at the Organic-Back Contact Interface is the First Step in Thermal Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sachs-Quintana, I. T.

    2014-03-24

    Long-term stability of polymer solar cells is determined by many factors, one of which is thermal stability. Although many thermal stability studies occur far beyond the operating temperature of a solar cell which is almost always less than 65 °C, thermal degradation is studied at temperatures that the solar cell would encounter in real-world operating conditions. At these temperatures, movement of the polymer and fullerenes, along with adhesion of the polymer to the back contact, creates a barrier for electron extraction. The polymer barrier can be removed and the performance can be restored by peeling off the electrode and depositing a new one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal a larger amount of polymer adhered to electrodes peeled from aged devices than electrodes peeled from fresh devices. The degradation caused by hole-transporting polymer adhering to the electrode can be suppressed by using an inverted device where instead of electrons, holes are extracted at the back metal electrode. The problem can be ultimately eliminated by choosing a polymer with a high glass transition temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Degradation of a thin Ag layer induced by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate in a transmission electron microscopy specimen of an inverted polymer solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngjoon; Lu, Ning; Lee, Sang H; Chung, Won-Suk; Kim, Kyungkon; Kim, BongSoo; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, Moon J

    2012-10-24

    It was found that the Ag electrode layer in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen of an inverted polymer solar cell structure of Ag/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/TiO(2)/ITO/glass (where PEDOT is poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PSS is polystyrene sulfonate, and ITO is indium tin oxide) was broken down into particles as time passed. In order to investigate the cause of Ag particle formation and the effect of the degradation on the performance of solar cells, the temporal change of the cross-sectional TEM micrographs was examined together with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and electron tomography. Temporal degradation of Ag/Si and Ag/1 nm-Ti/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass structures was also studied. Absorption of water by the PEDOT:PSS layer followed by corrosion of the grain boundaries of the Ag layer by the corrosive water was thought to be the reason of Ag particle formation and fast performance lowering of the device.

  6. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  7. Degradation of spatial resolution in thin-foil x-ray microchemical analysis due to plural scattering of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twigg, Mark Erickson

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based Monte Carlo simulation of incoherent plural scattering of electrons has been developed in order to estimate the broadening of an electron probe as it propagates through a solid. By applying this approach to modeling the spreading of a fine (50 A) probe focused on a thin foil in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), we have estimated the spatial resolution of the compositional analysis obtainable using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Specifically, an attempt has been made to determine how the apparent microchemistry of a feature of finer dimensions than the broadened beam differs from the actual composition of the given feature. The apparent Ge concentration profile in the vicinity of a 200 A wide Ge platelet in a 5000 A thick Al foil was measured, using STEM and EDS, and compared with the profile predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Results are presented and discussed.

  8. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雷

    2012-01-01

      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  9. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军武

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  10. Combination of UV absorbance and electron donating capacity to assess degradation of micropollutants and formation of bromate during ozonation of wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kangmin; Salhi, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the changes in UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254) and electron donating capacity (EDC) were investigated as surrogate indicators for assessing removal of micropollutants and bromate formation during ozonation of wastewater effluents. To measure the EDC, a novel method based on size exclusion chromatography followed by a post-column reaction was developed and calibrated against an existing electrochemical method. Low specific ozone doses led to a more efficient abatement of EDC than of UVA254. This was attributed to the abatement of phenolic moieties in the dissolved organic matter (DOM), which lose their EDC upon oxidation, but are partially transformed into quinones, which still absorb in the measured UV range. For higher specific ozone doses, the relative EDC abatement was lower than the relative UVA abatement, which can be explained by the oxidation of UV absorbing moieties (e.g. non-activated aromatic compounds), which contribute less to EDC. The abatement of the selected micropollutants (i.e., 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), carbamazepine (CBZ), atenolol (ATE), bezafibrate (BZF), ibuprofen (IBU), and p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) varied significantly depending on their reactivity with ozone in the examined specific ozone dose range of 0-1.45 mgO3/mgDOC. The decrease of EE2 and CBZ with high ozone reactivity was linearly proportional to the reduction of the relative residuals of UVA254 and EDC. The abatement of ATE, BZF, IBU, and pCBA with intermediate to low ozone reactivities was not significant in a first phase (UVA254/UVA254,0 = 1.00-0.70; EDC/EDC0 = 1.00-0.56) while their abatement was more efficient than the degradation of the relative residual UVA254 and much more noticeable than the degradation of the relative residual EDC in a second phase (UVA254/UVA254,0 = 0.70-0.25; EDC/EDC0 = 0.56-0.25) because the partially destroyed UV absorbing and electron donating DOM moieties become recalcitrant to ozone attack. Bromate formation was

  11. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  12. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  13. Visible-Light Photolabile, Charge-Convertible Poly(ionic liquid) for Light-degradable Films and Carbon-Based Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongtong; Lei, Yuan; Zhang, Hanzhi; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Casey; Zheng, Zijian; Chen, Yongming; Yu, You

    2016-09-14

    We report for the first time an innovative visible-light photolabile poly(ionic liquid) (VP-PIL). The as-prepared VP-PIL features low Tg (47 °C), good thermal stability (Td ≈ 284 °C) and solubility in ranges of polar solvents. Upon blue light irradiation (∼452 nm), C-O bonds of picolinuim units are photocleaved, and the charges of PILs are simultaneously converted from positive to negative. Taking full advantages of these excellent properties of VP-PIL, a visible light degradable film for the first time is fabricated. Moreover, to demonstrate its applications in electronics, we prepared high-quality VP-PIL-containing conductive ink for flexible interconnects and graphene electrodes for supercapacitors.

  14. Free Energies for Degradation Reactions of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane from ab initio Electronic Structure Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A.; Tratnyek, P. G.

    2010-11-25

    Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the gas-phase and aqueous phase reaction energies for reductive dechlorination (i.e. hydrogenolysis), reductive Beta-elimination, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH- of 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The thermochemical properties Delta Hof(298.15K), So(298.15K,1 bar), and Delta GS(298.15K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for 1,2,3-trichloropropane and several likely metabolites. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, together with a Fe(II)/Fe(III) chemical equilibrium model for natural reducing environments, all of the reactions studied were predicted to be very favorable in the standard state and under a wide range of pH conditions. The most favorable reaction was reductive Beta-elimination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -32 kcal/mol), followed closely by reductive dechlorination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -27 kcal/mol), dehydrochlorination (Delta Gorxn ≈ -27kcal/mol), and nucleophilic substitution by OH- (Delta Gorxn ≈ -25 kcal/mol). For both reduction reactions studied, it was found that the first electron-transfer step, yielding the intermediate CH2-CHCl-CH2Cl , and CH2Cl-CH-CH2Cl species, was not favorable in the standard state (Delta Gorxn ≈ +15 kcal/mol) and was predicted to occur only at relatively high pH values. This result suggests that reduction by natural attenuation is unlikely.

  15. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姚竹; 马东

    2011-01-01

    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  16. Effect of Substituents on the Electronic Structure and Degradation Process in Carbazole Derivatives for Blue OLED Host Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Minki

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the dissociation mechanism of the C-N bond between carbazole and dibenzothiophene in carbazole-dibenzothiophene (Cz-DBT) positional isomers, selected as representative systems for blue host materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The C-N bond dissociation energies, calculated at the density functional theory level, are found to depend strongly on the charge states of the parental molecules. In particular, the anionic C-N bond dissociations resulting in a carbazole anion can have low dissociation energies (∼1.6 eV) with respect to blue emission energy. These low values are attributed to the large electron affinity of the carbazole radical, a feature that importantly can be modulated via substitution. Substitution also impacts the energies of the first excited electronic states of the Cz-DBT molecules since these states have an intramolecular charge-transfer nature due to the spatially localized character of the frontier molecular orbitals within the carbazole moiety (for the HOMO) and the dibenzothiophene moiety (for the LUMO). The implications of these results must be considered when designing blue OLED hosts since these materials must combine chemical stability and high triplet energy. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  18. Microscopic properties of degradation-free capped GdN thin films studied by electron spin resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimokawa, Tokuro [Center for Collaborative Research and Technology Development, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Fukuoka, Yohei [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Fujisawa, Masashi [Research Center for Low Temperature Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Zhang, Weimin; Okubo, Susumu; Ohta, Hitoshi, E-mail: hohta@kobe-u.ac.jp [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Takahiro [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Vidyasagar, Reddithota; Yoshitomi, Hiroaki; Kitayama, Shinya; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-01-28

    The microscopic magnetic properties of high-quality GdN thin films have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements. Detailed temperature dependence ESR measurements have shown the existence of two ferromagnetic components at lower temperatures, which was not clear from the previous magnetization measurements. The temperature, where the resonance shift occurs for the major ferromagnetic component, seems to be consistent with the Curie temperature obtained from the previous magnetization measurement. On the other hand, the divergence of line width is observed around 57 K for the minor ferromagnetic component. The magnetic anisotropies of GdN thin films have been obtained by the analysis of FMR angular dependence observed at 4.2 K. Combining the X-ray diffraction results, the correlation between the magnetic anisotropies and the lattice constants is discussed.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  20. Investigation of gate-diode degradation in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ťapajna, M., E-mail: milan.tapajna@savba.sk; Kuzmík, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hilt, O.; Bahat-Treidel, E.; Würfl, J. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-09

    Gate diode conduction mechanisms were analyzed in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors grown on Si wafers before and after forward bias stresses. Electrical characterization of the gate diodes indicates forward current to be limited by channel electrons injected through the AlGaN/p-GaN triangular barrier promoted by traps. On the other hand, reverse current was found to be consistent with carrier generation-recombination processes in the AlGaN layer. Soft breakdown observed after ∼10{sup 5 }s during forward bias stress at gate voltage of 7 V was attributed to formation of conductive channel in p-GaN/AlGaN gate stack via trap generation and percolation mechanism, likely due to coexistence of high electric field and high forward current density. Possible enhancement of localized conductive channels originating from spatial inhomogeneities is proposed to be responsible for the degradation.

  1. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  2. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang, E-mail: cchu@che.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-11-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm{sup −2} meanwhile the current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  3. Time evolution of off-state degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, M. Montes, E-mail: Miguel.Montes@icfo.es, E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Sun, H.; Uren, M. J.; Kuball, M., E-mail: Miguel.Montes@icfo.es, E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability (CDTR), H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-02

    The evolution of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under off-state stress conditions is studied by gate leakage current (I{sub g}) monitoring, electroluminescence (EL), and atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging at room temperature. It is found that the number of off-state failure sites as identified by EL increases over time during stress until it reaches a saturation value. I{sub g} increases accordingly during stress until this saturation number of failure sites is reached. AFM scanning of the device surface stripped of metal contacts and passivation reveals surface pits corresponding to the location of the EL spots. These pits have an elongated shape oriented towards the drain contact whose length is correlated with the distance to the adjacent pits and with the time since their appearance during the stress experiment. A model for the generation and evolution of the off-state stress-related failure sites is proposed consistent with the experimental results, bringing together surface migration of electrochemical species with trap-based leakage mechanisms and resulting in the formation of an exclusion zone around each failure site.

  4. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  5. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  6. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  7. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  8. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  9. Electronic Structures and OH-Induced Atmospheric Degradation of CF3NSF2: A Potential Green Dielectric Replacement for SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Kun; Hou, Hua; Wang, Baoshan

    2017-04-06

    Electronic structures of [(trifluoromethyl)imino]sulfur difluoride (CF3NSF2) and degradation mechanisms by hydroxyl radical have been investigated using density functional theory (M06-2X), the complete basis set quadratic CBS-Q, and the explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods [CCSD(T)-F12]. The d-function augmented correlation-consistent basis sets including triple- and quadruple-ξ were employed for the sulfur-containing species. It was found that CF3NSF2 exists as two conformations connected by the internal rotation of CF3 around the central NS bond. The distorted syn conformer is more stable than the symmetrical anti conformer. The nitrogen-sulfur link in CF3NSF2 was revealed to be predominantly ionic CF3N(-)-(+)SF2 in structure rather than the conventional N═S double bond on the basis of natural bond orbital analysis. OH radical prefers to attach on the S atom of CF3NSF2 along the opposite direction of the S-F bond via a nucleophilic addition mechanism with a barrier of 2.9 kcal/mol whereas the ON association pathway is negligible. Although many product channels are thermodynamically favorable, none of them is kinetically accessible because of the significant barriers along the reaction routes. However, the degradation of CF3NSF2 by OH can be accelerated considerably in the presence of a single water molecule, which acts as a bridge for the consecutive proton migration within the floppy cyclic geometries. The half-life of CF3NSF2 was estimated to be 2.5 year, and the final products are exclusively CF3NH and SF2O. Theoretical calculation supports that CF3NSF2 is an environment-friendly green gas. It is worthy of testing its dielectric properties to replace SF6 for practical use.

  10. Enhancing Extracellular Electron Transfer of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 through Coupling Improved Flavin Synthesis and Metal-Reducing Conduit for Pollutant Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Di; Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Huang, Xue-Na; Li, Dao-Bo; Liu, Dong-Feng; Lau, Tai-Chu; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-02

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides, which are used as external electron acceptors by DMRB for their anaerobic respiration. The EET process has important contribution to environmental remediation mineral cycling, and bioelectrochemical systems. However, the low EET efficiency remains to be one of the major bottlenecks for its practical applications for pollutant degradation. In this work, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DMRB, was used to examine the feasibility of enhancing the EET and its biodegradation capacity through genetic engineering. A flavin biosynthesis gene cluster ribD-ribC-ribBA-ribE and metal-reducing conduit biosynthesis gene cluster mtrC-mtrA-mtrB were coexpressed in S. oneidensis MR-1. Compared to the control strain, the engineered strain was found to exhibit an improved EET capacity in microbial fuel cells and potentiostat-controlled electrochemical cells, with an increase in maximum current density by approximate 110% and 87%, respectively. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that the current increase correlated with the lower interfacial charge-transfer resistance of the engineered strain. Meanwhile, a three times more rapid removal rate of methyl orange by the engineered strain confirmed the improvement of its EET and biodegradation ability. Our results demonstrate that coupling of improved synthesis of mediators and metal-reducing conduits could be an efficient strategy to enhance EET in S. oneidensis MR-1, which is essential to the applications of DMRB for environmental remediation, wastewater treatment, and bioenergy recovery from wastes.

  11. Evidence of apoptotic effects of 2,4-D and butachlor on walking catfish, Clarias batrachus, by transmission electron microscopy and DNA degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Farah, M Abul; Ahmad, Waseem

    2006-01-25

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, fragmentation of the nucleus and cytoplasm, and consequently formation of apoptotic bodies. It has also been best characterized by the cleavage of DNA into nucleosomal size fragments of 180-200 bp or multiples of the same. Contrary to this, under extreme conditions, the cells were found to show adaptive response to apoptosis and unable to regulate their own death; necrosis is therefore predominantly observed. In the present study, we showed induction of apoptosis in Clarias batrachus due to sublethal concentration of 2,4-D and butachlor at multiple exposure time. The first phase of the study involved light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for ultrastructural abnormalities of the germinal tissues. While, in the second phase of the study, DNA degradation of blood and hepatic tissue was resolved on agarose gel electrophoresis. In histopathological studies, large numbers of stage II oocytes were noted for nuclear blebbing irrespective of the test chemical. Some of the butachlor-exposed oocytes showed vacuolation and electron dense cytoplasm along with thickened nuclear envelope, having close association with the lysosomes on the cytoplasmic side. Some oocytes undergo nuclear blebbing having inner dense core and translucent cytoplasm. Leydig cells were slightly hypertrophied and few appeared pycnotic, a process involving necrotic changes in which the cell nuclei were characterized by rounding up and condensation resulting in hyperchromatic staining or pycnosis. In testicular tissue, spermatogonial nuclei had irregular large clumps of heterochromatin adjoining the nuclear membrane indicating initial stage of apoptotic cell death. Electrophoretic separation resulted in a ladder pattern of blood DNA and smear like pattern of hepatic DNA. These results indicate that the above herbicides are able to induce apoptosis both at molecular as

  12. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑云; 张嵩

    2012-01-01

    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  13. Study on water environmental degradation cost in Taihu Basin ba sed on water resources accounting%基于水资源核算的太湖流域水环境退化成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢智慧; 蔡梅; 蔡文婷

    2015-01-01

    为合理制定流域水价,加强流域水资源统一管理,提高水资源节约利用水平,促进水资源可持续利用,对水环境与经济社会产生的关系进行综合考量;在核算太湖流域2010年水资源的基础上,分别利用基于防护费用的评估方法和基于损害的水环境退化估价方法,计算分析2010年太湖流域水环境退化成本。结果表明:对污染物进行源头治理不仅是出于对环境保护的考虑,更是尽可能地降低水环境退化成本、避免经济损失的最佳选择。水环境退化分析为合理制定水价及水资源统一管理提供了重要参考。%In order to make reasonable water price, strengthen the unified basin water resources management, increase the water conservation utilization level and promote sustainable utilization of water resources, the relationship between water environment and economic society is considered.Based on accounting water resources of Taihu basin in 2010, the protection cost evaluation method and the damage of water environment estimating method are adopted to calculate and analyze water environmental degradation cost of Taihu basin in 2010.The results show that:pollution source management is not only out of consideration for environment protection, but also for reducing water environmental degradation cost as much as possible, which is the best choice to avoid economic losses.Water environment degradation analysis provides an important reference for making reasonable water price and water resources unified management.

  14. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲

    2011-01-01

    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  15. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  16. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  17. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  18. Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Clive; Salvat, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The keynote paper by Garrett Hardin 44 years ago introduced the term 'tragedy of the commons' into our language (Hardin, 1968); this term is now used widely, but it is neither universally accepted nor fully understood. Irrespective, the 'tragedy of the commons' is an increasing reality for more than 500 million people that rely on the biodiversity resources and services of tropical coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and associated fisheries. These natural resources continue to decline despite major advances in our scientific understanding of how ecosystems and human populations interact, and the application of considerable conservation and management efforts at scales from local user communities to oceans. Greater effort will be required to avert increasing damage from over-exploitation, pollution and global climate change; all deriving from increasing exploitation driven by poverty and progress i.e. continuing to expand development indefinitely and extraction of resources at industrial scales. However, the 'tragedy' concept has been widely criticized as a simple metaphor for a much larger set of problems and solutions. We argue that the 'tragedy' is essentially real and will continue to threaten the lives of millions of people unless there are some major moral and policy shifts to reverse increasing damage to coastal habitats and resources. We agree with the conclusion by Hardin that the solution to the tragedy will not be through the application of natural sciences, but via implementing exceedingly difficult and controversial moral decisions. An extreme example of a moral and controversial direction suggested by Hardin was in re-examining the 'freedom to breed' as an inherent human value. The need for 'moral decisions' is even greater in 2012.

  19. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2012-01-01

      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  20. Silk structure and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Song, Yu-wei; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhi-jian; Pu, De-yong; Lin, Shao-qiang; Zhou, Chan; You, Hua-jian; Ma, Yan; Li, Jin-min; Yang, Li; Sung, K L Paul; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the structure of silk and its degradation properties, we have monitored the structure of silk using scanning electron microscopy and frozen sections. Raw silk and degummed raw silk were immersed in four types of degradation solutions for 156 d to observe their degradation properties. The subcutaneous implants in rats were removed after 7, 14, 56, 84, 129, and 145 d for frozen sectioning and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.), DAPI, Beta-actin and Collagen I immunofluorescence staining. The in vitro weight loss ratio of raw silk and degummed raw silk in water, PBS, DMEM and DMEM containing 10% FBS (F-DMEM) were, respectively, 14%/11%, 12.5%/12.9%, 11.1%/14.3%, 8.8%/11.6%. Silk began to degrade after 7 d subcutaneous implantation and after 145 d non-degraded silk was still observed. These findings suggest the immunogenicity of fibroin and sericin had no essential difference. In the process of in vitro degradation of silk, the role of the enzyme is not significant. The in vivo degradation of silk is related to phagocytotic activity and fibroblasts may be involved in this process to secrete collagen. This study also shows the developing process of cocoons and raw silk.

  1. Detailed numerical simulation of the effect of defects created by electron irradiation on the performance degradation of a p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} GaAs solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meftah, A.F.; Sengouga, N.; Meftah, A.M. [Laboratory of Metallic and Semiconducting Materials, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Mohamed Kheider University, B.P. 145, 07000 Biskra (Algeria); Belghachi, A. [Laboratory of Semiconductor Devices Physics, Physics Department, University of Bechar, P.O. Box 417, Bechar 08000 (Algeria)

    2009-11-15

    Solar cells exposed to irradiation undergo severe degradation in their performance due to induced structural defects. To predict this effect, the current-voltage characteristics under AM0 illumination for a constant dose of electron irradiation are numerically calculated. From these characteristics the following solar cell output parameters: the short circuit current density J{sub sc}, the open circuit voltage V{sub oc}, the fill factor FF and the conversion efficiency {eta} are extracted. The irradiation induced defects introduce in the energy gap either recombination centres or traps. The irradiation induced degradation is widely attributed to the first type of defects. A strategy is adopted to check the truthfulness of this by simulating the effect of each single trap level separately on the output parameters of the cell. The simulation results show that only the shallowest deep electron trap is responsible for the degradation of J{sub sc} while V{sub oc} is mostly affected by other electron and hole traps especially the deepest one. This more detailed study is an extension of another work in which the effect of a group instead of individual levels is investigated. (author)

  2. Investigation of abrupt degradation of drain current caused by under-gate crack in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors during high temperature operation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chang; Liao, XueYang; Li, RuGuan; Wang, YuanSheng; Chen, Yiqiang, E-mail: yiqiang-chen@hotmail.com; Su, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Li Wei; Lai, Ping; Huang, Yun; En, YunFei [Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application of Electronic Component Laboratory, The 5th Electronics Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 510610 Guangzhou (China)

    2015-09-28

    In this paper, we investigate the degradation mode and mechanism of AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) during high temperature operation (HTO) stress. It demonstrates that there was abrupt degradation mode of drain current during HTO stress. The abrupt degradation is ascribed to the formation of crack under the gate which was the result of the brittle fracture of epilayer based on failure analysis. The origin of the mechanical damage under the gate is further investigated and discussed based on top-down scanning electron microscope, cross section transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and stress simulation. Based on the coupled analysis of the failure physical feature and stress simulation considering the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch in different materials in gate metals/semiconductor system, the mechanical damage under the gate is related to mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch in Au/Ti/Mo/GaN system and stress concentration caused by the localized structural damage at the drain side of the gate edge. These results indicate that mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch of materials inside the device plays great important role on the reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs during HTO stress.

  3. La lutte internationale contre le réchauffement climatique comme étant une source de dégradation des ressources marines The international fight against global warming as a source of degradation of marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrine Ismaili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Les ressources marines constituent une richesse économique d'une grande importance pour un grand nombre de pays de la planète. Du fait de l'action de l'homme, ces ressources subissent une fragilisation et une raréfaction dues entre autres à la pollution, à la surpêche, à l'urbanisation intensive...S'ajoute à cette liste, depuis quelques années, le réchauffement de la planète qui affecte d'une manière sensible la diversité biologique marine. Pourtant les réponses internationales face à cette dégradation, au delà du fait qu'elles soient timides, sont rares. Il faudra dès lors se rabattre sur les solutions de lutte globale contre le réchauffement de la planète entreprise par la communauté internationale afin de contrer cette dégradation.Marine resources are a wealth of great economic importance for many countries in the world. Due to the action of man, these resources undergo embrittlement and rarification among others to pollution, overfishing, urbanization, intensive ... Added to this list in recent years, the global warming that affects a significantly marine biodiversity. Yet the international response to this degradation, beyond the fact that they are shy, is rare. It will therefore fall back on solutions to the global fight against global warming taken by the international community to counter this degradation.

  4. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  5. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊贵琍; 余涛

    2012-01-01

    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  6. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  7. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  8. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英

    2014-01-01

    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  9. Identical location transmission electron microscopy in combination with rotating disc electrode measurements. The activity of fuel cell catalysts and their degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloegl, Katrin G.

    2011-07-13

    As an alternative to conventional combustion engines, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) using hydrogen as a fuel is a promising concept owing to its potential independence from fossil fuels, high efficiency and zero emissions. Concerning its commercial viability, the fundamental problem of high system cost per power output and lifetime is closely related to finding more active and stable catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. In the presented work, several methods are combined to examine the parameters and processes responsible for both activity and degradation of platinum-based catalysts. Degradation mechanisms are scrutinized by means of electrochemical measurements with the rotating disc electrode in combination with a recently developed TEM technique, which allows for the comparison of identical locations before and after accelerated stress tests. (orig.) [German] Die mit Wasserstoff betriebene Proton Exchange Membrane Brennstoffzelle (PEMFC) stellt aufgrund ihrer potentiellen Unabhaengigkeit von fossilen Energietraegern, ihrem hohen Wirkungsgrad und fehlendem Schadstoffausstoss eine vielversprechende Alternative zum konventionellen Verbrennungsmotor dar. Das grundlegende Problem der zu hohen Systemkosten und zu geringen Lebensdauer fuer kommerzielle Anwendungen ist eng mit der Entwicklung aktiverer und stabiler Elektrokatalysatoren fuer die Sauerstoffreduktion verknuepft. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden verschiedene Methoden kombiniert, um die Parameter und Prozesse zu untersuchen, welche fuer die Aktivitaet und Degradation platinbasierter Katalysatoren verantwortlich sind. Zur Aufklaerung vorliegender Degradationsmechanismen werden elektrochemische Messungen mit der rotierenden Scheibenelektrode in Kombination mit einer neu entwickelten TEM Methode eingesetzt, welche es ermoeglicht, identische Stellen vor und nach beschleunigten Degradationstests zu untersuchen.

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  11. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  12. seed longevity of dominant plant species from degraded savanna in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    DEGRADED SAVANNA IN SEMI-ARID TANZANIA. HVM Lyaruu .... reclamation of degraded and marginal lands in Tanzania ..... from the Swedish International Development. Authority ... Ministry of. Natural Resources and Tourism, Forestry.

  13. Soil Resources Degradation and Conservation Techniques Adopted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    include among others: pedestals, armour layers and tree moulds which lead ... soil management practices adopted by the farmers ... observation of the soil management practices adopted .... The pH values of the soils under the different land.

  14. Degradation of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors in the current-controlled off-state breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmik, J., E-mail: jan.kuzmik@savba.sk; Jurkovič, M.; Gregušová, D.; Ťapajna, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brunner, F.; Cho, M.; Würfl, J. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, Leibnitz Institute für Höchfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meneghesso, G. [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo, 6/B 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-04-28

    We investigate degradation mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs which were repeatedly driven into the current-controlled off-state breakdown or subject to 60 s voltage- or current-controlled off state stresses. The current-controlled sweep in to the breakdown allows the sustainability of breakdown that can not be observed in the voltage controlled sweep. Only temporal changes were observed in the HEMT dc performance after repetitive sweeps, which were explained by charging/discharging of the HEMT surface at the gate-to-drain access region and in the GaN buffer below the gate. Similar changes were observed also if high-voltage stress has been applied on the drain; however, permanent degradation appears after 60 s current-controlled breakdown stress. In this case, the drain leakage current, as well as the breakdown current, increases significantly. On the other hand, the breakdown voltage, as well as the gate characteristics, remains unaltered. We suggest that the avalanche-injection process is governing the off-state breakdown event with a dominant role of the potential barrier at the channel-buffer interface.

  15. 电子束辐照降解水中氧氟沙星的研究%Studies on the degradation of ofloxacin by Electron Beam irradiation in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付兴明; 罗敏; 马玲玲; 杨国胜; 徐殿斗; 刘志明

    2016-01-01

    The influence factors and mechanism of the degradation of ofloxacin in water by electron linear accelerator was investigated. In order to study the role of radicals, ofloxacin solution with initial concentration of 20mg/L was used in degradation with the doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy, respectively, for each of different conditions. The solution were saturated with air as a scavenger of hydrated electron, saturated with nitrogen, containing 0.005 mol/L sodium chloride, 0.05 mol/L sodium chloride, 0.05 mol/L tert-butanol as scavenger of hydroxyl radical, 0.005 mol/L sodium carbonate, and 0.005 mol/L sodium sulfate, respectively. It was found that the degradation rate was promoted under the condition of saturated air, and could reach 99% with irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. The presence of sodium chloride, tert butyl alcohol and sodium carbonate significently inhibited the degradation rate of ofloxacin, however, sodium sulfate had little effect on the degradation. This fact indicates that hydroxyl radicals play a key role in the degradation of loxacin. Based on the product analysis in irradiation by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), the degradation pathway has be deduced as well.%应用电子直线加速器初步探索了水体中氧氟沙星的辐照降解影响条件及降解机理.对初始浓度为20mg/L的氧氟沙星水溶液进行了辐照降解研究,分别选取了0.5kGy,1.0kGy,2.0kGy,3.0kGy,5.0kGy共5个剂量组,以研究辐照吸收剂量对降解效率的影响,同时分别对氧氟沙星水溶液进行空气饱和(水合电子清除剂)、氮气饱和、添加0.005mol/L及0.05mol/L氯化钠、添加0.05mol/L叔丁醇(羟基自由基清除剂)、添加0.005mol/L碳酸钠、添加0.005mol/L硫酸钠等方法进行处理,以探究降解过程中辐照水体产生自由基对氧氟沙星降解的贡献率.结果表明,以空气饱和进行处理,可提高氧氟沙星的降解率,辐照吸收剂量为2.0kGy时降解

  16. The degradation and recovery properties of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors under direct current reverse step voltage stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Lei; Feng Shi-Wei; Guo Chun-Sheng; Zhu Hui; Wan Ning

    2013-01-01

    Direct current (DC) reverse step voltage stress is applied on the gate of an AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT).Experiments show that parameters degenerate under stress.Large-signal parasitic source/drain resistance (Rs/RD) and gate-source forward I-V characteristics are recoverable after breakdown of the device under test (DUT).Electrons trapped by both the AlGaN barrier trap and the surface state under stress lead to this phenomenon,and surface state recovery is the major reason for the recovery of device parameters.

  17. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  18. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以婧; 李明

    2012-01-01

    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  19. A strictly anaerobic betaproteobacterium Georgfuchsia toluolica gen. nov., sp. nov. degrades aromatic compounds with Fe(III), Mn(IV) or nitrate as an electron acceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Talarico Saia, F.; Rijpstra, I.; Smidt, H.; Röling, W.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A bacterium (strain G5G6) that grows anaerobically with toluene was isolated from a polluted aquifer (Banisveld, the Netherlands). The bacterium uses Fe(III), Mn(IV) and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors for growth on aromatic compounds. The bacterium does not grow on sugars, lactate or acetate

  20. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic and adsorptive degradation of organic dyes by mesoporous Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41: intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and OH radical generation under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Parida, K M; Nanda, Binita

    2011-07-28

    Mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite was synthesized by two step processes; in situ incorporation of high surface area mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (in situ method) followed by impregnation of Cu(II) by incipient wetness method. The interesting thing is that starch was used for the first time as template for the preparation of high surface area MA. To evaluate the structural and electronic properties, these catalysts were characterized by low angle X-ray diffraction (LXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis DRS, FTIR and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. The various cationic dye such as methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (Rd 6G) of high concentration 500 mg L(-1) were degraded and adsorbed very efficiently (100%) using the 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite within 30 and 60 min, respectively. The high and quick removal of such concerted cationic organic dyes and also mixed dyes (MB+MV+MG+Rd 6G) by means of photocatalysis/adsorption is basically due to the combined effect three characteristics of synthesized mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. These characteristics are intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and ˙OH radical generation under solar light.

  2. Polysaccharide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  3. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis to understand the role of tannin-based dyes in the degradation of historical wool textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restivo, Annalaura; Degano, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2014-10-01

    An innovative approach, combining field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, is presented to investigate the degradation mechanisms affecting tannin-dyed wool. In fact, tannin-dyed textiles are more sensitive to degradation then those dyed with other dyestuffs, even in the same conservation conditions. FESEM-EDX was first used to study a set of 48 wool specimens (artificially aged) dyed with several raw materials and mordants, and prepared according to historical dyeing recipes. EDX analysis was performed on the surface of wool threads and on their cross-sections. In addition, in order to validate the model formulated by the analysis of reference materials, several samples collected from historical and archaeological textiles were subjected to FESEM-EDX analysis. FESEM-EDX investigations enabled us to reveal the correlation between elemental composition and morphological changes. In addition, aging processes were clarified by studying changes in the elemental composition of wool from the protective cuticle to the fiber core in cross-sections. Morphological and elemental analysis of wool specimens and of archaeological and historical textiles showed that the presence of tannins increases wool damage, primarily by causing a sulfur decrease and fiber oxidation.

  4. Photothermal degradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Key reaction intermediates of photooxidation identified and characterized by laser flash Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were discussed. Effects of temperature and ultraviolet intensity were studied in order to develop meaningful accelerated testing procedures for encapsulant evaluation. In a program to study the failure of Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/stainless steel modules, failure modes similar to those observed outdoors in real-time conditions were simulated in accelerated testing. An experimental technique was developed to quantitatively assess the extent of degradation.

  5. Investigation of the Effect of Temperature During Off-State Degradation of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Microwave symposium digest (MTT), 2010 IEEE MTT-S international; 2010.p. 145–48. [2] Chang C-Y, Anderson T, Hite J, Lu L, Lo C-F, Chu B-H, et al. Reverse...numerous nickel nitrides reported being formed at temperatures as low as 200 C [21–23]. Additionally, thermal instability of Ni/Au based Ohmic contacts...electron mobility transistors on Si substrate. In Reliab Compd Semiconduct Digest (ROCS) 2009;2009:53–6. [8] Demirtas S, Joh J, del Alamo JA. High voltage

  6. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  7. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  8. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  9. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other schemes by declaring the scheme that is being used. For example...site: www.niso.org/news/Metadata_simpler.pdf International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata

  10. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰

    2011-01-01

    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  11. Chemical State Mapping of Degraded B4C Control Rod Investigated with Soft X-ray Emission Spectrometer in Electron Probe Micro-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasada, R.; Ha, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-05-01

    B4C is widely used as control rods in light water reactors, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, because it shows excellent neutron absorption and has a high melting point. However, B4C can melt at lower temperatures owing to eutectic interactions with stainless steel and can even evaporate by reacting with high-temperature steam under severe accident conditions. To reduce the risk of recriticality, a precise understanding of the location and chemical state of B in the melt core is necessary. Here we show that a novel soft X-ray emission spectrometer in electron probe microanalysis can help to obtain a chemical state map of B in a modeled control rod after a high-temperature steam oxidation test.

  12. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  13. Project and construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam radiotherapy for skin diseases; Projeto e construcao de placas espalhadoras e degradadoras de energia para uso em radioterapia com feixes de eletrons para doencas de pele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva

    2010-07-01

    There are many radiosensitive epidermotropics diseases such as mycosis fungo-ids and the syndrome of Sezary, coetaneous neoplasics originated from type T lymphocytes. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary not only a very large field size radiation beam, but also deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report no. 23 of the American Association of Physicists in Medi-cine (AAPM), the present study developed an energy scattering and degrading plates and made dosimetry (computational and experimental), supplying subsidies for a future installation of Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) at the Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built, several materials were analyzed for the plates design based on radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulation results were validated by experimental measurements in order to obtain a large field of radiation with 200 cm x 80 cm that meets the specifications of the AAPM protocol. (author)

  14. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷东升; 郭振英

    2016-01-01

    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  15. Reconfiguration of Analog Electronics for Extreme Environments: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo; Keymeulen, Didier; Guo, Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of adaptive reconfiguration as a technique to expand the operational envelope of analog electronics for extreme environments (EE). In addition to hardening-by-process and hardening-by-design, "hardening-by-reconfiguration", when applicable, could be used to mitigate drifts, degradation, or damage on electronic devices (chips) in EE, by using re-configurable devices and an adaptive self-reconfiguration of their circuit topology. Conventional circuit design exploits device characteristics within a certain temperature/radiation range; when that is exceeded, the circuit function degrades. On a reconfigurable device, although component parameters change in EE, as long as devices still operate, albeit degraded, a new circuit design, suitable for new parameter values, may be mapped into the reconfigurable structure to recover the initial circuit function. Partly degraded resources are still used, while completely damaged resources are bypassed. Designs suitable for various environmental conditions can be determined prior to operation or can be determined in-situ, by adaptive reconfiguration algorithms running on built-in digital controllers. Laboratory demonstrations of this technique were performed by JPL in several independent experiments in which bulk CMOS reconfigurable devices were exposed to, and degraded by, low temperatures (approx. 196 C), high temperatures (approx.300 C) or radiation (300kRad TID), and then recovered by adaptive reconfiguration using evolutionary search algorithms. Taking this technology from Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3 to TRL 5 is the target of a current NASA project.

  16. Analysis on the Thinking Modes of Medical Users Utilizing Library Electronic Resources%医药学用户使用图书馆电子资源的思维模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东滨; 应峻; 辛继宾; 徐一新

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the thinking modes of medical users utilizing electronic resources in college and university libraries. Combining with the questionnaires,in - depth analysis of utilization desire,utilization decision,impact factors of utilization behaviors are compiled,in order to provide references for college and university libraries formulating electronic resources marketing strategies.%研究高校图书馆医药学用户在使用电子资源过程中的思维模式,结合问卷调查结果深入分析思维模式中使用意愿、使用决策、使用行为的影响因素,为高校图书馆制定电子资源营销策略提供依据。

  17. Review of Researches on the Usage Standard Management of Electronic Resources in China from 2000 to 2010%2000—20l0年我国电子资源使用的规范管理研微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛玲; 杜坤

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, electronic resources play an increasingly important role in research, teaching and other works. Through the statistical analysis of the domestic research on the usage standard management of electronic resources from 2000 to 2010, we find that the issue of the usage standard management of electronic resources is increasingly concerned by the public and researchers. But there are still some problems, such as lack of systematic discussion and empirical research, scattered research topics, most research results on guidance proposals, and so on. Our researches about usage standard management of electronic resources should strengthen researches on the user, related technologies, licensing alliance, strengthen the communication between libraries and database providers, and strengthen the analysis and absorption of foreign experience.%目前,电子资源在科研、教学等工作中扮演着越来越重要的角色。通过对2000-2010年我国电子资源使用规范管理研究文献的统计分析发现,虽然公众及科研人员对电子资源使用的规范的关注程度越来越高,但是仍存在缺乏系统性的论述和实证性的研究、研究主题过于分散、研究成果多为指导性建议等问题。我国电子资源使用规范管理研究应加强对用户、相关技术、许可联盟的研究,加强对图书馆与数据库商交流的研究,加强对国外经验的分析与吸收。

  18. 高校图书馆电子资源购买过程中的委托-代理关系探究%Principal-agent Relationship During the Electronic Resources Purchase Process of University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂君; 吴冬曼

    2012-01-01

    The prineipal-agent relationship is throughout the whole process of the electronic resources purchase for university libraries. Based on the asymmetric informatiun theory the issues of information asymmetries in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are analyzed. The major prineipal-agent relationships between the university libraries, the group organizers and the database providers ate studied. The operational characteristics and existing problems in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are also discussed. Taking this opportunity to attention the principal-agent relationships existed in the electronic resources purchase of university libraries, the authors hope to solve some problems caused by the market information asymmetry.%委托-代理关系贯穿了高校图书馆电子资源的购买全过程,,基于信息不对称理论,分析高校图书馆电子资源购买中的信息不对称现象,并以高校图书馆、集团组织者、数据库提供者为主体,研究高校图书馆电子资源采购过程中存在的几种主要委托-代理关系、业务特点和存在的问题、通过对委托-代理关系的研究和分析,合理把握电子资源采购的规律,可以部分解决高校电子资源购买中由市场信息不平衡所带来的问题。

  19. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pewlong, W.; Sudatis, B. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  20. Printed Resources and Electronic Resources Integrated Services in Small and Medium-sized Libraries%中小型图书馆印本资源与电子资源一体化服务实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing the integrated service system of library resources, this paper sums up three methods for the integration of printed resources and digital resources including the digital resources catalog, digital resources navigate and open link system, and suggests that the libraries should give priority to books and periodicals integrated retrieval in the integrated service, and carry out the system construction within their capabilities by adopting the methods of making second development, introducing new system, and conducting independent development, etc.%通过对图书馆馆藏一体化服务系统的分析,归纳总结出印本资源与电子资源整合的3种主要模式———电子资源编目、电子资源导航与开放链接,并建议图书馆在进行一体化服务时,优先考虑图书和期刊的整合检索,在系统建设上量力而行,采取二次开发、引进新系统、自主开发等方式。

  1. 基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价方法与系统分析%Methods and Systems of Library Electronic Resources Evaluation Analysis Based on Usage Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹

    2014-01-01

    The origin and methods of library electronic resources evaluation were summarized;the statistical standards of library users' us-age data were reviewed. Then four library electronic resources evaluation systems based on library users' usage data which are ScholarlyS-tats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter and Ustat were compared and contrasted. The related work which librarians need to do and the con-sidering factors about the selection of electronic resources evaluation system was also analyzed.%总结了图书馆馆藏电子资源评价的缘起与方法,梳理了图书馆用户使用数据的统计规范。以此为基础对比了四个基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价系统---ScholarlyStats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter,UStat,分析了图书馆选择电子资源评价系统的考虑因素和需要预先做好的相关工作。

  2. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  3. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  4. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  5. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  6. On the development and the utilization of library holding in electronic resources Taking the Library of Shandong University of Science and Technology%试论电子资源的馆藏发展与利用——以山东科技大学图书馆为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明华; 马圣芹

    2012-01-01

    通过分析电子资源馆藏发展的意义及模式,对电子资源发展的目标及有效管理进行了探讨,并提出一些提高电子资源利用率的措施。%This paper analyses the mode and the importance of library holding development in electronic resources. It also ex- plores the aim and the affective management in electronic resource development and put forwards some measures to improve the utilization ratio of electronic resources.

  7. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  8. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  9. Genetic Analysis of Nitroaromatic Degradation by Clostridium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    REPORT Final Report on Genetic Analysis of Nitroaromatic Degradation by Clostridium 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene...Among different microorganisms that act in TNT biodegradation, clostridium species were distinguished for their rapid degradation rate. Here we compared...TERMS clostridium , TNT, genes, electron carriers, metabolism George N. Bennett William Marsh Rice University Office of Sponsored Research 6100 Main St

  10. An implementation case study. Implementation of the Indian Health Service's Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record in the ambulatory care setting at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnigan, Anthony; John, Karen; Scott, Andrea; Von Bibra, Lynda; Walling, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC) has successfully implemented the Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record (RPMS-EHR) in its Ambulatory Care departments. One-hundred and twenty-six providers use the system for essentially all elements of documentation, ordering, and coding. Implementation of one function at a time, in one clinical area at a time, allowed for focused training and support. Strong departmental leadership and the development of 'super-users' were key elements. Detailed assessments of each clinic prior to implementation were vital, resulting in optimal workstation utilization and a greater understanding of each clinic's unique flow. Each phase saw an increasing reluctance to revert to old paper processes. The success of this implementation has placed pressure on the remainder of the hospital to implement the RPMS-EHR, and has given the informatics team an increased awareness of what resources are required to achieve this result.

  11. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  12. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  13. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of Rose Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ling; ZHOU Ding; LI Xiang-zhong; YUE Ping-tao

    2003-01-01

    An innovative photoelectrode, TiO2/Ti mesh electrode, was prepared by galvanostaticanodisation. The morphology and the crystalline texture of the TiO2 film on mesh electrode were examined by scanning electronic microscopy and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The examination results indicated that the structure and properties of the film depended on anodisation rate, and the anatase was the dominant component under the controlled experimental conditions. Degradation of Rose Bengal(RB) in photocatalytic(PC) and photoelectrocatalytic(PEC) reaction was investigated, the results demonstrated that electric biasing could improve the efficiency of photocatalytic reaction. The measurement results of TOC in photoelectrocatalytic degradation showed that the mineralisation of RB was complete relatively. The comparison between the degradation efficiency of RB in PEC process and that in aqueous TiO2 dispersion was conducted. The results showed that the apparent first-order rate constant of RB degradation in PEC process was larger than that in aqueous dispersion with 0.1%-0.3% TiO2 powder, but was smaller than that in aqueous dispersion with 1.0% TiO2.

  14. 电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式解析%The analytic model of human resource management in electronic commerce system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

      企业人力资源管理工作在现代电子商务环境下呈现出多方面的电子化新特征,且较之于传统的人力资源管理工作有非常多显著的优势可言,基本上已经成为了企业获取更大成功的基本导向。电子商务系统内的人力资源管理新模式E-HR就是在这样一种背景下应运而生的,E-HR管理模式不仅已经成为了众多企业发展的趋势,而且在实际应用的过程当中也已经给企业带来了非常多的利益。本文正是在此背景之下对电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式E-HR进行解析,希望能够对其有更深入的理解并更好的应用到实践当中去。%The enterprise human resources management in modern electronic commerce environment presents many new characteristics of the electron,and compared with the traditional human resource management has many significant advantages,basically has become a basic guide for more successful enterprises.E-HR is a new mode of human resource management system emerge as the times require electronic commerce is in such a background,the E-HR management model not only has become the trend of development of many enterprises, but also in the process of practical application also has to the enterprise has brought a lot of benefits. This paper is analyzed under this background to the electronic commerce system within the human resources management mode of E-HR,the application wishes to have a deeper understanding and better on it into practice.

  15. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  16. Laboratory based degradation of light crude oil by aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... aquatic resources such as fish are killed. Many of the standard ... Apart from additional pollution effect chemical sprays are not only costly but may ... efficient degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbon than bacteria. That is why ...

  17. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  18. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  19. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable chlorate-reducing benzene-degrading microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, ten H.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20¿1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradation

  20. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  1. Lactation resources for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Maffei, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the optimal infant feeding choice. However, many clinicians working in maternal and child health do not receive adequate university preparation to support breastfeeding. Knowledge and skill are most often gained through on-the-job and personal experience. Myriad resources exist to support clinicians in delivering the best quality care to breastfeeding clients. Among the available resources are policies and protocols of professional organizations, governmental, and health advocacy groups. Breastfeeding-focused academic and continuing education programs are identified. Electronic and other resources for breastfeeding information are available for both professional and consumer audiences.

  2. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachiraporn Pewlong; Boonya Sudatis [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-09-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated in the dose range up to 2500 kGy using an electron beam accelerator to apply the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The tensile strength of irradiated fibroin fiber decreased with increasing dose and the presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced the degradation. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: calcium chloride solution (CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O = 1 : 2 : 8 in mole ratio), hydrochloric acid (0.5N) and distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water-soluble protein was extracted by distilled water. (author)

  3. Microstructural degradation in compound tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, J.; Auerkari, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In order to quantify microstructural degradation at high temperatures, samples of SA 210 / AISI 304 L compound tube material were annealed in the temperature range 540-720 deg C for 1 to 1 000 hours. The hardness of the annealed material was measured and the micro structure of the samples was investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructural degradation was characterised by the carbide structure in the ferritic-pearlitic base material and by the depth of decarburised and carburised zones of the compound tube interface. The observed changes were quantified in terms of their time and temperature dependence and diffusion coefficients of the process. The results can be used in estimating the extent of thermal exposure of high-temperature components after long-term service or after incidences of overheating. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  4. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  5. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  6. Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E

    2014-01-01

    Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes.

  7. 浅谈高职院校图书馆电子资源的管理和服务%On the Management and Service of the Electronic Resources of Higher Vocational College Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓正芳

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of rapid development of social economy, the computer technology, computer network technology, communication technology, database technology and other information technology, China has entered the information age ahead of time. In higher vocational colleges, the library electronic resources have become an important way for teachers and students to get teaching knowledge and scientific research information, providing reliable, timely and accurate books resources information service for teachers and students. In order to ensure the effective utilization of library electronic resources in higher vocational colleges, scientific and reasonable management is necessary, so as to promote the construction of digital libraries in higher vocational colleges, to achieve better and faster development.%在社会经济的快速发展背景下,我国计算机技术、计算机网络技术、通讯技术以及数据库技术等信息技术的产生,使我国提前进入信息化时代。在高职院校中,图书馆电子资源已经成为老师和学生获取教学知识、科研信息等方面的重要途径,为学校老师和学生提供了可靠、及时、准确的图书资源信息化服务。为了确保高职院校图书馆电子资源的有效利用,需要对其进行科学合理的管理,促进高职院校图书馆数字化建设,使其更好更快地发展。

  8. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  9. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  10. INTEGRATION OF STATISTICS, REMOTE SENSING AND EXISTING DATA TO LOCATE CHANGES IN LAND RESOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stability of a nation is dependent on the availability of natural resources. When land is degraded and natural resources become limited, socioeconomic status declines and emigration increases in developing countries. Natural resource utilization without proper management may re...

  11. Sustainability issues for resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Bottom; Gordon H. Reeves; Martha H. Brookes

    1996-01-01

    Throughout their history, conservation science and sustainable-yield management have failed to maintain the productivity of living resources. Repeated overexploitation of economic species, loss of biological diversity, and degradation of regional environments now call into question the economic ideas and values that have formed the foundation of scientific management...

  12. 基于高校图书馆电子资源的采访调查与分析——以海南大学图书馆为例%Survey and Analysis Based on the Electronic Resource of University Libraries Taking Hainan University library as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹

    2011-01-01

    随着信息化时代的到来,高校图书馆的馆藏资源建设模式已经发生了变化,形成了纸质资源与电子资源并存的局面,电子资源以其方便快捷深受读者喜爱,电子资源的采购比例越来越重,如何协调电子资源的采购比例,是图书馆界丞待解决的问题.文章通过对海南大学2006-2010年间的电子资源经费使用情况进行统计、对比和分析,对此问题进行了初步的探讨.%With the arrival of information age, college library collection resources construction mode has changed, and the paper-based resources and electroic resources coexist.With the convenience of electronic resources, the acquisition proportion of electronic resources grows.How to coordinate the acquisition of electronic resource proportion is a problem faced by the libraries.Through the funds statistics, contrast and analysis of electronic resources in hainan university 2006-2010 this article provides a preliminary discussion.

  13. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    . Bioaugmentation i.e. addition of specific degrader organisms, has been suggested as an environmentally friendly and economically competitive strategy for cleaning polluted sites. Several organisms have been isolated, capable of degrading different compounds. However the capacity to degrade the desired compound...... SRS2, Variovorax SRS16 and Arthrobacter globiformis D47. The degradation capacity of each strain individually as well as two- and three-member consortia was studied in a sand column set up. Glass beads were added to the set up to create a dry patch, separating the organisms and the diuron-spiked sand...

  14. Comparing aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) presence and distribution between degraded and non-degraded forest within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Sefczek, Timothy; Wright, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    The aye-aye is considered the most widely distributed lemur in Madagascar; however, the effect of forest quality on aye-aye abundance is unknown. We compared aye-aye presence across degraded and non-degraded forest at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We used secondary signs (feeding sites, high activity sites) as indirect cues of aye-aye presence and Canarium trees as an indicator of resource availability. All 3 measured variables indicated higher aye-aye abundance within non-degraded forest; however, the differences across forest type were not significant. Both degraded and non-degraded forests showed a positive correlation between feeding sites and high activity sites. We found that Canarium, an important aye-aye food source, was rare and had limited dispersal, particularly across degraded forest. This preliminary study provides baseline data for aye-aye activity and resource utilization across degraded and non-degraded forests.

  15. Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Amines in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verman, Mayank; Pankaj

    Hazardous effects of various amines, produced in the environment from the partial degradation of azo dyes and amino acids, adversely affect the quality of human life through water, soil and air pollution and therefore needed to be degraded. A number of such studies are already available in the literature, with or without the use of ultrasound, which have been summarized briefly. The sonochemical degradation of amines and in the combination with a photocatalyst, TiO2 has also been discussed. Similar such degradation studies for ethylamine (EA), aniline (A), diphenylamine (DPA) and naphthylamine (NA) in the presence of ultrasound, TiO2 and rare earths (REs); La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd, in aqueous solutions at 20 kHz and 250 W power have been carried out and reported, to examine the combinatorial efficacy of ultrasound in the presence of a photocatalyst and rare earth ions with reactive f-electrons.

  16. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  17. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  18. Syntrophy in Methanogenic Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Müller, N.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Schink, B.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter deals with microbial communities of bacteria and archaea that closely cooperate in methanogenic degradation and perform metabolic functions in this community that neither one of them could carry out alone. The methanogenic degradation of fatty acids, alcohols, most aromatic compounds, a

  19. Rate of NDF degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Koukolová, V; Lund, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop.......Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop....

  20. Mechanisms of metallization degradation in high power diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    Under operation the topside metallization of power electronic chips is commonly observed to degrade and thereby affecta device's electrical characteristics. However, the mechanisms of the degradation process and the role of environmental factors are not yet fully understood. In this work, we inve...

  1. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  2. Study of time-lapse processing for dynamic hydrologic conditions. [electronic satellite image analysis console for Earth Resources Technology Satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebreny, S. M.; Evans, W. E.; Wiegman, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic display techniques in exploiting the repetitive nature of ERTS imagery was investigated. A specially designed Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC) was developed and employed to process data for seven ERTS principal investigators studying dynamic hydrological conditions for diverse applications. These applications include measurement of snowfield extent and sediment plumes from estuary discharge, Playa Lake inventory, and monitoring of phreatophyte and other vegetation changes. The ESIAC provides facilities for storing registered image sequences in a magnetic video disc memory for subsequent recall, enhancement, and animated display in monochrome or color. The most unique feature of the system is the capability to time lapse the imagery and analytic displays of the imagery. Data products included quantitative measurements of distances and areas, binary thematic maps based on monospectral or multispectral decisions, radiance profiles, and movie loops. Applications of animation for uses other than creating time-lapse sequences are identified. Input to the ESIAC can be either digital or via photographic transparencies.

  3. Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical...

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of molinate in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizani, E; Lambropoulou, D; Fytianos, K; Poulios, I

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the degradation of molinate through heterogeneous photocatalysis, using two different types of the semiconductor TiO2 as photocatalyst, as well as through homogeneous treatment, applying the photo-Fenton reaction, has been investigated. As far as heterogeneous photocatalysis is concerned, the degradation of the pesticide follows apparent first-order kinetics, while the type of the catalyst and the pH value of the solution affect the degradation rate. The effect of the addition of electron scavengers (H2O2 and K2S2O8) was also studied. In the case of photo-Fenton-assisted system, the degradation also follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Parameters such as iron's and electron scavenger's concentration and inorganic ions strongly affect the degradation rate. The extent of pesticide mineralization was investigated using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements. The toxicity of the treated solution was evaluated using the Microtox test based on the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The detoxification and mineralization efficiency was found to be dependent on the system studied, and although it did not follow the rate of pesticide disappearance, it took place in considerable extent. The study of the photodegradation treatment was completed by the determination of the intermediate by-products formed during the process, which was carried out using LC-MS/MS technique and led to similar compounds with both processes.

  5. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  6. Resource Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  7. Rethinking Resourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  8. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  9. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and ... electronics Library resources such as electronic journals, e-books, scholarly databases, ... researchers to have access to a wide range of high quality electronic information resources.

  10. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  11. 地方高校的电子文献资源建设——以南京晓庄学院为例%Construction of Electronic Literature Resources of Local University Library —— A Case Study ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯

    2012-01-01

    以南京晓庄学院图书馆为蓝本,从电子资源的文献价值入手,阐明了编制电子资源的采访标准和评价指标的意义,指出在当前网络环境下,地方高校加强电子文献资源建设的重要性和发展方向。%This paper is on the original version ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University library, from the literature value of electron- ic resource, expounds the meaning of compiling electronic resources acquisition standard and evaluation index, points out under current network environment, the importance of local university library strengthen electronic litera-ture resources construction and development direction.

  12. The Strategies for the Construction of the Electronic Journal Resources in Higher Vocational College Library in the Network Environment%网络环境下高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妙琼

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds some main principles of the construction of the network electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library in the network environment, introduces several types of the network electronic journal resources, and probes into some strategies for the construction of electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library.%阐述了高职院校图书馆网络电子期刊资源建设的主要原则,介绍了网络电子期刊资源的几种类型, 探讨了高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设的策略.

  13. 区域性高校数字图书馆联盟电子资源建设研究--以湖南省高校数字图书馆为例%Study on the Electronic Resources Construction of Regional University Digital Library Alliance---Taking Hunan Academic Digital Library (HNADL)as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐婷

    2015-01-01

    介绍了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设情况,阐述了各联盟成员馆电子资源建设现状,探讨了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设存在的问题,并提出了相应的对策及建议。%ABSTRACT:This paper introduces the situation of the electronic resources construction of HNADL, expounds the current status of the electronic resources construction of each number library, probes into the problems existing in the electronic resources construction of HNADL,and puts forward some corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  14. REGULATED DEGRADABILITY OF COMPOSITE BIOBASED FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr M. Isaenko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  Degradable biobased (derived from agriculture composites are emerging materials that offer benefits to the environment thus minimizing waste that would be otherwise deposited in landfills. Single-use primary packaging materials have been identified as suitable items to be replaced by biodegradable materials from renewable resources. Materials composed of starch, soy protein and polyvinylalcohol, modified by hydrophobic fatty acids, are evaluated in terms of water resistance as promising substitutes for packaging materials.

  15. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation.

  16. [Forest degradation/decline: research and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Li, Feng-Qin

    2007-07-01

    As one of the most critical environmental problems in the 21st century, forest degradation has been facing worldwide. There are many definitions about forest degradation, but its common features are the permanent loss of forests, stand structure destructed, forest quality decreased, and forest functions lowered. Forest decline or tree decline in fact is one of the causes of forest degradation, which includes the general reduction of trees in vigor, low level growth of trees in productivity, death of trees, and even, decline of soil fertility. Many researches indicated that deforestation is the permanent loss of forests in area, which is shifted to other land uses. Deforestation is the product of the interactions between environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political forces at work in any given country/region, and thus, more and more attention is focused on the negative socioeconomic and environmental effects after forest degradation, especially on the reduction of forest area induced by deforestation. The effects of any decisions or policies in national and international levels on forest degradation induced by deforestation have been paid attention as well. How to make efforts and strengthen the worldwide cooperation to combat the forest degradation induced by deforestation must be challenged to find appropriate solutions. There are many researches on forest decline, because of its complexity and uncertainties. The major causes of forest decline include: 1) pollution from both industry and agriculture, 2) stress factors, e.g., desiccation, 3) changes in stand dynamics, 4) decline disease of forest or diseases of complex etiology, 5) degradation of productivity and/or soil fertility in pure plantation forests. Forest degradation in China is similar to that all over the world, but with the characteristics in forest components, i.e., 1) secondary forests are the major forest resources, 2) China has the most plantation forests in the world, some of which have

  17. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  18. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  19. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  20. Degradation of implant materials

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the degradation of implant materials, reviewing in detail such failure mechanisms as corrosion, fatigue and wear, along with monitoring techniques. Surveys common implant biomaterials, as well as procedures for implant retrieval and analysis.

  1. Rethinking resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We class energy and mineral resources as finite because we are reasonably certain that they do not form at a rate remotely approaching man`s rate of use. We have certain environments of the earth that have limits in carrying capacity, and we presume that the global environment does as well. These facts and presumptions, coupled with anxieties over growth in population and consumption, have posed pictures of impending catastrophe from Malthus through the Club of Rome and currently, among certain advocates of what is called sustainable development. To avoid future calamity, command and control management of resource use is urged by many. But, quite simply, such management would presume a wisdom that historical experience suggests does not exist. As a recent example, consider natural gas resources. A decade and a half ago, the resource base of natural gas in the United States was judged to be near exhaustion. Estimates of remaining resources by governmental agencies, academicians, and several major energy companies indicated the ultimate resource would be at about 100 tcf today, with essential depletion by the end of the century. Such was the near universal wisdom that compelled Congress to enact legislation to outright prohibit certain use of natural gas. Today, after nearly eight years of gas supply in excess of demand and with entirely new appreciation of the impact of technology, estimates of the remaining gas resource by industry, government, and others are an order of magnitude greater than those made just 15 yr ago, and the same government that then sought to husband a resource presumed to be near depletion now aggressively promotes its use and consumption. Limits to resources and limits to environmental carrying capacity do indeed exist, but we have yet to define those limits and the paths thereto.

  2. Environmental degradation in biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, Maya J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available molecular chain scission, surface oxidation, and breakdown of molecules to form active radicals. The main degradation processes occurring by weathering includes photoradiation, thermal degradation, photooxidation, and hydrolysis [22,23]. The effect... which exhibits transitions from glassy stage to a rubbery stage at its glass transition temperature. ● Weathering Composites commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications are subjected to varying conditions of sunlight, rain, moisture...

  3. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  4. Polyanhydride degradation and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpferich, A; Tessmar, J

    2002-10-16

    It was the intention of this paper to give a survey on the degradation and erosion of polyanhydrides. Due to the multitude of polymers that have been synthesized in this class of material in recent years, it was not possible to discuss all polyanhydrides that have gained in significance based on their application. It was rather the intention to provide a broad picture on polyanhydride degradation and erosion based on the knowledge that we have from those polymers that have been intensively investigated. To reach this goal this review contains several sections. First, the foundation for an understanding of the nomenclature are laid by defining degradation and erosion which was deemed necessary because many different definitions exist in the current literature. Next, the properties of major classes of anhydrides are reviewed and the impact of geometry on degradation and erosion is discussed. A complicated issue is the control of drug release from degradable polymers. Therefore, the aspect of erosion-controlled release and drug stability inside polyanhydrides are discussed. Towards the end of the paper models are briefly reviewed that describe the erosion of polyanhydrides. Empirical models as well as Monte-Carlo-based approaches are described. Finally it is outlined how theoretical models can help to answer the question why polyanhydrides are surface eroding. A look at the microstructure and the results from these models lead to the conclusion that polyanhydrides are surface eroding due to their fast degradation. However they switch to bulk erosion once the device dimensions drop below a critical limit.

  5. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  6. Mapping land degradation and desertification using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S. K.; Kumar, Munish; Lal, Bhajan; Barman, Alok Kumar; Das, Satyendra Nath

    2006-12-01

    Land degradation is the result of both natural and biotic forces operating on the earth. Natural calamities, over exploitation of land resources, unwise land use and the consequences of high inputs agriculture on soil and water resource are of great concern both at national and international level. It aggravated food insecurity in the world especially in the developing countries that calls for combating land degradation and desertification with scientific means. Development of degraded lands in India is one of the options to enhance food production and to restore the fragile ecosystem. The scientific information and spatial distribution of various kinds of degraded lands is thus essential for formulation of strategic plan to arrest the menace of land degradation. Remote sensing provides an opportunity for rapid inventorying of degraded lands to generate realistic database by virtue of multi-spectral and multi-temporal capabilities in the country. The satellite data provides subtle manifestations of degradation of land due to water and wind erosion, water-logging, salinity and alkalinity, shifting cultivation, etc., that facilitate mapping. All India Soil and Land Use Survey (AISLUS) has undertaken the task of land degradation mapping using remotely sensed data and developed a methodology accordingly. The mapping has been conceptualized as a four-tier approach comprising kind of degradation, severity of degradation, degradation under major landform and major land use. Visual mode of interpretation technique based on image characteristics followed by ground verification has been employed for mapping of degraded lands. Image interpretation key has been formulated based on the spectral signatures of various causative factors of different kinds of degraded lands. The mapping legend has been made systematic and connotative. The extent and spatial distribution of different kinds of degraded lands with degree of severity under major landform and major land use in a

  7. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  8. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  9. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  10. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  11. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  12. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  13. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  14. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  15. Lactobacillus sps. lipase mediated poly (ε-caprolactone) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ray Dutta, Jayati; Ganesan, Ramakrishnan

    2017-02-01

    Polymer degradation through lipase appears to be an enthralling alternative to bulk chemical routes. Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is an artificial polyester that can be degraded by microbes and enzymes like lipases and esterases. The environmental degradation of PCL is dependent on the activity of bacteria that characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal are widely present in the ecosystem. In this study, three different lipases derived from Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum and their co-culture have been utilized to explore their efficiency towards PCL enzymatic degradation. The effect of parameters such as enzyme loading and degradation time has been explored to understand the efficiency of the enzymes used in this study. Various analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have been employed to study the enzymatic degradation and its possible mechanistic insight.

  16. Cavity-mirror degradation in the deep-UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Sei, N. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    It is known that the degradation of dielectric multilayer mirrors used in short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) is caused by the carbon contamination on the mirror surface and the defects inside the dielectrics. We reported last year that the degraded dielectric multilayer mirrors can be repaired with both surface treatment by RF-induced oxygen plasma and thermal annealing. However, such a mirror degradation is still one of the most critical issues in the deep ultraviolet (UV) FELs, because the fundamental undulator radiation resonating in the laser cavity, the intensity of which is much higher than that of higher harmonics, can be sufficiently energetic to cause the mirror degradation through photochemical reactions. We are investigating the mirror degradation mainly in the deep UV region down to 240 nm. The experimental results will be shown. The mirror degradation mechanism will be discussed.

  17. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  18. Solar degradation of 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone by TiO{sub 2} and iron (III) catalyst with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarria, V.; Peringer, P.; Pulgarin, C. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland). Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology; Caceres, J.; Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    Wastewater containing mainly 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone (AMBI), used in the manufacture of dyes, was characterized as bio-recalcitrant by means of different biodegradability tests. In order to enhance the biodegradability of this important pollutant, solar photocatalytic degradation methods were explored. The systems light/TiO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, light/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, light/Fe{sup 3+}/O{sub 2} and lightFe{sup 3+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were compared under direct sunlight at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain), using a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC). The iron photo-assisted systems exhibited the most interesting behaviour, from the kinetic and engineering points of view, especially if their combination (as pre-treatment) with a biological process is considered. To compare the efficiency of these systems, the evolution of the following parameters were studied: (a) the dissolved organic carbon and initial compound concentration, (b) the toxicity, and (c) the biodegradability of treated solution. At lab scale, using a solar lamp, the degradation rate of the system light/Fe{sup 3+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was two times higher than the system light/Fe{sup 3+}/O{sub 2} but this last system does not need H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition, improving the economical requirements of the system. (author)

  19. Solar degradation of 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone by TiO{sub 2} and iron(III) catalyst with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarria, Victor; Peringer, Paul; Caceres, Julia; Blanco, Julian; Malato, Sixto; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2004-05-01

    Wastewater containing mainly 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone (AMBI), used in the manufacture of dyes, was characterized as bio-recalcitrant by means of different biodegradability tests. In order to enhance the biodegradability of this important pollutant, solar photocatalytic degradation methods were explored. The systems light/TiO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, light/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, light/Fe{sup 3+}/O{sub 2} and light/Fe{sup 3+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were compared under direct sunlight at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain), using a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC). The iron photo-assisted systems exhibited the most interesting behaviour, from the kinetic and engineering points of view, especially if their combination (as pre-treatment) with a biological process is considered. To compare the efficiency of these systems, the evolution of the following parameters were studied: (a) the dissolved organic carbon and initial compound concentration, (b) the toxicity, and (c) the biodegradability of treated solution. At lab scale, using a solar lamp, the degradation rate of the system light/Fe{sup 3+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was two times higher than the system light/Fe{sup 3+}/O{sub 2} but this last system does not need H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition, improving the economical requirements of the system.

  20. EVALUATION AND MAPPING OF RANGELANDS DEGRADATION USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ajorlo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The empirical and scientifically documents prove that misuse of natural resource causes degradation in it. So natural resources conservation is important in approaching sustainable development aims. In current study, Landsat Thematic Mapper images and grazing gradient method have been used to map the extent and degree of rangeland degradation. In during ground-based data measuring, factors such as vegetation cover, litter, plant diversity, bare soil, and stone & gravels were estimated as biophysical indicators of degradation. The next stage, after geometric correction and doing some necessary pre-processing practices on the study area’s images; the best and suitable vegetation index has been selected to map rangeland degradation among the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, and Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI. Then using suitable vegetation index and distance parameter was produced the rangelands degradation map. The results of ground-based data analysis reveal that there is a significant relation between increasing distance from critical points and plant diversity and also percentage of litter. Also there is significant relation between vegetation cover percent and distance from village, i.e. the vegetation cover percent increases by increasing distance from villages, while it wasn’t the same around the stock watering points. The result of analysis about bare soil and distance from critical point was the same to vegetation cover changes manner. Also there wasn’t significant relation between stones & gravels index and distance from critical points. The results of image processing show that, NDVI appears to be sensitive to vegetation changes along the grazing gradient and it can be suitable vegetation index to map rangeland degradation. The degradation map shows that there is high degradation around the critical points. These areas need urgent attention for soil conservation. Generally, it

  1. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  2. CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY OXIDATIVE ENZYMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  3. Cellulose degradation by oxidative enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  4. Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language The paper presents in brief Bulgarian language resources as a part of multilingual digital resources developed in the frame of some international projects, among them parallel annotated and aligned corpora, comparable corpora, morpho-syntactic specifications for corpora annotation and dictionaries encoding, lexicons, lexical databases, and electronic dictionaries.

  5. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  6. Degradation induced by voltage and current for AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor under on-state stress%开态应力下电压和电流对AlGaN/GaN高电子迁移率晶体管的退化作用研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 冯士维; 石帮兵; 闫鑫; 张亚民

    2015-01-01

    Voltage and current degrade the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) under on-state stress. To determine which one dominates the degradation, two on-state stresses which have equal power are exerted on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs: high voltage and low current on sample A, low voltage and high current on sample B. In the former stress, drain-source voltage (V DS) is 28 V, drain-source current (IDS) is 75 mA/mm. In the latter stress, V DS is 14 V and IDS is 150 mA/mm. The package temperatures of samples A and B are kept at 150 ◦C. The samples are measured every 24 hours, with an extra measurement at the 8th hour in the first 24 hours (note that the time refers to the stressing time). There is an interval of 4 hours between the stressing and the measurement. The device parameters include drain-source current-voltage (IDS-V DS) characteristics, large-signal parasitic source resistance (RS), large-signal parasitic drain resistance (RD), and transfer characteristics between IDS and gate-source voltage (VGS). The emission microscope (EMMI) is used to study the leakage current after experiment. The IDS-VDS characteristics of sample B are kept constant after being stressed, while that of device A shifts downward after being stressed. RS of sample A, RS of sample B, and RD of sample B increase slightly, RD of sample A increases more obviously with most change happening in the first 8 hours. IDS-VGS characteristics of sample B kept constant, IDS-VGS characteristics of sample A shift downward. The changes of threshold voltage (VGS(th)) is obtained from the transfer characteristics, and it is similar to the changes of transfer characteristics. The VGS(th) magnitude (absolute value) of sample A decreases obviously while that of sample B decreases slightly. The measurements show that the device under low voltage and high current stress degrades little and the device under high voltage and low current stress degrades more obviously. The EMMI images show that the leakage of

  7. Microbial degradation of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Kashmir

    2016-01-01

    Herbicides remain the most effective, efficient and economical way to control weeds; and its market continues to grow even with the plethora of generic products. With the development of herbicide-tolerant crops, use of herbicides is increasing around the world that has resulted in severe contamination of the environment. The strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. In this review, an attempt has been made to pool all the available literature on the biodegradation of key herbicides, clodinafop propargyl, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, atrazine, metolachlor, diuron, glyphosate, imazapyr, pendimethalin and paraquat under the following objectives: (1) to highlight the general characteristic and mode of action, (2) to enlist toxicity in animals, (3) to pool microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides, (4) to discuss the assessment of herbicides degradation by efficient microbes, (5) to highlight biodegradation pathways, (6) to discuss the molecular basis of degradation, (7) to enlist the products of herbicides under degradation process, (8) to highlight the factors effecting biodegradation of herbicides and (9) to discuss the future aspects of herbicides degradation. This review may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for cleanup of soil and water contaminated with such compounds.

  8. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Anil V. Virkar; Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic no equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, , within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, no equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  9. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  10. Microbial degradation of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in case of limited pollutant availability with nitrate as a potential electron acceptor; Der mikrobielle Abbau mono- und polyzyklischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe bei einer begrenzten Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit mit Nitrat als potentiellem Elektronenakzeptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, C.

    2001-07-01

    The possibility of using natural degradation processes for long-term remediation of tar oil contaminated sites was investigated. Field studies have shown that microbial decomposition of pollutants does take place in many sites but that it is limited by limited availability of pollutants and oxygen in soil. The investigations focused on the activation of BTEX and PAH degradation in situ by nitrate in the absence or in the presence of oxygen. Tensides should be used in order to enhance the availability of pollutants in water, especially in the case of hardly water-soluble PAH. A large-scale experiment was carried out on tar oil contaminated terrain; it was found that the availability of oxygen and not of PAH is the limiting factor so that adding of surfactants will not improve pollutant degradation. In contrast, the adding of tensides would mean even higher concentrations of oxygen-depleting substances in soil. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden im Hinblick auf langfristige Sanierungsstrategien fuer teeroelkontaminierte Standorte Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung natuerlicher Abbauvorgaenge untersucht. Zahlreiche Feldstudien belegen, dass ein mikrobieller Schadstoffabbau an vielen Standorten stattfindet, dieser jedoch sowohl durch eine begrenzte Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit als auch durch den im Untergrund nur begrenzt zur Verfuegung stehenden Sauerstoff limitiert wird. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es abzuklaeren, inwiefern ein BTEX- und PAK-Abbau in situ auch in Abwesenheit von Sauerstoff durch Nitrat allein oder durch Nitrat in Kombination mit Sauerstoff aktiviert werden kann. Um insbesondere fuer die schlecht wasserloeslichen PAK eine ausreichende Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit zu gewaehrleisten, sollten auch Tenside zur Erhoehung der im Wasser vorliegenden Schadstoffmenge eingesetzt werden. Aufbauend auf die Laboruntersuchungen wurde im Rahmen von VEGAS{sup ix} ein Grossversuch zum mikrobiellen PAK-Abbau im Abstrom einer simulierten Teeroelkontamination durchgefuehrt

  11. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  12. Investigation of degradation mechanisms in composite matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.

    1982-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms were investigated for graphite/polysulfone and graphite/epoxy laminates exposed to ultraviolet and high-energy electron radiations in vacuum up to 960 equivalent sun hours and 10 to the ninth power rads respectively. Based on GC and combined GC/MS analysis of volatile by-products evolved during irradiation, several free radical mechanisms of composite degradation were identified. The radiation resistance of different matrices was compared in terms of G values and quantum yields for gas formation. All the composite materials evaluated show high electron radiation stability and relatively low ultraviolet stability as indicated by low G values and high quantum for gas formation. Mechanical property measurements of irradiated samples did not reveal significant changes, with the possible exception of UV exposed polysulfone laminates. Hydrogen and methane were identified as the main by-products of irradiation, along with unexpectedly high levels of CO and CO2.

  13. On-Orbit Teflon FEP Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission (SM2), degradation of unsupported Teflon' FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), used as the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, was evident as large cracks on the telescope light shield. A sample of the degraded outer layer was retrieved during the mission and returned to Earth for ground testing and evaluation. The results of the Teflon FEP sample evaluation and additional testing of pristine Teflon FEP led the investigative team to theorize that the HST damage was caused by thermal cycling with deep-layer damage from electron and proton radiation which allowed the propagation of cracks along stress concentrations, and that the damage increased with the combined total dose of electrons, protons, LTV and x-rays along with thermal cycling. This paper discusses the testing and evaluation of the Teflon FEP.

  14. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illés, Erzsébet; Takács, Erzsébet; Dombi, András; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László

    2013-03-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1mmoldm(-3). For end product characterization (60)Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV-vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose.

  15. WEATHERING DEGRADATION OF A POLYURETHANE COATING. (R828081E01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degradation of polyurethane topcoat over a chromate pigmented epoxy primer was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) after the coated pane...

  16. Analysing degradation effects in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Aging-sensitive technology nodes that are resulting in performance degradations in their electronic system implementations require aging simulations in advance for a more dependable design. Simulating time-domain aging effects in these electronic systems, especially in complex analog and mixed-signa

  17. Analysing degradation effects in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Aging-sensitive technology nodes that are resulting in performance degradations in their electronic system implementations require aging simulations in advance for a more dependable design. Simulating time-domain aging effects in these electronic systems, especially in complex analog and mixed-signa

  18. Inhibitors and pathways of hepatocytic protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seglen, P O; Gordon, P B; Grinde, B; Solheim, A; Kovács, A L; Poli, A

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of experiments using amino acids and various inhibitors (lysosomotropic amines, leupeptin, chymostatin, vanadate, vinblastine, anoxia, methylaminopurines), five different modes of endogenous protein degradation in isolated rat hepatocytes can be distinguished. The two non-lysosomal (amine-resistant) mechanisms preferentially degrade relatively labile (short-lived) proteins: one of these mechanisms is energy-dependent and chymostatin-sensitive, the other is not. Of the three lysosomal (amine-sensitive) mechanisms, one--quantitatively minor--is amino acid-resistant and preferentially degrades labile proteins. The two amino acid-sensitive mechanisms each seen account for about one-half of the degradation of relatively stable (long-lived) proteins; one of them is suppressed by leucine and apparently corresponds to the formation of electron microscopically visible autophagosomes; the other may represent a different type of autophagy, inhibited by asparagine and glutamine. A new class of inhibitors, the purine derivatives (methylated 6-aminopurines, and 6-mercaptopurines) appear to specifically suppress autophagic/lysosomal protein degradation, and may help to further elucidate the mechanisms of autophagy.

  19. PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

    2007-11-02

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) Develop a system capable of measuring current and voltage performance for each membrane in a Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEM) fuel cell stack and record the performance of each individual cell; (2) Develop a single cell PEM FC to allow in situ synchrotron x-ray measurements of the cell in operation and to perform spatially resolved x-ray measurements on fuel cell elements before and after degradation; and (3) Perform initial magnetic resonance microimaging experiments on membrane materials. The Montana State University PEM Membrane Degradation program is geared towards determining how and why membranes in fuel cells degrade and fail. By monitoring every individual membrane in a fuel cell 2000 times/sec while the cell is subjected to real-world type use, we hope to: (1) cause the types of degradation users see, but in a controlled environment; (2) determine an electrical signature that will identify what causes failure, or at least warns of impending failure; (3) allows us to perform advanced x-ray and MRI characterization of the degraded membranes to provide information that may result in improvements of the membrane material; and (4) perhaps allow design of electronic control systems that will prevent fuel cells from operating under conditions where damage is likely to occur.

  20. Soil degradation: a global problem endangering sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Soil degradation, defined as lowering and losing of soil functions, is becoming more and more serious worldwide in recent decades, and poses a threat to agricultural production and terrestrial ecosystem. It is estimated that nearly 2 billion ha of soil resources in the world have been degraded,namely approximately 22% of the total cropland, pasture, forest, and woodland. Globally, soil erosion,chemical deterioration and physical degradation are the important parts amongst various types of soil degradation. As a natural process, soil degradation can be enhanced or dampened by a variety of human activities such as inappropriate agricultural management, overgrazing, deforestation, etc.Degraded soil means less food. As a result of soil degradation, it is estimated that about 11.9-13.4% of the global agricultural supply has been lost in the past five decades. Besides, soil degradation is also associated with off-site problems of sedimentation, climate change, watershed functions, and changes in natural habitats leading to loss of genetic stock and biodiversity. Therefore, it is essential to combat soil degradation at different levels and scales worldwide, not only for food security and ecological health, but also for the guarantee of global sustainable development.

  1. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  2. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  3. 高校图书馆外文电子资源的建设与利用研究——以安徽建筑大学图书馆为例%Study on the Construction and Utilization of Foreign Electronic Resources in University Library ——A Case Study of the Library of AUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes an investigation and statistical analysis on the current construction ans utilization of foreign electronic resources of the library of AUA from the aspects of the quantities, funds as well as utilization rate of foreign database, discusses some factors influencing the construction and utilization of foreign electronic resources, and probes into the countermeasures for strengthening the construction of foreign electronic resources and improving the utilization rate of foreign electronic resources.%从外文数据库的数量、经费和利用率等方面,对安徽建筑大学图书馆外文电子资源建设与利用现状进行了调查研究与统计分析,论述了影响外文电子资源建设与利用的因素,探讨了加强外文电子资源建设、提高外文数据库利用率的对策.

  4. Interactive Technologies in Electronic Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana Ivanovna; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    Modern professional education in the transition to a tiered system of specialists training is focused not on the transfer of ready knowledge but on teaching to find this knowledge and to apply them in situations close to the professional conditions. The educational process, relying on use of interactive methods of teaching, which is organized with…

  5. Fluorescence enhancing by alkaline degradation of tetracycline antibiotics and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一兵; 慈云祥; 常文保

    1997-01-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics could be degraded after being beated in boiling-water bath in alkaline solution (in KOH medium).The fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the degradation products changed and the fluorescence intensity increased by 5-190 folds as compared with that of antibiotics themselves It was considered that there occurred a nucleophilic ring rupture reaction to form the degradation products with lactome structure The mteraction of the lone pair electrons of oxygen on the degradation products with the conjugated π electrons induced the in crease of the delocalization for the conjugated electron system in the molecule and thus enhanced the fluorescence intensity.

  6. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...

  7. Photocatalysis assisted by peroxymonosulfate and persulfate for benzotriazole degradation: effect of pH on sulfate and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Farshid; Moradi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, notable attempts have been devoted to removing emerging pollutants from water resources. Benzotriazole (BTA) as an emerging pollutant has widely been detected in the aquatic environment and water resources. In the current work, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfate (PS) were added to a TiO2/UV system for BTA degradation, as electron acceptors to overcome recombination of hole and electron. Additions of PMS and PS to the photocatalysis process considerably increased removal efficiency. The rate constants of UV/TiO2/PMS, UV/TiO2/PS and UV/TiO2 were 0.0217 min(-1), 0.0152 min(-1) and 0.0052 min(-1) respectively. The results showed that pH significantly affected the UV/TiO2/PMS system while it marginally affected UV/TiO2/PS. Scavenging experiments using alcohols indicated that in acidic pH, the dominant oxidant was sulfate radical in both systems. The contribution of hydroxyl radical in BTA degradation was boosted at alkaline and neutral conditions especially in the UV/TiO2/PMS system. Moreover, other scavenging experiments implied that reaction of radicals occurred at both the catalyst surface and in solution. The mineralization results showed that PMS and PS significantly increased chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon removal efficiencies. In general, presence of PMS in the photocatalysis process had a better performance compared to PS in terms of BTA removal and mineralization.

  8. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  9. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  10. AlGaN/GaN 高电子迁移率晶体管漏电流退化机理研究*%Degradation mechanism of leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任舰; 闫大为; 顾晓峰

    2013-01-01

      本文首先制备了与 AlGaN/GaN 高电子迁移率晶体管(HEMT)结构与特性等效的 AlGaN/GaN 异质结肖特基二极管,采用步进应力测试比较了不同栅压下器件漏电流的变化情况,然后基于电流-电压和电容-电压测试验证了退化前后漏电流的传输机理,并使用失效分析技术光发射显微镜(EMMI)观测器件表面的光发射,研究了漏电流的时间依赖退化机理。实验结果表明:在栅压高于某临界值后,器件漏电流随时间开始增加,同时伴有较大的噪声。将极化电场引入电流与电场的依赖关系后,器件退化前后的 log(IFP/E)与√E 都遵循良好的线性关系,表明漏电流均由电子 Frenkel-Poole (FP)发射主导。退化后 log(IFP/E)与√E 曲线斜率的减小,以及利用 EMMI 在栅边缘直接观察到了与缺陷存在对应关系的“热点”,证明了漏电流退化的机理是:高电场在 AlGaN 层中诱发了新的缺陷,而缺陷密度的增加导致了 FP 发射电流 IFP 的增加。%In order to study the degradation mechanism of leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), we have fabricated AlGaN/GaN heterojunction Schottky diodes having equivalent structure and characteristics to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Step stress tests were then performed to compare the leakage current changes at different gate voltages. The transport mechanism of leakage current before and after degradation was validated based on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. The light emission from the device surface was examined by emission microscopy (EMMI) to investigate the time-dependent degradation of leakage current. Experimental results show that the leakage current increases with increasing time and is accompanied by a large noise when the applied gate voltage exceeds a critical value. After introducing the polarization field into the current-field depen-dence, log(IFP/E) exhibits a good

  11. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  12. Cathodic degradation of antibiotics: characterization and pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deyong; Liang, Bin; Yun, Hui; Cheng, Haoyi; Ma, Jincai; Cui, Minhua; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics in wastewaters must be degraded to eliminate their antibacterial activity before discharging into the environment. A cathode can provide continuous electrons for the degradation of refractory pollutants, however the cathodic degradation feasibility, efficiency and pathway for different kinds of antibiotics is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the degradation of four antibiotics, namely nitrofurazone (NFZ), metronidazole (MNZ), chloramphenicol (CAP), and florfenicol (FLO) by a poised cathode in a dual chamber electrochemical reactor. The cyclic voltammetry preliminarily proved the feasibility of the cathodic degradation of these antibiotics. The cathodic reducibility of these antibiotics followed the order of NFZ > MNZ > CAP > FLO. A decreased phosphate buffered solution (PBS) concentration as low as 2 mM or utilization of NaCl buffer solution as catholyte had significant influence on antibiotics degradation rate and efficiency for CAP and FLO but not for NFZ and MNZ. PBS could be replaced by Na2CO3-NaHCO3 buffer solution as catholyte for the degradation of these antibiotics. Reductive dechlorination of CAP proceeded only after the reduction of the nitro group to aromatic amine. The composition of the degradation products depended on the cathode potential except for MNZ. The cathodic degradation process could eliminate the antibacterial activity of these antibiotics. The current study suggests that the electrochemical reduction could serve as a potential pretreatment or advanced treatment unit for the treatment of antibiotics containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Public perceptions of natural resource damages and the resources that require restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The public and health professionals are interested in restoring degraded ecosystem to provide goods and services. This study examined public perceptions in coastal New York and New Jersey about who is responsible for restoration of resources, which resources should be restored, by whom, and do they know the meaning of natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). More than 98% felt that resources should be restored; more (40%) thought the government should restore them, rather than the responsible party (23%). The highest rated resources were endangered wildlife, fish, mammals, and clams/crabs. Only 2% of respondents knew what NRDA meant. These data indicate that people felt strongly that resources should be restored and varied in who should restore them, suggesting that governmental agencies must clarify the relationship between chemical discharges, resource injury, NRDA, and restoration of those resources to produce clean air and water, fish and wildlife, and recreational opportunities.

  14. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  15. Planning as a part of human resource management activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Živko; Milošević, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Human resource management activities are most often grouped, or classified in that they are reduced to some ten basic activities. These activities are considered to be: work analysis; human resource planning; human resource recruitment; human resource selection; employee socialization and orientation; employee training and education; employee performance evaluation; employee rewarding and motivating; employee health and security; career management, and employee degradation and lying off. The ...

  16. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  17. Oxidation and degradation of polypropylene transvaginal mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Anne D; Rogers, Bridget R; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Dunn, Russell F; Guelcher, Scott A

    2017-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP) transvaginal mesh (TVM) repair for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has shown promising short-term objective cure rates. However, life-altering complications have been associated with the placement of PP mesh for SUI repair. PP degradation as a result of the foreign body reaction (FBR) has been proposed as a contributing factor to mesh complications. We hypothesized that PP oxidizes under in vitro conditions simulating the FBR, resulting in degradation of the PP. Three PP mid-urethral slings from two commercial manufacturers were evaluated. Test specimens (n = 6) were incubated in oxidative medium for up to 5 weeks. Oxidation was assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and degradation was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of the slings revealed evidence of carbonyl and hydroxyl peaks after 5 weeks of incubation time, providing evidence of oxidation of PP. SEM images at 5 weeks showed evidence of surface degradation, including pitting and flaking. Thus, oxidation and degradation of PP pelvic mesh were evidenced by chemical and physical changes under simulated in vivo conditions. To assess changes in PP surface chemistry in vivo, fibers were recovered from PP mesh explanted from a single patient without formalin fixation, untreated (n = 5) or scraped (n = 5) to remove tissue, and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mechanical scraping removed adherent tissue, revealing an underlying layer of oxidized PP. These findings underscore the need for further research into the relative contribution of oxidative degradation to complications associated with PP-based TVM devices in larger cohorts of patients.

  18. North American Soil Degradation: Processes, Practices, and Mitigating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Baumhardt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil can be degraded by several natural or human-mediated processes, including wind, water, or tillage erosion, and formation of undesirable physical, chemical, or biological properties due to industrialization or use of inappropriate farming practices. Soil degradation occurs whenever these processes supersede natural soil regeneration and, generally, reflects unsustainable resource management that is global in scope and compromises world food security. In North America, soil degradation preceded the catastrophic wind erosion associated with the dust bowl during the 1930s, but that event provided the impetus to improve management of soils degraded by both wind and water erosion. Chemical degradation due to site specific industrial processing and mine spoil contamination began to be addressed during the latter half of the 20th century primarily through point-source water quality concerns, but soil chemical degradation and contamination of surface and subsurface water due to on-farm non-point pesticide and nutrient management practices generally remains unresolved. Remediation or prevention of soil degradation requires integrated management solutions that, for agricultural soils, include using cover crops or crop residue management to reduce raindrop impact, maintain higher infiltration rates, increase soil water storage, and ultimately increase crop production. By increasing plant biomass, and potentially soil organic carbon (SOC concentrations, soil degradation can be mitigated by stabilizing soil aggregates, improving soil structure, enhancing air and water exchange, increasing nutrient cycling, and promoting greater soil biological activity.

  19. A degradable polydopamine coating based on disulfide-exchange reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Daewha; Lee, Hojae; Kim, Beom Jin; Park, Taegyun; Choi, Ji Yu; Park, Matthew; Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Hong, Seok-Pyo; Yang, Sung Ho; Jung, Sun Ho; Ko, Sung-Bo; Choi, Insung S.

    2015-11-01

    Although the programmed degradation of biocompatible films finds applications in various fields including biomedical and bionanotechnological areas, coating methods have generally been limited to be substrate-specific, not applicable to any kinds of substrates. In this paper, we report a dopamine derivative, which allows for both universal coating of various substrates and stimuli-responsive film degradation, inspired by mussel-adhesive proteins. Two dopamine moieties are linked together by the disulfide bond, the cleavage of which enables the programmed film degradation. Mechanistic analysis of the degradable films indicates that the initial cleavage of the disulfide linkage causes rapid uptake of water molecules, hydrating the films, which leads to rapid degradation. Our substrate-independent coating of degradable films provides an advanced tool for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and anti-fouling strategies.Although the programmed degradation of biocompatible films finds applications in various fields including biomedical and bionanotechnological areas, coating methods have generally been limited to be substrate-specific, not applicable to any kinds of substrates. In this paper, we report a dopamine derivative, which allows for both universal coating of various substrates and stimuli-responsive film degradation, inspired by mussel-adhesive proteins. Two dopamine moieties are linked together by the disulfide bond, the cleavage of which enables the programmed film degradation. Mechanistic analysis of the degradable films indicates that the initial cleavage of the disulfide linkage causes rapid uptake of water molecules, hydrating the films, which leads to rapid degradation. Our substrate-independent coating of degradable films provides an advanced tool for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and anti-fouling strategies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis, characterization, and other additional details. See DOI: 10

  20. Cathodoluminescence degradation of PLD thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Terblans, J. J.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Nsimama, P. D.; Dejene, F. B.; Dolo, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities of Y2SiO5:Ce3+, Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor thin films that were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were investigated for possible application in low voltage field emission displays (FEDs) and other infrastructure applications. Several process parameters (background gas, laser fluence, base pressure, substrate temperature, etc.) were changed during the deposition of the thin films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the surface roughness and particle size of the different films. The layers consist of agglomerated nanoparticle structures. Samples with good light emission were selected for the electron degradation studies. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and CL spectroscopy were used to monitor changes in the surface chemical composition and luminous efficiency of the thin films. AES and CL spectroscopy were done with 2 keV energy electrons. Measurements were done at 1×10-6 Torr oxygen pressure. The formation of different oxide layers during electron bombardment was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). New non-luminescent layers that formed during electron bombardment were responsible for the degradation in light intensity. The adventitious C was removed from the surface in all three cases as volatile gas species, which is consistent with the electron stimulated surface chemical reaction (ESSCR) model. For Y2SiO5:Ce3+ a luminescent SiO2 layer formed during the electron bombardment. Gd2O3 and SrO thin films formed on the surfaces of Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+, respectively, due to ESSCRs.

  1. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe;

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked......Fibrosis of the liver and its end-stage, cirrhosis, represent major health problems worldwide. In these fibrotic conditions, activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells display a net deposition of collagen. This collagen deposition is a major factor leading to liver dysfunction, thus making...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...

  2. Nylon separators. [thermal degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    A nylon separator was placed in a flooded condition in K0H solution and heated at various high temperatures ranging from 60 C to 110 C. The weight decrease was measured and the molecular weight and decomposition product were analyzed to determine: (1) the effect of K0H concentration on the hydrolysis rate; (2) the effect of K0H concentration on nylon degradation; (3) the activation energy at different K0H concentrations; and (4) the effect of oxygen on nylon degradation. The nylon hydrolysis rate is shown to increase as K0H concentration is decreased 34%, giving a maximum rate at about 16%. Separator hydrolysis is confirmed by molecular weight decrease in age of the batteries, and the reaction of nylon with molecular oxygen is probably negligible, compared to hydrolysis. The extrapolated rate value from the high temperature experiment correlates well with experimental values at 35 degrees.

  3. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  4. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenjun; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Lloyd, Jim R

    2016-01-01

    Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C) is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  5. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  6. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhenjun; Yang, Fan; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Lloyd, J. R., E-mail: jlloyd@sunypoly.edu [College of Nanoscience and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, NY USA 12203 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 {sup 0}C) is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  7. Effective Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors against Ambient Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation ...

  8. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casada, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  9. Electronic Books for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the definition, purposes, and advantages and disadvantages of electronic books. Notes the types of embedded resources present in them, offers an example of an electronic book, and suggests three steps to evaluate and select electronic books for the curriculum. (SR)

  10. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  11. Degradation of SiGe devices by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Hidenori; Hayama, Kiyoteru [Kumamoto National Coll. of Technology, Nishigoshi (Japan); Vanhellemont, J.; Takami, Yasukiyo; Sunaga, Hiromi; Nashiyama, Isamu; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Poortmans, J.; Caymax, M.

    1997-03-01

    The degradation and recovery behavior of strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} diodes and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) by irradiated by protons are studied. The degradation of device performance and the generation of lattice defects are reported as a function of fluence and germanium content and also compared extensively with previous results obtained on electron and neutron irradiated devices. In order to study the recovery behavior of the irradiated devices, isochronal annealing is performed. The radiation source dependence of the degradation is discussed taking into account the number of knock-on atoms and the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL). (author)

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with a nanocomposite system: synthesis, photocatalysis and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjie; Zhang, Lianyang; Pan, Guoxiang; Qian, Pingping; Ni, Zheming

    2015-02-21

    Three different composites, including a calcined FeOOH supported ZnAl layered double hydroxide (FeOOH-LDO), a calcined ZnAl layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDO) and a calcined ZnFeAl layered double hydroxide (ZnFeAl-LDO), were synthesized via a sol-gel method, and their activity for the visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied. The composites were characterized by PXRD, SEM, and BET techniques, confirming the formation of highly crystalline structures. The activity performance of MB degradation was in the following order: FeOOH-LDO (∼95%) > ZnFeAl-LDO (∼60%) > ZnAl-LDO (∼23%). In addition, a possible photocatalytic degradation reaction mechanism for MB was also proposed. Moreover, the frontier electron densities on the atoms of MB were calculated, which were in satisfactory agreement with the postulated mechanism.

  13. Rebuilding common property management : a case study of community-based natural resource management in rural Guizhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Qiu

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and rural poverty are inter-related problems of great concern to developing countries. The poor mostly live in environmentally fragile regions and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihood subsistence. Unfortunately, environmental degradation and rural poverty

  14. Rebuilding common property management : a case study of community-based natural resource management in rural Guizhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Qiu

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and rural poverty are inter-related problems of great concern to developing countries. The poor mostly live in environmentally fragile regions and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihood subsistence. Unfortunately, environmental degradation and rural poverty

  15. Excellent waste biomass-degrading performance of Trichoderma asperellum T-1 during submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Chen, Liang; Yu, Daobing; Lin, Hui; Shen, Qi; Zhao, Yuhua

    2017-12-31

    The random disposal and incineration of agricultural residues cause resources waste and environmental pollution. The potential of waste biomass for the production of alternative liquid fuels is increasing and the bioconversion of lignocellulose to fermentable monomeric sugars is essential for second-generation biofuel production. Here, natural and pretreated switch grass or rice straw were fermented by both Trichoderma asperellum T-1 and Trichoderma reesei QM6a, with the fermentation results highlighted the potential of T. asperellum T-1 in the degradation of natural waste lignocellulosic materials. In fermenting different substrates, the filter paper activity, β-glucosidase activity, xylanase activity and carboxymethyl cellulase activity of T-1 can respectively reach 1.88, 8.00, 7.15 and 20.52 times that of QM6a. Although acid pretreatment could improve the enzyme activities of both T-1 and QM6a, its effect on T-1 was much smaller than that on QM6a. Moreover, strain T-1 fermented the natural rice straw better than the pretreated rice straw. Therefore, T-1 is considered to be more suitable for the degradation of natural biomass, especially for the degradation of rice straw. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the cellulase series secreted by T. asperellum T-1 was more abundant, and its substrate deconstruction ability was stronger than T. reesei QM6a. All these results suggest the potential of T. asperellum T-1 in the degradation of natural waste lignocellulosic material, with practical benefits in terms of cost and pollution reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  17. Rising population and environmental degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A

    Environmental degradation is becoming an increasingly ominous threat to the well-being of India's population, and excessive population growth is the primary cause of environmental deterioration. Population growth increases the need to produce consumer products and this need, in turn, intensifies the trend to over-exploit and misuse environmental resources. Efforts to control population growth through contraceptive technology and the expansion of family planning services and to control environmental deterioration via technology and management will meet with little success. A prerequisite for controlling these dual problems is the improvement of living conditions for the masses. Only when individuals acquire a sense of security and have the prospect of acquiring a share in the resources of the country will they be willing to conserve and renew resources and to limit their fertility. Viewed from this prospective, various factors and trends in India can be assessed as either negative or positive. Positive factors, i.e., those which enhance economic oppotunities and security for the general population, include the recent achievement of economic grothw in the country's agricultural and industrial sectors, the growth in technological knowledge, and the expansion of the rural and urban infrastructure. Negative factors include 1) the increase in income inequality, 2) the refusal to grant distributive justice to the masses, 3) the lack of education which impedes public understanding and awareness of environmental issues and promotes under utilization of community and social services, 4) the high unemployment rate which prevents individuals from developing a sense of responsibility and self respect; and 5) the refusal of the government to establish fuel policies to halt the growing problem of deforestation. Major environmental problems include pollution and congestion associated with the geographical concentration of industry; the destruction of the forests which leads to

  18. Photoassisted Degradation of a Herbicide Derivative, Dinoseb, in Aqueous Suspension of Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyaz A. Mir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The titanium dioxide (TiO2 photoassisted degradation of herbicide dinoseb has been examined in aqueous suspensions under UV light irradiation. The degradation kinetics were studied under various conditions such as substrate concentration, type of catalyst, catalyst dosage, pH, and light intensity as well as in presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide, potassium bromate, and potassium persulphate under continuous air purging, and the degradation rates were found to be strongly influenced by these parameters. The Degussa P25 was found to be more efficient photocatalyst as compared to other photocatalysts tested. Dinoseb was found to degrade efficiently in acidic pH and all the electron acceptors studied enhanced the degradation rate. The results manifested that the photocatalysis of dinoseb followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. A qualitative study of the degradation products generated during the process was performed by GC-MS, and a degradation mechanism was proposed.

  19. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  20. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  1. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  2. Statistical modeling for degradation data

    CERN Document Server

    Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.

  3. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P

    1972-10-01

    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.

  4. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D.; Becich, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Musen, Mark A.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  6. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellets are often degraded at high rates within the upper part of the water column. However, the identity of the degraders and the processes governing the degradation remain unresolved. To identify the pellet degraders we collected water from Oresund (Denmark) approximately every...... second month from July 2004 to July 2005. These water samples were divided into 5 fractions (pellet degradation rate and species composition of the plankton from triplicate incubations of each fraction and a known, added...... amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  7. PDA对我国外文电子期刊资源联合采购的影响研究%Study on the Inlfuence of Patron Driven Acquisition(PDA)on the Joint Purchase of the Foreign Electronic Periodical Resources Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴进琼

    2016-01-01

    Patron driven Acquisition,PDA(读者决策采购)在国外图书馆电子图书联合采购中效益非常明显。如果把它引进我国高校图书馆电子期刊文献资源特别是外文电子期刊联合采购中,将会对我国的电子期刊文献资源建设起到非常重要的作用。本文主要对把读者决策采购PDA模式对我国高校图书馆外文电子期刊文献资源联合采购的影响进行论述。%The Benefit of Patron-driven Acquisition(PDA)is very obvious in the foreign library electronic book purchase.PDA will play an very important role to our country's electronic resources construction especially foreign electronic journal if it is introduced into the electronic journal literature resources joint purchase in our country university libraries.This article mainly discusses the influence of the PDA mode on the purchase of the foreign electronic journals of University Libraries in China.

  8. Open Educational Resources (1): Wat hebben we nodig?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Westera, W. (2010). Open Educational Resources (1): Wat hebben we nodig? Electronic article on SURFspace. SURF foundation: Utrecht. Retrieved december 14 at http://www.surfspace.nl/nl/Artikelen/Pages/OpenEducationalResources(1)Wathebbenwenodig.aspx

  9. Open Educational Resources (2): Hoe dekken we de kosten?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Westera, W. (2010). Open Educational Resources (2): Hoe dekken we de kosten? Electronic article on SURFspace. SURF foundation: Utrecht. Retrieved december 14 at http://www.surfspace.nl/nl/Artikelen/Pages/OpenEducationalResources(2)Hoedekkenwedekosten.aspx

  10. Measuring global canopy reduction: A forest degradation proxy for FRA2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth MacDicken; Erik Lidquist

    2013-01-01

    Global interest in forest degradation is widespread – but is fraught with widely differing views. Forest degradation by one definition may be sustainable forest management by another. The Global Forest Resources Assessment, conducted by FAO every five years, is working to find an approach to a global estimation of forest area that can address these differing...

  11. Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accelerated erosion caused by deforestation and soil degradation has become the primary factor limiting sustainable utilization of soil resources on the Loess Plateau of Northwestern China. We studied the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes of soil degradation along a chronosequence o...

  12. The Use of Resources in Resource Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Wernerfelt, Birger

    2010-01-01

    The author considers the processes through which a firm can acquire resources and argues that its current stock of resources create asymmetries in competition for new resources. Two simple models illustrate how this can work through linkages on the demand and/or cost side. The normative implication is that firms should expand their resource portfolios by building on their existing resources; different firms will then acquire different new resources, and small initial heterogeneities will ampl...

  13. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

  14. Alleviating Surface Degradation of Nickel-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode Material by Encapsulating with Nanoscale Li-Ions/Electrons Superionic Conductors Hybrid Membrane for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjun; Xu, Ming; Yao, Qi; Chen, Zhaoyong; Song, Liubin; Zhang, Zhian; Gao, Chunhui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Ziyang; Lai, Yanqing

    2016-11-16

    Nickel-rich layered oxide cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries have received much attention recently because of their high specific capacities and significant reduction of cost. However, these cathodes are facing a fundamental challenge of loss in performance as a result of surface lithium residue, side reactions with the electrolyte and structure rearrangement upon long-term cycling. Herein, by capturing the lithium residue on the surface of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM) cathode material as Li source, we propose a hybrid coating strategy incorporating lithium ions conductor LixAlO2 with superconductor LixTi2O4 to overcome those obstinate issues. By taking full advantage of this unique hybrid nanomembrane coating architecture, both the lithium ion diffusion ability and electronic conductivity of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 cathode material are improved, resulting in remarkably enhanced electrochemical performances during high voltage operation, including good cycle performance, high reversible capacity, and excellent rate capability. A high initial discharge capacity of 227 mAh g(-1) at 4.4 V cutoff voltage with Coulombic efficiency of 87.3%, and reversible capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) with 98% capacity retention after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.5 C can be attained. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergetic contribution from the removal of lithium residues and the unique hybrid nanomembrane coating architecture. Most importantly, this surface modification technique could save some cost, simplify the technical procedure, and show great potential to optimize battery performance, apply in a large scale and extend to all nickel-rich cathode material.

  15. Rat myocardial protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, J H; Hopkins, B E

    1981-07-01

    1. Myocardial protein degradation rates were determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated left hemi-atria in vitro. 2. After two 20 min preincubations the rate of tyrosine release from hemi-atria was constant for 4 h. 3. Skeletal muscle protein degradation was determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated hemi-diaphragm (Fulks, Li & Goldberg, 1975). 4. Insulin (10(-7) M) inhibited tyrosine release from hemi-atria and hemi-diaphragm to a similar extent. A 48 h fast increased tyrosine release rate from hemi-diaphragm and decreased tyrosine release rate from hemi-atria. Hemi-diaphragm tyrosine release was inhibited by 15 mmol/l D-glucose but a variety of concentrations of D-glucose (0, 5, 15 mmol/l) had no effect on tyrosine release from hemi-atria. Five times the normal plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine had no effect on tyrosine release from either hemi-atria or hemi-diaphragm.

  16. Degradability of dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J

    1992-09-01

    The degradation of dental ceramics generally occurs because of mechanical forces or chemical attack. The possible physiological side-effects of ceramics are their tendency to abrade opposing dental structures, the emission of radiation from radioactive components, the roughening of their surfaces by chemical attack with a corresponding increase in plaque retention, and the release of potentially unsafe concentrations of elements as a result of abrasion and dissolution. The chemical durability of dental ceramics is excellent. With the exception of the excessive exposure to acidulated fluoride, ammonium bifluoride, or hydrofluoric acid, there is little risk of surface degradation of virtually all current dental ceramics. Extensive exposure to acidulated fluoride is a possible problem for individuals with head and/or neck cancer who have received large doses of radiation. Such fluoride treatment is necessary to minimize tooth demineralization when saliva flow rates have been reduced because of radiation exposure to salivary glands. Porcelain surface stains are also lost occasionally when abraded by prophylaxis pastes and/or acidulated fluoride. In each case, the solutes are usually not ingested. Further research that uses standardized testing procedures is needed on the chemical durability of dental ceramics. Accelerated durability tests are desirable to minimize the time required for such measurements. The influence of chemical durability on surface roughness and the subsequent effect of roughness on wear of the ceramic restorations as well as of opposing structures should also be explored on a standardized basis.

  17. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illés, Erzsébet, E-mail: erzsebet.illes@chem.u-szeged.hu [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takács, Erzsébet [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Dombi, András [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-03-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1 mmol dm{sup −3}. For end product characterization {sup 60}Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV–vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of {sup ·}OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose. Highlights: ► In hydroxyl radical attack on the ring mainly hydroxylated products form ► The hydrated electron attacks the carboxyl group. ► Oxidative conditions are more effective in ibuprofen decomposition than reductive. ► Ecotoxicity of ibuprofen solution first increases then decreases with irradiation.

  18. Coastal environmental degradation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patabendi, P. [Partners for Sustainable Development, Hewagama, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-07-01

    The economic importance of Sri Lanka's coastal area has increased with rapid urbanization and the development of commercial harbours. The growth on this small island has resulted in unmistakable signs of environmental stress which manifests itself in the loss of natural forest cover, water pollution, degradation of rural lands and increased levels of air, water and solid waste pollution. The population is projected to reach 25 million by 2030. This will create an unprecedented demand for food, fibre energy, developable land and other natural resources. Pollution and competition for resources has already degraded about half of the shoreline which put sustainable economic development and environmental values at risk. It is estimated that 25,000 metric tonnes of waste is thrown into the oceanic waters each year. The pollutants include oil, garbage and chemicals from industries. In addition, 60 per cent of the sewage from the city of Colombo is dumped into the sea. Coral mining which supplies 90 per cent of the lime for the construction industry is leading to the destruction of reefs serving as natural barriers against tidal waves. In 1996, the government of Sri Lanka began a plan for coast erosion management in which community participation plays a vital role. A coastal conservation education project for school children is set to begin in the near future. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently be

  20. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D; Wells, Spencer A; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-12-10

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111) versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 h in ambient, followed by a ∼ 10(3) decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 h. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ∼ 10(3) and mobilities of ∼ 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for over 2 weeks in ambient conditions. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  2. Effective Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors against Ambient Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-12-01

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111), versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 hours in ambient, followed by a ~10^3 decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 hours. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ~10^3 and mobilities of ~100 cm2/(V*s) for over two weeks in ambient. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  3. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  4. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  5. DEGRADATION OF SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    VanderMeer, R.

    1982-01-01

    An important parameter for deciding whether or not a SME alloy is suitable for practical applications is the magnitude of the strain reversa1 accompanying martensite reversion. This research is concerned with elucidating metallurgical factors that cause degradation of this heat-activated recovery strain, ER. After explaining what is meant by degradation, two manifestations of degradation recently identified in near-monotectoid uranium-niobium alloys will be described. The first was associated...

  6. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  7. Transcellular degradation of axonal mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chung-ha O; Kim, Keun-Young; Bushong, Eric A; Mills, Elizabeth A; Boassa, Daniela; Shih, Tiffany; Kinebuchi, Mira; Phan, Sebastien; Zhou, Yi; Bihlmeyer, Nathan A; Nguyen, Judy V; Jin, Yunju; Ellisman, Mark H; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    It is generally accepted that healthy cells degrade their own mitochondria. Here, we report that retinal ganglion cell axons of WT mice shed mitochondria at the optic nerve head (ONH), and that these mitochondria are internalized and degraded by adjacent astrocytes. EM demonstrates that mitochondria are shed through formation of large protrusions that originate from otherwise healthy axons. A virally introduced tandem fluorophore protein reporter of acidified mitochondria reveals that acidified axonal mitochondria originating from the retinal ganglion cell are associated with lysosomes within columns of astrocytes in the ONH. According to this reporter, a greater proportion of retinal ganglion cell mitochondria are degraded at the ONH than in the ganglion cell soma. Consistently, analyses of degrading DNA reveal extensive mtDNA degradation within the optic nerve astrocytes, some of which comes from retinal ganglion cell axons. Together, these results demonstrate that surprisingly large proportions of retinal ganglion cell axonal mitochondria are normally degraded by the astrocytes of the ONH. This transcellular degradation of mitochondria, or transmitophagy, likely occurs elsewhere in the CNS, because structurally similar accumulations of degrading mitochondria are also found along neurites in superficial layers of the cerebral cortex. Thus, the general assumption that neurons or other cells necessarily degrade their own mitochondria should be reconsidered.

  8. Aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, D.H. [Dept. of Environmental Microbiology, German Research Center for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been extensively studied in recent years. The genetic organization of biphenyl catabolic genes has been elucidated in various groups of microorganisms, their structures have been analyzed with respect to their evolutionary relationships, and new information on mobile elements has become available. Key enzymes, specifically biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases, have been intensively characterized, structure/sequence relationships have been determined and enzymes optimized for PCB transformation. However, due to the complex metabolic network responsible for PCB degradation, optimizing degradation by single bacterial species is necessarily limited. As PCBs are usually not mineralized by biphenyl-degrading organisms, and cometabolism can result in the formation of toxic metabolites, the degradation of chlorobenzoates has received special attention. A broad set of bacterial strategies to degrade chlorobenzoates has recently been elucidated, including new pathways for the degradation of chlorocatechols as central intermediates of various chloroaromatic catabolic pathways. To optimize PCB degradation in the environment beyond these metabolic limitations, enhancing degradation in the rhizosphere has been suggested, in addition to the application of surfactants to overcome bioavailability barriers. However, further research is necessary to understand the complex interactions between soil/sediment, pollutant, surfactant and microorganisms in different environments. (orig.)

  9. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  11. Electro-catalytic degradation of sulfisoxazole by using graphene anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Shuan; Li, Ruiping; Huang, Yingping; Chen, Chuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Graphite and graphene electrodes were prepared by using pure graphite as precursor. The electrode materials were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The electro-catalytic activity for degradation of sulfisoxazole (SIZ) was investigated by using prepared graphene or graphite anode. The results showed that the degradation of SIZ was much more rapid on the graphene than that on the graphite electrode. Moreover, the graphene electrode exhibited good stability and recyclability. The analysis on the intermediate products and the measurement of active species during the SIZ degradation demonstrated that indirect oxidation is the dominant mechanism, involving the electro-catalytic generation of OH and O2(-) as the main active oxygen species. This study implies that graphene is a promising potential electrode material for long-term application to electro-catalytic degradation of organic pollutants.

  12. Contribution of ethylamine degrading bacteria to atrazine degradation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Crowley, David E

    2006-11-01

    Bacterial communities that cooperatively degrade atrazine commonly consist of diverse species in which the genes for atrazine dechlorination and dealkylation are variously distributed among different species. Normally, the first step in degradation of atrazine involves dechlorination mediated by atzA, followed by stepwise dealkylation to yield either N-ethylammelide or N-isopropylammelide. As the liberated alkylamine moieties are constituents of many organic molecules other than atrazine, it is possible that a large number of alkylamine-degrading bacteria other than those previously described might contribute to this key step in atrazine degradation. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated 82 bacterial strains from soil by plating soil water extracts on agar media with ethylamine as a sole carbon source. Among the relatively large number of isolates, only 3 were able to degrade N-ethylammelide, and in each case were shown to carry the atzB gene and atzC genes. The isolates, identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum, Flavobacterium sp., and Arthrobacter sp., were all readily substituted into an atrazine-degrading consortium to carry out N-ethylammelide degradation. The distribution of these genes among many different species in the soil microbial population suggests that these genes are highly mobile and over time may lead to generation of various atrazine-degrading consortia.

  13. Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Tull

    2005-01-01

    .... This article focuses on one aspect of ERM, the integration of the module with the Web OPAC, and describes how the Ohio State University Libraries replaced a back-end database with ERM to support...

  14. Research of Isolation and Degradation Conditions of Petroleum Degrading Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangrui, Guo

    2017-01-01

    A novel petroleum-degrading microbial strain was isolated from sediment samples in estuary of Bohai Sea estuary beaches. The strain was primarily identified as Alcanivorax sp. and named Alcanivorax sp. H34. Effect of PH values, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on degradation of H34 were investigated. The paraffinic components average degradation rate of H34 ungrowth cells under optimized conditions was studied. The results showed that the optimal growth conditions of H34 are were temperature of 30°C, initial PH of 7.0, nitrogen concentration of 3g/L, phosphorus concentration of 3g/L, and paraffinic components average degradation rates of H34 ungrowth cells was 41.6%, while total degradation rate was 45.5%.

  15. Kinetics of alkali-based photocathode degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Vitaly; Liu, Fangze; Hoffbauer, Mark A.; Moody, Nathan A.; Batista, Enrique R.

    2016-11-01

    We report on a kinetic model that describes the degradation of the quantum efficiency (QE) of Cs3Sb and negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs photocathodes under UHV conditions. In addition to the generally accepted irreversible chemical change of a photocathode's surface due to reactions with residual gases, such as O2, CO2, and H2O, the model incorporates an intermediate reversible physisorption step, similar to Langmuir adsorption. This intermediate step is needed to satisfactorily describe the strongly non-exponential QE degradation curves for two distinctly different classes of photocathodes -surface-activated and "bulk," indicating that in both systems the QE degradation results from surface damage. The recovery of the QE upon improvement of vacuum conditions is also accurately predicted by this model with three parameters (rates of gas adsorption, desorption, and irreversible chemical reaction with the surface) comprising metrics to better characterize the lifetime of the cathodes, instead of time-pressure exposure expressed in Langmuir units.

  16. Kinetics of alkali-based photocathode degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Pavlenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on a kinetic model that describes the degradation of the quantum efficiency (QE of Cs3Sb and negative electron affinity (NEA GaAs photocathodes under UHV conditions. In addition to the generally accepted irreversible chemical change of a photocathode’s surface due to reactions with residual gases, such as O2, CO2, and H2O, the model incorporates an intermediate reversible physisorption step, similar to Langmuir adsorption. This intermediate step is needed to satisfactorily describe the strongly non-exponential QE degradation curves for two distinctly different classes of photocathodes –surface-activated and “bulk,” indicating that in both systems the QE degradation results from surface damage. The recovery of the QE upon improvement of vacuum conditions is also accurately predicted by this model with three parameters (rates of gas adsorption, desorption, and irreversible chemical reaction with the surface comprising metrics to better characterize the lifetime of the cathodes, instead of time-pressure exposure expressed in Langmuir units.

  17. Shaping the Electronic Library--The UW-Madison Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David

    1998-01-01

    This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…

  18. Protecting global soil resources for future generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The latest Status of World's Soil Resources report has highlighted that soils are increasingly under pressure by numerous human induced degradation processes in most parts of the world. The limits of our planetary boundaries concerning vital soil resources have been reached and without reversing this negative trend there will be a serious lack of necessary soil resources for future generations. It has been therefore of the highest importance to include soils within some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) recently approved by the United Nations. Sustainable development can not be achieved without protecting the limited, non-renewable, soil resources of our planet. There is the need to limit on-going soil degradation processes and to implement extensive soil restoration activities in order to strive towards a land degradation neutral (LDN) world, as called upon by SDG 15. Sustainable soil management needs to be placed at the core of any LDN strategy and therefore it is of highest importance that the recently approved Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management (VGSSM) of FAO get fully implemented at National and local scale.Sustainable soil management is not only relevant for the protection of fertile soils for food production, but also to mitigate and adopt to climate change at to preserve the large soil biodiversity pool. Therefore the VGSSM are not only relevant to FAO, but also the the climate change convention (UNFCCC) and the biodiversity convention (CBD). An integrated assessment of the current land degradation processes and the available land restoration practices is needed in order to fully evaluate the potential for effectively achieving LDN by 2030. The on-going Land Degradation and Restoration Assessment (LDRA) of the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) will provide the necessary scientific basis for the full implementation of the necessary measures for achieving the planned SGS's relevant to land

  19. On the degradation of fuel cell catalyst. From model systems to high surface area catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, M. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    In the presented work, as an alternative accelerated degradation tests in the form of half-cell measurements combined with identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM){sup 10,} {sup 11} are presented. It is demonstrated that for different catalysts the degradation mechanism can be scrutinized in detail. Thus this approach enables the systematic investigation of fuel cell catalyst degradation in a reduced period of time. (orig.)

  20. A new way for chemical degradation of plastic by natural volatile constituents of Ledum palustre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Zhilong; ZHU Xiuling; ZHANG Daijia; YIN Jianzhong; WANG Dehe; AN Lijia

    2003-01-01

    A novel phenomenon of degradation of polypropylene plastic by volatile constituents of Ledum palustre is reported in this study. The characteristic of degradation is described by tensile strength, melting point, and scanning electron micrographs as well as optical micrographs. The chemical composition of volatile oil of Ledum palustre is analyzed by gas chrography and mass spectrometry. The mechanism of degradation and problems needed to be solved are also discussed.

  1. ASSAYING OF AUTOPHAGIC PROTEIN DEGRADATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Bauvy; A.J. Meijer; P. Codogno

    2009-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a three-step process: (1) autophagosomes form and mature, (2) the autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes, and (3) the autophagic cargo is degraded in the lysosomes. It is this lysosomal degradation of the autophagic cargo that constitutes the autophagic flux. As in the case of metaboli

  2. MOSFET Degradation Under RF Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; Kuper, F.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the degradation of MOS transistors under RF stress. Hot-carrier degradation, negative-bias temperature instability, and gate dielectric breakdown are investigated. The findings are compared to established voltage- and field-driven models. The experimental results indicate that the

  3. Hammurabi and the Electronic Age: Documenting Electronic Collecting Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedunok, Suzanne

    1996-01-01

    Presents a list of commonly used elements found in a number of electronic information collection development policy statements collected by an American Library Association committee. The article concludes with a selected annotated bibliography of 14 sources relating to collection development policies for electronic information resources.…

  4. Studies on alpha-amylase induced degradation of binary polymeric blends of crosslinked starch and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, A K; Shrivastava, Jyoti

    2007-05-01

    A blend matrix of crosslinked starch and pectin was prepared and characterized by infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared blends were investigated kinetically for water sorption studies and alpha-amylase induced degradation adopting a gravimetric procedure. Based on the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism including both diffusion and surface enhanced degradation was suggested and degradation profiles were interpreted. The influence of various factors such as chemical architecture of the blend, pH and temperature of alpha-amylase solution were examined for the swelling and degradation kinetics of crosslinked starch-pectin blends. The effect of concentration of enzyme solution was also studied on the degradation profile of the blends. A correlation was established between the extent of degradation and water imbibing capacity of the degrading blends.

  5. Degradation of carbofuran by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2009-04-01

    Degradation of commercial grade carbofuran (2, 3 dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7 benzo furanyl-N-methyl carbamate) in aqueous solution by ozone oxidation was investigated using bench scale experiments. The degradation rate was strongly influenced by the ozone dosage, pH, initial concentration of carbofuran and contact time of ozonation. Carbofuran solution of 200ppm concentration was degraded by 79% within 10 minutes consuming 87 mg of ozone at pH 4. The associated TOC reduction was observed to be 53%. Ammonium (20 mg/L) and nitrate (30 mg/L) ions were detected in the effluent as degradation products of ozonation. The results support the effectiveness of ozonation for degradation of organic pesticides such as carbofuran.

  6. Enzymatic degradation of endomorphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Anna; Staniszewska, Renata; Gach, Katarzyna; Fichna, Jakub

    2008-11-01

    Centrally acting plant opiates, such as morphine, are the most frequently used analgesics for the relief of severe pain, even though their undesired side effects are serious limitation to their usefulness. The search for new therapeutics that could replace morphine has been mainly focused on the development of peptide analogs or peptidomimetics with high selectivity for one receptor type and high bioavailability, that is good blood-brain barrier permeability and enzymatic stability. Drugs, in order to be effective, must be able to reach the target tissue and to remain metabolically stable to produce the desired effects. The study of naturally occurring peptides provides a rational and powerful approach in the design of peptide therapeutics. Endogenous opioid peptides, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, are two potent and highly selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, discovered only a decade ago, which display potent analgesic activity. However, extensive studies on the possible use of endomorphins as analgesics instead of morphine met with failure due to their instability. This review deals with the recent investigations that allowed determine degradation pathways of endomorphins in vitro and in vivo and propose modifications that will lead to more stable analogs.

  7. Bacterial degradation of aminopyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, H; Blecher, R; Wegst, W; Eberspaecher, J; Lingens, F

    1981-11-01

    1. Four strains of bacteria growing with aminopyrine as sole source of carbon were isolated from soil and were identified as strains of Phenylobacterium immobilis. 2. Strain M13 and strain E, the type species of Phenylobacterium immobilis (DSM 1986), which had been isolated by enrichment with chloridazon (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-2H-pyridazin-3-one) were used to investigate the bacterial degradation of aminopyrine. 3. Three metabolites were isolated and identified as: 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-(2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxy-4,6-cyc lohexadien-1-yl)-3H-pyrazol-3-one, 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-3H-pyrazol-3 -one and 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one. 4. An enzyme extract from cells of strain m13 was shown to further metabolize the catechol derivative of aminopyrine, with the formation of 2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid. 5. Results indicate that the benzene ring of aminopyrine is the principal site of microbial metabolism.

  8. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish, E-mail: dsarkar@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO{sub 3}–ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO{sub 3}. • WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO{sub 3}–ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO{sub 3} nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO{sub 3} (m-WO{sub 3}) and hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO{sub 3} and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO{sub 3} shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO{sub 3}. Symmetrical monoclinic WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO{sub 3} with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  9. 研究/電子資源使用統計標準與規範之探討/陳雪華;許嘉珍;朱雅琦 | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳雪華、許嘉珍、朱雅琦

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    近年來,由於資訊科技的進步,圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加,所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用,以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性,圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準,增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法,收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準,包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.

    頁次:89-102

  10. Degradation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in tropical forest and mangrove soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew-Ping; Gan, Seng-Neon; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are perceived to be a suitable alternative to petrochemical plastics because they have similar material properties, are environmentally degradable, and are produced from renewable resources. In this study, the in situ degradation of medium-chain-length PHA (PHAMCL) films in tropical forest and mangrove soils was assessed. The PHAMCL was produced by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO) as the carbon source. After 112 d of burial, there was 16.7% reduction in gross weight of the films buried in acidic forest soil (FS), 3.0% in the ones buried in alkaline forest soil by the side of a stream (FSst) and 4.5% in those buried in mangrove soil (MS). There was a slight decrease in molecular weight for the films buried in FS but not for the films buried in FSst and in MS. However, no changes were observed for the melting temperature, glass transition temperature, monomer compositions, structure, and functional group analyses of the films from any of the burial sites during the test period. This means that the integral properties of the films were maintained during that period and degradation was by surface erosion. Scanning electron microscopy of the films from the three sites revealed holes on the film surfaces which could be attributed to attack by microorganisms and bigger organisms such as detritivores. For comparison purposes, films of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a short-chain-length PHA, and polyethylene (PE) were buried together with the PHAMCL films in all three sites. The PHB films disintegrated completely in MS and lost 73.5% of their initial weight in FSst, but only 4.6% in FS suggesting that water movement played a major role in breaking up the brittle PHB films. The PE films did not register any weight loss in any of the test sites.

  11. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  12. Marine fungi: Degraders of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate based plastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new biosynthetic and biodegradable materials to save nonrenewable resources and reduce global pollution problems is an urgent task. Recently, materials like thermoplastic poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, have been found synthesized by bacteria as storage materials. The major PHAs synthesized are poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly-b-hydroxyvalerate (PHV and their copolymers. They are already commercially produced and used as BIOPOLTM (ICI, England. Their complete degradability by bacteria has already been shown. Today, oceans and estuaries serve as major landfills, and since fungi are an important part of the degrading microbiota, in order to prove their participation in the degradation process, a simple degradation test suitable for fungi and marine conditions had to be developed. Several solid media based on artificial sea water, differing in the content of non-alkanoate organics and supplemented with 0.1% PHA (or BIOPOLTM as a main source of carbon have been tested. The testing principle consists of clearing the turbid medium in test tube or plates caused by suspended granules of PHA. All media tested supported the growth of fungi. For the discrete and transparent clearing of zones, a mineral medium with 0.01% peptone, 0.01% yeast extract, and 0.1% PHB or BIOPOLTM was finally chosen where the fine and evenly distributed turbidity is accomplished by a specific procedure. This method allows the investigation of degradability of PHA-based plastic materials as well as screening for fungal ability to depolymerise pure PHA homopolymers. Using this medium, 32 strains of marine yeasts and 102 strains of marine mycelial fungi belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were tested for their ability to degrade PHAs. Only about 4% of the strains were able to degrade BIOPOLTM and about 6% depolymerised pure PHB homopolymer. This is in sharp contrast to the results of our previous experiments with 143 strains of terrestrial fungi

  13. High Energy Electron Radiation Degradation of Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    relative spectral output of the Kratos source was determined. This procedure may be algebraically verified since the cell output current, i, is equal...A (cm2), then a unique voltage may be calculated for given values of 0 and C. Algebraically , this equation may be written as ~q A 77e ____ __ 8) C...position as necessary to achieve proper voltage. (d) Place solar cell on test block using plastic tweezers. (e) Start test program by typing " BASICA

  14. Degradation, Reliability, and Failure of Semiconductor Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    determines its ability to conduct heat away that is generated by the operation of the device and therefore its operating temperature. The temperature...an AlN cap heated to (a) 1650ºC or (b) 1700ºC for 30 min. Though we are now able to anneal the implanted SiC up to temperatures as high as...outweighed the negative effects of th stent defects. Thus, as shown in Fig. 12b, the regio anted near the junctions was implanted with 1019 cm Al, while

  15. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  16. Photoassisted Fenton degradation of polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Min; Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Lei, Ngai-Yu; Yu, Lei; Kong, Karen Hoi-Kuan; Yu, Han-Qing; Lau, Tai-Chu; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-01-15

    Fenton and photoassisted Fenton degradation of ordinary hydrophobic cross-linked polystyrene microspheres and sulfonated polystyrene beads (DOWEX 50WX8) have been attempted. While the Fenton process was not able to degrade these polystyrene materials, photoassisted Fenton reaction (mediated by broad-band UV irradiation from a 250 W Hg(Xe) light source) was found to be efficient in mineralizing cross-linked sulfonated polystyrene materials. The optimal loadings of the Fe(III) catalyst and the H(2)O(2) oxidant for such a photoassisted Fenton degradation were found to be 42 μmol-Fe(III) and 14.1 mmol-H(2)O(2) per gram of the sulfonated polystyrene material. The initial pH for the degradation was set at pH 2.0. This photoassisted Fenton degradation process was also able to mineralize commonly encountered polystyrene wastes. After a simple sulfonation pretreatment, a mineralization efficiency of >99% (by net polymer weight) was achieved within 250 min. The mechanism of this advanced oxidative degradation process was investigated. Sulfonate groups introduced to the surface of the treated polystyrene polymer chains were capable of rapidly binding the cationic Fe(III) catalyst, probably via a cation-exchange mechanism. Such a sorption of the photoassisted Fenton catalyst was crucial to the heterogeneous degradation process.

  17. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Tianquan

    2014-04-22

    The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer dynamics in nanoparticle/liquid interface. This knowledge is essential to many semiconductor nanoparticle based devices, including photocatalytic waste degradation and dye sensitized solar cells.

  18. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    Pesticides are used worldwide on agricultural land as well as in urban areas. This use has often led to contamination of the environment with serious effects on our natural resources. Frequent pesticide use and spills have led to deterioration of soil quality and pesticide leaching has resulted...... Mortierella were tested for their ability to degrade diuron. The fungi were incubated in liquid culture with diuron on an orbital shaker at 8oC. The results showed that three of the five strains tested could degrade diuron, and molecular analysis revealed that these three strains constituted a closely related...... and the BAM-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 as well as the single strains were introduced into small sand columns. The sand was spiked with [ring-U-14C]-BAM and mineralization could thus be determined from the amount of evolved 14CO2. In addition, the effect of moisture content was examined by adding water...

  19. Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinger, Matthew

    2013-09-30

    This final report summarizes the progress made during the October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-NT0004109 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled “Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes”. The primary objective of this program is to develop a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Strategies to mitigate performance degradation are developed and implemented. In addition, thermal spray manufacturing of SOFCs is explored. Combined, this work establishes a basis for cost-effective SOFC cells.

  20. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    in groundwater contamination. New technologies are therefore needed for cleaning up contaminated soil and water resources. This PhD was part of the project entitled Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) where the overall aim is to develop new technologies for bioremediation...... of pesticide contaminated soil and water. The objectives of this PhD were to investigate fungal degradation of pesticides and following to construct microbial consortia for bioremediation. In Manuscript I the fungal degradation of the phenylurea herbicide diuron was studied. Isolates of soil fungi of the genus...... be a result of co-operative catabolism or physical interactions between the organisms improving growth and/or distribution of fungi and bacteria. The bacterial strains applied were Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, Variovorax sp. SRS16 and Arthrobacter globiformis D47 and the fungal strains were Mortierella sp. LEJ702...