WorldWideScience

Sample records for degradation electronic resource

  1. Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on Household Energy uses: Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation around Wondo Genet Catchments, South-Central Ethiopia.

  2. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Soil Resources Degradation and Conservation Techniques Adopted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil degradation is increasingly regarded as a major constraint to food production in the tropics. This problem is primarily caused by soil erosion, which particularly damages the soil surfaces. It is therefore the objectives of this paper to study the types of erosion in Gusau area as well as its effects on selected soil properties ...

  5. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  6. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  7. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  8. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  9. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  10. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  11. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  12. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world's three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange.

  13. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  14. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  15. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  16. Children as a resource: environmental degradation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, S

    1994-06-01

    Through the use of case studies from Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, and Morocco, the influence of environmental degradation on women's livelihoods and fertility is broadly examined. The aim is to show how the environment impacts on women's childbearing decisions, and the consequences. The evidence appears to support the notion that environmental pressures on women will contribute to higher fertility, under conditions of gender division of labor, a very low social status for women, and women's limited educational opportunity. The Kenya experiences were among rural villages in various agro-ecological zones in Embu, on the slopes of Mt. Kenya, and involved coping strategies with poor soils and very little rainfall. The Malaysian research focused on river communities in the rain forests of Limbang River Basin in Sarawak and the logging industry and government regulation of tribal land use rights. In mountainous Tetouan and A1 Hoceimain, Moroccan populations struggle with poor social services and little rainfall. The study areas in Morocco and Kenya had very high population growth, but declining growth rates nationally. The study areas suffered from deforestation, declines in water quality and availability, and soil erosion and depletion. Family planning services would be welcome: 1) when women do not have to solely bear the responsibility for the additional work involved in environmentally degraded areas; and 2) when the value of children is not increased. Policy must recognize that where rigid gender division of labor is prominent, children are a crucial resource for women in the provision of household support. The Morocco case exemplified the extremes of men's refusal to ease women's workloads with time and labor saving technology. Family planning promotion in such situations must be accompanied by provision of alternative resources to address the adverse environmental impacts on women. Blaming women for environmental problems and family planning promotion will fail to

  17. Degradation behaviour of fiber reinforced plastic under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Various mechanical properties of four kinds of glass fiber-reinforced plastics irradiated with electron beams were examined at three temperatures; room temperature, 123 K and 77 K. Dynamic viscoelastic properties were measured, and fractography by means of scanning electron microscopy was observed in order to clarify degradation behaviour. A considerable decrease in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room temperature was observed above 60 MGy. On the other hand, the three-point bending strength at 77 K and the ILSS at 123 K decreased with increasing irradiation. Fractography reveals that the degradation of the interface layer between matrix resin and fiber plays an important role in the strength reduction at 123 K and 77 K. These findings suggest that the interface between matrix resin and fiber loses its bondability at 123 K arid 77 K after electron beam irradiation. (author)

  18. Degradation of carrageenan by low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, L.; Aranilla, C.; Abad, L.; Dela Rosa, A.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yagi, Toshiaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Yoshii, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of κ-carrageenan using vessel-type low energy electron accelerator was investigated. Carrageenan with different molecular weights were obtained from irradiation of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) κ-carrageenan. Other results presented were obtained from degradation studies of carrageenan by gamma rays. The decrease in molecular weight was accompanied by partial desulfation. From comparison of radiation degradation yield (Gd), it was found that the susceptibility to radiation of the three types of carrageenans in aqueous/gel forms follows the order of λ->ι->>κ- and could have been influenced by their conformational state. κ-carrageenan with molecular weight of ca. 10,000 showed strong growth promotion effect for potato in tissue culture. (author)

  19. Reliability and corrosion induced degradation of electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapas, V.K.; Varde, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describe the corrosion induced degradation of electronic system failures due to environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, ionic or organic contaminants, residuals; etc. which can accelerates as electrochemical reaction and causes corrosion of electronic components, Corrosive gases and water vapours from humid condition come into contact with the base metal results in buildup of various chemical reaction products. Ionic contamination responsible for electrochemical reaction, forms soluble complexes with metals, it can degrade the protective oxide film that forms on the positively biased metallization and/or lead to change in the local pH. Deterioration of metal components or electronic circuitry due to electrochemical migration needs to be controlled in order to reduce the corrosion. With explosive increase in demand and miniaturization in electronic system resulted in smaller components, closer spacing and thinner metallic path, it is expected that the corrosion and deterioration of electronic components may become cause or concern. This paper summarises the current understanding of chemistry behind possible causes of corrosion of electronic devices and its failure mechanism. (author)

  20. Degradation of vitamin C by low-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Carime, Hassan; Illenberger, Eugen

    2004-06-01

    We report on the degradation of gas phase vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) induced by low-energy electrons. In the energy range of (0-12) eV, different negatively charged fragments, attributed to the dehydro-ascorbic acid anion ((AA-H) -), OH -, O - and H -, are observed. The yield functions indicate that these ions are formed via dissociative electron attachment, DEA. While the formation of (AA-H) - is exclusively observed at sub-excitation energies (<1.5 eV), the other fragments arise from resonance features at higher energies. Possible implications of these observations for radiation damage and food treatment by high energy radiation are considered.

  1. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  2. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  3. The rheology, degradation, processing, and characterization of renewable resource polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jason David

    Renewable resource polymers have become an increasingly popular alternative to conventional fossil fuel based polymers over the past couple decades. The push by the government as well as both industrial and consumer markets to go "green" has provided the drive for companies to research and develop new materials that are more environmentally friendly and which are derived from renewable materials. Two polymers that are currently being produced commercially are poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers, both of which can be derived from renewable feedstocks and have shown to exhibit similar properties to conventional materials such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and PET. PLA and PHA are being used in many applications including food packaging, disposable cups, grocery bags, and biomedical applications. In this work, we report on the rheological properties of blends of PLA and PHA copolymers. The specific materials used in the study include Natureworks RTM 7000D grade PLA and PHA copolymers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate). Blends ranging from 10 to 50 percent PHA by weight are also examined. Shear and extensional experiments are performed to characterize the flow behavior of the materials in different flow fields. Transient experiments are performed to study the shear rheology over time in order to determine how the viscoelastic properties change under typical processing conditions and understand the thermal degradation behavior of the materials. For the blends, it is determined that increasing the PHA concentration in the blend results in a decrease in viscosity and increase in degradation. Models are fit to the viscosity of the blends using the pure material viscosities in order to be able to predict the behavior at a given blend composition. We also investigate the processability of these materials into films and examine the resultant properties of the cast films. The mechanical and thermal properties of the

  4. Analytic approach to auroral electron transport and energy degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamnes, K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of a beam of auroral electrons with the atmosphere is described by the linear transport equation, encompassing discrete energy loss, multiple scattering, and secondary electrons. A solution to the transport equation provides the electron intensity as a function of altitude, pitch angle (with respect to the geomagnetic field) and energy. A multi-stream (discrete ordinate) approximation to the transport equation is developed. An analytic solution is obtained in this approximation. The computational scheme obtained by combining the present transport code with the energy degradation method of Swartz (1979) conserves energy identically. The theory provides a framework within which angular distributions can be easily calculated and interpreted. Thus, a detailed study of the angular distributions of 'non-absorbed' electrons (i.e., electrons that have lost just a small fraction of their incident energy) reveals a systematic variation with incident angle and energy, and with penetration depth. The present approach also gives simple yet accurate solutions in low order multi-stream approximations. The accuracy of the four-stream approximation is generally within a few per cent, whereas two-stream results for backscattered mean intensities and fluxes are accurate to within 10-15%. (author)

  5. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  6. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  7. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores de Jesus, I.

    2003-01-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  8. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  9. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  10. Wetland use and resource degradation among small-scale farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic life of smallholders in Cross River State, and the relationship between socio-economic factors and wetland degradation. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting respondents for the study. Data for this study was analyzed ...

  11. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  12. INVIVO DEGRADATION OF PROCESSED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN EVALUATED WITH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KOERTEN, HK; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  13. In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H.K.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde-Damink, L.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  14. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran.

  15. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran

  16. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Aquino, Simone; Goncalez, Edlayne; Correa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B 1 was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1μg kg -1 . The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  17. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  18. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  19. MSW: From pollution/degradation source to resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste is one of the biggest challenges that cities are facing: MSW is considered of the main sources of energy consumption, urban degradation and pollution. This paper defines the major negative effects of MSW on cities and proposes new solutions to guide waste policies. Most contemporary waste management efforts are focused at regional government level and based on high tech waste disposal by methods such as landfill and incineration. However, these methods are becoming increasingly expensive, energy inefficient and pollutant: waste disposal is not sustainable and will have negative implications for future generations. In this paper are proposed all the principle solutions that could be undertaken. New policy instruments are presented updating and adapting policies and encouraging innovation for less wasteful systems. Waste management plans are fundamental to increase the ability of urban areas to effectively adapt to waste challenges. These plans have to give an outline of waste streams and treatment options and provide a scenario for the following years that significantly reduce landfills and incinerators in favor of prevention, reuse and recycling. The key aim of an urban waste management plan is to set out the work towards a zero waste economy as part of the transition to a sustainable economy. Other questions remain still opened: How to change people’s behavior? What is the role of environmental education and risk perception? It is sure that the involvement of the various stakeholders and the wider public in the planning process should aim at ensuring acceptance of the waste policy.

  20. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  1. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  2. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  3. A Perspective on Water Resources in China. Interactions between Climate Change and Soil Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Fulu; Lin, Erda [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, M.; Hayashi, Y. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical resources in China. Climate change and soil degradation will be two major, interrelated environmental challenges faced by managers of water resources in coming decades. In this study, we used a water-balance model and updated databases to assess the interacting impacts of climate change and soil degradation on China's future water resources. We plotted the spatial pattern of changes in actual and potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture deficits, and surface runoff across China in the 2020s using a resolution of 0.5{sup o} latitude and longitude under scenarios based on climate change, soil degradation, and a combination of the two. The results showed that climate change would affect the magnitude and spatial pattern of water resources on a national scale. Some regions in central, southwestern, and northeastern China would become more vulnerable to disastrous drought and floods as a result of soil degradation. Under the combined impacts of climate change and soil degradation, soil moisture deficits would increase most in central, western, and southwestern China; surface runoff would increase most in southeastern China. More detailed process-based models are needed to capture feedback mechanisms more effectively.

  4. Resource-use efficiencies of three indigenous tree species planted in resource islands created by shrubs: implications for reforestation of subtropical degraded shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan Liu; Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Shrub resource islands are characterized by resources accumulated shrubby areas surrounded by relative barren soils. This research aims to determine resource-use efficiency of native trees species planted on shrub resource islands, and to determine how the planted trees may influence the resource islands in degraded shrublands in South China. Shrub (Rhodomyrtus...

  5. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  6. Possibility of electron beam irradiation degradation of many pesticides in ginseng oral liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiyong; Liu Yang; Ge Hanguang; Wu Ruoxin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to explore the technological feasibility in degradation of pesticides in ginseng oral liquid under the irradiation of electron beam. Sixteen residual concentration-restricted pesticides in ginseng oral liquid were experimented under the dose of 0 ∼ 15 kGy. Results showed that, when the dose of the irradiation of electron beam increased, the degradation rates of all the pesticides enhanced, and the electron beam radiation showed the most remarkable effect on the degradation of pesticides such as imidacloprid and fenpropathrinwith degradation rates of more than 90% and 50%, respectively. The degradation rates of fonofos, methidathion, diazinon, phosalone and carbaryl were all higher than 30%. No significant degradation was observed in the other 9 pesticides under the same condition. (authors)

  7. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  8. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  9. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  10. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  11. Degradation mechanism of polyurethane foam induced by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wei; Fu Yibei; Bian Zhishang; He Meiying

    2002-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of irradiated polyurethane foam has been studied in detail. The changes of chemical structure and micro-phase separation have been determined by DTG. The gas products from irradiated samples are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by GC. The degradation mechanism of irradiated polyurethane foam has been deduced according to the experimental results. It provides some basis of the application on the polyurethane in the radiation field

  12. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  13. Comparative efficacy of multimodal digital methods in assessing trail/resource degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan O. Park

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation can cause both positive and negative impacts on associated forest ecosystems. Forest recreation trails localize negative impacts to a controlled spatial extent while providing recreation access beyond developed areas and transportation networks. Current methods for assessing extent and severity of trail and proximal resource degradation require...

  14. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  15. Degradation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Structures through Light and Electron Beam Driven Ion Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Organometal halide perovskites show promising features for cost-effective application in photovoltaics. The material instability remains a major obstacle to broad application because of the poorly understood degradation pathways. Here, we apply simultaneous luminescence and electron microscopy on perovskites for the first time, allowing us to monitor in situ morphology evolution and optical properties upon perovskite degradation. Interestingly, morphology, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence of perovskite samples evolve differently upon degradation driven by electron beam (e-beam) or by light. A transversal electric current generated by a scanning electron beam leads to dramatic changes in PL and tunes the energy band gaps continuously alongside film thinning. In contrast, light-induced degradation results in material decomposition to scattered particles and shows little PL spectral shifts. The differences in degradation can be ascribed to different electric currents that drive ion migration. Moreover, solution-processed perovskite cuboids show heterogeneity in stability which is likely related to crystallinity and morphology. Our results reveal the essential role of ion migration in perovskite degradation and provide potential avenues to rationally enhance the stability of perovskite materials by reducing ion migration while improving morphology and crystallinity. It is worth noting that even moderate e-beam currents (86 pA) and acceleration voltages (10 kV) readily induce significant perovskite degradation and alter their optical properties. Therefore, attention has to be paid while characterizing such materials using scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy techniques. PMID:26804213

  16. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  17. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  18. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  19. Degradation of ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Seon Ah; Cho, Jae Young

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of degradation of antibiotic ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution with the use of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of ampicillin was close to 95% at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation of ampicillin followed a "first-order" reaction rate with respect to absorbed dose. The results demonstrate that the electron beam irradiation technology is an effective means to remove antibiotics in manure and bodies of water.

  20. Degradation of ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Seon Ah; Cho, Jae Young

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of degradation of antibiotic ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution with the use of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of ampicillin was close to 95% at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation of ampicillin followed a 'first-order' reaction rate with respect to absorbed dose. The results demonstrate that the electron beam irradiation technology is an effective means to remove antibiotics in manure and bodies of water.

  1. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  2. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  3. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  4. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  5. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  6. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  7. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  8. Theory of electron degradation and yields of initial molecular species produced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.; Dillon, M.A.; Kimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ionizing radiations generate in matter a large number of energetic electrons, which in turn collide with molecules in matter, produce ions and excited states, and thereby degrade in energy. The description of the consequences of many collision processes to the electrons and to matter is the goal of the electron degradation theory. They summarize the current understanding of this topic, which is important as a basis of radiation chemistry and biology. In addition, they present an initial report of their new work, namely, a generalization of the Spencer-Fano theory to time-dependent cases

  9. Identification of Degradation Products of Lincomycin and Iopromide by Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yongbyoung; Ham, Hyunsun; Myung, Seungwoon

    2013-01-01

    Lincomycin and Iopromide are major species among the Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from four major rivers in Korea. The structure characterization of six lincomycin's and two iopromide's degradation products formed under the irradiation of electron beam was performed, and the degradation efficiency as a function of the various irradiation dose and sample concentration was investigated. Electron beam (10 MeV, 0.5 mA and 5 kW) experiments for the structural characterization of the degradation products, which is fortified with lincomycin, were performed at the dose of 10 kGy. The separation of its degradation products and lincomycin was carried by C18 column (2.1 Χ 100 mm, 3.5 μm), using gradient elution with 20 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The structures of degradation products of lincomycin and iopromide were proposed by interpretation of mass spectra and chromatograms by LC/MS/MS, and also the mass fragmentation pathways of mass spectra in tandem mass spectrometry were proposed. The experiments of the degradation efficiency as a function of the irradiation dose intensity and the initial concentration of lincomycin in aqueous environment were performed, and higher dose of electron beam and lower concentration was observed the increased degradation efficiency

  10. Interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic propionate degrading consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Propionate is a key intermediate in the conversion of complex organic matter under methanogenic conditions. Oxidation of this compound requires obligate syntrophic consortia of acetogenic proton- and bicarbonate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Although H-2 acts as an electron-carrier in

  11. Lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants considering degradation of geothermal resource productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budisulistyo, Denny; Wong, Choon Seng; Krumdieck, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new lifetime strategy for binary plants considering thermal resource degradations. • The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as indicators. • The results indicate that the design based on point 2 has the best revenue. • Improving plant performance by parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. - Abstract: This work proposes a lifetime design strategy for binary geothermal plants which takes into account heat resource degradation. A model of the resource temperature and mass flow rate decline over a 30 year plant life is developed from a survey of data. The standard approach to optimise a basic subcritical cycle of n-pentane working fluid and select component sizes is used for the resource characteristics in years 1, 7, 15 and 30. The performances of the four plants designed for the different resource conditions are then simulated over the plant life to obtain the best lifetime design. The net present value and energy return on investment are selected as the measures of merit. The production history of a real geothermal well in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, is used as a case study for the lifetime design strategy. The results indicate that the operational parameters (such as mass flow rate of n-pentane, inlet turbine pressure and air mass flow rate) and plant performance (net power output) decrease over the whole plant life. The best lifetime plant design was at year 7 with partly degraded conditions. This condition has the highest net present value at USD 6,894,615 and energy return on investment at 4.15. Detailed thermo-economic analysis was carried out with the aim of improving the plant performance to overcome the resource degradation in two ways: operational parameters adjustments and adaptable designs. The results shows that mass flow rates of n-pentane and air cooling should be adjusted to maintain the performance over the plant life. The plant design can also be adapted by installing a recuperator

  12. Interspecies Electron Transfer during Propionate and Butyrate Degradation in Mesophilic, Granular Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J. E.; Ahring, B. K.

    1995-01-01

    Granules from a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor were disintegrated, and bacteria utilizing only hydrogen or formate or both hydrogen and formate were added to investigate the role of interspecies electron transfer during degradation of propionate and butyrate. The data indicate that the major electron transfer occurred via interspecies hydrogen transfer, while interspecies formate transfer may not be essential for interspecies electron transfer in this system during degrada...

  13. An empirical model to describe performance degradation for warranty abuse detection in portable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyunseok; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Keunsu; Youn, Byeng D.; Pecht, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Portable electronics makers have introduced liquid damage indicators (LDIs) into their products to detect warranty abuse caused by water damage. However, under certain conditions, these indicators can exhibit inconsistencies in detecting liquid damage. This study is motivated by the fact that the reliability of LDIs in portable electronics is suspected. In this paper, first, the scheme of life tests is devised for LDIs in conjunction with a robust color classification rule. Second, a degradation model is proposed by considering the two physical mechanisms—(1) phase change from vapor to water and (2) water transport in the porous paper—for LDIs. Finally, the degradation model is validated with additional tests using actual smartphone sets subjected to the thermal cycling of −15 °C to 25 °C and the relative humidity of 95%. By employing the innovative life testing scheme and the novel performance degradation model, it is expected that the performance of LDIs for a particular application can be assessed quickly and accurately. - Highlights: • Devise an efficient scheme of life testing for a warranty abuse detector in portable electronics. • Develop a performance degradation model for the warranty abuse detector used in portable electronics. • Validate the performance degradation model with life tests of actual smartphone sets. • Help make a decision on warranty service in portable electronics manufacturers

  14. Degradation and detoxification of aqueous nitrophenol solutions by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Weihua; Zheng Zheng; Rami, Abual-Suud; Zhou Tao; Hang Desheng

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to study the degradation of nitrophenol solutions by high-energy electron beam irradiation. The results showed that the degradation processes obey an apparent first-order degradation. At the higher irradiation doses the pH of solutions decreased; however, the dissolved organic carbon of the solutions was essentially unchanged. To investigate the toxicity of the radiolytic products the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge was determined. The toxicity of irradiated nitrophenol solutions decreased from the initial non-irradiated solutions

  15. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy and roughness study of dental composite degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Cortez, Louise Ribeiro; Zarur, Raquel de Oliveira; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the use of mouthwashes, consumption of soft drinks, as well as the type of light curing unit (LCU), would change the surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of a nanofilled composite resin (Z350® 3M ESPE). Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: Halogen LCU, group 1, saliva (control); group 2, Pepsi Twist®; group 3, Listerine®; group 4, Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, group 5, saliva; group 6, Pepsi Twist®; group 7, Listerine®; group 8, Colgate Plax®. Ra values were measured at baseline, and after 7 and 14 days. One specimen of each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis after 14 days. The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc test. All the treatments resulted in morphological changes in composite resin surface, and the most significant change was in Pepsi Twist® groups. The samples of G6 had the greatest increase in Ra. The immersion of nanofilled resin in mouthwashes with alcohol and soft drink increases the surface roughness. Polymerization by halogen LCU (reduced light intensity) associated with alcohol contained mouthwash resulted in significant roughness on the composite.

  17. Economic development, income inequality and environmental degradation of fisheries resources in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhee, Sanjeev K

    2004-07-01

    This article examines how environmental degradation of fisheries resources in the context of Mauritius is linked up with human investment in education, economic growth, and income inequality. Empirical evidence shows that public-sector investment in education promotes economic growth, but at the expense of greater inequality of income. Among the vulnerable groups affected by this type of development process lies the fisherman community. In fact, children of poor families in coastal Mauritius have constrained access to complete school education because of the persistently high opportunity cost involved. Hence, this community is caught up in a vicious circle, as its children or grandchildren would barely be redeployed elsewhere other than in the fisheries sector itself. Such exclusion might account for the overexploitation of marine resources of the island and the accompanying reduction in fish catch over recent years.

  18. Evaluation of degradation of antibiotic tetracycline in pig manure by electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Young

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the degradation efficiency and intermediate products of the tetracycline from artificially contaminated pig manure using of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of tetracycline was 42.77% at 1 kGy, 64.20% at 3 kGy, 77.83% at 5 kGy, and 90.50% at 10 kGy. The initial concentration of tetracycline (300 mg kg(-1)) in pig manure decreased significantly to 24.2 +/- 5.3 mg kg(-1) after electron beam irradiation at 10 kGy. The radiolytic degradation products of tetracycline were 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenamide, 11-octadecenamide, and octadecanoic acid.

  19. Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process driven by microbial fuel cells for triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Yuan-Dong [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Yan, Zhi-Ying [Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xia-Yuan [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Wei, Ping [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Jia, Hong-Hua [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Zheng, Tao, E-mail: zhengtao@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Nengyuan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yong, Yang-Chun, E-mail: ycyong@ujs.edu.cn [Biofuels Institute, School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process for TPTC degradation. - Highlights: • A Bio-Electro-Fenton process was performed for TPTC degradation. • TPTC removal efficiency achieved 78.32 ± 2.07% within 100 h. • The TPTC degradation rate (0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}) was much higher than previous reports. - Abstract: The intensive use of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) has caused serious environmental pollution. In this study, an effective method for TPTC degradation was proposed based on the Bio-Electron-Fenton process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum voltage of the MFC with graphite felt as electrode was 278.47% higher than that of carbon cloth. The electricity generated by MFC can be used for in situ generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to a maximum of 135.96 μmol L{sup −1} at the Fe@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3(*)}/graphite felt composite cathode, which further reacted with leached Fe{sup 2+} to produce hydroxyl radicals. While 100 μmol L{sup −1} TPTC was added to the cathodic chamber, the degradation efficiency of TPTC reached 78.32 ± 2.07%, with a rate of 0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This Bio-Electron-Fenton driving TPTC degradation might involve in Sn−C bonds breaking and the main process is probably a stepwise dephenylation until the formation of inorganic tin and CO{sub 2}. This study provides an energy saving and efficient approach for TPTC degradation.

  20. Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process driven by microbial fuel cells for triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Yuan-Dong; Yan, Zhi-Ying; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xia-Yuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Hong-Hua; Zheng, Tao; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process for TPTC degradation. - Highlights: • A Bio-Electro-Fenton process was performed for TPTC degradation. • TPTC removal efficiency achieved 78.32 ± 2.07% within 100 h. • The TPTC degradation rate (0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L"−"1 h"−"1) was much higher than previous reports. - Abstract: The intensive use of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) has caused serious environmental pollution. In this study, an effective method for TPTC degradation was proposed based on the Bio-Electron-Fenton process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum voltage of the MFC with graphite felt as electrode was 278.47% higher than that of carbon cloth. The electricity generated by MFC can be used for in situ generation of H_2O_2 to a maximum of 135.96 μmol L"−"1 at the Fe@Fe_2O_3_(_*_)/graphite felt composite cathode, which further reacted with leached Fe"2"+ to produce hydroxyl radicals. While 100 μmol L"−"1 TPTC was added to the cathodic chamber, the degradation efficiency of TPTC reached 78.32 ± 2.07%, with a rate of 0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L"−"1 h"−"1. This Bio-Electron-Fenton driving TPTC degradation might involve in Sn−C bonds breaking and the main process is probably a stepwise dephenylation until the formation of inorganic tin and CO_2. This study provides an energy saving and efficient approach for TPTC degradation.

  1. Degradation of pollutants and elimination of pathogens of waste water by adsorption of accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez M, I.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents a position of the pollutants degradation of the industrial residual waters, it intends a method that consists on making pass residual water, treated biologically by a packed column with activated carbon. The carbon retains the pollutants and the water goes out with a purity that allows the reuse. In simultaneous form to the adsorption of pollutants are made pass electrons through the column of carbon, the electrons will destroy to the polluting adsorbed in the carbon; the pollutants degrade until CO 2 that escapes as gas. The active sites of the carbon are empty and clever to be occupied by other pollutants. This process is continuous and it is repeated while water is passing by the column and electrons through this. (Author)

  2. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  3. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Francisco J., E-mail: fjcervantes@ipicyt.edu.mx [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. {yields} Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. {yields} Several species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 {mu}M of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 {+-} 27 micro-electron equivalents ({mu}Eq) L{sup -1}, linked to the reduction of 619 {+-} 81 {mu}Eq L{sup -1} of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two {gamma}-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, Francisco J.; Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del; Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. → Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. → Several species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 μM of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 ± 27 micro-electron equivalents (μEq) L -1 , linked to the reduction of 619 ± 81 μEq L -1 of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two γ-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  6. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  7. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  8. Two African woodfuel markets: urban demand, resource depletion, and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.; Milukas, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines charcoal markets in two African cities: Mogadishu, Somalia and Kigali, Rwanda. Economic theory dictates that if woodfuel resources become scarce, their real price will increase commensurately with the interest rate. Although Rwanda and Somalia represent drastically different physical environments, both are considered to be wood-scarce. But neither market has demonstrated straightforward depletion effects. In Mogadishu, the price first rose and then fell in reaction to shifts in the structure of the charcoal market, relaxed regulations, and economic contraction. In Rwanda, the price began rising only after the closing of the Bugasera Region to charcoal producers. Charcoal must be increasingly produced from private farmland. These two case studies highlight the importance of agricultural land clearance, conflicting government regulations, and shifts in market structure in determining whether or not charcoal prices will demonstrate depletion effects, and whether or not charcoal production will lead to local environmental degradation. (author)

  9. Degradation and toxicity assessment of sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline using electron beam, ozone and UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Sang Don; Kim, Hyun Young; Lim, Seung Joo; Lee, Myunjoo; Yu, Seungho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The degradation efficiency and trends for antibiotics were different between AOPs. ► The toxicities of target antibiotics were mainly affected by parent compounds. ► E-beam was electrically more energy efficient than ozone and UV-C. ► Application of AOPs should be considered according to the types of pharmaceuticals. - Abstract: Recently, the occurrence of antibiotics in sewage treatment plant effluent, as well as drinking water, has raised concern about their potential impacts on the environment and public health. Antibiotics are found in surface and ground waters, which indicate their ineffective removal by conventional wastewater treatment processes. Therefore, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have received considerable attention for the removal of antibiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline) using an electron beam, ozone and UV, and the change of toxicity. Also, the electrical energy consumption based on the EE/O parameter (the electrical energy required per order of pollutants removal in 1 m 3 wastewater) was used to quantify the energy cost associated with the different AOPs (electron beam, ozone and UV) for the degradation of antibiotics. The results showed that an electron beam effective for the removals of both sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline in aqueous solutions. However, degradation of the target compounds by ozone and UV showed different trends. The oxidation efficiency of each organic compound was very dependent upon the AOP used. Algal toxicity was significantly reduced after each treatment. However, based on the electrical energy, the electron beam was more efficient than ozone and UV. Electron beam treatment could be an effective and safe method for the removal of antibiotic compounds.

  10. Luminescence and electron degradation properties of Bi doped CaO phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, 11115 Omdurman (Sudan); Kroon, R.E.; Coetsee, E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Seed Ahmed, H.A.A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, 11115 Omdurman (Sudan); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Blue emitting Ca{sub 1−x}O:Bi{sub x=0.5%} phosphor powder was successfully prepared. • Strong blue near-UV emission was obtained. • Electron beam induced cathodoluminescence intensity degradation occurred. • XPS was successfully used to explain the degradation process. - Abstract: Ca{sub 1−x}O:Bi{sub x=0.5%} phosphor powder was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel combustion method. The structure, morphology and luminescent properties of the phosphor were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the Ca{sub 1−x}O:Bi{sub x=0.5%} consisted of single face-centred cubic crystals and that the phosphor particles were uniformly distributed. When the phosphor was excited by a xenon lamp at 355 nm, or a 325 nm He–Cd laser, or electron beam, it emitted strongly in the blue near-UV range with a wavelength of 395 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 1} → {sup 1}S{sub 0} transition of Bi{sup 3+}). The CL intensity was monitored as a function of the accelerating voltage and also as a function of the beam current. The powder was also subjected to a prolonged electron beam irradiation to study the electron beam induced CL intensity degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the Ca{sub 1−x}O:Bi{sub x=0.5%} phosphor sample surface before and after degradation.

  11. Database for the degradation risk assessment of groundwater resources (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, M.; Dragone, V.; Mitolo, D.

    2003-04-01

    The risk characterisation of quality degradation and availability lowering of groundwater resources has been pursued for a wide coastal plain (Basilicata region, Southern Italy), an area covering 40 km along the Ionian Sea and 10 km inland. The quality degradation is due two phenomena: pollution due to discharge of waste water (coming from urban areas) and due to salt pollution, related to seawater intrusion but not only. The availability lowering is due to overexploitation but also due to drought effects. To this purpose the historical data of 1,130 wells have been collected. Wells, homogenously distributed in the area, were the source of geological, stratigraphical, hydrogeological, geochemical data. In order to manage space-related information via a GIS, a database system has been devised to encompass all the surveyed wells and the body of information available per well. Geo-databases were designed to comprise the four types of data collected: a database including geometrical, geological and hydrogeological data on wells (WDB), a database devoted to chemical and physical data on groundwater (CDB), a database including the geotechnical parameters (GDB), a database concering piezometric and hydrological (rainfall, air temperature, river discharge) data (HDB). The record pertaining to each well is identified in these databases by the progressive number of the well itself. Every database is designed as follows: a) the HDB contains 1,158 records, 28 of and 31 fields, mainly describing the geometry of the well and of the stratigraphy; b) the CDB encompasses data about 157 wells, based on which the chemical and physical analyses of groundwater have been carried out. More than one record has been associated with these 157 wells, due to periodic monitoring and analysis; c) the GDB covers 61 wells to which the geotechnical parameters obtained by soil samples taken at various depths; the HDB is designed to permit the analysis of long time series (from 1918) of piezometric

  12. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  13. Spatial and temporal analysis of natural resources degradation in the Likodra River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important natural resource whose proper use requires a good knowledge of all endogenous and exogenous factors that cause different types of degradation. Erosion is one of the forms of soil degradation. Erosion processes are characterized by a distinctive complexity and the factors affecting them are dynamics and change in space and time. A complex system degradation requires a multidisciplinary approach to the use of modern methods and techniques. Today, a large number of models are available for the assessment of soil loss through erosion as well as the levels of risk from erosion, today. Most of these are based on the logics of GIS thanks to its ability to sublimate heterogeneous information. In this paper, the analysis of spatial and temporal degradation of natural resources is carried out in the Likodra River watershed. The Likodra River is located in the northwestern part of the Republic of Serbia, and is positioned in the municipality of Krupanj. The main stream in the immediate vicinity of the town of Krupanj formed from four small streams that have expressed torrential character (the Bogoštica with the Kržava and the Čađavica with the Brštica. In May 2014, the urban area and rural parts of the municipality Krupanj were affected by catastrophic flash floods that resulted in the loss of human lives and enormous material damage. Soil degradation in the study area was analyzed using the Erosion Potential Method (EPM. The method is characterized by a high degree of reliability for determining the intensity of erosion, calculation of sediment yield and transport. The advantage of this method compared to other methods its lower complexity in terms of quantity of input parameters, simplicity and the possibility of application in GIS. In addition, the method has the advantage of choice, because it was developed in this area. The method is based on the analytical processing of data on factors affecting erosion. As the erosion

  14. Time-dependent aspects of electron degradation: 4, Subexcitation electrons in nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Mineo; Inokuti, Mitio; Kowari, Ken-ichi; Dillon, M.A.; Pagnamenta, A.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss here the temporal behavior of subexcitation electrons and the yields of products due to these subexcitation electrons. Our examples concern cases in which resonance scattering of electrons occurs, such as vibrational and rotational excitation in N 2 and negative-ion formation in CO 2 . One focus of the present work is a test of the continuous-slowing-down-approximation (CSDA) which we compare to the full solution of the time-dependent Spencer-Fano theory, which has been developed recently. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Against 'green development fantasies': resource degradation and the lack of community resistance in the middle Mahakam wetlands, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, G.; de Jong, E. B .P.

    2010-01-01

    In the middle Mahakam wetlands, East Kalimantan, local populations are hit hard by ecological deterioration in the form of degraded water quality, floods, depletion of fish stocks, and increasing sedimentation and aquatic weeds. In the short term, resources such as fish and wood are being depleted,

  16. Surface roughness induced electron mobility degradation in InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengyun; Yip, Sen Po; Han, Ning; Fok, KitWa; Lin, Hao; Hou, Jared J; Dong, Guofa; Hung, Tak Fu; Chan, K S; Ho, Johnny C

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of the surface roughness dependent electron mobility in InAs nanowires grown by the nickel-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method. These nanowires have good crystallinity, well-controlled surface morphology without any surface coating or tapering and an excellent peak field-effect mobility up to 15 000 cm 2 V −1 s −1 when configured into back-gated field-effect nanowire transistors. Detailed electrical characterizations reveal that the electron mobility degrades monotonically with increasing surface roughness and diameter scaling, while low-temperature measurements further decouple the effects of surface/interface traps and phonon scattering, highlighting the dominant impact of surface roughness scattering on the electron mobility for miniaturized and surface disordered nanowires. All these factors suggest that careful consideration of nanowire geometries and surface condition is required for designing devices with optimal performance. (paper)

  17. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons; Degradacion de naftaleno y fluoreno por radiolisis empleando electrones acelerados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores de Jesus, I

    2003-07-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  18. Degradation of naphthalene and fluorene by radiolysis using accelerated electrons; Degradacion de naftaleno y fluoreno por radiolisis empleando electrones acelerados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores de Jesus, I

    2003-07-01

    The volume of the dangerous wastes in global level is causing the poisoning of planet and all of the ecosystems, degrading the life level of millions of humans and causing serious problems in the public health. Since a years ago the volumes of organic effluents generated by the few industry and small populations were so tiny that a natural debugger process in a time and space delimited, acquiring again their natural characteristics and they could be used again. Nowadays these wastes are so numerous and precise in some cases that the capacity of natural purification in the receiving channel is not enough, in addition to the difficulty to treat them in conventional processes, this leads to the decrease in the water's quality making impossible its future use and causing with this a serious ecological problem. This fact has motivated the development of measures that tend to the conservation of the environment and in consequence, the development of debugger technologies with no generation of sub products that often are more dangerous than the originals, due to the previous thing, the treatment by means of radiation of the water is impelled since is a method that allows to degrade or to eliminate in simultaneous form pathogenic microorganisms and organic substances. The radiation by means of electrons beams is a method of advanced treatment who allows to degrade organic compounds, transforming them in compounds with less molecular weight, and in the best of the cases until its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. In the present thesis the objective is the study of naphthalene and fluorene degradation by means of radiation with electron beams, establishing the operating conditions of the accelerator of Pelletron type. This research is supported by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, of a joint way with a series of antecedents in this subject, established in previous research with respect to the treatment of residual waters in a great scale, giving

  19. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  20. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  1. Research On Degradation Of Silk Fibroin By Combination Of Electron Beam Irradiation And Hydrothermal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Silk fibers and silk proteins have been demonstrated to be useful to apply in the textile industry, biomedical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals. In this study, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation combined with hydrothermal processing to the solubility of silk fibroin and generation of soluble silk protein were investigated. The solubility of unirradiated and irradiated fibroin were greater than 80 % when hydrothermal degradation was performed in the sodium hydroxide solution at appropriate concentration of 0.05 M. However, the solubility of irradiated fibroin was greater than that of unirradiated sample. The protein content increased from 0.4617 to 0.6530 mg/mg when irradiation doses increased from 0 to 200 kGy, respectively. The molecular weight of protein was determined by SDS-PAGE method. The characteristics of silk protein were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  2. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  3. The impact of alkali metal halide electron donor complexes in the photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuzwayo, Z., E-mail: zack.khuzwayo@up.ac.za; Chirwa, E.M.N

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Facilitation of photocatalysis using simple metal-halides as VB hole scavengers. • Recombination prevention by coupled valence and conduction band approaches. • Determination of anions critical levels beyond which process retardation occurs. • Determination of the photocatalytic process rate of reaction kinetics. - Abstract: The performance of photocatalytic oxidation of chemical pollutants is subjected to the presence of anion complexes in natural waters. This study investigated the influence of alkali metal (Na{sup +} (sodium), K{sup +} (potassium)) halides (Cl{sup −} (chloride), Br{sup −} (bromide), F{sup −} (fluoride)) as inorganic ion sources in the photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in batch systems. It was found that the exclusive presence of halides in the absence of an electron acceptor adequately facilitated the photocatalyst process below critical levels of anion populations, where beyond the critical point the process was significantly hindered. Below the determined critical point, the performance in some cases near matches that of the facilitation of the photocatalytic process by exclusive oxygen, acting as an electron scavenger. The coupling of halide ions and oxygenation presented significantly improved photo-oxidation of PCP, this was confirmed by the inclusion of formic acid as a comparative electron donor. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression was used to calculate the performance rate kinetics. The probable impact of the halide anions was discussed with regards to the process of electron hole pair recombination prevention.

  4. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  5. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  6. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  7. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  8. Study on the radiation degradation of polyether-polyurethane induced by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wei; Xiong Jie; Chen Xiaojun; Gao Xiaoling; Xu Yunshu; Fu Yibei

    2007-01-01

    Polyether-urethane samples were irradiated at the dose range from 10 to 2000 kGy by 2 MeV electron beams. Volatile species from the polymer degradation were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively with GC/MS. Thermal properties and micro-phase separation of the samples were examined by TG and the morphology was studied by TEM and SEM. The results show that the irradiated polyether-polyurethane evolves CO 2 , H 2 , CH 4 and C 2 H 6 , etc. The thermal stabilities between the hard and soft segments in the irradiated samples are different. At high doses, the phase separation in the sample is predominant and the hard segment of sample is more stable. The dose rate affects the soft segment of the irradiated sample much more. (author)

  9. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  10. The mechanisms and process of acephate degradation by hydroxyl radical and hydrated electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The degradation process of acephate in aqueous solution with ·OH and eaq− produced by 60Co-γ irradiation and electron pulse radiolysis was studied in the present paper. In the aqueous solution, acephate reacted with eaq− and transformed to transient species which can absorb weakly in the wavelength range of 300–400 nm and decay very fast. According to the decay of hydrated electron, the reaction rate constant of eaq− and acephate is (3.51 ± 0.076 × 109 dm3·mol−1·s−1. The transient species produced in the reaction of ·OH and acephate do not distinctly absorb the light in the wavelength range of 300–700 nm, so the decay and kinetics of the transient species cannot determinedirectly. The competing reaction of KSCN oracephate with ·OH were studied to obtain the reaction rate constant of ·OH and acephate, which is (9.1 ± 0.11 × 108 dm3·mol−1·s−1. Although acetylamide and inorganic ions were determined in the products of the reaction of acephate with ·OH or eaq−, the concentration of inorganic ions in the products of the reaction of acephate with ·OH is higher than that in the product of the reaction of acephate with eaq−. Moreover, there were sulfide in the products of the reaction of acephatewith eaq−. The degradation pathways of acephate by ·OH and eaq− were also proposed based on the products from GC-MS.

  11. Deciphering effects of functional groups and electron density on azo dyes degradation by graphene loaded TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian [College of Chemical Engineering, HuaQiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liang, Xiao [School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Chen, Bor-Yann [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, 26047, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chang-Tang, E-mail: ctchang@niu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, 26047, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The degradation pathways of RB5, RB171 and RR198 have been identified. • The favorable bond to be broken under photo degradation was deciphered in this research. • The breakages of the bonds were due to the electron density changes around the bonds. • The hydroxyl radicals as the main oxidized species were confirmed by positive hole trapper and ESR. - Abstract: This study tended to decipher the mechanism of photo degradation of azo dyes, which bond was favorable to be broken for application of wastewater decolorization. That is, from chemical structure perspective, the critical substituents to affect electron donor/acceptor for dye degradation would be identified in this research. The model reactive blacks (RB5), reactive blue 171 (RB171) and reactive red 198 (RR198) were degraded by graphene loaded TiO{sub 2}, indicating how the electron withdrawing and releasing groups affect azo dye degradability. The byproducts and intermediate products were analyzed by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Furthermore, the radicals involved in the reaction were found by electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR) to confirm the main oxidized species of hydroxyl radicals rather than the light generated positive holes. The finding revealed that the breakages of the bonds were due to the electron density changes around the bonds. This principle can be applicable not only for RB5 degradation, but also for reactive blue 171 (RB171), reactive red 198 (RR198) and some other textile dyes.

  12. Conversion of Blue Water into Green Water for Improving Utilization Ratio of Water Resources in Degraded Karst Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation deterioration and soil loss are the main causes of more precipitation leakages and surface water shortages in degraded karst areas. In order to improve the utilization of water resources in such regions, water storage engineering has been considered; however, site selection and cost associated with the special karstic geological structure have made this difficult. According to the principle of the Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum, increasing both vegetation cover and soil thickness would change water cycle process, resulting in a transformation from leaked blue water (liquid form into green water (gas or saturated water form for terrestrial plant ecosystems, thereby improving the utilization of water resources. Using the Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model and the geographical distributed approach, this study simulated the conversion from leaked blue water (leakage into green water in the environs of Guiyang, a typical degraded karst area. The primary results were as follows: (1 Green water in the area accounted for <50% of precipitation, well below the world average of 65%; (2 Vegetation growth played an important role in converting leakage into green water; however, once it increased to 56%, its contribution to reducing leakage decreased sharply; (3 Increasing soil thickness by 20 cm converted the leakage considerably. The order of leakage reduction under different precipitation scenarios was dry year > normal year > rainy year. Thus, increased soil thickness was shown effective in improving the utilization ratio of water resources and in raising the amount of plant ecological water use; (4 The transformation of blue water into green water, which avoids constructions of hydraulic engineering, could provide an alternative solution for the improvement of the utilization of water resources in degraded karst area. Although there are inevitable uncertainties in simulation process, it has important significance for overcoming similar

  13. Degradation of non-vulcanized natural rubber - renewable resource for fine chemicals used in polymer synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fainleib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario, there is growing interest in the products of degradation of rubber (natural and synthetic for specific applications in different industry sectors, whose benefits in replacing conventionally used products are mainly related to sustainability. Since the degradation products of rubber can be used in different areas, several research groups may have the interest aroused by these products, but are not familiar with the aspects related to the chemical behavior of rubber. This review aims to bring together the key information in the published literature on the degradation of natural rubber, emphasizing metatheses reactions, oxidative damage and splitting of the double bond, in order to serve as a reference source for researchers from different fields interested in obtaining such kind of products. The structures and properties as well as additional chemical transformations resulting in oligomers of isoprene, functionalised oligomers and polymers based on both are also described.

  14. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  15. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  16. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  17. Decoloration and degradation of Reactive Red-120 dye by electron beam irradiation in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jhimli; Rawat, K.P.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-01-01

    The decoloration and degradation of aqueous solution of the reactive azo dye viz. Reactive Red-120 (RR-120) was carried out by electron beam irradiation. The change in decoloration percentage, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), solution pH and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) were investigated with respect to the applied dose. However, the concentration of the dye in the solution showed a great influence on all these observables. During the radiolysis process, it was found that the decoloration of dye was caused by the destruction of the chromophore group of the dye molecule, whereas COD and TOC removal were depended on the extent of mineralization of the dye. The decrease in pH during the radiolysis process indicated the fragmentation of the large dye molecule into smaller organic components mostly like smaller organic acids. The BOD 5 /COD ratio of the unirradiated dye solution was in the range of 0.1-0.2, which could be classified as non-biodegradable wastewater. However, the BOD 5 /COD ratio increased upon irradiation and it indicated the transformation of non-biodegradable dye solution into biodegradable solution. This study showed that electron beam irradiation could be a promising method for treatment of textile wastewater containing RR-120 dye.

  18. Research on degradation of silk fibroin by combination of electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Silk fibers and silk proteins have been demonstrated to be useful to apply in the textile industry, biomedical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals. In this study, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation combined with hydrothermal processing to the solubility of silk fibroin and generation of soluble silk protein were investigated. The solubility of unirradiated and irradiated fibroin samples were greater than 80 % when hydrothermal degradation was performed in the sodium hydroxide solution at an appropriate concentration of 0.05 M. However, the solubility of irradiated fibroin was greater than that of unirradiated sample. The soluble silk protein content increased from 0.462 to 0.653 mg protein/mg silk fibroin when irradiation doses increased from 0 to 200 kGy, respectively. The molecular weight of protein was determined by SDS-PAGE method. The characteristics of silk protein were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  19. Project and construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam radiotherapy for skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva

    2010-01-01

    There are many radiosensitive epidermotropics diseases such as mycosis fungo-ids and the syndrome of Sezary, coetaneous neoplasics originated from type T lymphocytes. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary not only a very large field size radiation beam, but also deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report no. 23 of the American Association of Physicists in Medi-cine (AAPM), the present study developed an energy scattering and degrading plates and made dosimetry (computational and experimental), supplying subsidies for a future installation of Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) at the Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built, several materials were analyzed for the plates design based on radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulation results were validated by experimental measurements in order to obtain a large field of radiation with 200 cm x 80 cm that meets the specifications of the AAPM protocol. (author)

  20. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  1. Non-electron transfer chain mitochondrial defects differently regulate HIF-1α degradation and transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina N. Shvetsova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the main consumers of molecular O2 in a cell as well as an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Both, molecular oxygen and ROS are powerful regulators of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-subunit (HIF-α. While a number of mechanisms in the oxygen-dependent HIF-α regulation are quite well known, the view with respect to mitochondria is less clear. Several approaches using pharmacological or genetic tools targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC indicated that ROS, mainly formed at the Rieske cluster of complex III of the ETC, are drivers of HIF-1α activation. However, studies investigating non-ETC located mitochondrial defects and their effects on HIF-1α regulation are scarce, if at all existing. Thus, in the present study we examined three cell lines with non-ETC mitochondrial defects and focused on HIF-1α degradation and transcription, target gene expression, as well as ROS levels. We found that cells lacking the key enzyme 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (MECR, and cells lacking manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD showed a reduced induction of HIF-1α under long-term (20 h hypoxia. By contrast, cells lacking the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome channel protein Mpv17 displayed enhanced levels of HIF-1α already under normoxic conditions. Further, we show that ROS do not exert a uniform pattern when mediating their effects on HIF-1α, although all mitochondrial defects in the used cell types increased ROS formation. Moreover, all defects caused a different HIF-1α regulation via promoting HIF-1α degradation as well as via changes in HIF-1α transcription. Thereby, MECR- and MnSOD-deficient cells showed a reduction in HIF-1α mRNA levels whereas the Mpv17 lacking cells displayed enhanced HIF-1α mRNA levels under normoxia and hypoxia. Altogether, our study shows for the first time that mitochondrial defects which are not related to the ETC and Krebs cycle

  2. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  3. Electron beam induced green luminescence and degradation study of CaS:Ce nanocrystalline phosphors for FED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinay, E-mail: vinaykdhiman@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Mishra, Varun [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402, Punjab (India); Biggs, M.M.; Nagpure, I.M.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Terblans, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc.sci@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2010-01-01

    Green luminescence and degradation of Ce{sup 3+} doped CaS nanocrystalline phosphors were studied with a 2 keV, 10 {mu}A electron beam in an O{sub 2} environment. The nanophosphors were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Cubic CaS with an average particle size of 42 {+-} 2 nm was obtained. PL emission was observed at 507 nm and a shoulder at 560 nm with an excitation wavelength of 460 nm. Auger electron spectroscopy and Cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to monitor the changes in the surface composition of the CaS:Ce{sup 3+} nanocrystalline phosphors during electron bombardment in an O{sub 2} environment. The effect of different oxygen pressures ranging from 1 x 10{sup -8} to 1 x 10{sup -6} Torr on the CL intensity was also investigated. A CaSO{sub 4} layer was observed on the surface after the electron beam degradation. The CL intensity was found to decrease up to 30% of its original intensity at 1 x 10{sup -6} Torr oxygen pressure after an electron dose of 50 C/cm{sup 2}. The formation of oxygen defects during electron bombardment may also be responsible for the decrease in CL intensity.

  4. Electron beam induced green luminescence and degradation study of CaS:Ce nanocrystalline phosphors for FED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vinay; Mishra, Varun; Biggs, M.M.; Nagpure, I.M.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Terblans, J.J.; Swart, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Green luminescence and degradation of Ce 3+ doped CaS nanocrystalline phosphors were studied with a 2 keV, 10 μA electron beam in an O 2 environment. The nanophosphors were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Cubic CaS with an average particle size of 42 ± 2 nm was obtained. PL emission was observed at 507 nm and a shoulder at 560 nm with an excitation wavelength of 460 nm. Auger electron spectroscopy and Cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to monitor the changes in the surface composition of the CaS:Ce 3+ nanocrystalline phosphors during electron bombardment in an O 2 environment. The effect of different oxygen pressures ranging from 1 x 10 -8 to 1 x 10 -6 Torr on the CL intensity was also investigated. A CaSO 4 layer was observed on the surface after the electron beam degradation. The CL intensity was found to decrease up to 30% of its original intensity at 1 x 10 -6 Torr oxygen pressure after an electron dose of 50 C/cm 2 . The formation of oxygen defects during electron bombardment may also be responsible for the decrease in CL intensity.

  5. Analysis of performance degradation in an electron heating dominant H-mode plasma after ECRH termination in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Ding, Siye; Chen, Jiale; Wang, Yifeng; Lian, Hui; Xu, Guosheng; Zhai, Xuemei; Liu, Haiqing; Zang, Qing; Lyu, Bo; Duan, Yanmin; Qian, Jinping; Gong, Xianzu

    2018-06-01

    In recent EAST experiments, significant performance degradation accompanied by a decrease of internal inductance is observed in an electron heating dominant H-mode plasma after the electron cyclotron resonance heating termination. The lower hybrid wave (LHW) deposition and effective electron heat diffusivity are calculated to explain this phenomenon. Analysis shows that the changes of LHW heating deposition rather than the increase of transport are responsible for the significant decrease in energy confinement (). The reason why the confinement degradation occurred on a long time scale could be attributed to both good local energy confinement in the core and also the dependence of LHW deposition on the magnetic shear. The electron temperature profile shows weaker stiffness in near axis region where electron heating is dominant, compared to that in large radius region. Unstable electron modes from low to high k in the core plasma have been calculated in the linear GYRO simulations, which qualitatively agree with the experimental observation. This understanding of the plasma performance degradation mechanism will help to find ways of improving the global confinement in the radio-frequency dominant scenario in EAST.

  6. Spatial profiling of degradation processes in hindered-amine-stabilized polymers by electron spin resonance imaging of nitroxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Antonín; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Pfleger, Jiří; Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, S (2005), s. 195-198 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /3./. Brno, 20.9.2005-22.9.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer degradation * nitroxides * electron spin resonance imaging Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  7. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( Pruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  8. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  9. Effects of Electron Acceptors, Reducing Agents, and Toxic Metabolites on Anaerobic Degradation of Heterocyclic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Dorthe; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Arvin, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of four heterocyclic compounds was examined under nitrate-reducing, sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Soil samples from a creosote-polluted site in Denmark were used as inoculum. Indole and quinoline were degraded under all redox conditions with the highest degradation...... of quinoline under sulphate-reducing conditions which was inhibited by sulphide at concentrations above 0.8 mM. Degradation of quinoline under methanogenic conditions was also inhibited by 3.2 mM sulphide used as a reducing agent, but sulphide had no inhibitory effect on the degradation of indole...... in methanogenic and sulphate-reducing soil slurries...

  10. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  11. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  12. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  13. Climate change, poverty and agricultural resource degradation: a case study of district d.g. khan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Bano, S.; Dawood, M.; Tarar, M.A.; Ali, A.

    2012-01-01

    Global development agendas are now being bonded with adaptation to climate change. Sustainable biodiversity and community adaptation to climate change are closely associated as depletion of natural resources adversely affects the living standard of people. Rapid climatic changes and intervention to regulate water resources in Indus delta of Pakistan have put the lives of millions of people residing near the Indus river belt at the stake of climate change. Therefore, this study was designed to inquire the socio-economic conditions of the people residing near the Indus river bank and the perceived impact of climate change on river belt agricultural resources specifically in district D. G. Khan. Based on primary data study employed univariate and bivariate analysis which suggested flood, wind storm and temperature as the significant climate change parameters affecting the land fertility, forest and fisheries. The Foster Greer and Thorbeck technique for calculating the poverty indicated that majority (82%) of population was below poverty line and most of them entirely depend on river belt agricultural resources which were found to be depleting due to rapid climate change. (author)

  14. Degradation of Dextran Produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 13146 using Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Tack; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Dextrans make up a family of glucans that have contiguous alpha-1.6 glucose linkages. Differences in the different dextrans in volve the types, amount, length, and arrangements of the arrangements of the branch chains. The principle type of branch linkages found are alpha-1.3, but alpha-1.2 and-1.4 branch linkages have been also observed. In recent days. dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longeveity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weigh of Μ w 10,000 to 100,000 have been applied for development of new type of drug delivery agent. Such a size of dextrans have been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, this objective of this research is to evaluate the characterization of branched degraded by a electron beam radiation. L. mesenteroides ATCC 13146 was cultured on te agar slant medium with the composition of 3.0 g K 2 HPO 4 , 0.01 g FeSO 4 . H 2 O, 0.01 g MnSO 4 . 7H 2 O, 0.01 g NaCl, 0.05 g CaCl 2 , 0.5g yeast extract, 15 g agar and 30 g sucrose per liter deionized water. Medium pH was adjusted to 6.0 prior to sterilization. Dextran production was conducted in a fermentor a working volume of 5 1 by using 18% sucrose under optimum pH condition. The inoculum was 2% of the working volume. Fermentation conditions are 28 C, 100 rpm agitation, and 1 vvm of aeration. The fermentation process continued until sucrose was consumed completely. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic accelerator. The irradiation doses ranged between 30 kGy to 80 kGy. After irradiation, processed dextran showed still a large of branched form. The degradation degree was increased as radiation intensity. The average molecular weight

  15. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  16. An instant photo-excited electrons relaxation on the photo-degradation properties of TiO2-x films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 293 (2014) 72–80 An instant photo-excited electrons relaxation on the photo- degradation properties of TiO2−x films S.S. Nkosi a,b,∗, I. Kortidis d, D.E. Motaungc,∗, P.R. Makgwanec, O.M. Ndwandwe b, S.S. Rayc, G...

  17. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals the responses of PBDE-degrading microbial communities to electron donor amendments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    Full Text Available Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs can be reductively degraded by microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. However, little is known about the effect of electron donors on microbial communities involved in PBDEs degradation. Here we employed 454 Titanium pyrosequencing to examine the phylogenetic diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of microbial communities from microcosms under the conditions of different electron donor amendments. The community structures in each of the five alternate electron donor enrichments were significantly shifted in comparison with those of the control microcosm. Commonly existing OTUs between the treatment and control consortia increased from 5 to 17 and more than 50% of OTUs increased around 13.7 to 186 times at least in one of the microcosms after 90-days enrichment. Although the microbial communities at different taxonomic levels were significantly changed by different environmental variable groups in redundancy analysis, significant correlations were observed between the microbial communities and PBDE congener profiles. The lesser-brominated PBDE congeners, tri-BDE congener (BDE-32 and hexa-BDE, were identified as the key factors shaping the microbial community structures at OTU level. Some rare populations, including the known dechlorinating bacterium, Dehalobacter, showed significant positive-correlation with the amounts of PBDE congeners in the consortia. The same results were also observed on some unclassified bacteria. These results suggest that PBDEs-degrading microbial communities can be successfully enriched, and their structures and compositions can be manipulated through adjusting the environmental parameters.

  18. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  19. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  20. Scanning electron microscopic study of the hydrolytic degradation of poly(glycolic acid) suture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.C.; Campbell, N.D.

    1982-01-01

    This article reports the morphological observations on the surface changes of poly-(glycolic acid) sutures which have been exposed to various dosages of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20 and 40 Mrad) and duration of immersion (0, 7, 14, 28, 48, 60, and 90 days) in a physiological saline buffer. The most important gross morphological characteristics of PGA suture hydrolytic degradation is the formation of surface cracks on the filaments. The regularity of the surface cracks increased with an increase in the gamma irradiation and the duration of hydrolysis. Surface cracks were not observed in irradiated sutures that had not been subjected to hydrolytic degradation. The arrangement of the surface cracks, their orientation on the filaments, and the direction of crack propagation provide very useful information for depicting the mechanism of hydrolytic degradation in this class of fibrous material. The microfibrillar model of fiber structure has been used as the basis for the proposed degradation mechanism of PGA in vitro. It is believed that hydrolysis occurs initially in the amorphous regions sandwiched between two crystalline zones, as tie-chain segments, free chain ends, and chain folds in these regions degrade into fragments. As degradation proceeds, the size of the fragments reaches the stage at which they can be dissolved into the buffer medium. This dissolution removes the fragments from the amorphous regions, and surface cracks appeared

  1. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  2. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  3. [Studies on photo-electron-chemical catalytic degradation of the malachite green].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-yu; Diao, Zeng-hui; Song, Lin; Wang, Xin-le; Zhang, Yuan-ming

    2010-07-01

    A novel two-compartment photo-electro-chemical catalytic reactor was designed. The TiO2/Ti thin film electrode thermally formed was used as photo-anode, and graphite as cathode and a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode in the reactor. The anode compartment and cathode compartment were connected with the ionic exchange membrane in this reactor. Effects of initial pH, initial concentration of malachite green and connective modes between the anode compartment and cathode compartment on the decolorization efficiency of malachite green were investigated. The degradation dynamics of malachite green was studied. Based on the change of UV-visible light spectrum, the degradation process of malachite green was discussed. The experimental results showed that, during the time of 120 min, the decolouring ratio of the malachite green was 97.7% when initial concentration of malachite green is 30 mg x L(-1) and initial pH is 3.0. The catalytic degradation of malachite green was a pseudo-first order reaction. In the degradation process of malachite green the azo bond cleavage and the conjugated system of malachite green were attacked by hydroxyl radical. Simultaneity, the aromatic ring was oxidized. Finally, malachite green was degraded into other small molecular compounds.

  4. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S.R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  6. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  7. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  8. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  9. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. An extended collection length model for the description of keV-electron induced degradation and thermal recovery of p-i-n solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.; Schroder, B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of keV-electron degradation and annealing experiments obtained on a-Si:H based p-i-n solar cells are interpretated under inclusion of models developed earlier for the degradation of a-Si:H films and are placed in the framework of an extended collection length model. The strong degradation of the cell parameters j sc and FF due to considerable keV-electron irradiation can be explained quantitatively. This enables a crucial test of the validity of the mathematical models for the keV-electron induced effects developed so far. Furthermore the results of a detailed investigation of the thermal recovery of electron-degraded solar cells can be cleared up consistently. Some unresolved issues are discussed, and experiments to resolve these questions are proposed

  11. Post-irradiation degradation of DNA in electron and neutron-irradiated E. coli B/r; the effect of the radiation sensitizer metronidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramp, W A; George, A M; Howlett, J [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1976-04-01

    Suspensions of E.coli B/r were irradiated under aerobic and anoxic conditions with electrons (7 to 8 MeV, 2 and 20 krad/min, MRC linear accelerator), or with neutrons (average energy 7.5 MeV, 2 krad/min, MRC cyclotron) in an investigation of the effects of the radiosensitizer, metronidazole (Flagyl, 5 or 10 mM) on survival and DNA degradation. These results are compared with those for another electron affinic radiosensitizer, indane trione. Survival studies yielded enhancement ratios, for anoxic irradiation only, of 1.7 (5mM) and 1.9 (10mM) for electrons, and 1.2 (5mM and 10mM) for neutrons. Unlike indane trione, metronidazole had no pronounced inhibitory effect on post-irradiation DNA degradation, either when incubated with the bacteria before irradiation or when present during irradiation. When present under anoxic conditions of irradiation with electrons, some enhancement of degradation was observed. DNA degradation was reduced at higher doses, with a pronounced maxiumum effect, for neutrons as well as for electrons. Metronidazole allowed this degradation to continue and showed some sensitizing action, but did not prevent the decrease in total degradation at high doses. It is therefore difficult to correlate DNA degradation with cell-depth.

  12. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  13. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  14. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  15. Electron and ion beam degradation effects in AES analysis of silicon nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransen, F.; Vanden Berghe, R.; Vlaeminck, R.; Hinoul, M.; Remmerie, J.; Maes, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Silicon nitride films are currently investigated by AES combined with ion profiling techniques for their stoichiometry and oxygen content. During this analysis, ion beam and primary electron effects were observed. The effect of argon ion bombardment is the preferential sputtering of nitrogen, forming 'covalent' silicon at the surface layer (AES peak at 91 eV). The electron beam irradiation results in a decrease of the covalent silicon peak, either by an electron beam annealing effect in the bulk of the silicon nitride film, or by an ionization enhanced surface diffusion process of the silicon (electromigration). By the electron beam annealing, nitrogen species are liberated in the bulk of the silicon nitride film and migrate towards the surface where they react with the covalent silicon. The ionization enhanced diffusion originates from local charging of the surface, induced by the electron beam. (author)

  16. Three-Dimensional Printed Poly(vinyl alcohol) Substrate with Controlled On-Demand Degradation for Transient Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinsu; Han, Jungmin; Choi, Bongsik; Lee, Yongwoo; Kim, Yeamin; Park, Jinhee; Lim, Meehyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Sungho; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2018-05-25

    Electronics that degrade after stable operation for a desired operating time, called transient electronics, are of great interest in many fields, including biomedical implants, secure memory devices, and environmental sensors. Thus, the development of transient materials is critical for the advancement of transient electronics and their applications. However, previous reports have mostly relied on achieving transience in aqueous solutions, where the transience time is largely predetermined based on the materials initially selected at the beginning of the fabrication. Therefore, accurate control of the transience time is difficult, thereby limiting their application. In this work, we demonstrate transient electronics based on a water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) substrate on which carbon nanotube (CNT)-based field-effect transistors were fabricated. We regulated the structural parameters of the PVA substrate using a three-dimensional (3D) printer to accurately control and program the transience time of the PVA substrate in water. The 3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly, thus enabling the efficient fabrication of a transient substrate with a prescribed and controlled transience time. In addition, the 3D printer was used to develop a facile method for the selective and partial destruction of electronics.

  17. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  18. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  19. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  20. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  1. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  2. Time dependent degradation of energetic electrons in gaseous and condensed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, M.; Kimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    A transport equation formulated by Spencer and Fano has been used to calculate initial yields of products formed by electron interactions under conditions of steady state irradiation. Since experimental observation of initial yields may now be possible it is desirable to generalize the treatment of Spencer and Fano to include transient effects explicitly. 6 refs., 2 figs

  3. Degradation of thin poly(lactic acid) films: Characterization by capacitance–voltage, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact-angle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schusser, S.; Menzel, S.; Bäcker, M.; Leinhos, M.; Poghossian, A.; Wagner, P.; Schöning, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    For the development of new biopolymers and implantable biomedical devices with predicted biodegradability, simple, non-destructive, fast and inexpensive techniques capable for real-time in situ testing of the degradation kinetics of polymers are highly appreciated. In this work, a capacitive field-effect electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) sensor has been applied for real-time in situ monitoring of degradation of thin poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) films over a long-time period of one month. Generally, the polymer-modified EIS (PMEIS) sensor is capable of detecting any changes in the bulk, surface and interface properties of the polymer (e.g., thickness, coverage, dielectric constant, surface potential) induced by degradation processes. The time-dependent capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of PMEIS structures were used as an indicator of the polymer degradation. To accelerate the PDLLA degradation, experiments were performed in alkaline buffer solution of pH 10.6. The results of these degradation measurements with the EIS sensor were verified by the detection of lactic acid (product of the PDLLA degradation) in the degradation medium. In addition, the micro-structural and morphological changes of the polymer surface induced by the polymer degradation have been systematically studied by means of scanning-electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, optical microscopy, and contact-angle measurements

  4. Degradation of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Different AlGaN Layer Thicknesses under Strong Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yang; Yue, Hao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Jing-Jing, Ma; Cheng, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has a close relationship with a model of traps in AlGaN barriers as a result of high electric field. We mainly discuss the impacts of strong electrical field on the AlGaN barrier thickness of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that the device with a thin AlGaN barrier layer is more easily degraded. We study the degradation of four parameters, i.e. the gate series resistance R Gate , channel resistance R channel , gate current I G,off at V GS = −5 and V DS = 0.1 V, and drain current I D,max at V GS = 2 and V DS = 5 V. In addition, the degradation mechanisms of the device electrical parameters are also investigated in detail. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Degradation study of trichloroethylene and perchloric ethylene using high energy electron beam generated in industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.L.R.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Avolio, R.M.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Vieira, J.M.; Rela, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The pollution of potable water with chlorinated hydrocarbons, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloric ethylene (PCE), is seriously increasing the problem of contamination of water, specially in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies show that depuration by ionizing radiation has been considered a possible alternative to the control of water pollution, wherein the process by ionizing radiation converts TCE and PCE into approximately 100% carbon dioxide ions. Water samples containing TCE e PCE were submitted to radiation in the pilot plant installed in the industrial electron accelerator at IPEN from Radiation Dynamics, Dynamitron II, of 1,5 MeV - 25 m A, with doses varying from 2 kGy to 8 kGy, being its parameters analyzed before and after irradiation TCE and PCE concentrations were determined by the gas chromatography method by liquid-liquid extraction using a gas chromatograph, model CG 90, with an electron capture detector. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  6. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  7. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  8. Electron beam irradiation, oxygen, and temperature effects on nucleotide degradation in stored aquaculture hybrid striped bass fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahadian, C.; Brannan, R.G.; Heath, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Skinless fillets from commercially-grown aquaculture hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops) were electron beam-irradiated in the presence of air or vacuum-packaged and stored at 4C and -20C for 14 days. A mean low dose level of 2.0 or 3.0 kGy (+/- 0.5 kGy) and high dose level of 20 kGy (+/- 4 kGy) were used for irradiated samples. Hypoxanthine (Hx) concentrations, Ki-values ([(INO + Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100), and H-values ([(Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100) indicated that irradiation did not influence the rate of nucleotide degradation compared with nonirradiated controls at either refrigerated or frozen temperatures. Vacuum packaging or freezing of stored samples resulted in lower H-values and Hx contents compared with nonirradiated controls regardless of irradiation treatment

  9. Post-ion beam induced degradation of copper layers in transmission electron microscopy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, F.; Richard, O.; Bender, H.; Vandervorst, W.

    2015-11-01

    Copper containing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens frequently show corrosion after focused ion beam (FIB) preparation. This paper reveals that the corrosion product is a Cu-S phase growing over the specimen surface. The layer is identified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and lattice spacing indexing of power spectra patterns. The corrosion process is further studied by TEM on cone-shaped specimens, which are intentionally stored after FIB preparation with S flakes for short time. Furthermore, a protective method against corrosion is developed by varying the time in the FIB vacuum and the duration of a subsequent plasma cleaning.

  10. Degradation of edible oil during food processing by ultrasound: electron paramagnetic resonance, physicochemical, and sensory appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Durand, Grégory; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Ginies, Christian; Chemat, Farid

    2012-08-08

    During ultrasound processing of lipid-containing food, some off-flavors can be detected, which can incite depreciation by consumers. The impacts of ultrasound treatment on sunflower oil using two different ultrasound horns (titanium and pyrex) were evaluated. An electron paramagnetic resonance study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of classical physicochemical parameters such as peroxide value, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes, polar compounds, water content, polymer quantification, fatty acid composition, and volatiles profile. The study shows an increase of formed radicals in sonicated oils, as well as the modification of physicochemical parameters evidencing an oxidation of treated oils.

  11. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  12. Degradation Of Aggregate Pollutant In Textiles Wastewater By Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Zulkafli Ghazali; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Selambakkannu, S.; Ming, T.T.; Natasha Isnin; Hasnul Nizam Osman; Khasmidatul Akma Mohd Khairul Azmi

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate pollutant were refer to the mixture of the excess material that is used in the manufacturing proses of textiles, present in wastewater. This paper studies the effect of the beam energy, beam current and absorbed dose on degradation of aggregate pollutant in textiles effluent which was indicate by COD, pH and UV-Vis spectrum. The impact of beam energy was conducted when sample were exposed to the irradiation at various beam energy (1 to 3 MeV) at 20 mA and 17 kGy. The COD reduced from 495 mg/l to the range 398.00 -358 mg/l at beam energy 1 MeV to 3 MeV. The irradiated sample also slightly become more acidic at higher beam energy. While 1 MeV beam energy was sufficient to eliminate the exposed peak at wavelength of 425 nm, 550 nm and 650 nm in the UV spectrum. In the case effect of current, the COD effluent tested at constant beam energy of 1 MeV and 3 MeV at various beam current (3 mA, 5 mA, 10 mA, 15 mA and 20 mA) decreased with higher beam current. While interested peak in UV spectrum of irradiated samples was varnish at 3 mA beam current and 1 MeV energy applied. Considering to the 19.66 % COD removal and electric power used, 1 MeV beam energy and 20 mA beam current was the optimum irradiation parameter selected for this study. At 1 MeV:20 mA textiles wastewater irradiated at various dose of 17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 100 and 200 kGy shows removal of COD, were in the range 4.42 % - 30.09 %. (author)

  13. Degradation in tensile properties of aromatic polymers by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Yoshida, K.; Hagiwara, M.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation effects of ten kinds of polymers containing various aromatic rings linked by functional groups in the main chain (aromatic polymer) were studied with reference to change in tensile properties. The polymers studied were polyimides 'Kapton H', and 'UPILEX', polyetherimide 'ULTEM', polyamides 'A-Film' and 'APH-50 (nomex type paper)', poly-ether-ether-ketone 'PEEK', polyarylate 'U-Polymer', polysulphones 'Udel-Polysulphone' and 'PES', and modified poly(phenylene oxide) 'NORYL'. Irradiation was carried out by use of electron beam at a dose rate of 5 x 10 3 Gy s -1 at room temperature. The elongation at break was the most severely influenced by the irradiation and it decreased with increasing dose. The order of radiation resistivity which was evaluated from the dose required for the elongation to become 50% and 20% of the initial value was as follows: Polyimide > PEEK > polyamide > polyetherimide > polyarylate > polysulphone, poly(phenylene oxide). Based on the above experimental results, an order is proposed for the radiation stability of the aromatic repeating units composing the main chain. (author)

  14. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  15. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  16. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  17. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  18. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  19. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  20. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  2. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. SD simulation study on degraded farmland policy on farming-pastoral area under the constrains of water resources-Taking Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. P.; Zhao, B.; Li, T. S.; Zhu, J. W.; Yu, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources are the primary factor in restricting the sustainable development of farming-pastoral regions. To support the sustainable development of water resources, whether or not the land uses patterns of farming-pastoral areas is a reasonably important issue. This paper takes Tongliao city as example for the purpose of sustainably developing the farming-pastoral area in the north. Several scientific preductions and evaluations were conducted to study the farming-pastoral landuse pattern, which is the key problem that effects sustainable development of farming-pastoral areas. The paper then proposes that 1:7 landuse pattern is suitable for the sustainable development of farming-pastotal area. Based on the analysis of the research findings on sustainable development of farming-pastoral area, the paper established a suitability evaluation indicators system of degraded farmland policies in Tongliao city, and used an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to determine the weight to run system dynamic (SD) model. The simulation results were then obtained on social economic ecological development in Tongliao city under different degraded farmland policies, and used the comprehensive evaluation model to optimize the results. It is concluded that stabilizing the policy of degraded farmland policy is the preferential policy in Tongliao, which provides useful theoretical research for the sustainable development of farming-pastoral area.

  4. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  5. Why do forest products become less available? A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our

  6. Degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells due to the ionization effect of low-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Shirou, E-mail: kawakita.shirou@jaxa.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Imaizumi, Mitsuru [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Ishizuka, Shogo; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Okuda, Shuichi [Osaka Prefecture University (OPU), Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Kusawake, Hiroaki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Cu (In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells were irradiated with 100 keV electrons to reveal the characteristics of created radiation defects. 100 keV electrons cannot produce any displacement defects in CIGS. Low-fluence electrons improve the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells due to the change in the conductive type of donor to acceptor in a metastable defect, which is equivalent to the light-soaking effect. However, high fluence electrons cause the cell performance to decline. From analysis based on changes in carrier density and electroluminescence, defects causing the decline in performance include donor- and non-radiative types. In addition, red-on-bias experiments showed an increase in III{sub Cu} defects due to electron irradiation. Based on these results, the degradation in the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells irradiated with high electron fluence would be attributable to a change in the conductive type of III{sub Cu} defects. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar cells were irradiated with 100 and 250 keV electrons at low temperature. • These electrons degraded the electrical performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 sola cells. • The electrons induced ⅢCu defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2.

  7. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  8. 150 years of land degradation and development: loss of habitats, natural resources due to quarrying and industrialization followed by land reclamation in the heart of Budapest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The urban development and land degradation is an accelerated process in the 21st century; however several examples are known when this happened in the past. A historic case study is discussed in this research when clump of three former small towns (named: Buda, Pest and Óbuda) became a million population city more than hundred years ago invoking significant land degradation, drastic and surprising changes in land use. Budapest which is now the capital of Hungary has seen rapid land use changes in the past 150 years especially from 1850'ies to early 20th century. The population of the city rapidly grown from the end of 19th century to early 20th century; i.e. it is tripled from 1880 to 1920 and reached nearly 1 million in 40 years. This population boom induced significant land degradation, changes in land use and loss of habitats. The paper presents examples how the land use has changed in the past 105 years with historic maps and interpreted cases suggesting different pathways leading to land degradation. The first one focuses on vineyards and grape cultivation and explains how these areas were first converted to limestone quarries to provide construction material to the city and then transformed to urban habitat in the early 20th century again. The cellars - former quarry galleries - than were used for housing (urban habitat) and later were used as storage facilities and mushroom cultivation sites. At present these subsurface openings cause high risk of land development (collapse) and limit the land use of the given area. The current paper also outlines the development of the city via the perspective of natural resources, since drinking water and industrial water need modified the land development and urbanization. Another example is also given how the brewery industry exploited natural resources and the surface water use was shifted to exploitation of karstic waters causing land degradation and drop of water table. Additional example demonstrates how the former

  9. High-electric-field-stress-induced degradation of SiN passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen-Ping, Gu; Huan-Tao, Duan; Jin-Yu, Ni; Yue, Hao; Jin-Cheng, Zhang; Qian, Feng; Xiao-Hua, Ma

    2009-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are fabricated by employing SiN passivation, this paper investigates the degradation due to the high-electric-field stress. After the stress, a recoverable degradation has been found, consisting of the decrease of saturation drain current I Dsat , maximal transconductance g m , and the positive shift of threshold voltage V TH at high drain-source voltage V DS . The high-electric-field stress degrades the electric characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs because the high field increases the electron trapping at the surface and in AlGaN barrier layer. The SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs decreases the surface trapping and 2DEG depletion a little during the high-electric-field stress. After the hot carrier stress with V DS = 20 V and V GS = 0 V applied to the device for 10 4 sec, the SiN passivation decreases the stress-induced degradation of I Dsat from 36% to 30%. Both on-state and pulse-state stresses produce comparative decrease of I Dsat , which shows that although the passivation is effective in suppressing electron trapping in surface states, it does not protect the device from high-electric-field degradation in nature. So passivation in conjunction with other technological solutions like cap layer, prepassivation surface treatments, or field-plate gate to weaken high-electric-field degradation should be adopted. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Why do forest products become less available? A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing the factors driving changes in tropical forest products in the perception of rural smallholder communities. Using the poverty and environment network global datas...

  11. Analysis of material characteristics for the construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam skin radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Furnari, Laura; Santos, Gabriela R.

    2009-01-01

    There are many radiosensitive diseases associated to the skin such as mycosis fungoids and the syndrome of Sezary that are part of a sub-group of cutaneous diseases type T-cell lymphoma. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary a very large field size radiation beam, and also, it should deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report nr. 23 of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine), the present study will develop an energy scattering and degrading plates, supplying subsidies for a future installation for skin treatment at the - Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built the design of the plates has been performed analyzing several materials, shapes and dimensions most adequate on the basis of radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulations will be validated with experimental measurements using copper and aluminum. (author)

  12. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, F.; Ghoorchi, T.; Shawrang, P.; Mansouri, H.; Torbati-Nejad, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P 0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ► Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ► Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ► Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

  14. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  15. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  16. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  17. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  18. Free energies for degradation reactions of 1,2,3-trichloropropane from ab initio electronic structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska, Eric J; Glaesemann, Kurt R; Felmy, Andrew R; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2010-11-25

    Electronic structure methods were used to calculate the gas and aqueous phase reaction energies for reductive dechlorination (i.e., hydrogenolysis), reductive β-elimination, dehydrochlorination, and nucleophilic substitution by OH− of 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The thermochemical properties ΔH(f)°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K, 1 bar), and ΔG(S)(298.15 K, 1 bar) were calculated by using ab initio electronic structure calculations, isodesmic reactions schemes, gas-phase entropy estimates, and continuum solvation models for 1,2,3-trichloropropane and several likely degradation products: CH3−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CH2−CH2Cl, C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2Cl, cis-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHCl═CH−CH2Cl, CH2═CH−CH2Cl, CH2Cl−CHCl−CH2OH, CH2Cl−CHOH−CH2Cl, CH2═CCl−CH2OH, CH2═COH−CH2Cl, cis-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, trans-CHOH═CH−CH2Cl, CH(═O)−CH2−CH2Cl, and CH3−C(═O)−CH2Cl. On the basis of these thermochemical estimates, together with a Fe(II)/Fe(III) chemical equilibrium model for natural reducing environments, all of the reactions studied were predicted to be very favorable in the standard state and under a wide range of pH conditions. The most favorable reaction was reductive β-elimination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −32 kcal/mol), followed closely by reductive dechlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), dehydrochlorination (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −27 kcal/mol), and nucleophilic substitution by OH− (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ −25 kcal/mol). For both reduction reactions studied, it was found that the first electron-transfer step, yielding the intermediate C•H2−CHCl−CH2Cl and the CH2Cl−C•H−CH2Cl species, was not favorable in the standard state (ΔG(rxn)° ≈ +15 kcal/mol) and was predicted to occur only at relatively high pH values. This result suggests that reduction by natural attenuation is unlikely.

  19. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the enzymatic degradation of composites based on biodegradable polymers and coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.b, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usp.b, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Derval dos Santos, E-mail: derval.rosa@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of polymeric materials that are susceptible to microbiological degradation and that have properties similar to the conventional polymers would reduce waste deposit. Degradable plastics suffer significant change on chemical structure when submitted to specific environmental condition. PCL and PLLA have been extensively investigated due to their bio-assimilation and because they are considered as eco-friendly. So the degradation of PCL and PLLA homopolymers, PCL:PLLA 20:80 (w:w) blend and coconut fiber-modified composites were studied by means of their degradation under lipase enzyme from Pseudomonas cepacia. Non-irradiated and EB-irradiated samples at 50 kGy and 100 kGy were exposed during 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours to the enzyme-buffer solution and the retained mass of dried samples was accompanied over time. The results were compared to the not submitted to the enzyme solution samples. Degradation rate of PCL was higher than PLLA in the presence of Pseudomonas lipase. PLLA presence reduced PCL's enzymatic degradation in the PCL:PLLA 20:80 w:w blend. After 120 h exposure, blend mass loss variation approached pure PLLA behavior. Composites degradation behavior through time was similar to the blend. Values of retained mass for composites were superior to the blends suggesting that coconut fiber did not significantly degrade in the period of test. Degradation rate of 50 kGy-irradiated PCL slightly reduced, and it was observed increase of degradation rate of samples irradiated with 100 kGy, probably attributed to its crystallinity decrease. Degradation rate of irradiated composite was similar to the blend, suggesting that fiber presence did not affect significantly this parameter. Samples tested during 168 h were affected by the water absorption by PLLA or coconut fibers through time testing. Studied samples degraded accentuatedly in the enzyme presence and were not negatively affected by the radiation processing. (author)

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the enzymatic degradation of composites based on biodegradable polymers and coconut fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo; Rosa, Derval dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    The development of polymeric materials that are susceptible to microbiological degradation and that have properties similar to the conventional polymers would reduce waste deposit. Degradable plastics suffer significant change on chemical structure when submitted to specific environmental condition. PCL and PLLA have been extensively investigated due to their bio-assimilation and because they are considered as eco-friendly. So the degradation of PCL and PLLA homopolymers, PCL:PLLA 20:80 (w:w) blend and coconut fiber-modified composites were studied by means of their degradation under lipase enzyme from Pseudomonas cepacia. Non-irradiated and EB-irradiated samples at 50 kGy and 100 kGy were exposed during 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours to the enzyme-buffer solution and the retained mass of dried samples was accompanied over time. The results were compared to the not submitted to the enzyme solution samples. Degradation rate of PCL was higher than PLLA in the presence of Pseudomonas lipase. PLLA presence reduced PCL's enzymatic degradation in the PCL:PLLA 20:80 w:w blend. After 120 h exposure, blend mass loss variation approached pure PLLA behavior. Composites degradation behavior through time was similar to the blend. Values of retained mass for composites were superior to the blends suggesting that coconut fiber did not significantly degrade in the period of test. Degradation rate of 50 kGy-irradiated PCL slightly reduced, and it was observed increase of degradation rate of samples irradiated with 100 kGy, probably attributed to its crystallinity decrease. Degradation rate of irradiated composite was similar to the blend, suggesting that fiber presence did not affect significantly this parameter. Samples tested during 168 h were affected by the water absorption by PLLA or coconut fibers through time testing. Studied samples degraded accentuatedly in the enzyme presence and were not negatively affected by the radiation processing. (author)

  1. Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability Relations: From the Environmental Degradation to the Necessity of Conservation of Natural Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórida Rosa Mali Assêncio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief approach on environmental aspects related to the development of agriculture in the world and especially in Brazil, detaching some historical aspects. Some characteristics of the social and environmental degradation generated by the processes of production of modern agriculture, based on studies of Environmental Sciences, in general, and, more specifically, of Agroecology, are presented, as well as the necessity of searching for new models of development according to the recent paradigm of sustainability (social, economic and environmental, debated in international conferences on 'environment and development'.

  2. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  3. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  4. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  5. Degradation of pollutants and elimination of pathogens of waste water by adsorption of accelerated electrons; Degradacion de contaminantes y eliminacion de patogenos de aguas residuales por adsorcion de electrones acelerados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, I

    1991-10-15

    This report presents a position of the pollutants degradation of the industrial residual waters, it intends a method that consists on making pass residual water, treated biologically by a packed column with activated carbon. The carbon retains the pollutants and the water goes out with a purity that allows the reuse. In simultaneous form to the adsorption of pollutants are made pass electrons through the column of carbon, the electrons will destroy to the polluting adsorbed in the carbon; the pollutants degrade until CO{sub 2} that escapes as gas. The active sites of the carbon are empty and clever to be occupied by other pollutants. This process is continuous and it is repeated while water is passing by the column and electrons through this. (Author)

  6. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  7. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  8. Can Resilience be Reconciled with Globalization and the Increasingly Complex Conditions of Resource Degradation in Asian Coastal Regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Armitage

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between resilience and globalization. We are concerned, most importantly, with whether resilience is a suitable conceptual framework for natural resource management in the context of the rapid changes and disruptions that globalization causes in social-ecological systems. Although theoretical in scope, we ground this analysis using our experiences in two Asian coastal areas: Junagadh District in Gujarat State, India and Banawa Selatan, in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We present the histories of resource exploitation in the two areas, and we attempt to combine a resilience perspective with close attention to the impact of globalization. Our efforts serve as a basis from which to examine the conceptual and practical compatibility of resilience with globalization. The first challenge we address is epistemological: given that resilience and globalization have roots in different disciplines, do they share a sufficiently common perception of change and human action to be compatible? Second, we address the issue of how resilience can be a viable management objective in the rapidly changing context of globalization. We identify scale as particularly important in this regard.

  9. A Doping Lattice of Aluminum and Copper with Accelerated Electron Transfer Process and Enhanced Reductive Degradation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Zhixuan; Zhang, Mingbo; Cheng, Yiqian; Su, Jixin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of azo dye effluents has received increasing concerns over the years due to their potential harms to natural environment and human health. The present study described the degrading ability of the as-synthesized crystalline Al-Cu alloys for removal of high-concentration Acid Scarlet 3R in alkaline aqueous solutions and its degradation mechanism. Al-Cu alloy particles with Al/Cu ratios 19:1 were successfully synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling. Characterization results showe...

  10. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of 13C and 15N stable isotope probing to characterize RDX degrading microbial communities under different electron-accepting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Ching; Lee, Do Gyun; Fuller, Mark E.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Condee, Charles W.; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SIP characterized RDX-degrading communities under different e-accepting conditions. • Dominant RDX degradation pathways differed under different e-accepting conditions. • More complete detoxification of RDX occurred under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions than under manganese(IV) and iron(III)-reducing conditions. - Abstract: This study identified microorganisms capable of using the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) or its metabolites as carbon and/or nitrogen sources under different electron-accepting conditions using 13 C and 15 N stable isotope probing (SIP). Mesocosms were constructed using groundwater and aquifer solids from an RDX-contaminated aquifer. The mesocosms received succinate as a carbon source and one of four electron acceptors (nitrate, manganese(IV), iron(III), or sulfate) or no additional electron acceptor (to stimulate methanogenesis). When RDX degradation was observed, subsamples from each mesocosm were removed and amended with 13 C 3 - or ring- 15 N 3 -, nitro- 15 N 3 -, or fully-labeled 15 N 6 -RDX, followed by additional incubation and isolation of labeled nucleic acids. A total of fifteen 16S rRNA sequences, clustering in α- and γ-Proteobacteria, Clostridia, and Actinobacteria, were detected in the 13 C-DNA fractions. A total of twenty seven sequences were derived from different 15 N-DNA fractions, with the sequences clustered in α- and γ-Proteobacteria, and Clostridia. Interestingly, sequences identified as Desulfosporosinus sp. (in the Clostridia) were not only observed to incorporate the labeled 13 C or 15 N from labeled RDX, but also were detected under each of the different electron-accepting conditions. The data suggest that 13 C- and 15 N-SIP can be used to characterize microbial communities involved in RDX biodegradation, and that the dominant pathway of RDX biodegradation may differ under different electron-accepting conditions

  12. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  13. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  14. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  15. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  16. A Doping Lattice of Aluminum and Copper with Accelerated Electron Transfer Process and Enhanced Reductive Degradation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Zhixuan; Zhang, Mingbo; Cheng, Yiqian; Su, Jixin

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of azo dye effluents has received increasing concerns over the years due to their potential harms to natural environment and human health. The present study described the degrading ability of the as-synthesized crystalline Al-Cu alloys for removal of high-concentration Acid Scarlet 3R in alkaline aqueous solutions and its degradation mechanism. Al-Cu alloy particles with Al/Cu ratios 19:1 were successfully synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling. Characterization results showed that 10 h mechanical alloying process could lead to the formation of crystalline Al(Cu) solid solution. Batch experiment results confirmed the excellent ability of Al-Cu alloy particles for the degradation of 3R in aqueous solution. Under a certain condition ([Al-Cu]0 = 2 g/L, [3R]0 = 200 mg/L, [NaCl]0 = 25 g/L, initial pH = 10.9), the 3R could be completely degraded within only 3 min. It was also found that the degradation reaction followed zero-order kinetics model with respect to the initial dye concentration. The intermediate compounds were identified by UV-vis, FT-IR and HPLC-MS, and a pathway was proposed. Additionally, post-treatment Al-Cu alloy particles were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the results showed that the degradation might be attributed to the corrosion effect of Al-Cu alloys.

  17. Electron density window for best frequency performance, lowest phase noise and slowest degradation of GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulionis, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    The problems in the realm of nitride heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of a novel fluctuation–dissipation-based approach impelled by a recent demonstration of strong correlation of hot-electron fluctuations with frequency performance and degradation of the devices. The correlation has its genesis in the dissipation of the LO-mode heat accumulated by the non-equilibrium longitudinal optical phonons (hot phonons) confined in the channel that hosts the high-density hot-electron gas subjected to a high electric field. The LO-mode heat causes additional scattering of hot electrons and facilitates defect formation in a different manner than the conventional heat contained mainly in the acoustic phonon mode. We treat the heat dissipation problem in terms of the hot-phonon lifetime responsible for the conversion of the non-migrant hot phonons into migrant acoustic modes and other vibrations. The lifetime is measured over a wide range of electron density and supplied electric power. The optimal conditions for the dissipation of the LO-mode heat are associated with the plasmon-assisted disintegration of hot phonons. Signatures of plasmons are experimentally resolved in fluctuations, dissipation, hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, transistor phase noise and transistor reliability. In particular, a slower degradation and a faster operation of GaN-based HFETs take place inside the electron density window where the resonant plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of the LO-mode heat comes into play. A novel heterostructure design for the possible improvement of HFET performance is proposed, implemented and tested. (invited review)

  18. An identical-location transmission electron microscopy study on the degradation of Pt/C nanoparticles under oxidizing, reducing and neutral atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubau, L.; Castanheira, L.; Berthomé, G.; Maillard, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the predominant degradation mechanism of Pt/Vulcan XC72 electrocatalysts strongly depends on the nature of the gas atmosphere and of the upper potential limit used in accelerated stress tests (ASTs). The morphological changes of Pt/Vulcan XC72 nanoparticles were studied by identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM), following accelerated stress tests in different potential ranges and under various gas atmospheres. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to probe changes in carbon surface chemistry. Whereas minor changes were detected under neutral atmosphere (Ar) and low potential limit conditions (0.05 2 ). With an increase of the upper potential limit to 1.23 V vs. RHE, the trends observed previously were maintained but 3D Ostwald ripening strongly overlapped with the three other degradation mechanisms, precluding any identification of the dominant mechanism

  19. Measurements of output factors with different detector types and Monte Carlo calculations of stopping-power ratios for degraded electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerk, Peter; Knoeoes, Tommy; Nilsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate three different detector types (a parallel-plate ionization chamber, a p-type silicon diode and a diamond detector) with regard to output factor measurements in degraded electron beams, such as those encountered in small-electron-field radiotherapy and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate mass collision stopping-power ratios between water and the different detector materials for these complex electron beams (nominal energies of 6, 12 and 20 MeV). The diamond detector was shown to exhibit excellent properties for output factor measurements in degraded beams and was therefore used as a reference. The diode detector was found to be well suited for practical measurements of output factors, although the water-to-silicon stopping-power ratio was shown to vary slightly with treatment set-up and irradiation depth (especially for lower electron energies). Application of ionization-chamber-based dosimetry, according to international dosimetry protocols, will introduce uncertainties smaller than 0.3% into the output factor determination for conventional IORT beams if the variation of the water-to-air stopping-power ratio is not taken into account. The IORT system at our department includes a 0.3 cm thin plastic scatterer inside the therapeutic beam, which furthermore increases the energy degradation of the electrons. By ignoring the change in the water-to-air stopping-power ratio due to this scatterer, the output factor could be underestimated by up to 1.3%. This was verified by the measurements. In small-electron-beam dosimetry, the water-to-air stopping-power ratio variation with field size could mostly be ignored. For fields with flat lateral dose profiles (>3 x 3 cm 2 ), output factors determined with the ionization chamber were found to be in close agreement with the results of the diamond detector. For smaller field sizes the lateral extension of the ionization chamber

  20. Measurements of output factors with different detector types and Monte Carlo calculations of stopping-power ratios for degraded electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Peter; Knöös, Tommy; Nilsson, Per

    2004-10-07

    The aim of the present study was to investigate three different detector types (a parallel-plate ionization chamber, a p-type silicon diode and a diamond detector) with regard to output factor measurements in degraded electron beams, such as those encountered in small-electron-field radiotherapy and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate mass collision stopping-power ratios between water and the different detector materials for these complex electron beams (nominal energies of 6, 12 and 20 MeV). The diamond detector was shown to exhibit excellent properties for output factor measurements in degraded beams and was therefore used as a reference. The diode detector was found to be well suited for practical measurements of output factors, although the water-to-silicon stopping-power ratio was shown to vary slightly with treatment set-up and irradiation depth (especially for lower electron energies). Application of ionization-chamber-based dosimetry, according to international dosimetry protocols, will introduce uncertainties smaller than 0.3% into the output factor determination for conventional IORT beams if the variation of the water-to-air stopping-power ratio is not taken into account. The IORT system at our department includes a 0.3 cm thin plastic scatterer inside the therapeutic beam, which furthermore increases the energy degradation of the electrons. By ignoring the change in the water-to-air stopping-power ratio due to this scatterer, the output factor could be underestimated by up to 1.3%. This was verified by the measurements. In small-electron-beam dosimetry, the water-to-air stopping-power ratio variation with field size could mostly be ignored. For fields with flat lateral dose profiles (>3 x 3 cm2), output factors determined with the ionization chamber were found to be in close agreement with the results of the diamond detector. For smaller field sizes the lateral extension of the ionization chamber hampers

  1. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  2. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  3. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S

    2009-07-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with water depth) or at risk of being waterlogged (17.1% area with 2-3 m ground water depth). Local resource inventory showed prevalence of several illegal private channels in Mewat district. These private channels divert degraded canal waters into the nearby intersecting drains and thereby increase extent of surface irrigated agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm), manganese (Mn: 0

  4. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  5. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  6. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  7. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  8. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  9. DEGRADATION OF SOLAR CELLS PARAMETERS FABRICATED ON THE BASIS OF Cu(In,GaSe2 SEMICONDUCTOR SOLID SOLUTIONS UNDER ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mudryi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS thin films were grown on molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass substrates by co-evaporation of the elements Cu, In, Ga and Se from independent sources. The effect of electron irradiation on the electrical and optical properties of CIGS thin films and solar cells with the structure ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/glass was studied. It was found that the degradation of the electrical parameters of solar cells (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and efficiency took place due to the formation of radiation defects (recombination centers with deep energy levels in the bandgap of CIGS. It was revealed that after electron irradiation intensity of near band-edge luminescence band at about 1,1 eV decreased considerably and bands of luminescence with maxima at 0,93 and 0,75 eV appeared.

  10. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  11. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  12. Electron Barrier Formation at the Organic-Back Contact Interface is the First Step in Thermal Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sachs-Quintana, I. T.

    2014-03-24

    Long-term stability of polymer solar cells is determined by many factors, one of which is thermal stability. Although many thermal stability studies occur far beyond the operating temperature of a solar cell which is almost always less than 65 °C, thermal degradation is studied at temperatures that the solar cell would encounter in real-world operating conditions. At these temperatures, movement of the polymer and fullerenes, along with adhesion of the polymer to the back contact, creates a barrier for electron extraction. The polymer barrier can be removed and the performance can be restored by peeling off the electrode and depositing a new one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal a larger amount of polymer adhered to electrodes peeled from aged devices than electrodes peeled from fresh devices. The degradation caused by hole-transporting polymer adhering to the electrode can be suppressed by using an inverted device where instead of electrons, holes are extracted at the back metal electrode. The problem can be ultimately eliminated by choosing a polymer with a high glass transition temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Thermal degradation characteristics and products obtained after pyrolysis of specific polymers found in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelia C.Vouvoudi; Aristea T.Rousi; Dimitris S.Achilias

    2017-01-01

    Modern societies strongly support the recycling practices over simple waste accumulation due to environmental harm caused.In the framework of sustainable recycling of plastics from WEEE,pyrolysis is proposed here as a means of obtaining secondary value-added products.The aim of this study was to investigate the thermal degradation and the products obtained after pyrolysis of specific polymers found in the plastic part of WEEE,using thermogravimetric analysis and a pyrolizer equipped with a GC/MS.Polymers studied include ABS,HIPS,PC and a blend having a composition similar to that appearing in WEEE.It was found that,PC shows greater heat endurance compared to the other polymers,whereas ABS depolymerizes in three-steps.The existence of several polymers in the blend results in synergistic effects which decrease the onset and final temperature of degradation.Moreover,the fragmentation occurred in the pyrolyzer,at certain temperatures,resulted in a great variety of compounds,depending on the polymer type,such as monomers,aromatic products,phenolic compounds and hydrocarbons.The main conclusion from this investigation is that pyrolysis could be an effective method for the sustainable recycling of the plastic part of WEEE resulting in a mixture of chemicals with varying composition but being excellent to be used as fuel retrieved from secondary recycling sources.

  14. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  15. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  16. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  17. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  18. Analysis of degradation in nickel-based alloys using focused ion beam imaging and specimen preparation combined with analytical electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, M.W.; Botton, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopes have become well-established in the semiconductor industry during the past decade, and are rapidly gaining attention in the field of materials science, both as a tool for producing site specific, parallel sided transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens and as stand alone specimen preparation and imaging systems. FIB secondary electron imaging (SEI) of nickel-based alloys, such as commercially produced Alloy 600 (approximately Ni 15Cr 10Fe 0.5C), has been demonstrated to show a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of deformation in the alloy, and FIB secondary ion imaging (SII) is particularly useful for identifying the presence of grain boundary corrosion, as secondary ion yields from metallic specimens can increase by three orders of magnitude in the presence of oxygen. This 'oxygen enhanced yield', makes FIB SII ideal for detection of corrosion at grain boundaries down to thicknesses of only a few tens of nanometers. Historically, while TEM has been considered the tool of choice for high resolution chemical and crystallographic analysis of specimens, the technique has suffered from difficulties in producing suitable samples from site-specific areas with a high probability of success. The advent of FIB specimen preparation for TEM has largely changed that. FIB imaging can be combined with FIB 'nano-machining' techniques to produce site-specific, parallel sided TEM specimens well-suited to analytical electron microscopy (AEM) analyses in the TEM, including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electron diffraction. When combined with new FIB-based methodologies for surveying large areas to exactly select the regions of interest, such as crack tips or the maximum extent of penetration of intergranular attack (IGA), subsequent FIB TEM specimen preparation and TEM analysis unite to produce a powerful tool to study these phenomena. Examples of these applications of FIB

  19. Ab-Initio analysis of TlBr: limiting the ionic current without degrading the electronic one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Leao, Cedric; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Although TlBr in principle presents all the theoretical requirements for making high resolution room temperature radiation detectors, practical applications of TlBr have proven to be nonviable due to the polarization that is observed in the crystal after relatively short periods of operation. This polarization, that is believed to be caused by accumulation of oppositely charged ionic species at the ends of the crystal, results in an electric field that opposes that of the applied bias, counter-acting its effect. In this work, we use state of the art quantum modeling to benchmark the theoretical limits for the performance of TlBr as a radiation detector, showing that the best experimental reports demonstrate near-ideal electronic characteristics. We then propose a model to inhibit the detrimental ionic current in the material without impacting the excellent properties of the electronic current. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Application of advanced oxidation process by electron beam irradiation in the organic compounds degradation present in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes

    1999-01-01

    The inefficacy of conventional methods to destroy toxic organic compounds present in industrial effluent has taken the search for new technologies of treatment. he water irradiation is the most efficient process to generate radicals that mineralise these compounds. A study to evaluate the Advanced Oxidation Process by electron beam irradiation to treat industrial effluent with high toxic organic compounds concentration was carried out. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 power. The effluent samples from a big industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's Liquid Effluent Irradiation Pilot Plant and the effluent samples from five steps of a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant from SABESP - ETE Suzano (industrial Receiver Unit, Coarse Bar Screens, Medium Bar Screens, Primary Sedimentation and Final Effluent), were irradiated in a batch system. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol and in the decoloring of dyes present in some samples. To remove 90% of the most organic compounds was necessary a 20 kGy dose for industry's ETE, 20 kGy for IRU, CBS and MBS and 10 kGy to 20 kGy for PS and FE. (author)

  1. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  3. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  4. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  5. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  6. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  7. Investigating local degradation and thermal stability of charged nickel-based cathode materials through real-time electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Seung Min; Bak, Seong-Min; Cho, Byung-Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Jeong Yong; Chang, Wonyoung; Stach, Eric A

    2014-09-10

    In this work, we take advantage of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate thermally induced decomposition of the surface of Li(x)Ni(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA) cathode materials that have been subjected to different states of charge (SOC). While uncharged NCA is stable up to 400 °C, significant changes occur in charged NCA with increasing temperature. These include the development of surface porosity and changes in the oxygen K-edge electron energy loss spectra, with pre-edge peaks shifting to higher energy losses. These changes are closely related to O2 gas released from the structure, as well as to phase changes of NCA from the layered structure to the disordered spinel structure, and finally to the rock-salt structure. Although the temperatures where these changes initiate depend strongly on the state of charge, there also exist significant variations among particles with the same state of charge. Notably, when NCA is charged to x = 0.33 (the charge state that is the practical upper limit voltage in most applications), the surfaces of some particles undergo morphological and oxygen K-edge changes even at temperatures below 100 °C, a temperature that electronic devices containing lithium ion batteries (LIB) can possibly see during normal operation. Those particles that experience these changes are likely to be extremely unstable and may trigger thermal runaway at much lower temperatures than would be usually expected. These results demonstrate that in situ heating experiments are a unique tool not only to study the general thermal behavior of cathode materials but also to explore particle-to-particle variations, which are sometimes of critical importance in understanding the performance of the overall system.

  8. Minimizing performance degradation induced by interfacial recombination in perovskite solar cells through tailoring of the transport layer electronic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells is investigated using one-dimensional drift-diffusion device simulations. We study the effects of interfacial defect density, doping concentration, and electronic level positions of the charge transport layer (CTL. Choosing CTLs with a favorable band alignment, rather than passivating CTL-perovskite interfacial defects, is shown to be beneficial for maintaining high power-conversion efficiency, due to reduced minority carrier density arising from a favorable local electric field profile. Insights from this study provide theoretical guidance on practical selection of CTL materials for achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  9. Effect of Substituents on the Electronic Structure and Degradation Process in Carbazole Derivatives for Blue OLED Host Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Minki

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the dissociation mechanism of the C-N bond between carbazole and dibenzothiophene in carbazole-dibenzothiophene (Cz-DBT) positional isomers, selected as representative systems for blue host materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The C-N bond dissociation energies, calculated at the density functional theory level, are found to depend strongly on the charge states of the parental molecules. In particular, the anionic C-N bond dissociations resulting in a carbazole anion can have low dissociation energies (∼1.6 eV) with respect to blue emission energy. These low values are attributed to the large electron affinity of the carbazole radical, a feature that importantly can be modulated via substitution. Substitution also impacts the energies of the first excited electronic states of the Cz-DBT molecules since these states have an intramolecular charge-transfer nature due to the spatially localized character of the frontier molecular orbitals within the carbazole moiety (for the HOMO) and the dibenzothiophene moiety (for the LUMO). The implications of these results must be considered when designing blue OLED hosts since these materials must combine chemical stability and high triplet energy. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  10. Comparative scanning electron microscope study of the degradation of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane in different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, A.; Del Río, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the analysis of several samples of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P) waterproofing membrane. The samples were extracted from different areas of the same flat roof, which was in service for over 12 years. An original sample of an identical PVC-P membrane that was not installed on the roof was also analyzed. The analysis of the materials was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An elemental analysis of every sample was also performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micrographs and the elemental composition of the samples were compared with the data obtained in the analysis of the original sample. The results show dehydrochlorination of the polymer in two of the samples studied and great deterioration that was not visible to the naked eye in the sample that was totally exposed to the weather. [es

  11. Microscopic properties of degradation-free capped GdN thin films studied by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Tokuro; Fukuoka, Yohei; Fujisawa, Masashi; Zhang, Weimin; Okubo, Susumu; Ohta, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro; Vidyasagar, Reddithota; Yoshitomi, Hiroaki; Kitayama, Shinya; Kita, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic magnetic properties of high-quality GdN thin films have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements. Detailed temperature dependence ESR measurements have shown the existence of two ferromagnetic components at lower temperatures, which was not clear from the previous magnetization measurements. The temperature, where the resonance shift occurs for the major ferromagnetic component, seems to be consistent with the Curie temperature obtained from the previous magnetization measurement. On the other hand, the divergence of line width is observed around 57 K for the minor ferromagnetic component. The magnetic anisotropies of GdN thin films have been obtained by the analysis of FMR angular dependence observed at 4.2 K. Combining the X-ray diffraction results, the correlation between the magnetic anisotropies and the lattice constants is discussed

  12. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  13. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  15. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm"−"2 meanwhile the current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  16. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang, E-mail: cchu@che.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-11-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm{sup −2} meanwhile the current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  17. Remote interfacial dipole scattering and electron mobility degradation in Ge field-effect transistors with GeO x /Al2O3 gate dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xiang, Jinjuan; Wang, Shengkai; Wang, Wenwu; Zhao, Chao; Ye, Tianchun; Xiong, Yuhua; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) on electron mobility degradation is investigated experimentally in Ge-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) with GeO x /Al2O3 gate stacks. It is found that the mobility increases with greater GeO x thickness (7.8-20.8 Å). The physical origin of this mobility dependence on GeO x thickness is explored. The following factors are excluded: Coulomb scattering due to interfacial traps at GeO x /Ge, phonon scattering, and surface roughness scattering. Therefore, the RCS from charges in gate stacks is studied. The charge distributions in GeO x /Al2O3 gate stacks are evaluated experimentally. The bulk charges in Al2O3 and GeO x are found to be negligible. The density of the interfacial charge is  +3.2  ×  1012 cm-2 at the GeO x /Ge interface and  -2.3  ×  1012 cm-2 at the Al2O3/GeO x interface. The electric dipole at the Al2O3/GeO x interface is found to be  +0.15 V, which corresponds to an areal charge density of 1.9  ×  1013 cm-2. The origin of this mobility dependence on GeO x thickness is attributed to the RCS due to the electric dipole at the Al2O3/GeO x interface. This remote dipole scattering is found to play a significant role in mobility degradation. The discovery of this new scattering mechanism indicates that the engineering of the Al2O3/GeO x interface is key for mobility enhancement and device performance improvement. These results are helpful for understanding and engineering Ge mobility enhancement.

  18. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  19. Impact of OH Radical-Initiated H2CO3 Degradation in the Earth's Atmosphere via Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Sourav; Hazra, Montu K

    2016-02-04

    The decomposition of isolated carbonic acid (H2CO3) molecule into CO2 and H2O (H2CO3 → CO2 + H2O) is prevented by a large activation barrier (>35 kcal/mol). Nevertheless, it is surprising that the detection of the H2CO3 molecule has not been possible yet, and the hunt for the free H2CO3 molecule has become challenging not only in the Earth's atmosphere but also on Mars. In view of this fact, we report here the high levels of quantum chemistry calculations investigating both the energetics and kinetics of the OH radical-initiated H2CO3 degradation reaction to interpret the loss of the H2CO3 molecule in the Earth's atmosphere. It is seen from our study that proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) are the two mechanisms by which the OH radical initiates the degradation of the H2CO3 molecule. Moreover, the PCET mechanism is potentially the important one, as the effective barrier, defined as the difference between the zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) corrected energy of the transition state and the total energy of the isolated starting reactants in terms of bimolecular encounters, for the PCET mechanism at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory is ∼3 to 4 kcal/mol lower than the effective barrier height associated with the HAT mechanism. The CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level predicted effective barrier heights for the degradations of the two most stable conformers of H2CO3 molecule via the PCET mechanism are only ∼2.7 and 4.3 kcal/mol. A comparative reaction rate analysis at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory has also been carried out to explore the potential impact of the OH radical-initiated H2CO3 degradation relative to that from water (H2O), formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA) and sulfuric acid (SA) assisted H2CO3 → CO2 + H2O decomposition reactions in both the Earth's troposphere and stratosphere. The comparison of the reaction rates reveals that, although the atmospheric concentration of the OH radical is

  20. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  1. Catalytic degradation of brominated flame retardants by copper oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, I.; Yecheskel, Y.; Berkowitz, B.

    2013-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been added to various products like plastic, textile, electronics and synthetic polymers at growing rates. In spite of the clear advantages of reducing fire damages, many of these BFRs may be released to the environment after their beneficial use which may lead to contamination of water resources. In this work we present the catalytic degradation of two brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA) and 2,4 dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) by copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) in aqueous solution. The degradation kinetics, the debromination, and the formation of intermediates by nCuO catalysis are compared to Fenton oxidation and to reduction by nano zero-valent iron (nZVI). The two studied BFRs are shown to degrade fully by the nCuO system within hours to days. Shorter reaction times showed differences in reaction pathways and kinetics for the two compounds. The 2,4-DBP showed faster degradation than TBNPA, by nCuO catalysis. Relatively high resistance to degradation was recorded for 2,4-DBP with nZVI, yielding 20% degradation after 24 h, while the TBNPA was degraded by 85% within 12 hours. A catalytic mechanism for radical generation and BFR degradation by nCuO is proposed. It is further suggested that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of the catalyst.

  2. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  3. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  4. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  5. Remote interfacial dipole scattering and electron mobility degradation in Ge field-effect transistors with GeOx/Al2O3 gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xiang, Jinjuan; Wang, Shengkai; Wang, Wenwu; Zhao, Chao; Ye, Tianchun; Xiong, Yuhua; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) on electron mobility degradation is investigated experimentally in Ge-based metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) with GeO x /Al 2 O 3 gate stacks. It is found that the mobility increases with greater GeO x thickness (7.8–20.8 Å). The physical origin of this mobility dependence on GeO x thickness is explored. The following factors are excluded: Coulomb scattering due to interfacial traps at GeO x /Ge, phonon scattering, and surface roughness scattering. Therefore, the RCS from charges in gate stacks is studied. The charge distributions in GeO x /Al 2 O 3 gate stacks are evaluated experimentally. The bulk charges in Al 2 O 3 and GeO x are found to be negligible. The density of the interfacial charge is  +3.2  ×  10 12 cm −2 at the GeO x /Ge interface and  −2.3  ×  10 12 cm −2 at the Al 2 O 3 /GeO x interface. The electric dipole at the Al 2 O 3 /GeO x interface is found to be  +0.15 V, which corresponds to an areal charge density of 1.9  ×  10 13 cm −2 . The origin of this mobility dependence on GeO x thickness is attributed to the RCS due to the electric dipole at the Al 2 O 3 /GeO x interface. This remote dipole scattering is found to play a significant role in mobility degradation. The discovery of this new scattering mechanism indicates that the engineering of the Al 2 O 3 /GeO x interface is key for mobility enhancement and device performance improvement. These results are helpful for understanding and engineering Ge mobility enhancement. (paper)

  6. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  7. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  8. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  9. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  10. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  11. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  12. Investigation of abrupt degradation of drain current caused by under-gate crack in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors during high temperature operation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chang; Liao, XueYang; Li, RuGuan; Wang, YuanSheng; Chen, Yiqiang, E-mail: yiqiang-chen@hotmail.com; Su, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Li Wei; Lai, Ping; Huang, Yun; En, YunFei [Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application of Electronic Component Laboratory, The 5th Electronics Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 510610 Guangzhou (China)

    2015-09-28

    In this paper, we investigate the degradation mode and mechanism of AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) during high temperature operation (HTO) stress. It demonstrates that there was abrupt degradation mode of drain current during HTO stress. The abrupt degradation is ascribed to the formation of crack under the gate which was the result of the brittle fracture of epilayer based on failure analysis. The origin of the mechanical damage under the gate is further investigated and discussed based on top-down scanning electron microscope, cross section transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and stress simulation. Based on the coupled analysis of the failure physical feature and stress simulation considering the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch in different materials in gate metals/semiconductor system, the mechanical damage under the gate is related to mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch in Au/Ti/Mo/GaN system and stress concentration caused by the localized structural damage at the drain side of the gate edge. These results indicate that mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch of materials inside the device plays great important role on the reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs during HTO stress.

  13. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  14. Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Clive; Salvat, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The keynote paper by Garrett Hardin 44 years ago introduced the term 'tragedy of the commons' into our language (Hardin, 1968); this term is now used widely, but it is neither universally accepted nor fully understood. Irrespective, the 'tragedy of the commons' is an increasing reality for more than 500 million people that rely on the biodiversity resources and services of tropical coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and associated fisheries. These natural resources continue to decline despite major advances in our scientific understanding of how ecosystems and human populations interact, and the application of considerable conservation and management efforts at scales from local user communities to oceans. Greater effort will be required to avert increasing damage from over-exploitation, pollution and global climate change; all deriving from increasing exploitation driven by poverty and progress i.e. continuing to expand development indefinitely and extraction of resources at industrial scales. However, the 'tragedy' concept has been widely criticized as a simple metaphor for a much larger set of problems and solutions. We argue that the 'tragedy' is essentially real and will continue to threaten the lives of millions of people unless there are some major moral and policy shifts to reverse increasing damage to coastal habitats and resources. We agree with the conclusion by Hardin that the solution to the tragedy will not be through the application of natural sciences, but via implementing exceedingly difficult and controversial moral decisions. An extreme example of a moral and controversial direction suggested by Hardin was in re-examining the 'freedom to breed' as an inherent human value. The need for 'moral decisions' is even greater in 2012. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  16. La lutte internationale contre le réchauffement climatique comme étant une source de dégradation des ressources marines The international fight against global warming as a source of degradation of marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrine Ismaili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Les ressources marines constituent une richesse économique d'une grande importance pour un grand nombre de pays de la planète. Du fait de l'action de l'homme, ces ressources subissent une fragilisation et une raréfaction dues entre autres à la pollution, à la surpêche, à l'urbanisation intensive...S'ajoute à cette liste, depuis quelques années, le réchauffement de la planète qui affecte d'une manière sensible la diversité biologique marine. Pourtant les réponses internationales face à cette dégradation, au delà du fait qu'elles soient timides, sont rares. Il faudra dès lors se rabattre sur les solutions de lutte globale contre le réchauffement de la planète entreprise par la communauté internationale afin de contrer cette dégradation.Marine resources are a wealth of great economic importance for many countries in the world. Due to the action of man, these resources undergo embrittlement and rarification among others to pollution, overfishing, urbanization, intensive ... Added to this list in recent years, the global warming that affects a significantly marine biodiversity. Yet the international response to this degradation, beyond the fact that they are shy, is rare. It will therefore fall back on solutions to the global fight against global warming taken by the international community to counter this degradation.

  17. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  18. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  19. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  20. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  1. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  2. Identical location transmission electron microscopy in combination with rotating disc electrode measurements. The activity of fuel cell catalysts and their degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloegl, Katrin G.

    2011-07-13

    As an alternative to conventional combustion engines, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) using hydrogen as a fuel is a promising concept owing to its potential independence from fossil fuels, high efficiency and zero emissions. Concerning its commercial viability, the fundamental problem of high system cost per power output and lifetime is closely related to finding more active and stable catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. In the presented work, several methods are combined to examine the parameters and processes responsible for both activity and degradation of platinum-based catalysts. Degradation mechanisms are scrutinized by means of electrochemical measurements with the rotating disc electrode in combination with a recently developed TEM technique, which allows for the comparison of identical locations before and after accelerated stress tests. (orig.) [German] Die mit Wasserstoff betriebene Proton Exchange Membrane Brennstoffzelle (PEMFC) stellt aufgrund ihrer potentiellen Unabhaengigkeit von fossilen Energietraegern, ihrem hohen Wirkungsgrad und fehlendem Schadstoffausstoss eine vielversprechende Alternative zum konventionellen Verbrennungsmotor dar. Das grundlegende Problem der zu hohen Systemkosten und zu geringen Lebensdauer fuer kommerzielle Anwendungen ist eng mit der Entwicklung aktiverer und stabiler Elektrokatalysatoren fuer die Sauerstoffreduktion verknuepft. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden verschiedene Methoden kombiniert, um die Parameter und Prozesse zu untersuchen, welche fuer die Aktivitaet und Degradation platinbasierter Katalysatoren verantwortlich sind. Zur Aufklaerung vorliegender Degradationsmechanismen werden elektrochemische Messungen mit der rotierenden Scheibenelektrode in Kombination mit einer neu entwickelten TEM Methode eingesetzt, welche es ermoeglicht, identische Stellen vor und nach beschleunigten Degradationstests zu untersuchen.

  3. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  4. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  5. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  6. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  7. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  8. Radiation degradation of silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Silk fibroin powder was prepared from irradiated silk fibroin fiber by means of only physical treatment. Silk fibroin fiber irradiated with an accelerated electron beam in the dose range of 250 - 1000 kGy was pulverized by using a ball mill. Unirradiated silk fibroin fiber was not pulverized at all. But the more irradiation was increased, the more the conversion efficiency from fiber to powder was increased. The conversion efficiency of silk fibroin fiber irradiated 1000 kGy in oxygen was 94%. Silk fibroin powder shows remarkable solubility, which dissolved 57% into water of ambient temperature. It is a very interesting phenomenon that silk fibroin which did not treat with chemicals gets solubility only being pulverized. In order to study mechanism of solubilization of silk fibroin powder, amino acid component of soluble part of silk fibroin powder was analyzed. The more irradiation dose up, the more glycine or alanine degraded, but degradation fraction reached bounds about 50%. Other amino acids were degraded only 20% even at the maximum. To consider crystal construction of silk fibroin, it is suggested that irradiation on silk fibroin fiber selectively degrades glycine and alanine in amorphous region, which makes it possible to pulverize and to dissolve silk fibroin powder. (author)

  9. A study on the degradation mechanism of InGaZnO thin-film transistors under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses based on the electronic trap characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Lee, Daeun; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Kim, Jong In; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the device degradation mechanism of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses based on the electronic trap characterization results. The transfer curve exhibits an apparent negative shift as the stress time increases, and a formation of hump is observed in the transfer curve after stresses. A notable increase of the frequency dispersion is observed after stresses in both gate-to-drain capacitance–voltage (C GD –V G ) and gate-to-source capacitance–voltage (C GS –V G ) curves, which implies that the subgap states are generated by simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses, and the damaged location is not limited to the drain side of TFTs. The larger frequency dispersion is observed in C GD –V G  curves after stresses in a wider channel device, which implies that the heat is an important factor in the generation of the subgap states under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses in a-IGZO TFTs. Based on the electronic trap characterization results, we conclude that the impact ionization near the drain side of the device is not a dominant mechanism causing the generation of subgap states and device degradation in a-IGZO TFTs under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses. The generation of oxygen vacancy-related donor-like traps near the conduction band edge is considered as a possible mechanism causing the device degradation under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses in a-IGZO TFTs. (paper)

  10. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  11. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  12. Soil Resources Degradation and Conservation Techniques Adopted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the objectives of this paper to study the types of erosion in Gusau area as well as its effects on selected ... The paper also attempts to unveil some anti-erosion measures practiced by small holder ..... environments: Integration of Spatial Scales,.

  13. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Huebert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given. (author)

  14. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  15. Nanoscale investigation of the degradation mechanism of a historical chrome yellow paint by quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping of chromium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haiyan; Tian, He; Verbeeck, Jo; Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-10-18

    Getting the picture: The investigation of 100 year old chrome yellow paint by transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy has led to the identification of four types of core-shell particles. This nanoscale investigation has allowed a mechanism to be proposed for the darkening of some bright yellow colors in Van Gogh's paintings (e.g. in Falling leaves (Les Alyscamps), 1888). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  17. Enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone–gelatin blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    Blends of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer and gelatin, natural polymer offer a optimal combination of strength, water wettability and cytocompatibility for use as a resorbable biomaterial. The enzymatic degradation of PCL, gelatin and PCL–gelatin blended films was studied in the presence of lipase (Novozym 435, immobilized) and lysozyme. Novozym 435 degraded the PCL films whereas lysozyme degraded the gelatin. Though Novozym 435 and lysozyme individually could degrade PCL–gelatin blended films, the combination of these enzymes showed the highest degradation of these blended films. Moreover, the enzymatic degradation was much faster when fresh enzymes were added at regular intervals. The changes in physico-chemical properties of polymer films due to degradation were studied by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These results have important implications for designing resorbable biomedical implants. (paper)

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  20. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  1. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  3. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pewlong, W.; Sudatis, B.; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl 2 /C 2 H 5 OH/H 2 O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  4. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pewlong, W; Sudatis, B [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  5. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Gey, M.; Hubert, S.; Langguth, H.

    1984-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  6. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  7. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  8. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  9. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  10. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  11. Degradation of magnetite nanoparticles in biomimetic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceño, Sarah; Hernandez, Ana C.; Sojo, Juan [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Laboratorio de Materiales, Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Lascano, Luis [Dpto. Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Ecuador); Gonzalez, Gema, E-mail: gemagonz@ivic.gob.ve, E-mail: gema.gonzalez@epn.edu.ec [Escuela Nacional Politécnica (Ecuador)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} obtained by coprecipitation (COP), thermal decomposition (DT), and commercial sample (CM) have been degraded in similar conditions to physiological medium at pH 4.7 and in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pH 7.4. The formation of the nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In view of medical and environmental applications, the stability of the particles was measured with dynamic light scattering. The degradation processes were followed with atomic absorption spectroscopy (EAA) and TEM. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Our results revealed that the structural and magnetic properties of the remaining nanoparticles after the degradation process were significantly different to those of the initial suspension. The degradation kinetics is affected by the pH, the coating, and the average particle size of the nanoparticles.

  12. Accelerated Testing Of Photothermal Degradation Of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Liang, Ranty Hing; Tsay, Fun-Dow

    1989-01-01

    Electron-spin-resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Arrhenius plots used to determine maximum safe temperature for accelerated testing of photothermal degradation of polymers. Aging accelerated by increasing illumination, temperature, or both. Results of aging tests at temperatures higher than those encountered in normal use valid as long as mechanism of degradation same throughout range of temperatures. Transition between different mechanisms at some temperature identified via transition between activation energies, manifesting itself as change in slope of Arrhenius plot at that temperature.

  13. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  14. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  15. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  16. Advanced Oxidation Degradation of Diclofenac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, William J., E-mail: wcooper@uci.edu [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Song Weihua, E-mail: wsong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs), utilize free radical reactions to directly degrade chemical contaminants as an alternative to traditional water treatment. This study reports the absolute rate constants for reaction of diclofenac sodium and the model compound (2, 6-dichloraniline) with the two major AO/RP radicals; the hydroxyl radical (•OH) and hydrated electron (e{sup -}{sub aq}). The bimolecular reaction rate constants (M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) for diclofenac for •OH was (9.29 ± 0.11) x 10{sup 9}, and, for e- aq was (1.53 ± 0.03) x10{sup 9}. Preliminary degradation mechanisms are suggested based on product analysis using {sup 60}Co γ-irradiation and LC-MS for reaction by-product identification. The toxicity of products was evaluated using the Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria method. (author)

  17. Advanced Oxidation Degradation of Diclofenac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, William J.; Song Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs), utilize free radical reactions to directly degrade chemical contaminants as an alternative to traditional water treatment. This study reports the absolute rate constants for reaction of diclofenac sodium and the model compound (2, 6-dichloraniline) with the two major AO/RP radicals; the hydroxyl radical (•OH) and hydrated electron (e - aq ). The bimolecular reaction rate constants (M -1 s -1 ) for diclofenac for •OH was (9.29 ± 0.11) x 10 9 , and, for e- aq was (1.53 ± 0.03) x10 9 . Preliminary degradation mechanisms are suggested based on product analysis using 60 Co γ-irradiation and LC-MS for reaction by-product identification. The toxicity of products was evaluated using the Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria method. (author)

  18. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachiraporn Pewlong; Boonya Sudatis [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-09-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated in the dose range up to 2500 kGy using an electron beam accelerator to apply the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The tensile strength of irradiated fibroin fiber decreased with increasing dose and the presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced the degradation. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: calcium chloride solution (CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O = 1 : 2 : 8 in mole ratio), hydrochloric acid (0.5N) and distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water-soluble protein was extracted by distilled water. (author)

  19. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  20. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  1. VUV/UV light inducing accelerated phenol degradation with a low electric input† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ra26043h Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkai; Wen, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the first evidence for the accelerated degradation of phenol by Fenton's reagent in a mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system (MVPS). A low-pressure mercury lamp used in the MVPS led to a complete degradation of phenol within 4–6 min. The HO˙ and HO2˙ originating from both Fenton's reagent and VUV photolysis of water were identified with suitable radical scavengers. The effects of initial concentrations of phenol, H2O2 and Fe3+ as well as solution pH on phenol degradation kinetics were examined. Increasing the initial phenol concentration slowed down the phenol degradation, whereas increasing the initial H2O2 or Fe3+ concentration accelerated the phenol degradation. The optimal solution pH was 3.7. At both 254 and 185 nm, increasing phenol concentration enhanced its absorption for the incident photons. The reaction mechanism for the degradation of phenol was suggested consistent with the results obtained. This study indicates that the VUV/UV photo-Fenton process has potential applications in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing phenol and related aromatic pollutants. PMID:28496972

  2. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  3. Transient electroluminescence on pristine and degraded phosphorescent blue OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Quan; Blom, Paul W. M.; May, Falk; Heimel, Paul; Zhang, Minlu; Eickhoff, Christian; Heinemeyer, Ute; Lennartz, Christian; Crǎciun, N. Irina

    2017-11-01

    In state-of-the-art blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) device architectures, electrons and holes are injected into the emissive layer, where they are carried by the emitting and hole transporting units, respectively. Using transient electroluminescence measurements, we disentangle the contribution of the electrons and holes on the transport and efficiency of both pristine and degraded PHOLEDs. By varying the concentration of hole transporting units, we show that for pristine PHOLEDs, the transport is electron dominated. Furthermore, degradation of the PHOLEDs upon electrical aging is not related to the hole transport but is governed by a decrease in the electron transport due to the formation of electron traps.

  4. ESR studies on degradation processes in polyethyleneterephtalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipara, M.; Chipara, M.D.; Georgescu, L.; Constantinescu, L.; Morosanu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The generation of free radicals by degradation processes (thermal, plasma and radiation induced) is analyzed. Details regarding the generation of free radicals, their interactions, and kinetics, as revealed by electron spin resonance (ESR), with emphasis on laser beam degradation, are discussed. Some ESR lines of laser-irradiated polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), recorded at room temperature, are shown in Figure 1. The lines are narrow singlets located around g=2.003. The resonance line amplitude, width and double integral of the resonance line are affected by the power of the incident beam. The common features of these degradation processes (universal behavior) as well as the fingerprints of each degradation process are analyzed in detail

  5. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  6. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  7. Aging effect on radiation-induced degradation of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Tabei, M.; Yamada, Y.; Shimizu, H.

    1995-01-01

    PP sheets and films were irradiated with γ-ray and with high energy electron beam. The mechanical degradation, decay of peroxy radical and the variation of molecular weight with storage time were measured. The variation of molecular weight corresponded to mechanical degradation. The molecular weight of sheet sample at which elongation falls to zero was much higher than that of film sample. The relation between mechanical degradation and sample thickness was discussed. (author)

  8. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  9. Comparing aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) presence and distribution between degraded and non-degraded forest within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Sefczek, Timothy; Wright, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    The aye-aye is considered the most widely distributed lemur in Madagascar; however, the effect of forest quality on aye-aye abundance is unknown. We compared aye-aye presence across degraded and non-degraded forest at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We used secondary signs (feeding sites, high activity sites) as indirect cues of aye-aye presence and Canarium trees as an indicator of resource availability. All 3 measured variables indicated higher aye-aye abundance within non-degraded forest; however, the differences across forest type were not significant. Both degraded and non-degraded forests showed a positive correlation between feeding sites and high activity sites. We found that Canarium, an important aye-aye food source, was rare and had limited dispersal, particularly across degraded forest. This preliminary study provides baseline data for aye-aye activity and resource utilization across degraded and non-degraded forests. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mechanisms of metallization degradation in high power diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    Under operation the topside metallization of power electronic chips is commonly observed to degrade and thereby affecta device's electrical characteristics. However, the mechanisms of the degradation process and the role of environmental factors are not yet fully understood. In this work, we...

  11. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  12. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  13. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  14. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  15. Nanobiocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jason

    The catalytic properties of various metal nanoparticles have led to their use in environmental remediation applications. However, these remediation strategies are limited by their ability to deliver catalytic nanoparticles and a suitable electron donor to large treatment zones. Clostridium pasteurianum BC1 cells, loaded with bio-Pd nanoparticles, were used to effectively catalyze the reductive degradation and removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), a model azo compound. Hydrogen produced fermentatively by the C. pasteurianum BC1 acted as the electron donor for the process. Pd-free bacterial cultures or control experiments conducted with heat-killed cells showed limited reduction of AO7. Experiments also showed that the in situ biological production of H2 by C. pasteurianum BC1 was essential for the degradation of AO7, which suggests a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of AO7. The differences in initial degradation rate for experiments conducted using catalyst concentrations of 1ppm Pd and 5ppm Pd and an azo dye concentration of 100ppm AO7 was 0.39 /hr and 1.94 /hr respectively, demonstrating the importance of higher concentrations of active Pd(0). The degradation of AO7 was quick as demonstrated by complete reductive degradation of 50ppm AO7 in 2 hours in experiments conducted using a catalyst concentration of 5ppm Pd. Dye degradation products were analyzed via Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), UltraViolet-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) spectrometry. The presence of 1-amino 2-naphthol, one of the hypothesized degradation products, was confirmed using mass spectrometry.

  16. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  17. Purex diluent degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO 3 system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) molecule, not HNO 3 as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO 3 concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO 2 and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO 2 scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures

  18. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  19. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  20. some causes and strategies pertaining to land degradation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Against the above background, this article outlines some of the social causes of land resource degradation in ... growing human numbers increase the pressure on available resources – a situation that is bound to ..... women to gain the degree of equality commensurate with their responsibility for social well-being and the ...

  1. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  2. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  3. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  4. Sustainability issues for resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Bottom; Gordon H. Reeves; Martha H. Brookes

    1996-01-01

    Throughout their history, conservation science and sustainable-yield management have failed to maintain the productivity of living resources. Repeated overexploitation of economic species, loss of biological diversity, and degradation of regional environments now call into question the economic ideas and values that have formed the foundation of scientific management...

  5. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kicker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  6. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  7. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  8. CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY OXIDATIVE ENZYMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  9. Degradation of metallic materials studied by correlative tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, T. L.; Holroyd, N. J. H.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Ogurreck, M.; Rau, C.; Kelley, R.; Pickering, E. J.; Daly, M.; Sherry, A. H.; Pawar, S.; Slater, T. J. A.; Withers, P. J.

    2017-07-01

    There are a huge array of characterization techniques available today and increasingly powerful computing resources allowing for the effective analysis and modelling of large datasets. However, each experimental and modelling tool only spans limited time and length scales. Correlative tomography can be thought of as the extension of correlative microscopy into three dimensions connecting different techniques, each providing different types of information, or covering different time or length scales. Here the focus is on the linking of time lapse X-ray computed tomography (CT) and serial section electron tomography using the focussed ion beam (FIB)-scanning electron microscope to study the degradation of metals. Correlative tomography can provide new levels of detail by delivering a multiscale 3D picture of key regions of interest. Specifically, the Xe+ Plasma FIB is used as an enabling tool for large-volume high-resolution serial sectioning of materials, and also as a tool for preparation of microscale test samples and samples for nanoscale X-ray CT imaging. The exemplars presented illustrate general aspects relating to correlative workflows, as well as to the time-lapse characterisation of metal microstructures during various failure mechanisms, including ductile fracture of steel and the corrosion of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Correlative tomography is already providing significant insights into materials behaviour, linking together information from different instruments across different scales. Multiscale and multifaceted work flows will become increasingly routine, providing a feed into multiscale materials models as well as illuminating other areas, particularly where hierarchical structures are of interest.

  10. Cavity-mirror degradation in the deep-UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Sei, N. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    It is known that the degradation of dielectric multilayer mirrors used in short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) is caused by the carbon contamination on the mirror surface and the defects inside the dielectrics. We reported last year that the degraded dielectric multilayer mirrors can be repaired with both surface treatment by RF-induced oxygen plasma and thermal annealing. However, such a mirror degradation is still one of the most critical issues in the deep ultraviolet (UV) FELs, because the fundamental undulator radiation resonating in the laser cavity, the intensity of which is much higher than that of higher harmonics, can be sufficiently energetic to cause the mirror degradation through photochemical reactions. We are investigating the mirror degradation mainly in the deep UV region down to 240 nm. The experimental results will be shown. The mirror degradation mechanism will be discussed.

  11. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  12. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  13. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe Ziir

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...... groups of mice clearly revealed a fibrosis protective role of uPARAP/Endo180. This effect appeared to directly reflect the activity of the collagen receptor, since no compensatory events were noted when comparing the mRNA expression profiles of the two groups of mice in an array system focused on matrix-degrading...

  14. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  15. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  16. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  17. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  18. Fungal degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and a semiquantitative assay for screening their degradation by terrestrial fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matavulj, M; Molitoris, H P

    1992-12-01

    The current problems with decreasing fossile resources and increasing environmental pollution by petrochemical-based plastics have stimulated investigations to find biosynthetic materials which are also biodegradable. Bacterial reserve materials such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been discovered to possess thermoplastic properties and can be synthesized from renewable resources. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) is at present the most promising PHA; and BIOPOL, its copolymer with poly-beta-hydroxy-valerate (PHV), is already industrially produced (ICI, UK), and used as packaging material (WELLA, FRG). According to the literature, PHA degradation has so far mainly been observed in bacteria; only under certain environmental conditions has fungal degradation of PHAs been indicated. Since fungi constitute an important part of microbial populations participating in degradation processes, a simple screening method for fungal degradation of BIOPOL, a PHA-based plastic, was developed. Several media with about 150 fungal strains from different terrestrial environments and belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were used. PHA depolymerization was tested on three PHB-based media, each with 0.1% BIOPOL or PHB homopolymer causing turbidity of the medium. The media contained either a comparatively low or high content of organic carbon (beside PHA) or were based on mineral medium with PHA as the principal source of carbon. The degradation activity was detectable due to formation of a clear halo around the colony (Petri plates) or a clear zone under the colony (test tubes).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  20. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  1. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable benzene-degrading, chlorate-reducing microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20-1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene

  2. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Anil V. Virkar; Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic no equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, , within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, no equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  3. Solar degradation of 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone by TiO2 and iron(III) catalyst with H2O2 and O2 as electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Victor; Peringer, Paul; Caceres, Julia; Blanco, Julian; Malato, Sixto; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater containing mainly 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone (AMBI), used in the manufacture of dyes, was characterized as bio-recalcitrant by means of different biodegradability tests. In order to enhance the biodegradability of this important pollutant, solar photocatalytic degradation methods were explored. The systems light/TiO 2 /O 2 , light/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 , light/Fe 3+ /O 2 and light/Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 were compared under direct sunlight at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain), using a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC). The iron photo-assisted systems exhibited the most interesting behaviour, from the kinetic and engineering points of view, especially if their combination (as pre-treatment) with a biological process is considered. To compare the efficiency of these systems, the evolution of the following parameters were studied: (a) the dissolved organic carbon and initial compound concentration, (b) the toxicity, and (c) the biodegradability of treated solution. At lab scale, using a solar lamp, the degradation rate of the system light/Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 was two times higher than the system light/Fe 3+ /O 2 but this last system does not need H 2 O 2 addition, improving the economical requirements of the system

  4. EVALUATION AND MAPPING OF RANGELANDS DEGRADATION USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ajorlo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The empirical and scientifically documents prove that misuse of natural resource causes degradation in it. So natural resources conservation is important in approaching sustainable development aims. In current study, Landsat Thematic Mapper images and grazing gradient method have been used to map the extent and degree of rangeland degradation. In during ground-based data measuring, factors such as vegetation cover, litter, plant diversity, bare soil, and stone & gravels were estimated as biophysical indicators of degradation. The next stage, after geometric correction and doing some necessary pre-processing practices on the study area’s images; the best and suitable vegetation index has been selected to map rangeland degradation among the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, and Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI. Then using suitable vegetation index and distance parameter was produced the rangelands degradation map. The results of ground-based data analysis reveal that there is a significant relation between increasing distance from critical points and plant diversity and also percentage of litter. Also there is significant relation between vegetation cover percent and distance from village, i.e. the vegetation cover percent increases by increasing distance from villages, while it wasn’t the same around the stock watering points. The result of analysis about bare soil and distance from critical point was the same to vegetation cover changes manner. Also there wasn’t significant relation between stones & gravels index and distance from critical points. The results of image processing show that, NDVI appears to be sensitive to vegetation changes along the grazing gradient and it can be suitable vegetation index to map rangeland degradation. The degradation map shows that there is high degradation around the critical points. These areas need urgent attention for soil conservation. Generally, it

  5. WEATHERING DEGRADATION OF A POLYURETHANE COATING. (R828081E01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degradation of polyurethane topcoat over a chromate pigmented epoxy primer was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) after the coated pane...

  6. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])

  7. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...

  8. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  9. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  10. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  11. Microbial degradation of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in case of limited pollutant availability with nitrate as a potential electron acceptor; Der mikrobielle Abbau mono- und polyzyklischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe bei einer begrenzten Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit mit Nitrat als potentiellem Elektronenakzeptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, C.

    2001-07-01

    The possibility of using natural degradation processes for long-term remediation of tar oil contaminated sites was investigated. Field studies have shown that microbial decomposition of pollutants does take place in many sites but that it is limited by limited availability of pollutants and oxygen in soil. The investigations focused on the activation of BTEX and PAH degradation in situ by nitrate in the absence or in the presence of oxygen. Tensides should be used in order to enhance the availability of pollutants in water, especially in the case of hardly water-soluble PAH. A large-scale experiment was carried out on tar oil contaminated terrain; it was found that the availability of oxygen and not of PAH is the limiting factor so that adding of surfactants will not improve pollutant degradation. In contrast, the adding of tensides would mean even higher concentrations of oxygen-depleting substances in soil. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden im Hinblick auf langfristige Sanierungsstrategien fuer teeroelkontaminierte Standorte Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung natuerlicher Abbauvorgaenge untersucht. Zahlreiche Feldstudien belegen, dass ein mikrobieller Schadstoffabbau an vielen Standorten stattfindet, dieser jedoch sowohl durch eine begrenzte Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit als auch durch den im Untergrund nur begrenzt zur Verfuegung stehenden Sauerstoff limitiert wird. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es abzuklaeren, inwiefern ein BTEX- und PAK-Abbau in situ auch in Abwesenheit von Sauerstoff durch Nitrat allein oder durch Nitrat in Kombination mit Sauerstoff aktiviert werden kann. Um insbesondere fuer die schlecht wasserloeslichen PAK eine ausreichende Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit zu gewaehrleisten, sollten auch Tenside zur Erhoehung der im Wasser vorliegenden Schadstoffmenge eingesetzt werden. Aufbauend auf die Laboruntersuchungen wurde im Rahmen von VEGAS{sup ix} ein Grossversuch zum mikrobiellen PAK-Abbau im Abstrom einer simulierten Teeroelkontamination durchgefuehrt

  12. Prevention and Rehabilitation of Degraded Land to Achieve Sustainable Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankong, Patcharin

    2010-01-01

    Rapid population growth and the challenge of food security combined with burgeoning urban development have put multiple pressures on land and water resources. Worldwide soil degradation is currently estimated at 1.9 billion hectares and is increasing at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. Once land resources are degraded, rehabilitation usually requires a long-term effort and is often expensive. To mitigate land and soil degradation, effective soil conservation and suitable rehabilitation practices are required and should be chosen according to the levels and causes of soil degradation. The basic principles of soil conservation and management for preventing land degradation are: (i) to control soil erosion by practices such as terracing, reduced tillage in combination with mulching, intercropping or grass strips, (ii) to improve soil fertility through organic and inorganic fertilizers, and (iii) to prevent accumulation of harmful substances. Natural rehabilitation of degraded land can be a practical and low-cost alternative. For example, soil stabilization through vegetative measures has been used to control wind and water erosion and simultaneously improve soil health by increasing soil organic matter and nutrient availability. Nevertheless, if land has been degraded by mining and/or contaminated by heavy metals or organic pollutants, the surrounding farmlands can also be affected through surface runoff from the contaminated site, thereby rendering them unfit for cultivation. In this case, phytoremediation technologies, defined as the use of plants and trees to remove, immobilize, transform or degrade contaminants in polluted soil or water, in combination with for instance constructed wetlands and/or microbial interactions can be used to remediate polluted land as well as to prevent contamination of farmlands. Therefore both on-farm management and off-site remediation are important to protect and improve agricultural land resources, hence improve crop

  13. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  14. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    material system (structural polymer and degradation agent ) for producing a high strength, non-corroding, highly inert, environmentally safe, extended...polymer sites in the active enzyme center differs dramatically between alkyl and aromatic polyesters. More specifically, as the degree of backbone...capped and centrifuged at 3,000 g. This procedure was repeated twice. To the remaining biomass pellet 15 mL of 1 mg/mL solution of N-ethyl-N- nitrosourea

  15. Radiation degradation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Maznah Mahmud; Norhashidah Talip; Kamarudin Bahari; Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain an oligo chitosan, degradation of chitosan s were carried out in solid state and liquid state. The effects of an irradiation on the molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan were investigated using Ubbelohde Capillary Viscometer and Brookfield Viscometer respectively. The molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan s were decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the molecular weight of chitosan can be further decreased. (author)

  16. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  17. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  18. WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the asociated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. Other objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

  19. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  20. Electron beam processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

  1. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK

  2. Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrends, A.; Burgess, N.D.; Milledge, S.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forest degradation emits carbon at a rate of similar to 0.5 Pg.y(-1), reduces biodiversity, and facilitates forest clearance. Understanding degradation drivers and patterns is therefore crucial to managing forests to mitigate climate change and reduce biodiversity loss. Putative patterns...... of degradation affecting forest stocks, carbon, and biodiversity have variously been described previously, but these have not been quantitatively assessed together or tested systematically. Economic theory predicts a systematic allocation of land to its highest use value in response to distance from centers...... dependence on forest based resources, predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of degradation can inform policies designed to extract resources without unsustainably reducing carbon storage and biodiversity...

  3. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  4. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  5. North American Soil Degradation: Processes, Practices, and Mitigating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Baumhardt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil can be degraded by several natural or human-mediated processes, including wind, water, or tillage erosion, and formation of undesirable physical, chemical, or biological properties due to industrialization or use of inappropriate farming practices. Soil degradation occurs whenever these processes supersede natural soil regeneration and, generally, reflects unsustainable resource management that is global in scope and compromises world food security. In North America, soil degradation preceded the catastrophic wind erosion associated with the dust bowl during the 1930s, but that event provided the impetus to improve management of soils degraded by both wind and water erosion. Chemical degradation due to site specific industrial processing and mine spoil contamination began to be addressed during the latter half of the 20th century primarily through point-source water quality concerns, but soil chemical degradation and contamination of surface and subsurface water due to on-farm non-point pesticide and nutrient management practices generally remains unresolved. Remediation or prevention of soil degradation requires integrated management solutions that, for agricultural soils, include using cover crops or crop residue management to reduce raindrop impact, maintain higher infiltration rates, increase soil water storage, and ultimately increase crop production. By increasing plant biomass, and potentially soil organic carbon (SOC concentrations, soil degradation can be mitigated by stabilizing soil aggregates, improving soil structure, enhancing air and water exchange, increasing nutrient cycling, and promoting greater soil biological activity.

  6. Degradation of SiGe devices by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Hidenori; Hayama, Kiyoteru [Kumamoto National Coll. of Technology, Nishigoshi (Japan); Vanhellemont, J; Takami, Yasukiyo; Sunaga, Hiromi; Nashiyama, Isamu; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Poortmans, J; Caymax, M

    1997-03-01

    The degradation and recovery behavior of strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} diodes and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) by irradiated by protons are studied. The degradation of device performance and the generation of lattice defects are reported as a function of fluence and germanium content and also compared extensively with previous results obtained on electron and neutron irradiated devices. In order to study the recovery behavior of the irradiated devices, isochronal annealing is performed. The radiation source dependence of the degradation is discussed taking into account the number of knock-on atoms and the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL). (author)

  7. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO 3 nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO 3 –ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO 3 . • WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO 3 –ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO 3 nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO 3 (m-WO 3 ) and hexagonal WO 3 (h-WO 3 ) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO 3 and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO 3 shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO 3 . Symmetrical monoclinic WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO 3 with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  8. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = 0 V and V d = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = −1.8 V and V d = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  10. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  11. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  12. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  13. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  14. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  15. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  16. Statistical modeling for degradation data

    CERN Document Server

    Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.

  17. Materials Degradation in the Jovian Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloshevsky, Gennady; Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    The radiation environment of Jupiter represents a significant hazard for Europa Lander deorbit stage components, and presents a significant potential mission risk. The radiolytic degradation of ammonium perchlorate (AP) oxidizer in solid propellants may affect its properties and performance. The Monte Carlo code MONSOL was used for modeling of laboratory experiments on the electron irradiation of propellant samples. An approach for flattening dose profiles along the depth of irradiated samples is proposed. Depth-dose distributions produced by Jovian electrons in multi-layer slabs of materials are calculated. It is found that the absorbed dose in a particular slab is significantly affected by backscattered electrons and photons from neighboring slabs. The dose and radiolytic decomposition of AP crystals are investigated and radiation-induced chemical yields and weight percent of radical products are reported.

  18. Chemical degradation of pentachlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.S.; Shukla, A.; Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    Industry produces a large volume of hazardous wastes containing pentachlorophenol, a U.S. EPA priority hazardous organic material. The environmentally safe disposal of these PCP-contaminated wastes is a serious problem for the waste management authorities as the current treatment processes are unsatisfactory. In this paper, the results of a feasibility study of chemical degradation and/or solidification methods for PCP-containing wastes. The photochemical decomposition of the PCP in a microemulsion or in micellar media obtained with the help of SDS or CTAB show the greatest promise

  19. Radiation degradation of polymethacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation on polymers have been studied for many years. When polymers are subjected to ultraviolet light or ionizing radiation, chain scission and crosslinking are possible. The radiation degradations of several methacrylate type polymers were investigated. The primary polymer studied was polymethacrylamide (PMAAm). Ultraviolet irradiated PMAAm yielded a five line ESR spectrum with 22 gauss splitting which is believed to arise from a polymeric radical ending with a methacrylamide unit. The results obtained indicate that polymethacrylamide is a polymer which undergoes main chain cleavage upon irradiation. As such this polymer may have potential applicability as a positive resist for fabrication of microelectronic devices

  20. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  1. Degradation of insulating ceramics due to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Radiation-induced electrical degradation was investigated on single crystal alumina under 2.2 MeV electron irradiation with a dose rate of 5.7 x 10{sup 5} Gy/s and an electrical field of 1.6 x 10{sup 5} V/m at 773 K. After irradiation, electrical resistivity both on the surface and in the bulk decreased in the temperature range of 300 to 773 K. Substantial resistivity decreased from the initial value due to the irradiation, the degradation ratio was much smaller than the case of poly-crystalline specimens. On the other hands, surface resistivity decreased with increasing temperature for measurement with an abrupt change by 4 orders of magnitude around 600 K, and it showed thermal hysteresis. (author)

  2. Microbial consortia involved in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski; Harris, R F; Hickey, W J

    2000-01-01

    In this review, we examine the energetics of well-characterized biodegradation pathways and explore the possibilities for these to support growth of multiple organisms interacting in consortia. The relevant phenotypic and/or phylogenetic characteristics of isolates and consortia mediating hydrocarbon degradation coupled with different terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAP) are also reviewed. While the information on metabolic pathways has been gained from the analysis of individual isolates, the energetic framework presented here demonstrates that microbial consortia could be readily postulated for hydrocarbon degradation coupled to any TEAP. Several specialized reactions occur within these pathways, and the organisms mediating these are likely to play a key role in defining the hydrocarbon degradation characteristics of the community under a given TEAP. Comparing these processes within and between TEAPs reveals biological unity in that divergent phylotypes display similar degradation mechanisms and biological diversity in that hydrocarbon-degraders closely related as phylotypes differ in the type and variety of hydrocarbon degradation pathways they possess. Analysis of microcosms and of field samples suggests that we have only begun to reveal the diversity of organisms mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Advancements in the understanding of how hydrocarbon-degrading communities function will be significantly affected by the extent to which organisms mediating specialized reactions can be identified, and tools developed to allow their study in situ.

  3. Marine microbe with potential to adhere and degrade plastic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Kumari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive usages of plastics have led to their accumulation as a contaminant in natural environment worldwide. Plastic is an inert and non-biodegradable material, due to its complex structure and hydrophobic backbone [1]. Conventional methods for reduction of plastic waste such as burning, land-filling release unwanted toxic chemicals to the environment and harming living organism of land as well as the ocean. There is growing interest in development of strategies for the degradation of plastic wastes to clean the environment [2]. Marine bacteria have evolved with the capability to adapt and grow in the diverse environmental conditions [3]. We studied the ability of marine bacteria for destabilization and utilization of different plastic films (LDPE, HDPE, PVC and PET as a sole source of carbon. An active bacterial strain AIIW2 was selected based on the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction assay, and it was identified as Bacillus species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. The viability of the strain over the plastic surface was studied and confirmed by bacLight assay with fluorescent probes. Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope images suggested that bacterial interaction over the plastic surface is causing deterioration and roughness with increasing bacterial incubation time. In Fourier transform infrared spectra of treated plastic film evidenced stretching of the (-CH alkane rock chain and (-CO carbonyl region, suggested the oxidative activities of the bacteria. The results revealed that ability of bacterial strain for instigating their colonization over plastic films and deteriorating the polymeric structure in the absence of other carbon sources [4]. Moreover, production of extracellular enzymes such as esterase, laccase, and dehalogenase which are reported to support utilization of plastics was confirmed by plate assays. In concise, our results suggested that the marine bacterial strain AIIW2 have the ability to utilize

  4. Degradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blends: degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Archel M A; Allcock, Harry R; Katti, Dhirendra S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-04-01

    Biomaterials based on the polymers of lactic acid and glycolic acid and their copolymers are used or studied extensively as implantable devices for drug delivery, tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Although these polymers have shown good biocompatibility, concerns have been raised regarding their acidic degradation products, which have important implications for long-term implantable systems. Therefore, we have designed a novel biodegradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blend whose degradation products are less acidic than those of the poly(alpha-hydroxyester) alone. In this study, the degradation characteristics of a blend of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50 PLAGA) and poly[(50% ethyl glycinato)(50% p-methylphenoxy) phosphazene] (PPHOS-EG50) were qualitatively and quantitatively determined with comparisons made to the parent polymers. Circular matrices (14mm diameter) of the PLAGA, PPHOS-EG50 and PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend were degraded in non-buffered solutions (pH 7.4). The degraded polymers were characterized for percentage mass loss and molecular weight and the degradation medium was characterized for acid released in non-buffered solutions. The amounts of neutralizing base necessary to bring about neutral pH were measured for each polymer or polymer blend during degradation. The poly(phosphazene)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) blend required significantly less neutralizing base in order to bring about neutral solution pH during the degradation period studied. The results indicated that the blend degraded at a rate intermediate to that of the parent polymers and that the degradation products of the polyphosphazene neutralized the acidic degradation products of PLAGA. Thus, results from these in vitro degradation studies suggest that the PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend may provide a viable improvement to biomaterials based on acid-releasing organic polymers.

  5. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illés, Erzsébet, E-mail: erzsebet.illes@chem.u-szeged.hu [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takács, Erzsébet [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Dombi, András [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-03-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1 mmol dm{sup −3}. For end product characterization {sup 60}Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV–vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of {sup ·}OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose. Highlights: ► In hydroxyl radical attack on the ring mainly hydroxylated products form ► The hydrated electron attacks the carboxyl group. ► Oxidative conditions are more effective in ibuprofen decomposition than reductive. ► Ecotoxicity of ibuprofen solution first increases then decreases with irradiation.

  6. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illés, Erzsébet; Takács, Erzsébet; Dombi, András; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László

    2013-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1 mmol dm −3 . For end product characterization 60 Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV–vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of · OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose. Highlights: ► In hydroxyl radical attack on the ring mainly hydroxylated products form ► The hydrated electron attacks the carboxyl group. ► Oxidative conditions are more effective in ibuprofen decomposition than reductive. ► Ecotoxicity of ibuprofen solution first increases then decreases with irradiation

  7. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    in groundwater contamination. New technologies are therefore needed for cleaning up contaminated soil and water resources. This PhD was part of the project entitled Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) where the overall aim is to develop new technologies for bioremediation...... of pesticide contaminated soil and water. The objectives of this PhD were to investigate fungal degradation of pesticides and following to construct microbial consortia for bioremediation. In Manuscript I the fungal degradation of the phenylurea herbicide diuron was studied. Isolates of soil fungi of the genus...... slightly enhanced BAM distribution. From this work it is evident that the fungal-bacterial consortium is capable of enhancing BAM-degradation in unsaturated systems, and may therefore be a promising application for soil bioremediation. In Manuscript III two- and three-member consortia were constructed...

  8. Land Degradation and Smallholder Farmers' Response: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... The damages in the state of land resources ... In most cases, land ... A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate response of smallholder farmers to land degradation .... were carried out in the village offices. ..... Crisis and Struggle for Survival. ... Comparison of Cases in Sweden and Tanzania.

  9. Degraded Forests in Eastern Africa: management and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.; Tennigkeit, T.

    2010-01-01

    Forest degradation as a result of logging, shifting cultivation, agriculture and urban development is a major issue throughout the tropics. It leads to loss in soil fertility, water resources and biodiversity, as well as contributing to climate change. Efforts are therefore required to try to

  10. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on the Implications of the Diminishing Water Resources of Lake Chad for North-Eastern Nigeria. ... The impact of this depletion is being felt by Lake Chad basin population who depend on the lake for their means of livelihood. This paper focuses on the ...

  11. Dryland Degradation by wind erosion and its control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Riksen, M.; Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    Global population growth, is expected to impose an increasing pressure on agricultural production in the world's drylands, which cover approximately 41␘f the continental area. The land resources in drylands are severely threatened by soil degradation, with wind erosion being, one of the major

  12. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil degradation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the issues involved behind the current state, usage, interactions and linkages in the soils in Pakistan. The condition of soils is deteriorating due to developmental and environmental factors such as soil degradation, water pollution, fauna degeneration etc. Issues, problems and constraints faced in the management and usage of soils are diagnosed at different levels in the ecosystems predominant in Pakistan. The research questions propose effective solutions, types of instruments, methods or processes to resolve the issues within the various areas or ecosystems in the most sustainable and effective manner [23]. Biological solutions and methods can be applied at the sub-system level by private individuals or communities at a lower cost, and at a more localized level than engineering methods. Engineering methods may be suited for interventions at a system level rather than at a sub-system level; but even at this level they will be complementary with biological methods. (author)

  14. Degraded Crater Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 3 May 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Southern Arabia Terra is very degraded (beaten up). This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story When you think of Arabia, you probably think of hot deserts and a lot of profitable oil reserves. On Mars, however, Southern Arabia Terra is a cold place of cratered terrain. This almost frothy-looking image is the badly battered edge of an ancient crater, which has suffered both erosion and bombardment from asteroids, comets, or other impacting bodies over the long course of its existence. A blanket of dust has also settled over the region, which gives the otherwise rugged landscape a soft and more subdued appearance. The small, round crater (upper left) seems almost gemlike in its setting against the larger crater ring. But this companionship is no easy romance. Whatever formed the small crater clearly whammed into the larger crater rim at some point, obliterating part of its edge. You can tell the small crater was formed after the first and more devastating impact, because it is laid over the other larger crater. How much younger is the small one? Well, its rim is also much sharper and more intact, which gives a sense that it is probably far more youthful than the very degraded, ancient crater.

  15. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  16. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  17. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  18. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  19. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  20. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  1. Degradation of thiram in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.; Murthy, N.B.K.; Kumarsamy, R.

    1975-01-01

    Determination of the residual 35 S labelled tetramethylthiuram disulfide showed that the fungicide persisted longer in sterilized than in unsterilized soil, while the chloroform extractable radioactivity decreased, the water extractable radioactivity increased with increase in time. However, in sterilized soil the water extractable radioactivity remained more or less constant. Degradation of the fungicide was further demonstrated by the release of C 35 S 2 from soil treated with labelled thiram. Dimethylamine was found to be one of the degradation products. A bacterium isolated from thiram-enriched soil could degrade the fungicide in shake culture. The degradation pathways of thiram in sterilized and unsterilized soils are discussed. (author)

  2. In vitro degradation of ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G; Rivas, A

    1976-12-01

    The cytoplasmic ribosomes from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris are found to be of two types taking into consideration their stability "in vitro". In the group of unstable ribosomes the large subunit is degraded. The other group apparently does not suffer any degradation under the conditions described. However the RNAs extracted from both types of ribosomes are degraded during sucrose density gradients. The degradation of the largest RNA species has been reported previously, but no comment has been made about the stability of the ribosome itself.

  3. The radiation degradation of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hollain, G.

    1977-04-01

    Polypropylene is used extensively in the manufacture of disposable medical devices because of its superior properties. Unfortunately this polymer does not lend itself well to radiation sterilization, undergoing serious degradation which affects the mechanical properties of the polymer. In this paper the effects of radiation on the mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene are discussed. A programme of research to minimize the radiation degradation of this polymer through the addition of crosslinking agents to counteract the radiation degradation is proposed. It is furthermore proposed that a process of annealing of the irradiated polymer be investigated in order to minimize the post-irradiation degradation of the polypropylene [af

  4. Using the VS-Fast methodology for soil degradation assessment: a case study from Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; McGarry, D.; Ndiaye, D.

    2012-01-01

    Soil degradation threatens sustainable food production and accelerates global warming. Poorer countries, whose agricultural sectors are highly dependent on their natural resource bases, are hit particularly hard by declining soil productivity. Calls for soil-quality monitoring are therefore,

  5. Natural resources in the Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar B, Diana Alejandra; Zorro Z, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is identification the relation between the naturals resources degradation, and the Colombian agriculture productive. It's means a way to quantification the influence of a bad utilization in the water and land resources in the agricultural sector, to guide the sector in to a sustainable development. This objective is to make by an empirical exercise where we built four econometrics models (ordinary minims square) based in the Colombia's history statistic of the variables: land erosion, river sedimentation, plaguicides, Insecticides, Fungicides y Herbicides, agriculture productivity and agriculture yield. The resolute of this exercise is that an increase in the erosion area also the river sedimentation gives a decrease in the agriculture productivity. The same situation happens when it use the consumption of the insecticides and the fungicides which in the long time shows an opposite relation with the yield and productivity. At last we have that the aperture of the ninety's, bring to good changes for the agricultural productivity. So that, it concludes that the rivers and lands degradation affect in the long time the agriculture yield and productivity. The best use in the naturals resources, can help to increase the agricultural development, because it can increase the yield while it maintain for the future the possibility curve of production when it conserve the resources

  6. Preliminary research on quantitative methods of water resources carrying capacity based on water resources balance sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.

  7. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  8. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    ...) when they significantly degrade services provided by water resources. Government agencies, utilities, and other water resource managers incur substantial costs controlling ANS and repairing damage to restore service performance to desired levels...

  9. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  10. Electro-catalytic degradation of sulfisoxazole by using graphene anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Shuan; Li, Ruiping; Huang, Yingping; Chen, Chuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Graphite and graphene electrodes were prepared by using pure graphite as precursor. The electrode materials were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The electro-catalytic activity for degradation of sulfisoxazole (SIZ) was investigated by using prepared graphene or graphite anode. The results showed that the degradation of SIZ was much more rapid on the graphene than that on the graphite electrode. Moreover, the graphene electrode exhibited good stability and recyclability. The analysis on the intermediate products and the measurement of active species during the SIZ degradation demonstrated that indirect oxidation is the dominant mechanism, involving the electro-catalytic generation of OH and O2(-) as the main active oxygen species. This study implies that graphene is a promising potential electrode material for long-term application to electro-catalytic degradation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Degradation of Phosphorene in Air: Understanding at Atomic Level

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gaoxue; Slough, William J.; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a promising two dimensional (2D) material with a direct band gap, high carrier mobility, and anisotropic electronic properties. Phosphorene-based electronic devices, however, are found to degrade upon exposure to air. In this paper, we provide an atomic level understanding of stability of phosphorene in terms of its interaction with O2 and H2O. The results based on density functional theory together with first principles molecular dynamics calculations show that O2 could sponta...

  12. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  13. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  14. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  16. Polycarbonate radiolytic degradation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S. de

    1994-01-01

    Polycarbonate Durolon, useful for medical supplies fabrication, is submitted to gamma radiation for sterilization purposes. Scissions in main chain occur, in carbonyl groups, producing molecular degradations and yellowness. The radiolytic stabilization is obtained through additive to the polymer. In this work some degradation and stabilization aspects are presented. (L.C.J.A.). 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  18. Degradable polymers for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter elaborates the degradable polymers for tissue engineering and their required scaffold material in tissue engineering. It recognizes the examples of degradable polymers broadly used in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the persuasion of the body to heal itself through the

  19. MOSFET Degradation Under RF Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; Kuper, F.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the degradation of MOS transistors under RF stress. Hot-carrier degradation, negative-bias temperature instability, and gate dielectric breakdown are investigated. The findings are compared to established voltage- and field-driven models. The experimental results indicate that the

  20. Rebuilding common property management : a case study of community-based natural resource management in rural Guizhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Qiu

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and rural poverty are inter-related problems of great concern to developing countries. The poor mostly live in environmentally fragile regions and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihood subsistence. Unfortunately, environmental degradation and rural poverty

  1. Designs for degraded Trbovlje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Marot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction, two degraded urban areas are presented. The first, planning unit seven, is situated in the southeastern part of Trbovlje town. The other, called Speke, lies to the south of Liverpool. The basis for the concept and context of urban renewal model are given by comparison between the newest Slovene and British spatial planning legislation, analyses of the Design management plan Nasipi and Supplementary Planning Document Edge Lane West, and review of different approaches to local communities’ involvement. Based on all the thus far collected data, a questionnaire about quality of living, knowledge of planning system and area perception was produced. Initially, it was used in a pilot residential area Žabjek, and afterwards, a shortened version was carried out in units lying in other parts of the town. Other stakeholders also expressed their ideas about how to develop planning unit seven. Speke Garston as another example of successful urban renewal is given. In conclusion guidelines for method and context development of urban renewal are given for planning unit seven, with emphasis on the Žabjek estate.

  2. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  3. Synthesis and degradation properties of β-TCP/BG porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -TCP/BG porous composite materials were successfully fabricated by foaming technology. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystal structure of powders. The pore size and distribution of the resulting materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The porosity and degradation performance of ...

  4. Chapter 5: Organopollutant Degradation by Wood Decay Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak Hadar; Daniel Cullen

    2013-01-01

    Wood decay fungi are obligate aerobes, deriving nutrients from the biological ‘combustion’ of wood, using molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor (Kirk and Farrell 1987; Blanchette 1991). Non-specific extracellular enzymes are generally viewed as key components in lignin depolymerization. The major enzymes implicated in lignin degradation are lignin peroxidase (...

  5. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  6. Lysosomal degradation of membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2010-05-03

    The constitutive degradation of membrane components takes place in the acidic compartments of a cell, the endosomes and lysosomes. Sites of lipid degradation are intralysosomal membranes that are formed in endosomes, where the lipid composition is adjusted for degradation. Cholesterol is sorted out of the inner membranes, their content in bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases, and, most likely, sphingomyelin is degraded to ceramide. Together with endosomal and lysosomal lipid-binding proteins, the Niemann-Pick disease, type C2-protein, the GM2-activator, and the saposins sap-A, -B, -C, and -D, a suitable membrane lipid composition is required for degradation of complex lipids by hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, D.L.; Bradford, S.A. [USDA ARS, Riverside, CA (United States). US Salin Laboratory

    2008-09-15

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and recreational needs; increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather; and continued degradation of available water resources from point and nonpoint sources of pollution have focused attention on the reuse of degraded waters as a potential water source. However, short- and long-term detrimental environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2007 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium entitled Environmental Impacts and Sustainability of Degraded Water Reuse. Out of this symposium came a special collection of 4 review papers and 12 technical research papers focusing on various issues associated with the reuse of agricultural drainage water, well water generated in the production of natural gas from coalbeds, municipal wastewater and biosolids, wastewater from confined animal operations, urban runoff, and food-processing wastewater. Overviews of the papers, gaps in knowledge, and future research directions are presented. The future prognosis of degraded water reuse is promising, provided close attention is paid to managing constituents that pose short- and long-term threats to the environment and the health of humankind.

  8. Radiation-thermal transformation of degraded oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyeva, N.G.; Aliyeva, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text :In order to elucidate the role of radiation in the process of oil degradation in the environment, and to identify opportunities for application of radiation-chemical technology to clean oil-contaminated soil were studied some regularities of radiation-chemical transformations of oil samples taken from wells, as well as after long-term presence on the surface of the water and soil. The most high radiation resistances of oil are samples taken from surface water. This is due to structural changes in the process of oil degradation, namely an increase in their part of the radiation-resistant resins and aspartames. This is due to evaporation of light hydrocarbons and heavy destructive transformations under the influence of oxygen, microorganisms, as well as components of the surface layer of soil. This phenomenon is explained by the specificity of action of the beam of accelerated electrons, namely the possible heating of the reaction zone due to inhibition of the electron. In this case the acceleration of diffusion processes results in an increase in the yield of gases.

  9. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish, E-mail: dsarkar@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO{sub 3}–ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO{sub 3}. • WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO{sub 3}–ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO{sub 3} nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO{sub 3} (m-WO{sub 3}) and hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO{sub 3} and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO{sub 3} shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO{sub 3}. Symmetrical monoclinic WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO{sub 3} with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  10. Anaerobic benzene degradation under denitrifying conditions: Peptococcaceae was identified as dominant benzene degrader by Stable Isotope Probing (SIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaan, van der B.M.; Talarico Saia, F.; Plugge, C.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic microbial community was enriched in a chemostat that was operated for more than 8 years with benzene and nitrate as electron acceptor. The coexistence of multiple species in the chemostat and the presence of a biofilm, led to the hypothesis that benzene-degrading species coexist in a

  11. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  12. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwayne C. Kicker

    2001-09-28

    A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events

  13. Organic chemical degradation by remote study of the redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, P. M.; Revil, A.; Binley, A. M.; Bloem, E.; French, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring the natural (and enhanced) degradation of organic contaminants is essential for managing groundwater quality in many parts of the world. Contaminated sites often have limited access, hence non-intrusive methods for studying redox processes, which drive the degradation of organic compounds, are required. One example is the degradation of de-icing chemicals (glycols and organic salts) released to the soil near airport runways during winter. This issue has been broadly studied at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway using intrusive and non-intrusive methods. Here, we report on laboratory experiments that aim to study the potential of using a self-potential, DCresistivity, and time-domain induced polarization for geochemical characterization of the degradation of Propylene Glycol (PG). PG is completely miscible in water, does not adsorb to soil particles and does not contribute to the electrical conductivity of the soil water. When the contaminant is in the unsaturated zone near the water table, the oxygen is quickly consumed and the gas exchange with the surface is insufficient to ensure aerobic degradation, which is faster than anaerobic degradation. Since biodegradation of PG is highly oxygen demanding, anaerobic pockets can exist causing iron and manganese reduction. It is hypothesised that nitrate would boost the degradation rate under such conditions. In our experiment, we study PG degradation in a sand tank. We provide the system with an electron highway to bridge zones with different redox potential. This geo-battery system is characterized by self-potential, resistivity and induced polarization anomalies. An example of preliminary results with self-potential at two different times of the experiment can be seen in the illustration. These will be supplemented with more direct information on the redox chemistry: in-situ water sampling, pH, redox potential and electrical conductivity measurements. In parallel, a series of batch experiments have been

  14. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  15. Resource Allocation Methodology for Internet Heterogeneous Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mode of operation of internet can lead to congestion which, in turn, leads to degradation in the quality of service (QoS). Congestion can be seen as overflow in the input and/or output buffers of switches at a node. Research issue relating to internet services is determining the optimum network resources - in terms of ...

  16. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. The mode of operation of internet can lead to congestion which, in turn, leads to degradation in the quality of service. (QoS). Congestion can be seen as overflow in the input and/or output buffers of switches at a node. Research issue relating to internet services is determining the optimum network resources - in ...

  17. Intrinsic immunogenicity of rapidly-degradable polymers evolves during degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorko, James I; Hess, Krystina L; Pineault, Kevin G; Jewell, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies reveal many biomaterial vaccine carriers are able to activate immunostimulatory pathways, even in the absence of other immune signals. How the changing properties of polymers during biodegradation impact this intrinsic immunogenicity is not well studied, yet this information could contribute to rational design of degradable vaccine carriers that help direct immune response. We use degradable poly(beta-amino esters) (PBAEs) to explore intrinsic immunogenicity as a function of the degree of polymer degradation and polymer form (e.g., soluble, particles). PBAE particles condensed by electrostatic interaction to mimic a common vaccine approach strongly activate dendritic cells, drive antigen presentation, and enhance T cell proliferation in the presence of antigen. Polymer molecular weight strongly influences these effects, with maximum stimulation at short degradation times--corresponding to high molecular weight--and waning levels as degradation continues. In contrast, free polymer is immunologically inert. In mice, PBAE particles increase the numbers and activation state of cells in lymph nodes. Mechanistic studies reveal that this evolving immunogenicity occurs as the physicochemical properties and concentration of particles change during polymer degradation. This work confirms the immunological profile of degradable, synthetic polymers can evolve over time and creates an opportunity to leverage this feature in new vaccines. Degradable polymers are increasingly important in vaccination, but how the inherent immunogenicity of polymers changes during degradation is poorly understood. Using common rapidly-degradable vaccine carriers, we show that the activation of immune cells--even in the absence of other adjuvants--depends on polymer form (e.g., free, particulate) and the extent of degradation. These changing characteristics alter the physicochemical properties (e.g., charge, size, molecular weight) of polymer particles, driving changes in

  18. Degradation of phenolic compounds with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by enzyme from Serratia marcescens AB 90027.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ri-Sheng; Sun, Min; Wang, Chun-Ling; Deng, Sheng-Song

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the degradation of phenolic compounds using hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer and the enzyme extract from Serratia marcescens AB 90027 as catalyst was reported. With such an enzyme/H2O2 combination treatment, a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was achieved, e.g., degradation of hydroquinone exceeded 96%. From UV-visible and IR spectra, the degradation mechanisms were judged as a process of phenyl ring cleavage. HPLC analysis shows that in the degradation p-benzoquinone, maleic acid and oxalic acid were formed as intermediates and that they were ultimately converted to CO2 and H2O. With the enzyme/H2O2 treatment, vanillin, hydroquinone, catechol, o-aminophenol, p-aminophenol, phloroglucinol and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were readily degraded, whereas the degradation of phenol, salicylic acid, resorcinol, p-cholorophenol and p-nitrophenol were limited. Their degradability was closely related to the properties and positions of their side chain groups. Electron-donating groups, such as -OH, -NH2 and -OCH3 enhanced the degradation, whereas electron-withdrawing groups, such as -NO2, -Cl and -COOH, had a negative effect on the degradation of these compounds in the presence of enzyme/H2O2. Compounds with -OH at ortho and para positions were more readily degraded than those with -OH at meta positions.

  19. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    . In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human......Quantification of forest degradation in monitoring and reporting as well as in historic baselines is among the most challenging tasks in national REDD+ strategies. However, a recently introduced option is to base monitoring systems on subnational conditions such as prevalent degradation activities...

  20. Radiation induced degradation of dyes-An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.A.; Ashraf, S. Salman

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as ·H, ·OH and e aq - are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e aq - is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by ·OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  1. Marine fungi: Degraders of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate based plastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new biosynthetic and biodegradable materials to save nonrenewable resources and reduce global pollution problems is an urgent task. Recently, materials like thermoplastic poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, have been found synthesized by bacteria as storage materials. The major PHAs synthesized are poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly-b-hydroxyvalerate (PHV and their copolymers. They are already commercially produced and used as BIOPOLTM (ICI, England. Their complete degradability by bacteria has already been shown. Today, oceans and estuaries serve as major landfills, and since fungi are an important part of the degrading microbiota, in order to prove their participation in the degradation process, a simple degradation test suitable for fungi and marine conditions had to be developed. Several solid media based on artificial sea water, differing in the content of non-alkanoate organics and supplemented with 0.1% PHA (or BIOPOLTM as a main source of carbon have been tested. The testing principle consists of clearing the turbid medium in test tube or plates caused by suspended granules of PHA. All media tested supported the growth of fungi. For the discrete and transparent clearing of zones, a mineral medium with 0.01% peptone, 0.01% yeast extract, and 0.1% PHB or BIOPOLTM was finally chosen where the fine and evenly distributed turbidity is accomplished by a specific procedure. This method allows the investigation of degradability of PHA-based plastic materials as well as screening for fungal ability to depolymerise pure PHA homopolymers. Using this medium, 32 strains of marine yeasts and 102 strains of marine mycelial fungi belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were tested for their ability to degrade PHAs. Only about 4% of the strains were able to degrade BIOPOLTM and about 6% depolymerised pure PHB homopolymer. This is in sharp contrast to the results of our previous experiments with 143 strains of terrestrial fungi

  2. Radiation processing of natural polymers using low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing is widely used in Japan and the economic scale of radiation application amounted to about 71 b$ (ratio relative to GDP: 1.7%) in total. It consisted of 60 b$ (85%) in industry, 10 b$ (14%) in medicine and 1 b$ (1%) in agriculture. Irradiation using gamma-ray from 60 Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Utilization of natural polymers by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. Low energy electron beam (EB) irradiation has a variety of applications and good safety. A self-shielded low energy electron accelerator system needs an initial investment much lower than a 60 Co facility. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective not only for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides but also for radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  3. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  4. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  5. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-07-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  6. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  7. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  8. Predicting degradability of organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finizio, A; Vighi, M [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Entomologia Agraria

    1992-05-01

    Degradability, particularly biodegradability, is one of the most important factors governing the persistence of pollutants in the environment and consequently influencing their behavior and toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The need for reliable persistence data in order to assess the environmental fate and hazard of chemicals by means of predictive approaches, is evident. Biodegradability tests are requested by the EEC directive on new chemicals. Neverthless, degradation tests are not easy to carry out and data on existing chemicals are very scarce. Therefore, assessing the fate of chemicals in the environment from the simple study of their structure would be a useful tool. Rates of degradation are a function of the rates of a series of processes. Correlation between degradation rates and structural parameters are will be facilitated if one of the processes is rate determining. This review is a survey of studies dealing with relationships between structure and biodegradation of organic chemicals, to identify the value and limitations of this approach.

  9. RANGELAND DEGRADATION: EXTENT, IMPACTS, AND ALTERNATIVE RESTORATION TECHNIQUES IN THE RANGELANDS OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation remains a serious impediment to improve pastoral livelihoods in the lowlands of Ethiopia. This review paper presents an overview of the extent of rangeland degradation, explores its drivers, discusses the potential impacts of rangeland degradation and also suggests alternative rangeland restoration techniques. It is intended to serve as an exploratory tool for ensuing more detailed quantitative analyses to support policy and investment programs to address rangeland degradation in Ethiopia. The extent of rangeland degradation increases with time, and the productivity of rangelands are losing if not given due attention. The major drivers leading to rangeland degradation includes climate change, overgrazing, bush encroachment, population pressure, drought, and government policy, encroachment of rain fed agriculture and decline of traditional resource management institution. Degradation of rangeland has resulted in substantial declines in rangeland condition, water potential, soil status, and animal performance, livestock holding at the household level and community become destitute. Another consequence of rangeland degradation is linked to food insecurity, poverty to the extent of food aid, expansion of aridity and the need for alternative livelihood and income diversification. Moreover, it has increasingly become a threat to the pastoral production systems, and has contributed towards increases in poverty and tribal conflicts over grazing land and water resources. In spite of these impacts, the adoption of alternative restoration techniques in the country is highly insufficient. To address rangeland degradation problems, there is a strong need to substantially increase the investments and strengthen the policy support for sustainable land management.

  10. Natural-resource management in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.; Mulamoottil, G.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the major natural resource management issues in relation to land, forests, and water in Bangladesh. It shows how government policies and programs in one sector may affect other sectors. A lack of land use, and forest policies can be responsible for degradation of agricultural land and deforestation. The paper argues that better management of the natural resources can only be achieved by an integrated approach covering all the sectors of development. In Bangladesh, with a freely elected government in power, there is a unique opportunity to formulate an integrated natural resource management strategy. 44 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  11. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  12. Communications/Electronics Receiver Performance Degradation Handbook (Second Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    receiver to another in the Rf and IF filter characteristics modify the transfer of inter- forence power through the receiver to the IF output, and so the...modulation system the transmitted and received messages arce in general different bemaus* of small inte, forence or noise perturbations. The probability of

  13. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-01-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to open-quotes develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.close quotes Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym open-quotes MESSclose quotes by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed

  15. Abiotic degradation of plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-López, Y. G.; Gutiérrez-Mayen, A. M.; Velasco-Pérez, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M.; Vázquez-Morillas, A.; Cano-Blanco, M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradable plastics have been promoted as an option to mitigate the environmental impacts of plastic waste. However, there is no certainty about its degradability under different environmental conditions. The effect of accelerated weathering (AW), natural weathering (NW) and thermal oxidation (TO) on different plastics (high density polyethylene, HDPE; oxodegradable high density polyethylene, HDPE-oxo; compostable plastic, Ecovio ® metalized polypropylene, PP; and oxodegradable metalized polypropylene, PP-oxo) was studied. Plastics films were exposed to AW per 110 hours; to NW per 90 days; and to TO per 30 days. Plastic films exposed to AW and NW showed a general loss on mechanical properties. The highest reduction in elongation at break on AW occurred to HDPE-oxo (from 400.4% to 20.9%) and was higher than 90% for HDPE, HDPE-oxo, Ecovio ® and PP-oxo in NW. No substantial evidence of degradation was found on plastics exposed to TO. Oxo-plastics showed higher degradation rates than their conventional counterparts, and the compostable plastic was resistant to degradation in the studied abiotic conditions. This study shows that degradation of plastics in real life conditions will vary depending in both, their composition and the environment.

  16. Poverty, population and environmental degradation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozelle, S; Huang, J; Zhang, L

    1997-06-01

    This article examines the relationship between poverty, population, and environmental degradation in China. Environmental conditions include water pollution, deforestation, destruction of grasslands, soil erosion, and salinization. The authors review China's success in controlling environmental degradation through leadership, environmental policies, and institutional capacity. Findings suggest that environmental progress is best achieved indirectly by poverty alleviation, market integration, and population control. Government policies were not very effective. Degradation occurs due to limited financial resources, poorly trained personnel, and political factors. Control of water pollution was instituted since the 1980s. The levels of pollutants have been reduced, but the type of pollutant determines the seriousness of impact. Water pollution is due to industrial wastes, agricultural run-off, and soil erosion. Since the 1970s, reforestation targets have not been met. Technical extension and monitoring of planting is not available in most areas, and private, profit seeking interests control acreage. Grassland destruction is due to deforestation, agricultural expansion, and overgrazing. Independent regional authorities have successfully managed pasture programs. Erosion is the most serious in Loess Plateau, the Red Soils area, the Northeast China Plain, and the Northwest Grasslands, which comprise 70% of total land area. In 1990, erosion control was practiced in 39% of eroded land area. Salinization has remained fairly constant. Environmental controls (direct regulation, planned recovery, and state-mandated technological improvements) are uneven. The main tool for environmental management is the State Environmental Protection Commission and its executive unit, SEPA. Problems stem from vague laws, lack of means of enforcement, lack of coordination of laws, and lack of standards, schedules, and other provisions in ordinances.

  17. Social Studies Online Resources. Media Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeri, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that three types of social studies activities are found on the information highway: (1) electronic mail; (2) information; and (3) conferencing. Describes examples of each. Discusses commercial services and resource materials and provides references to online services. (CFR)

  18. Increasing tree cover in degrading landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Rahman, Md Faizar; Sunderland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    -functionality’. Two agroforestry models suitable for adoption by farmers have been identified. Multi-strata agroforestry, based on a fruit and timber tree canopy with vegetables and tuber species in the understorey, can be practiced in the shifting cultivation fields near settlements. Fruit and timber tree......Research was conducted in Alutilla Valley in eastern Bangladesh to identify the nature of existing agroforestry systems and to identify potential agroforestry models that could ameliorate currently degrading forest resources Data were collected through farmer participatory research and a structured......-based conservation agroforestry is well suited to manage large-scale biologically depleted landscapes. Both systems yield early financial returns, facilitating the change from shifting cultivation to multi-strata agroforestry or fruit and tree-based conservation agroforestry....

  19. Study on degrading graphene oxide in wastewater under different conditions for developing an efficient and economical degradation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Chengyue

    2017-12-01

    With popular application of graphene and graphene oxide (GO), they have been discharged into water. Graphene and GO harm organisms. However, an efficient and economical method for removing graphene and GO in wastewater has seldom been reported. Graphene can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to give GO; therefore, degradation of graphene oxide is an important step in the procedure of removal of graphene from water. In this paper, GO degradation via photo-Fenton reaction under different conditions was carried out. Experimental results suggested that GO in wastewater can be efficiently and economically degraded into carbon dioxide and H 2 O when pH value is 3, concentration of H 2 O 2 and FeCl 3 are 35 mM and 5 ppm, respectively. Degradation mechanism of GO was suggested based on UV-vis absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectra data of degradation intermediates. This paper suggests an efficient and economical degradation way of GO in wastewater.

  20. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural resources management by local associations in Ifedore local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of natural resource by local associations not only in its socio ecological but also in its socio economic context will go a long way in reducing environmental degradation in some local communities. This study examined the operational capacity for natural resource management by local associations in Ifedore ...

  2. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  3. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  4. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  5. GENDER ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of internet Search engines such as google, yahoo and other free internet resources was found ... empirical studies are undertaken to examine the influence of gender ... H3: Perceived ease of use is positively related to the use of electronic.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using ZnO/TiO2 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming GE; Changsheng GUO; Xingwang ZHU; Lili MA; Zhefian HAN; Wei HU; Yuqiu WANG

    2009-01-01

    ZnO/TiO2 composites were synthesized by using the solvothermal method and ultrasonic precipitation followed by heat treatment in order to investigate their photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension under UV irradiation. The composi-tion and surface structure of the catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degradation efficiencies of MO at various pH values were obtained. The highest degradation efficiencies were obtained before 30 min and after 60 min at pH 11.0 and pH 2.0, respectively. A sample analysis was conducted using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. Six intermediates were found during the photocatalytic degradation process of quinonoid MO. The degradation pathway of quinonoid MO was also proposed.

  7. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory [DuPont; Wong, Arnold [DuPont; Meth, Jeffery [DuPont

    2018-02-12

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees C to 125 degrees C. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  8. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, G. S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, A. [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, J. S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  9. Pre-heating mitigates composite degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jessika Calixto da; Rogério Vieira, Reges; Rege, Inara Carneiro Costa; Cruz, Carlos Alberto dos Santos; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Estrela, Carlos; Castro, Fabrício Luscino Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Dental composites cured at high temperatures show improved properties and higher degrees of conversion; however, there is no information available about the effect of pre-heating on material degradation. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of pre-heating on the degradation of composites, based on the analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Material and Methods Thirty specimens were fabricated using a metallic matrix (2x8 mm) and the composites Durafill VS (Heraeus Kulzer), Z-250 (3M/ESPE), and Z-350 (3M/ESPE), cured at 25°C (no pre-heating) or 60°C (pre-heating). Specimens were stored sequentially in the following solutions: 1) water for 7 days (60°C), plus 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 14 days (60°C); 2) 50% silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 10 days (60°C). Specimens were radiographed at baseline and after each storage time, and the images were evaluated in gray scale. After the storage protocol, samples were analyzed using SEM/EDS to check the depth of silver penetration. Radiopacity and silver penetration data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=5%). Results Radiopacity levels were as follows: Durafill VSZ-350>Z-250 (pheated specimens presented higher radiopacity values than non-pre-heated specimens (pheated specimens (pheating at 60°C mitigated the degradation of composites based on analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration depth.

  10. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl_2 reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO_4 layer formation. • MgSO_4 influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO_3 induced the formation of MgCO_3 as a degradation product

  11. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  12. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Tianquan

    2014-04-22

    The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer dynamics in nanoparticle/liquid interface. This knowledge is essential to many semiconductor nanoparticle based devices, including photocatalytic waste degradation and dye sensitized solar cells.

  13. Degradation of shape memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeer, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An important parameter for deciding whether or not a SME alloy is suitable for practical applications is the magnitude of the strain reversal accompanying martensite reversion. This research is concerned with elucidating metallurgical factors that cause degradation of this heat-activated recovery strain, E/sub R/. After explaining what is meant by degradation, two manifestations of degradation recently identified in near-monotectoid uranium-niobium alloys are described. The first was associated with the onset of plastic deformation of the martensite beyond the reversible strain limit, E/sub L/; a reduction of E/sub R/ from 5.25% at 8% total strain, i.e. E/sub L/, to 2.9% at 12% total strain was observed. A second type of degradation depended strongly on the heating rate during reversion; the E/sub R/ for an imposed strain of 6.95% was reduced from a value of 5.25% to 1.3% when the heating rate was decreased from 40 0 /sec to 0.05 0 /sec. Degradation was attributed to a change in the transformation path and the interjection of time-dependent, low temperature aging reactions

  14. Characterization and characteristics of degradable polymer sacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Georgina

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the categories and characteristics of degradable polymers used to manufacture sacks for the collection and subsequent treatment of organic wastes from householders. The characteristics of polyethylene (PE) and starch-based sacks were examined using a number of different methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis and mechanical strength testing of the sacks during their use. The analyses revealed that the characteristics of the PE and starch-based sacks were very different. Photomicrographs indicated that the surface of the PE sack was much smoother than the surface of the starch-based sacks. Polyethylene sacks exhibited a greater mechanical strength, both in the unused state and over time during householder use. The severe loss of mechanical strength during use of the starch-based sacks indicated that only thicker gauge sacks were suitable for the fortnightly kerbside collection of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). Chemical analysis of two different PE sacks indicated that transition metals and other elements were commonly incorporated into the PE structure in order to facilitate increased polymer degradation

  15. Efficient electrochemical degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipa, Vytas; Hanna, Shannon K; Urbas, Aaron; Sander, Lane; Elliott, John; Conny, Joseph; Petersen, Elijah J

    2018-07-15

    As the production mass of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) increases, the potential for human and environmental exposure to MWCNTs may also increase. We have shown that exposing an aqueous suspension of pristine MWCNTs to an intense oxidative treatment in an electrochemical reactor, equipped with an efficient hydroxyl radical generating Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) anode, leads to their almost complete mineralization. Thermal optical transmittance analysis showed a total carbon mass loss of over two orders of magnitude due to the electrochemical treatment, a result consistent with measurements of the degraded MWCNT suspensions using UV-vis absorbance. Liquid chromatography data excludes substantial accumulation of the low molecular weight reaction products. Therefore, up to 99% of the initially suspended MWCNT mass is completely mineralized into gaseous products such as CO 2 and volatile organic carbon. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show sporadic opaque carbon clusters suggesting the remaining nanotubes are transformed into structure-less carbon during their electrochemical mineralization. Environmental toxicity of pristine and degraded MWCNTs was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes and revealed a major reduction in the MWCNT toxicity after treatment in the electrochemical flow-by reactor. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Protecting global soil resources for future generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The latest Status of World's Soil Resources report has highlighted that soils are increasingly under pressure by numerous human induced degradation processes in most parts of the world. The limits of our planetary boundaries concerning vital soil resources have been reached and without reversing this negative trend there will be a serious lack of necessary soil resources for future generations. It has been therefore of the highest importance to include soils within some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) recently approved by the United Nations. Sustainable development can not be achieved without protecting the limited, non-renewable, soil resources of our planet. There is the need to limit on-going soil degradation processes and to implement extensive soil restoration activities in order to strive towards a land degradation neutral (LDN) world, as called upon by SDG 15. Sustainable soil management needs to be placed at the core of any LDN strategy and therefore it is of highest importance that the recently approved Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management (VGSSM) of FAO get fully implemented at National and local scale.Sustainable soil management is not only relevant for the protection of fertile soils for food production, but also to mitigate and adopt to climate change at to preserve the large soil biodiversity pool. Therefore the VGSSM are not only relevant to FAO, but also the the climate change convention (UNFCCC) and the biodiversity convention (CBD). An integrated assessment of the current land degradation processes and the available land restoration practices is needed in order to fully evaluate the potential for effectively achieving LDN by 2030. The on-going Land Degradation and Restoration Assessment (LDRA) of the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) will provide the necessary scientific basis for the full implementation of the necessary measures for achieving the planned SGS's relevant to land

  17. Defects in degraded GaN-based laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiya, Shigetaka [Materials Analysis Center, GPS, Sony Corporation, 2-1-1 Shin-sakuragaoka, Hodogaya, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 240-0036 (Japan); Goto, Shu; Takeya, Motonobu; Ikeda, Masao [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor, Inc., 3-53-2 Shiratori, Shiroishi, Miyagi, 989-0734 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    We investigate degraded GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) fabricated on epitaxial lateral overgrown (ELO) GaN layers using transmission electron microscopy. The dislocation density in the wing region of the ELO is of the order of 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} and there are approximately ten threading dislocations in the laser stripe. Neither dislocation multiplication from the threading dislocations nor any structural changes of the threading dislocations were observed in the devices, which were degraded within approximately one hundred hours under 30 mW continuous operation at 25 C. We can, therefore, conclude that degradation in GaN-based LDs is not responsible for the recombination enhanced dislocation motion that is usually observed in zincblende structure-based LDs. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Humic Acid Degradation by ZnO Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekartaji Putri A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic acid (HA is universally present in soils and natural water resources in a yellow-brown form. HA can react with chlorine during drinking water treatment and produce disinfection byproducts (DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs and haloacetic acids (HAAs, which are harmful for health. Therefore, HA has to be eliminated from water environment. The photocatalysis is an effective alternative solution for the degradation of HA in a water environment. This research aims to degrade HA from water environment. The rapid degradation of HA, using zinc oxide nanoparticles, irradiated by ultraviolet light (ZnO/UV, is investigated. The optimum conditions of pertinent factors, which include the light wavelength (UV-A and UV-C, and light intensity, HA concentration, ZnO dose, and contact time are investigated at neutral pH conditions, considered for drinking water treatment. HA degradation efficiency reached more than 80% after 60 min for both types of irradiation in optimum conditions of 0.3 g/L ZnO dose in 180 min of contact time. Comparisons for degradation efficiency under UV-A and UV-C irradiation indicate that UV-C has higher efficiency, up to 150 min of contact time. The reusability of catalyst is performed for three reuses and still revealed effective for beneficial commercial applications.

  19. Habitat degradation may affect niche segregation patterns in lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrin, N.; Chani, J. M.; Echevarria, A. L.; Bucher, E. H.

    2013-08-01

    Lizards partition resources in three main niche dimensions: time, space and food. Activity time and microhabitat use are strongly influenced by thermal environment, and may differ between species according to thermal requirements and tolerance. As thermal characteristics are influenced by habitat structure, microhabitat use and activity of lizards can change in disturbed habitats. We compared activity and microhabitat use of two abundant lizard species of the Semi-arid Chaco of Argentina between a restored and a highly degraded Chaco forest, to determine how habitat degradation affects lizard segregation in time and space, hypothesizing that as activity and microhabitat use of lizards are related to habitat structure, activity and microhabitat use of individual species can be altered in degraded habitats, thus changing segregation patterns between them. Activity changed from an overlapped pattern in a restored forest to a segregated pattern in a degraded forest. A similar trend was observed for microhabitat use, although to a less extent. No correlation was found between air temperature and lizard activity, but lizard activity varied along the day and among sites. Contrary to what was believed, activity patterns of neotropical diurnal lizards are not fixed, but affected by multiple factors related to habitat structure and possibly to interspecific interactions. Changes in activity patterns and microhabitat use in degraded forests may have important implications when analyzing the effects of climate change on lizard species, due to synergistic effects.

  20. Degradation characteristics of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in electro-biological system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, JingLi, E-mail: jinglizhangczp@126.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin 300384 (China); Cao, ZhanPing; Zhang, HongWei [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, LianMei [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin 300384 (China); Sun, XuDong; Mei, Feng [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The 2,4-D reductive degradation was studied in an electro-biological system. • The electric auxiliary accelerates 2,4-D microbial degradation. • A electron transfer is achieved between the electrode, bacteria and the pollutants. • The paper provides a promising way for the degradation of persistent organics. -- Abstract: The reductive degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in an electro-biological system, a biological system and an electric catalytic system, respectively. Electrochemical characteristics were monitored by cyclic voltammetry and the intermediate products of 2,4-D degradation were determined by high speed liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that all 2,4-D degradations in the three systems conformed to the kinetics characteristics of one-order reaction, and the degradation kinetics constants were 28.74 × 10{sup −2} h{sup −1}, 19.73 × 10{sup −2} h{sup −1} and 3.54 × 10{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively. The kinetics constant in the electro-biological system was higher than the sum in the other two systems by 19%. The electrochemical assistance provided the electrons and accelerated the electron transfer rate in the microbial degradation of 2,4-D. The degradation resulted from the microbial reduction strengthened by the electrochemical assistance. The electron transfer existed between the electrode, cytochrome, NAD and the pollutants. A long-range electron transfer process could be achieved on the multi-phase interfaces between the electrode, bacteria and the pollutants.