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Sample records for deg rad abc

  1. Hamiltonian ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeds, E.; Leenders, R.; Welling, M.; Meila, M.; Heskes, T.

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and elegant framework for performing inference in simulation-based models. However, due to the difficulty in scaling likelihood estimates, ABC remains useful for relatively lowdimensional problems. We introduce Hamiltonian ABC (HABC), a set of lik

  2. Demystifying the RAD fad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Matz, Mikhail V; Toonen, Robert J; Weber, Jesse N; Bolnick, Daniel I; Bird, Christopher E

    2014-12-01

    We are writing in response to the population and phylogenomics meeting review by Andrews & Luikart (2014) entitled 'Recent novel approaches for population genomics data analysis'. Restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing has become a powerful and useful approach in molecular ecology, with several different published methods now available to molecular ecologists, none of which can be considered the best option in all situations. A&L report that the original RAD protocol of Miller et al. (2007) and Baird et al. (2008) is superior to all other RAD variants because putative PCR duplicates can be identified (see Baxter et al. 2011), thereby reducing the impact of PCR artefacts on allele frequency estimates (Andrews & Luikart 2014). In response, we (i) challenge the assertion that the original RAD protocol minimizes the impact of PCR artefacts relative to that of other RAD protocols, (ii) present additional biases in RADseq that are at least as important as PCR artefacts in selecting a RAD protocol and (iii) highlight the strengths and weaknesses of four different approaches to RADseq which are a representative sample of all RAD variants: the original RAD protocol (mbRAD, Miller et al. 2007; Baird et al. 2008), double digest RAD (ddRAD, Peterson et al. 2012), ezRAD (Toonen et al. 2013) and 2bRAD (Wang et al. 2012). With an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different RAD protocols, researchers can make a more informed decision when selecting a RAD protocol.

  3. RadLex

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RadLex is a controlled terminology for radiology and serves as a single unified source of radiology terms for radiology practice, education, and research. RadLex is...

  4. Struktur von ABCE1

    OpenAIRE

    Karcher, Annette

    2007-01-01

    ABCE1 ist ein Mitglied der ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamilie. ABC Proteine binden und hydrolysieren ATP und verändern dabei ihre Konformation. Dadurch können sie mechanochemische Arbeit leisten. Durch drei zusätzliche Domänen unterscheidet sich ABCE1 von allen bislang bekannten und charakterisierten Mitgliedern dieser Familie. Neben den ATP-bindenden Regionen enthält ABCE1 eine cysteinreiche, N-terminale Domäne, welche zwei Eisen-Schwefel-Cluster bindet. Diese Domäne hat hohe s...

  5. ABC Kinga kauplused = ABC King shoe stores

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Kristiine keskuses, Tartu Kaubamajas ja Pärnus Port Artur 2 asuvate ABC Kinga kaupluste sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekid Andres Labi ja Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid

  6. ABC Kinga kauplused = ABC King shoe stores

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Kristiine keskuses, Tartu Kaubamajas ja Pärnus Port Artur 2 asuvate ABC Kinga kaupluste sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekid Andres Labi ja Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid

  7. RadWorks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the first two years of the project (FY12-13), the RadWorks project has consisted of two top-level elements. The first element involved the prototype and...

  8. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  9. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  10. Thermodynamics of ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun C; Han, Lei; Zhao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters form the largest of all transporter families, and their structural study has made tremendous progress over recent years. However, despite such advances, the precise mechanisms that determine the energy-coupling between ATP hydrolysis and the conformational changes following substrate binding remain to be elucidated. Here, we present our thermodynamic analysis for both ABC importers and exporters, and introduce the two new concepts of differential-binding energy and elastic conformational energy into the discussion. We hope that the structural analysis of ABC transporters will henceforth take thermodynamic aspects of transport mechanisms into account as well.

  11. Ingegneria degli acquiferi

    CERN Document Server

    Molfetta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Il testo fornisce le conoscenze necessarie per affrontare, con un approccio quantitativo, i molteplici aspetti connessi al flusso delle risorse idriche sotterranee (acque di falda) e alla propagazione e bonifica di contaminanti nei sistemi acquiferi. Vengono illustrate le proprietà fondamentali che definiscono la capacità di immagazzinamento, trasporto e rilascio dell’acqua negli acquiferi, e successivamente, descritte le metodiche per la determinazione di tali parametri tramite l’esecuzione e l’interpretazione di prove di falda, di pozzo e di laboratorio. A partire dalla classificazione chimico fisica-tossicologica dei contaminanti vengono, quindi, analizzati i meccanismi di propagazione e illustrate le soluzioni analitiche dell’equazione del trasporto di massa nei mezzi porosi. L’ultima parte del testo è dedicata alla caratterizzazione e bonifica degli acquiferi contaminati. Il testo è rivolto sia agli studenti universitari, sia ai professionisti che debbano affrontare con un approccio quantit...

  12. Meiotic functions of RAD18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Inagaki (Akiko); E. Sleddens-Linkels (Esther); E. Wassenaar (Evelyne); M.P. Ooms (Marja); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); J. Seibler (Jost); T.F. Vogt (Thomas F.); M.K. Shin (Myung K.); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); W.M. Baarends (Willy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRAD18 is an ubiquitin ligase that is involved in replication damage bypass and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair processes in mitotic cells. Here, we investigated the testicular phenotype of Rad18-knockdown mice to determine the function of RAD18 in meiosis, and in particular, in the

  13. Mitochondrial ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, R; Kispal, G

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to bacteria, mitochondria contain only a few ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in their inner membrane. The known mitochondrial ABC proteins fall into two major classes that, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are represented by the half-transporter Atm1p and the two closely homologous proteins Mdl1p and Mdl2p. In humans two Atm1p orthologues (ABC7 and MTABC3) and two proteins homologous to Mdll/2p have been localized to mitochondria. The Atm1p-like proteins perform an important function in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and in the maturation of Fe/S proteins in the cytosol. Mutations in ABC7 are causative of hereditary X-linked sideroblastic anemia and cerebellar ataxia (XLSA/A). MTABC3 may be a candidate gene for the lethal neonatal syndrome. The function of the mitochondrial Mdl1/2p-like proteins is not clear at present with the notable exception of murine ABC-me that may transport intermediates of heme biosynthesis from the matrix to the cytosol in erythroid tissues.

  14. ABC's of Being Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  15. Rapportering med ABC modellen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    I denne artikel diskuteres Activity Based Costing (ABC) som rapporterings-teknik for kunde profitabilitet. Der argumenteres for, at indtægtserhvervel-sen inkl. dens direkte omkostningsforbrug bør adskilles fra omkostnings-beskrivelsen til produktfremstilling. Dvs. der gennemføres en aktivitetsba-...

  16. ABC's of Being Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  17. Homologous Pairing Activities of Two Rice RAD51 Proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Shukuko; Mimida, Naozumi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Toki, Seiichi; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takehiko; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, RAD51 functions as an essential protein in homologous recombination and recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks. During these processes, RAD51 catalyzes homologous pairing between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. Japonica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) encode two RAD51 proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, whereas only one RAD51 exists in yeast and mammals. However, the functional differences between RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have not been elucidated, because their biochemical properties have not been characterized. In the present study, we purified RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, and found that RAD51A2 robustly promotes homologous pairing in vitro. RAD51A1 also possesses homologous-pairing activity, but it is only about 10% of the RAD51A2 activity. Both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 bind to ssDNA and dsDNA, and their DNA binding strictly requires ATP, which modulates the polymer formation activities of RAD51A1 and RAD51A2. These findings suggest that although both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have the potential to catalyze homologous pairing, RAD51A2 may be the major recombinase in rice. PMID:24124491

  18. ABC+SCM=Sant?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Jonas; Porelius, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Background: Companies of today commonly search to gain competitive advantages throughout different forms of co-operation, one of which is referred to as Supply Chain Management. Although little research has been assigned to the topic of how to manage and control this type of relation, lately a growing number of academics has been arguing that ABC is an appropriate mean of controlling this type of relationships. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate to what degree the ongoing d...

  19. Rad52 and Rad59 exhibit both overlapping and distinct functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Qi; Düring, Louis; Antúnez de Mayolo, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA in vitro, but only Rad52 interacts with replication protein A and the Rad51 recombinase. We have studied the functional overlap between Rad52 and Rad59 in living cells using chimeras of the two proteins and site-directed mutagenesis. We find that Rad52 and Rad...

  20. Regulation of Rad51 promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Christopher M; Li, Hongjie; Xie, Li; Mao, Zhiyong; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination protein Rad51 is overexpressed in the majority of human cancers. This correlates with therapy resistance and decreased patient survival. We previously showed that constructs containing Rad51 promoter fused to a reporter gene are, on average, 850-fold more active in cancer cells than in normal cells. It is not well understood what factors and sequences regulate the Rad51 promoter and cause its high activity in cancerous cells. Here we characterized regulatory regions and examined genetic requirements for oncogenic stimulation of the Rad51 promoter. We identified specific regions responsible for up- and downregulation of the Rad51 promoter in cancerous cells. Furthermore, we show that Rad51 expression is positively regulated by EGR1 transcription factor. We then modeled the malignant transformation process by expressing a set of oncoproteins in normal human fibroblasts. Expression of different combinations of SV40 large T antigen, oncogenic Ras and SV40 small T antigen resulted in step-wise increase in Rad51 promoter activity, with all the 3 oncoproteins together leading to a 47-fold increase in expression. Cumulatively, these results suggest that Rad51 promoter is regulated by multiple factors, and that its expression is gradually activated as cells progress toward malignancy. PMID:24781030

  1. Meiotic functions of RAD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Akiko; Sleddens-Linkels, Esther; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Ooms, Marja; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Seibler, Jost; Vogt, Thomas F; Shin, Myung K; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

    2011-08-15

    RAD18 is an ubiquitin ligase that is involved in replication damage bypass and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair processes in mitotic cells. Here, we investigated the testicular phenotype of Rad18-knockdown mice to determine the function of RAD18 in meiosis, and in particular, in the repair of meiotic DSBs induced by the meiosis-specific topoisomerase-like enzyme SPO11. We found that RAD18 is recruited to a specific subfraction of persistent meiotic DSBs. In addition, RAD18 is recruited to the chromatin of the XY chromosome pair, which forms the transcriptionally silent XY body. At the XY body, RAD18 mediates the chromatin association of its interaction partners, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes HR6A and HR6B. Moreover, RAD18 was found to regulate the level of dimethylation of histone H3 at Lys4 and maintain meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, in a manner similar to that previously observed for HR6B. Finally, we show that RAD18 and HR6B have a role in the efficient repair of a small subset of meiotic DSBs.

  2. Rad Pole Cam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  3. ABC Technology Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-14

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: `Provide a weapon`s grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon`s grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.` This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments.

  4. RadFlexPro Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed multilayered, flexible, graded Z radiation shielding, RadFlexPro, provides radiation protection for astronauts in EVA for NASA's future space missions....

  5. ABCs in College English Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利文

    2011-01-01

    As is known to us all, human beings are always brought under control by such many things as the hormone in our body, the mood produced in our brain and the external world, which leads us to a topic of how to create an atmosphere for the undergraduates to fit well in with the college English education. In our teaching management, the ABCs about college English education works as an assistant. Here, ABCs about college English education refer to some fundamental skills with regard to the undergraduates English education. The ABCs, which always encourage students' involvement, would work effectively if teachers understand them well.

  6. Politseiniku lustlik ABC / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    1999-01-01

    Politsei on välja andnud 'Politseiniku ABC', mis antakse igale politseinikule. Karikaturist Heiki Ernits on peaaegu igale taskuraamatu leheküljele joonistanud pildikese mundrimeestest kentsakates situatsioonides.

  7. Politseiniku lustlik ABC / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    1999-01-01

    Politsei on välja andnud 'Politseiniku ABC', mis antakse igale politseinikule. Karikaturist Heiki Ernits on peaaegu igale taskuraamatu leheküljele joonistanud pildikese mundrimeestest kentsakates situatsioonides.

  8. The ABCs of Sex Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Cites statistics on extent of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies among adolescents; describes ideological dispute over how to teach sex education; advocates teaching the ABCs of sex education: Abstinence, Be Monogamous, and Condoms. (PKP)

  9. Not as Simple as ABC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Agricultural Bank of China finds it tough as it moves toward marketization The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) is sailing through rough seas as it weathers the storm of problems uncovered during its current stage of reform.With non-performing assets making up nearly 97 percent of the total of China’ s four large state-owned commercial banks, alarm bells are going off in ABC halls of power.

  10. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  11. RadNet Databases and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet data are available for viewing in a searchable database or as PDF reports. Historical and current RadNet monitoring data are used to estimate long-term trends in environmental radiation levels.

  12. RadTown USA: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Burbs Countryside Waterfront Downtown Did you know? RadTown Games Educational Materials Bring RadTown into the classroom with lesson ... click! Area Navigation Home Burbs Countryside Waterfront Downtown Educational Materials RadTown A to Z Games Link to Us Glossary Subscribe to Listserv News ...

  13. Cloning and sequencing the degS-degU operon from an alkalophilic Bacillus-brevis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available at the amino acid level to the B. subtilis degS-degU genes showed 74% and 84% similarity, respectively. On a multicopy vector the B. brevis degS-degU genes were found to cause hypersecretion of several extracellular enzymes in a B. subtilis rec (-) strain...

  14. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen L HERBST

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL),lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity.Lifestyle changes,such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity.Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs,these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs.RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL,or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD.People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone.In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity,the diagnostic criteria,histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies,acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused.Treatment recommendations focus on evidencebased data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy,medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT.Associated RAD conditions including depression,anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs.Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations.

  15. Purification of Rad1 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and further characterization of the Rad1/Rad10 endonuclease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkinson, A E; Bardwell, A J; Tappe, N; Ramos, W; Friedberg, E C

    1994-05-03

    The yeast recombination and repair proteins Rad1 and Rad10 associate with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form a stable complex with a relative molecular mass of 190 kDa. This complex, which has previously been shown to degrade single-stranded DNA endonucleolytically, also cleaves supercoiled duplex DNA molecules. In this reaction, supercoiled (form I) molecules are rapidly converted to nicked, relaxed (form II) molecules, presumably as a result of nicking at transient single-stranded regions in the supercoiled DNA. At high enzyme concentrations, there is a slow conversion of the form II molecules to linear (form III) molecules. The Rad1/Rad10 endonuclease does not preferentially cleave UV-irradiated DNA and has no detectable exonuclease activity. The nuclease activity of the Rad1/Rad10 complex is consistent with the predicted roles of the RAD1 and RAD10 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both the incision events of nucleotide excision repair and the removal of nonhomologous 3' single strands during intrachromosomal recombination between repeated sequences. In these pathways, the specificity and reactivity of the Rad1/Rad10 endonuclease will probably be modulated by further protein-protein interactions.

  16. The ABCs of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biron, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    For lovers of rhymes and anthropomorphic Higgs bosons, Symmetry presents its first published board book, The ABCs of Particle Physics. Use it as an illustrated guide to basic particle- and astrophysics terms, or read it to your infant at bedtime, if you don’t mind their first word being “quark.”

  17. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  18. Wireless technology for ABC Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht;

      In medical emergency service (EMS) the ABC status (Airway-Breathing-Circulation) of victims is essential in the decision making process regarding prioritizing and treatment. Today's use of information technology does, however, not inform directly about "A" and "B". The parameters are evaluated ...

  19. Rad51 Paralogs Remodel Pre-synaptic Rad51 Filaments to Stimulate Homologous Recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, MRG; Špírek, M; Chaurasiya, KR; Ward, JD; Carzaniga, R.; Yu, X; Egelman, EH; Collinson, LM; Rueda, D.; Krejci, L; Boulton, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary Repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by Rad51 filament nucleation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which catalyzes strand exchange with homologous duplex DNA. BRCA2 and the Rad51 paralogs are tumor suppressors and critical mediators of Rad51. To gain insight into Rad51 paralog function, we investigated a heterodimeric Rad51 paralog complex, RFS-1/RIP-1, and uncovered the molecular basis by which Rad51 paralogs promote HR. Unlike BRCA2, which ...

  20. Roles of XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D in RAD51-independent SSA recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heïdi Serra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The repair of DNA double-strand breaks by recombination is key to the maintenance of genome integrity in all living organisms. Recombination can however generate mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, making the regulation and the choice of specific pathways of great importance. In addition to end-joining through non-homologous recombination pathways, DNA breaks are repaired by two homology-dependent pathways that can be distinguished by their dependence or not on strand invasion catalysed by the RAD51 recombinase. Working with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we present here an unexpected role in recombination for the Arabidopsis RAD51 paralogues XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D in the RAD51-independent single-strand annealing pathway. The roles of these proteins are seen in spontaneous and in DSB-induced recombination at a tandem direct repeat recombination tester locus, both of which are unaffected by the absence of RAD51. Individual roles of these proteins are suggested by the strikingly different severities of the phenotypes of the individual mutants, with the xrcc2 mutant being the most affected, and this is confirmed by epistasis analyses using multiple knockouts. Notwithstanding their clearly established importance for RAD51-dependent homologous recombination, XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D thus also participate in Single-Strand Annealing recombination.

  1. Fast parallax-free, one-coordinate X-ray detector OD120 with the registration angle up to 360 deg.

    CERN Document Server

    Aulchenko, V M; Drozdetsky, A A; Dubrovin, M S; Sharafutdinov, M R; Titov, V M; Tolochko, B P; Vasilev, A V; Velikzhanin, Yu S

    2001-01-01

    The project of the fast parallax-free, one-coordinate X-ray detector OD120 with the registration angle up to 360 deg. is presented. The operation principles and simulation results are discussed. The calculated angular resolution of the detector is 0.3x10 sup - sup 3 rad for the focal distance of 350 mm.

  2. Fisica degli atomi e dei nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Carlo

    1965-01-01

    Evidenza della struttura atomica della materia ; le proprietà degli atomi e la meccanica atomica ; gli atomi e le radiazioni elettromagnetiche ; struttura microscopica dello stato gassoso ; struttura microscopica dello stato liquido ; struttura microscopica della stato solido ; proprietà elettriche e magnetiche delle sostanze ; proprietà dei nuclei degli atomi ; le particelle elementari.

  3. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  4. Physical mapping and cloning of RAD56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, David P; Gallina, Irene; Germann, Susanne Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the physical mapping of the rad56-1 mutation to the NAT3 gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation of RAD56 causes sensitivity to X-rays, methyl methanesulfonate, zeocin, camptothecin and hydroxyurea, bu...

  5. Physical mapping and cloning of RAD56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, David P; Gallina, Irene; Germann, Susanne Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the physical mapping of the rad56-1 mutation to the NAT3 gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation of RAD56 causes sensitivity to X-rays, methyl methanesulfonate, zeocin, camptothecin and hydroxyurea, bu...

  6. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  7. Rad51 Paralogs Remodel Pre-synaptic Rad51 Filaments to Stimulate Homologous Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martin R G; Špírek, Mário; Chaurasiya, Kathy R; Ward, Jordan D; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H; Collinson, Lucy M; Rueda, David; Krejci, Lumir; Boulton, Simon J

    2015-07-16

    Repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by Rad51 filament nucleation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which catalyzes strand exchange with homologous duplex DNA. BRCA2 and the Rad51 paralogs are tumor suppressors and critical mediators of Rad51. To gain insight into Rad51 paralog function, we investigated a heterodimeric Rad51 paralog complex, RFS-1/RIP-1, and uncovered the molecular basis by which Rad51 paralogs promote HR. Unlike BRCA2, which nucleates RAD-51-ssDNA filaments, RFS-1/RIP-1 binds and remodels pre-synaptic filaments to a stabilized, "open," and flexible conformation, in which the ssDNA is more accessible to nuclease digestion and RAD-51 dissociation rate is reduced. Walker box mutations in RFS-1, which abolish filament remodeling, fail to stimulate RAD-51 strand exchange activity, demonstrating that remodeling is essential for RFS-1/RIP-1 function. We propose that Rad51 paralogs stimulate HR by remodeling the Rad51 filament, priming it for strand exchange with the template duplex. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abc1: a new ABC transporter from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Davis, K; Nielsen, O

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated the abc1 gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sequence analysis suggests that the Abc1 protein is a member of the ABC superfamily of transporters and is composed of two structurally homologous halves, each consisting of a hydrophobic region of six transmembrane...

  9. ABC model and floral evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guisheng; MENG Zheng; KONG Hongzhi; CHEN Zhiduan; LU Anming

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces the classical ABC model of floral development and thereafter ABCD, ABCDE and quartet models, and presents achievements in the studies on floral evolution such as the improved understanding on the relationship of reproductive organs between gnetophytes and angiosperms, new results in perianth evolution and identified homology of floral organs between dicots and monocots. The evo-devo studies on plant taxa at different evolutionary levels are useful to better understanding the homology of floral organs, and to clarifying the mysteries of the origin and subsequent diversification of flowers.

  10. Synergistic interactions between RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54, three partially homologous yeast DNA repair genes each in a different repair pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassner, B.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mortimer, R.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Considerable homology has recently been noted between the proteins encoded by the RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These genes are members of the RAD6, RAD3 and RAD50 epistasis groups, respectively, which correspond to the three major DNA repair pathways in yeast. These proteins also share homology with other eucaryotic proteins, including those encoded by SNF2 and MO1 of yeast, brahma and lodestar of Drosophila and the human ERCC6 gene. The homology shares features with known helicases, suggesting a newly identified helicase subfamily. We have constructed a series of congenic single-, double- and triple-deletion mutants involving RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 to examine the interactions between these genes. Each deletion mutation alone has only a moderate effect on survival after exposure to UV radiation. Each pairwise-double mutant exhibits marked synergism. The triple-deletion mutant displays further synergism. These results confirm the assignment of the RAD54 gene to the RAD50 epistasis group and suggest that the RAD16 gene plays a larger role in DNA repair after exposure to UV radiation than has been suggested previously. Additionally, the proteins encoded by RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54 may compete for the same substrate after damage induced by UV radiation, possibly at an early step in their respective pathways. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Isolation and characterization of yeast DNA repair genes. II. Isolation of plasmids that complement the mutations rad50-1, rad51-1, rad54-3, and rad55-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, I.L.; Contopoulou, C.R.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids that complement the yeast mutations rad50-1, rad51-1, rad54-3, and rad55-3 were obtained by transforming strains that carried a leu2 marker and the particular rad mutation, with YEp 13 plasmids containing near random yeast DNA inserts. Integration of these plasmids or of fragments of these plasmids was accomplished. Genetic studies using the integrants established the presence of the genes RAD50, RAD54 and RAD55 in the respective plasmids. However, a BamHI subclone of the rad50-1 complementing plasmid failed to integrate at the RAD50 locus, indicating that no homology exists between this fragment and the RAD50 gene. A BamHI fragment for the RAD54 plasmid was shown to be internal to the RAD54 gene: its integration within a wild type copy of RAD54 causes the cell to become Rad/sup -/; its excision is X-ray inducible and restores the Rad/sup -/ phenotype. Since cells bearing a disrupted copy of RAD54 are able to survive, the author concludes that this is not essential.

  12. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  13. An ABC for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  14. An ABC for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Costa Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education; British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters; Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  15. An ABC for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa, E-mail: luiz_mogi@yahoo.com.br [Associacao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Bruna Cortez [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  16. An ABC for decision making*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Arnold JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  18. Analysis list: Rad23b [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rad23b Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad2...3b.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad23b.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad23b.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad23b.Plu

  19. Applying the ABCs in provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Seema

    2012-11-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting technique designed to guard against potentially serious financial problems that can arise when an organization's accounting costs deviate significantly from its actual costs. In general, an ABC analysis considers two factors: a cost element (a directly measurable unit of cost, such as the cost of an item) and a cost driver (a directly measurable feature of the service, such as how often the item is used). ABC is best applied to specific service areas, orservice packages, for which consumption of resources is largely predictable and atomic units of services can be accurately identified.

  20. Compensated-power differential calorimeter -196 deg. C/400 deg. C; Calorimetre differentiel a puissance compensee -196 deg. C/400 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonjour, E.; Pierre, J.; Agagliate, S.; Bertrand, P.; Faivre, J.; Lagnier, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Section physico-chimie et basses temperatures

    1967-06-01

    A differential calorimetric device of original design is described. Its allows direct measurements of thermal effects (adsorption or release) during a linear rise of temperature. The self compensated power method which is applied by means of a very sensitive control system, gives a direct value of the different heat capacity between the sample and a dummy of it. The detection threshold is about {+-} 100 micro-watts to {+-} 250 micro-watts. Applications: - Generally measurements of enthalpy changes of massive or powdered samples. - Measurement of Wigner energy after low temperature irradiation (77 deg. K). - Measurements of energy release in low temperature (77 deg. K) cold worked metals. (authors) [French] On decrit un dispositif de calorimetrie differentielle, de conception originale, qui permet de mesurer directement des effets thermiques en absorption ou en degagement de chaleur, au cours d'une montee en temperature lineaire. La methode de compensation automatique de puissance qui est mise en oeuvre au moyen de cha es d'asservissement tres sensibles, conduit a une determination directe de la capacite calorifique differencielle entre l'echantillon et sa reference. Le seuil de detection est de l'ordre de {+-} 100 a {+-} 250 microwatts. Applications: - D'une facon generale, mesure des variations enthalpiques, sur echantillons massifs ou en poudre. - Mesure de l'energie Wigner apres irradiation a basse temperature (77 deg. K). - Mesure de l'energie restauree apres deformation des metaux a basse temperature (77 deg. K). (auteurs)

  1. Testimonianze di vittime degli anni di piombo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    Testimonianze di vittime degli anni di piombo In un articolo pubblicato nel 2008 sulla webzine Nazione indiana Christian Raimo criticava quello che poi Giovanni De Luna qualche anno dopo nel suo libro La Repubblica del dolore (2011) ha chiamato “paradigma vittimario”; cioè la presenza predominante...

  2. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyoung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.. Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1 gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5′-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

  3. Arabidopsis RAD51, RAD51C and XRCC3 proteins form a complex and facilitate RAD51 localization on chromosomes for meiotic recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is required for proper homologous chromosome segregation in plants and other eukaryotes. The eukaryotic RAD51 gene family has seven ancient paralogs with important roles in mitotic and meiotic recombination. Mutations in mammalian RAD51 homologs RAD51C and XRCC3 lead to embryonic lethality. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, RAD51C and XRCC3 homologs are not essential for vegetative development but are each required for somatic and meiotic recombination, but the mechanism of RAD51C and XRCC3 in meiotic recombination is unclear. The non-lethal Arabidopsis rad51c and xrcc3 null mutants provide an opportunity to study their meiotic functions. Here, we show that AtRAD51C and AtXRCC3 are components of the RAD51-dependent meiotic recombination pathway and required for normal AtRAD51 localization on meiotic chromosomes. In addition, AtRAD51C interacts with both AtRAD51 and AtXRCC3 in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that these proteins form a complex (es. Comparison of AtRAD51 foci in meiocytes from atrad51, atrad51c, and atxrcc3 single, double and triple heterozygous mutants further supports an interaction between AtRAD51C and AtXRCC3 that enhances AtRAD51 localization. Moreover, atrad51c-/+ atxrcc3-/+ double and atrad51-/+ atrad51c-/+ atxrcc3-/+ triple heterozygous mutants have defects in meiotic recombination, suggesting the role of the AtRAD51C-AtXRCC3 complex in meiotic recombination is in part AtRAD51-dependent. Together, our results support a model in which direct interactions between the RAD51C-XRCC3 complex and RAD51 facilitate RAD51 localization on meiotic chromosomes and RAD51-dependent meiotic recombination. Finally, we hypothesize that maintenance of RAD51 function facilitated by the RAD51C-XRCC3 complex could be highly conserved in eukaryotes.

  4. Yeast ABC proteins involved in multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Agata; Obłąk, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotropic drug resistance is a complex phenomenon that involves many proteins that together create a network. One of the common mechanisms of multidrug resistance in eukaryotic cells is the active efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics through ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often used as a model to study such activity because of the functional and structural similarities of its ABC transporters to mammalian ones. Numerous ABC transporters are found in humans and some are associated with the resistance of tumors to chemotherapeutics. Efflux pump modulators that change the activity of ABC proteins are the most promising candidate drugs to overcome such resistance. These modulators can be chemically synthesized or isolated from natural sources (e.g., plant alkaloids) and might also be used in the treatment of fungal infections. There are several generations of synthetic modulators that differ in specificity, toxicity and effectiveness, and are often used for other clinical effects.

  5. ABCs of Oral Health: Nutrition - Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormal facial and dental development More ABCs of Oral Health A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | ... games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  6. Differential contributions of mammalian Rad54 paralogs to recombination, DNA damage repair, and meiosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wesoly (Joanna); S. Agarwal (Sheba); S. Sigurdsson (Stefan); W. Bussen (Wendy); S. Komen (Stephen); J. Qin (Jian); H. van Steeg (Harry); J. van Benthem (Jan); E. Wassenaar (Evelyne); W.M. Baarends (Willy); M. Ghazvini (Mehrnaz); A. Tafel (Agnieszka); H. Heath (Helen); N.J. Galjart (Niels); J. Essers (Jeroen); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); N. Arnheim (Norman); O.Y. Bezzubova (Olga); J-M. Buerstedde; P. Sung (Patrick); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHomologous recombination is a versatile DNA damage repair pathway requiring Rad51 and Rad54. Here we show that a mammalian Rad54 paralog, Rad54B, displays physical and functional interactions with Rad51 and DNA that are similar to those of Rad54. While ablation of Rad54 in mouse embryoni

  7. Comparison of PCBBs and CTs irradiated at 250 deg. C, 300 deg. C, and 350 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensman, J.; Nolles, H.N. [ECN-Energy Research Foundation, Research Unit NRG, Westerduinweg, Petten (Netherlands); Lucon, E. [SCK-CEN, Institute of Nuclear Material Science, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium); Spatig, P. [EPFL-CRDP, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The fracture toughness of irradiated Eurofer steel is difficult to characterise. Several limitations are identified in this paper with respect to the conventional treatment of fracture data of BCC steels in the transition region. It is uncertain that the RPV Master Curve is applicable to unirradiated Eurofer, and low temperature irradiation adds more to this uncertainty. The lack of strain hardening and the dose variation within each batch are two complicating factors. An irradiation has been carried out in the BFR up to a nominal dose of 2.5 dpa at 250 deg. C, 300 deg. C, and 350 deg. C in sodium. Twelve small size pre-cracked bend specimens and eight mini-CT specimens have been irradiated in each temperature section. We analyse the effect of constraint and censoring limit, and the specimen geometry and loading configuration. The fracture data are treated in several ways that are proposed in open literature to investigate the effect of irradiation on a reference temperature like the ASTM E1921 T0. In addition, the relation between the tensile hardening, which is presented in a companion paper, and the shift calculated with the various methods is studied. (authors)

  8. Contribution of Germline Mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D Genes to Ovarian Cancer in the Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Honglin; Dicks, Ed; Ramus, Susan J;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D genes to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the population and in a screening trial of individuals at high risk of ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The coding s...

  9. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity. The phosphorylation state of the response regulator DegU also does not confer a straightforward “on/off” response; it is fine-tuned and at different levels triggers different sub-regulons. Here we describe serine phosphorylation of the DegS sensing domain, which stimulates its kinase activity. We demonstrate that DegS phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp) and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala) mutants of DegS. In a number of physiological assays focused on different processes regulated by DegU, DegS S76D phosphomimetic mutant behaved like a strain with intermediate levels of DegU phosphorylation, whereas DegS S76A behaved like a strain with lower levels of DegU phophorylation. These findings suggest a link between DegS phosphorylation at serine 76 and the level of DegU phosphorylation, establishing this post-translational modification as an additional trigger for this two-component system. PMID:21304896

  10. Bacillus subtilis two-component system sensory kinase DegS is regulated by serine phosphorylation in its input domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Jers

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity. The phosphorylation state of the response regulator DegU also does not confer a straightforward "on/off" response; it is fine-tuned and at different levels triggers different sub-regulons. Here we describe serine phosphorylation of the DegS sensing domain, which stimulates its kinase activity. We demonstrate that DegS phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala mutants of DegS. In a number of physiological assays focused on different processes regulated by DegU, DegS S76D phosphomimetic mutant behaved like a strain with intermediate levels of DegU phosphorylation, whereas DegS S76A behaved like a strain with lower levels of DegU phophorylation. These findings suggest a link between DegS phosphorylation at serine 76 and the level of DegU phosphorylation, establishing this post-translational modification as an additional trigger for this two-component system.

  11. Homologous and homeologous intermolecular gene conversion are not differentially affected by mutations in the DNA damage or the mismatch repair genes RAD1, RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, PMS1 and MSH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.; Westmoreland, J.; Priebe, S. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) genes or genes involved in both DNA damage repair and homologous recombination might affect homeologous vs. homologous recombination differentially. Spontaneous mitotic gene conversion between a chromosome and a homologous or homeologous donor sequence (14% diverged) on a single copy plasmid was examined in wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and in MMR or DNA damage repair mutants. Homologous recombination in rad51, rad52 and rad54 mutants was considerably reduced, while there was little effect of rad1, rad50, pms1 and msh2 null mutations. DNA divergence resulted in no differential effect on recombination rates in the wild type or the mutants; there was only a five- to 10-fold reduction in homeologous relative to homologous recombination regardless of background. Since DNA divergence is known to affect recombination in some systems, we propose that differences in the role of MMR depends on the mode of recombination and/or the level of divergence. Based on analysis of the recombination breakpoints, there is a minimum of three homologous bases required at a recombination junction. A comparison of Rad{sup +} vs. rad52 strains revealed that while all conversion tracts are continuous, elimination of RAD52 leads to the appearance of a novel class of very short conversion tracts. 67 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Fission yeast Rad52 phosphorylation restrains error prone recombination pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Bellini

    Full Text Available Rad52 is a key protein in homologous recombination (HR, a DNA repair pathway dedicated to double strand breaks and recovery of blocked or collapsed replication forks. Rad52 allows Rad51 loading on single strand DNA, an event required for strand invasion and D-loop formation. In addition, Rad52 functions also in Rad51 independent pathways because of its ability to promote single strand annealing (SSA that leads to loss of genetic material and to promote D-loops formation that are cleaved by Mus81 endonuclease. We have previously reported that fission yeast Rad52 is phosphorylated in a Sty1 dependent manner upon oxidative stress and in cells where the early step of HR is impaired because of lack of Rad51. Here we show that Rad52 is also constitutively phosphorylated in mus81 null cells and that Sty1 partially impinges on such phosphorylation. As upon oxidative stress, the Rad52 phosphorylation in rad51 and mus81 null cells appears to be independent of Tel1, Rad3 and Cdc2. Most importantly, we show that mutating serine 365 to glycine (S365G in Rad52 leads to loss of the constitutive Rad52 phosphorylation observed in cells lacking Rad51 and to partial loss of Rad52 phosphorylation in cells lacking Mus81. Contrariwise, phosphorylation of Rad52-S365G protein is not affected upon oxidative stress. These results indicate that different Rad52 residues are phosphorylated in a Sty1 dependent manner in response to these distinct situations. Analysis of spontaneous HR at direct repeats shows that mutating serine 365 leads to an increase in spontaneous deletion-type recombinants issued from mitotic recombination that are Mus81 dependent. In addition, the recombination rate in the rad52-S365G mutant is further increased by hydroxyurea, a drug to which mutant cells are sensitive.

  13. Radiological information management system (RadIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterling, R.G.; Marko, S.A.; Tschaeche, A.N.

    1991-08-19

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is developing and implementing an information management system, known as RadIMS, to track and record personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. RadIMS has been designed to fulfill all the requirements of US Department of Energy (USDOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.'' This Order requires the contractor to maintain detailed radiation exposure records on all individuals who work at the facility. These records must be retrievable for the entire working life of the individual and be available to other USDOE contractors on request. To meet these general needs, RadIMS provides for retrieval of detailed, comprehensive individual exposure histories as well as the usual online interactions to accomplish day-today radiation protection operations. These two extremes of functionality require different approaches in the WINCO computing environment. The exposure histories include database text, paper, microfilm, and electronic bitmaps.

  14. Radiological information management system (RadIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterling, R.G.; Marko, S.A.; Tschaeche, A.N.

    1991-08-19

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is developing and implementing an information management system, known as RadIMS, to track and record personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. RadIMS has been designed to fulfill all the requirements of US Department of Energy (USDOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.`` This Order requires the contractor to maintain detailed radiation exposure records on all individuals who work at the facility. These records must be retrievable for the entire working life of the individual and be available to other USDOE contractors on request. To meet these general needs, RadIMS provides for retrieval of detailed, comprehensive individual exposure histories as well as the usual online interactions to accomplish day-today radiation protection operations. These two extremes of functionality require different approaches in the WINCO computing environment. The exposure histories include database text, paper, microfilm, and electronic bitmaps.

  15. Human Rad51 mediated DNA unwinding is facilitated by conditions that favour Rad51-dsDNA aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Anagha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Rad51 (RAD51, analogous to its bacterial homolog, RecA, binds and unwinds double stranded DNA (dsDNA in the presence of certain nucleotide cofactors. ATP hydrolysis is not required for this process, because even ATP non hydrolysable analogs like AMP-PNP and ATPγS, support DNA unwinding. Even ADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, feebly supports DNA unwinding. Results We find that human Rad52 (RAD52 stimulates RAD51 mediated DNA unwinding in the presence of all Adenine nucleotide cofactors, (except in AMP and no nucleotide conditions that intrinsically fail to support unwinding reaction while enhancing aggregation of RAD51-dsDNA complexes in parallel. Interestingly, salt at low concentration can substitute the role of RAD52, in facilitating aggregation of RAD51-dsDNA complexes, that concomitantly also leads to better unwinding. Conclusion RAD52 itself being a highly aggregated protein perhaps acts as scaffold to bring together RAD51 and DNA molecules into large co-aggregates of RAD52-RAD51-DNA complexes to promote RAD51 mediated DNA unwinding reaction, when appropriate nucleotide cofactors are available, presumably through macromolecular crowding effects. Our work highlights the functional link between aggregation of protein-DNA complexes and DNA unwinding in RAD51 system.

  16. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text...

  17. The yeast recombinational repair protein Rad59 interacts with Rad52 and stimulates single-strand annealing.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, A P; Symington, L. S.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast RAD52 gene is essential for homology-dependent repair of DNA double-strand breaks. In vitro, Rad52 binds to single- and double-stranded DNA and promotes annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA. Genetic studies indicate that the Rad52 and Rad59 proteins act in the same recombination pathway either as a complex or through overlapping functions. Here we demonstrate physical interaction between Rad52 and Rad59 using the yeast two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation from yeas...

  18. Rad51-Rad52 mediated maintenance of centromeric chromatin in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreyoshi Mitra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Specification of the centromere location in most eukaryotes is not solely dependent on the DNA sequence. However, the non-genetic determinants of centromere identity are not clearly defined. While multiple mechanisms, individually or in concert, may specify centromeres epigenetically, most studies in this area are focused on a universal factor, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, often considered as the epigenetic determinant of centromere identity. In spite of variable timing of its loading at centromeres across species, a replication coupled early S phase deposition of CENP-A is found in most yeast centromeres. Centromeres are the earliest replicating chromosomal regions in a pathogenic budding yeast Candida albicans. Using a 2-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis assay, we identify replication origins (ORI7-LI and ORI7-RI proximal to an early replicating centromere (CEN7 in C. albicans. We show that the replication forks stall at CEN7 in a kinetochore dependent manner and fork stalling is reduced in the absence of the homologous recombination (HR proteins Rad51 and Rad52. Deletion of ORI7-RI causes a significant reduction in the stalled fork signal and an increased loss rate of the altered chromosome 7. The HR proteins, Rad51 and Rad52, have been shown to play a role in fork restart. Confocal microscopy shows declustered kinetochores in rad51 and rad52 mutants, which are evidence of kinetochore disintegrity. CENP-ACaCse4 levels at centromeres, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments, are reduced in absence of Rad51/Rad52 resulting in disruption of the kinetochore structure. Moreover, western blot analysis reveals that delocalized CENP-A molecules in HR mutants degrade in a similar fashion as in other kinetochore mutants described before. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation assays indicate that Rad51 and Rad52 physically interact with CENP-ACaCse4 in vivo. Thus, the HR proteins Rad51 and Rad52

  19. TODRA, a lncRNA at the RAD51 Locus, Is Oppositely Regulated to RAD51, and Enhances RAD51-Dependent DSB (Double Strand Break) Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazy, Inbal; Zeevi, David A; Renbaum, Paul; Zeligson, Sharon; Eini, Lital; Bashari, Dana; Smith, Yoav; Lahad, Amnon; Goldberg, Michal; Ginsberg, Doron; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat

    2015-01-01

    Expression of RAD51, a crucial player in homologous recombination (HR) and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is dysregulated in human tumors, and can contribute to genomic instability and tumor progression. To further understand RAD51 regulation we functionally characterized a long non-coding (lnc) RNA, dubbed TODRA (Transcribed in the Opposite Direction of RAD51), transcribed 69bp upstream to RAD51, in the opposite direction. We demonstrate that TODRA is an expressed transcript and that the RAD51 promoter region is bidirectional, supporting TODRA expression (7-fold higher than RAD51 in this assay, p = 0.003). TODRA overexpression in HeLa cells induced expression of TPIP, a member of the TPTE family which includes PTEN. Similar to PTEN, we found that TPIP co-activates E2F1 induction of RAD51. Analysis of E2F1's effect on the bidirectional promoter showed that E2F1 binding to the same site that promotes RAD51 expression, results in downregulation of TODRA. Moreover, TODRA overexpression induces HR in a RAD51-dependent DSB repair assay, and increases formation of DNA damage-induced RAD51-positive foci. Importantly, gene expression in breast tumors supports our finding that E2F1 oppositely regulates RAD51 and TODRA: increased RAD51 expression, which is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype (e.g. negative correlation with positive ER (r = -0.22, p = 0.02) and positive PR status (r = -0.27, pDSB repair in malignancy. Importantly, gene expression in breast tumors supports our finding that E2F1 oppositely regulates RAD51 and TODRA: increased RAD51 expression, which is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype (e.g. negative correlation with positive ER (r = -0.22, p = 0.02) and positive PR status (r = -0.27, pDSB repair in malignancy.

  20. RadNet Air Data From Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Chicago, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. RadNet Air Data From Aurora, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Aurora, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  2. RadNet Air Data From Champaign, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Champaign, ILfrom EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  3. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  4. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. RadNet Air Data From Fort Worth, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Worth, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  6. RadNet Air Data From Navajo Lake, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Navajo Lake, NM from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  7. RadNet Air Data From San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for San Diego, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  8. RadNet Air Data From Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Idaho Falls, ID from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  10. HiRadMat: materials under scrutiny

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    CERN's new facility, HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials), which is designed to test materials for the world's future particle accelerators, should be operational and welcoming its first experiments by the end of the year.   The HiRadMat facility, located in the TNC tunnel. The materials used in the LHC and its experiments are exposed to very high-energy particles. The LHC machine experts obviously didn't wait for the first collisions in the world's most powerful accelerator to put the materials through their paces - the equipment was validated following a series of stringent tests. And these tests will get even tougher now, with the arrival of HiRadMat. The tunnel that formerly housed the West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) has been completely revamped to make way for CERN's latest facility, HiRadMat. Supported by the Radioprotection service, a team from the Engineering (EN) Department handled the dismantling operations from October 2009 to December 2010. "We could only work on disman...

  11. Ionizing radiation-induced foci formation of mammalian Rad51 and Rad54 depends on the Rad51 paralogs, but not on Rad52.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelen, L.R. van; Essers, J.; Rakt, M.W.M.M. van de; Odijk, H.; Pastink, A.; Zdzienicka, M.Z.; Paulusma, C.C.; Kanaar, R.

    2005-01-01

    Homologous recombination is of major importance for the prevention of genomic instability during chromosome duplication and repair of DNA damage, especially double-strand breaks. Biochemical experiments have revealed that during the process of homologous recombination the RAD52 group proteins, inclu

  12. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  13. Co-expression with RadA and the characterization of stRad55B, a RadA paralog from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaea Sulfolobus tokodaii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ST0838 (designed stRad55B) is one of the four RadA paralogs (or Rad55 homologues) in the genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. The gene is induced by UV irradiation, sug-gesting that it is involved in DNA recombinational repair in this organism. However, this protein could not be expressed normally in vitro. In this study, thermostable and soluble stRad55B was obtained by co-expression with S. tokodaii RadA (stRadA) in E. coli, and the enzymatic properties were examined. It was found that stRad55B bound ssDNA preferentially and had a very weak ATPase activity that was not stimulated by DNA. The recombinant protein inhibited the strand exchange activity promoted by stRadA, indicating that stRad55B might be an inhibitor to the homologous recombination in this ar-chaeon. The results will be helpful for further functional and interaction analysis of RadA paralogs and for the understanding of the mechanism of recombinational repair in archaea.

  14. Co-expression with RadA and the characterization of stRad55B, a RadA paralog from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaea Sulfolobus tokodaii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ST0838 (designed stRad55B) is one of the four RadA paralogs (or Rad55 homologues) in the genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. The gene is induced by UV irradiation, suggesting that it is involved in DNA recombinational repair in this organism. However, this protein could not be expressed normally in vitro. In this study, thermostable and soluble stRad55B was obtained by co-expression with S. tokodaii RadA (stRadA) in E. coli, and the enzymatic properties were examined. It was found that stRad55B bound ssDNA preferentially and had a very weak ATPase activity that was not stimulated by DNA. The recombinant protein inhibited the strand exchange activity promoted by stRadA, indicating that stRad55B might be an inhibitor to the homologous recombination in this archaeon. The results will be helpful for further functional and interaction analysis of RadA paralogs and for the understanding of the mechanism of recombinational repair in archaea.

  15. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  16. abc: An extensible AspectJ compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Research in the design of aspect-oriented programming languages requires a workbench that facilitates easy experimentation with new language features and implementation techniques. In particular, new features for AspectJ have been proposed that require extensions in many dimensions: syntax, type...... checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its frontend is built, using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The backend is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general overview...

  17. Rad51 and Rad52 are involved in homologous recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Wei Tang

    Full Text Available Replication of herpes simplex virus 1 is coupled to recombination, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly characterized. The role of Rad51 and Rad52 recombinases in viral recombination was examined in human fibroblast cells 1BR.3.N (wild type and in GM16097 with replication defects caused by mutations in DNA ligase I. Intermolecular recombination between viruses, tsS and tsK, harboring genetic markers gave rise to ∼17% recombinants in both cell lines. Knock-down of Rad51 and Rad52 by siRNA reduced production of recombinants to 11% and 5%, respectively, in wild type cells and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in GM16097 cells. The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Mixed infections using clinical isolates with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes revealed recombination frequencies of 0.7%/kbp in wild type cells and 4%/kbp in GM16097 cells. Finally, tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells.

  18. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    than 250 km) lithosphere is restrictedsolely to young Archean terranes (3.0–2.6 Ga), while in old Archean cratons (3.6–3.0 Ga) lithospheric roots donot extend deeper than 200–220 km.The TC1 model is presented by a set of maps, which show significant thermal heterogeneity within continentalupper mantle......This presentation reports a 1 deg 1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The modelis digitally available from the author’s web-site: www.lithosphere.info.Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliabledata...

  19. ABC model and the management of costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a company has multiple objectives at the same time, they all must be considered and balanced when making any business decisions. Linking the markets, capital and resources so as to thus ensure the highest yield is, In fact, the search for competitive advantage as a basic condition for survival in a market economy. In highly detailed systems based on the management of costs or ABC (activity based costing systems, the cost of activities often result in erroneous evaluation of aggregate costs of the action. Improvements in information technology and monitoring decrease of technology costs enabled the ABC system to become a feasible system calculating costs in many organizations.

  20. The ABCs of GERD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue contents The ABCs of GERD Follow us The ABCs of GERD Photo: AdobeStock HEALTH TIPS - Gastroesophageal ... if you are concerned. For more information, visit the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ...

  1. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text...... manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic...

  2. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  3. ABC transporters : Lessons from a bacterial oligopeptide uptake system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Mark Koop

    2006-01-01

    ABC transporters are proteins that are involved in the uptake of nutrients and excretion of harmful substances in biological cells. Defects in human ABC transporters can result in severe diseases. Too high ABC transporter activity can lead to non-responsiveness of cancercells to chemotherapy, and

  4. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline;

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity...

  5. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, D D; Timmermans, V; Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1995-05-25

    The RAD16 gene product has been shown to be essential for the repair of the silenced mating type loci [Bang et al. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 3925-3931]. More recently we demonstrated that the RAD16 and RAD7 proteins are also required for repair of non-transcribed strands of active genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Waters et al. (1993) Mol. Gen. Genet. 239, 28-32]. We have studied the regulation of the RAD16 gene and found that the RAD16 transcript levels increased up to 7-fold upon UV irradiation. Heat shock at 42 degrees C also results in elevated levels of RAD16 mRNA. In sporulating MAT alpha/MATa diploid cells RAD16 mRNA is also induced. The basal level of the RAD16 transcript is constant during the mitotic cell cycle. G1-arrested cells show normal induction of RAD16 mRNA upon UV irradiation demonstrating that the induction is not a secondary consequence of G2 cell cycle arrest following UV irradiation. However, in cells arrested in G1 the induction of RAD16 mRNA after UV irradiation is not followed by a rapid decline as occurs in normal growing cells suggesting that the down regulation of RAD16 transcription is dependent on progression into the cell cycle.

  6. Analysis list: RAD21 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RAD21 Blood,Breast,Digestive tract,Liver,Neural,Pluripotent stem cell,Uterus + hg19 http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/RAD21.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu...-u/hg19/target/RAD21.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/RAD21.10.tsv http://dbarch...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RAD21.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RAD21.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RAD21.Digestive_tract.tsv,http:

  7. Analysis list: Rad21 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rad21 Blood,Digestive tract,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Neural,Pluripotent stem cell...,Spleen + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad21.1.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad21.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad21.10.tsv htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad21.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad21.Digestive_tract.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad2

  8. Angiopatia diabetica e amputazione degli arti inferiori: valutazioni preliminari degli episodi di ricovero ripetuti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Trerotoli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: l’obiettivo principale dello studio è stata la valutazione dei ricoveri ripetuti nei soggetti con vasculopatia diabetica, rispetto ai soggetti con vasculopatia non diabetica.

    Materiali e Metodi: sono state selezionate le SDO del triennio 1998-2000 contenenti, in uno dei campi di diagnosi, i codici di diabete mellito, con e senza complicanze (codici ICD9 ed ICD9CM, 250.—, vasculopatia periferica (440.2 e 440.8, ulcera periferica (707.1, 707.8, 707.9, gangrena (785.4. Le SDO con diagnosi di vasculopatia diabetica sono state considerate come angiopatie diabetiche (AD; le altre sono state attribuite agli angiopatici non diabetici (AND. Le SDO con diabete non complicato e arteriopatia periferica sono state eliminate. L’intervento di amputazione è stato individuato dalla presenza del codice ICD9CM di procedura 84.—. La ripetitività degli episodi è stata valutata usando il codice fiscale come identificativo del paziente. Risultati: sono state rilevate 5814 dimissioni di AD e 9010 di AND. Le amputazioni sono state 285 (4,90% negli AD e 485 (5,38% negli AND. I ricoveri ripetuti sono stati 13 negli AD e 12 negli AND. Le amputazioni sono state osservate verso il 4°-5° episodio di ricovero negli AD, mentre già dal 2° episodio negli AND. Le ulcere erano presenti nel 36,05% (il 36,5% nel primo episodio di ricovero, che resta costante negli episodi successivi degli AND e nel 10,97% degli AD (9,84% nel primo episodio, con un incremento fino al 20% del 5° episodio. Un episodio in day-hospital (DH si osserva nel 12,32% degli AD, contro il 4,20% degli AND.

    Conclusioni: l’accesso degli AD all’assistenza intraospedaliera avviene più frequentemente in DH, i passi successivi sono caratterizzati dalla comparsa dell’ulcera o gangrena e infine dall’amputazione. Nel gruppo degli AD è stato osservato un eccesso di ospedalizzazione, probabilmente per ripetitività del

  9. WeltABC | kinderKAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schreger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das WeltABC ist eine Einladung zur Reise durch Sprache(n und damit verknüpften Bildern. Es ist eine Sammlung scheinbar klarer Begriffe, deren Ausgangspunkt die Sprache Deutsch ist. Diese Begriffe werden mit weiteren Begriffen assoziiert und durch Fotos illustriert.

  10. New Broom To Sweep Clean At ABC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) has a new president. The last non- publicly traded state-owned lender in China announced on July 6 that Xiang Junbo, former Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China, or the central bank, had beenappointed to take o

  11. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Stefan S.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roe A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for beta-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA) that is used for the biosynthesis of penicillin G. To identify ABC transporters related to beta-lactam biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of all 48 ABC transporters presen...

  12. Regulation of RAD54- and RAD52-lacZ gene fusions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, G.M.; Schild, D.; Lovett, S.T.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-03-01

    The RAD52 and RAD54 genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in both DNA repair and DNA recombination. RAD54 has recently been shown to be inducible by X-rays, while RAD52 is not. To further investigate the regulation of these genes, we constructed gene fusions using 5' regions upstream of the RAD52 and RAD54 genes and a 3'-terminal fragment of the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. Yeast transformants with either an integrated or an autonomously replicating plasmid containing these fusions expressed beta-galactosidase activity constitutively. In addition, the RAD54 gene fusion was inducible in both haploid and diploid cells in response to the DNA-damaging agents X-rays, UV light, and methyl methanesulfonate, but not in response to heat shock. The RAD52-lacZ gene fusion showed little or no induction in response to X-ray or UV radiation nor methyl methanesulfonate. Typical induction levels for RAD54 in cells exposed to such agents were from 3- to 12-fold, in good agreement with previous mRNA analyses. When MATa cells were arrested in G1 with alpha-factor, RAD54 was still inducible after DNA damage, indicating that the observed induction is independent of the cell cycle. Using a yeast vector containing the EcoRI structural gene fused to the GAL1 promoter, we showed that double-strand breaks alone are sufficient in vivo for induction of RAD54.

  13. EFEKTIVITAS IMPLEMENTASI CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPOSIBILITY PT. ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkiaji Rikky Djunaedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were 1 to analyze public perceptions on the effectiveness of the implementation of CSR of PT. A B C; 2 to analyze the implementation of CSR activities by PT. A B C; 3 to formulate strategies to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of CSR of PT. A B C. The method used in this research was descriptive analysis with a survey approach to measure expectations and performance assessment on the CSR implemented programs by the public, and there were respondents 104 respondents involved in this study. This study used the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA aiming to determine the effectiveness of the programs that have been implemented and to map the relationship between the expectations and the performance of each variable. Furthermore, using a SWOT analysis of the data processing and of the objectives of the program made by CSR is expected to provide recommendations to develop strategies in order to increase the effectiveness of CSR program of ABC Company.Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR, mining industry, implementation analysis, IPA, SWOTAbstrakTujuan dari  penelitian ini adalah 1 menganalisis persepsi masyarakat teradap efektivitas implementasi CSR PT. ABC; 2 menganalisis pelaksanaan  kegiatan CSR oleh PT. ABC; 3 merumuskan strategi untuk meningkatkan efektivitas implementasi CSR PT. ABC. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis deskriptif dengan pendekatan survey untuk mengukur harapan dan penilaian kinerja oleh masyarakat atas program CSR yang diterapkan. Jumlah responden sebanyak 104 orang.  Dalam penelitian ini digunakan Analisis Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas dari program-program yang telah dijalankan serta  memetakan hubungan antara harapan dengan kinerja dari masing-masing variabel. Selanjutnya menggunakan analisis SWOT dari hasil pengolahan data dan dari tujuan program dibuat oleh CSR sehingga dapat memberikan rekomendasi

  14. Nuclear localization of Rad51B is independent of BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K A; Hinz, J M; Yamada, A; Thompson, L H; Albala, J S

    2005-06-28

    Human Rad51 is critical for the maintenance of genome stability through its role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Rad51B (Rad51L1/hRec2) is one of the five known paralogs of human Rad51 found in a multi-protein complex with three other Rad51 paralogs, Rad51C, Rad51D and Xrcc2. Examination of EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in HeLa S3 cells and immunofluorescence in several human cell lines confirms the nuclear localization of Rad51B. This is the first report to detail putative interactions of a Rad51 paralog protein with BRCA2. Utilization of a BRCA2 mutant cell line, CAPAN-1 suggests that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of BRCA2. Although both Rad51B and BRCA2 are clearly involved in the homologous recombinational repair pathway, Rad51B and BRCA2 do not appear to associate directly. Furthermore, mutations in the KKLK motif of Rad51B, amino acid residues 4-7, mislocalizes Rad51B to the cytoplasm suggesting that this is the nuclear localization signal for the Rad51B protein. Examination of wild-type EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in mammalian cells deficient in Rad51C showed that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of Rad51C; further suggesting that Rad51B, like Rad51C, contains its own nuclear localization signal.

  15. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This presentation reports a 1 deg ×1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The model is digitally available from the author's web-site: www.lithosphere.info. Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliable data on borehole heat flow measurements (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001), checked with the original publications for data quality, and corrected for paleo-temperature effects where needed. These data are supplemented by cratonic geotherms based on xenolith data. Since heat flow measurements cover not more than half of the continents, the remaining areas (ca. 60% of the continents) are filled by the statistical numbers derived from the thermal model constrained by borehole data. Continental geotherms are statistically analyzed as a function of age and are used to estimate lithospheric temperatures in continental regions with no or low quality heat flow data. This analysis requires knowledge of lithosphere age globally. A compilation of tectono-thermal ages of lithospheric terranes on a 1 deg × 1 deg grid forms the basis for the statistical analysis. It shows that, statistically, lithospheric thermal thickness z (in km) depends on tectono-thermal age t (in Ma) as: z=0.04t+93.6. This relationship formed the basis for a global thermal model of the continental lithosphere (TC1). Statistical analysis of continental geotherms also reveals that this relationship holds for the Archean cratons in general, but not in detail. Particularly, thick (more than 250 km) lithosphere is restricted solely to young Archean terranes (3.0-2.6 Ga), while in old Archean cratons (3.6-3.0 Ga) lithospheric roots do not extend deeper than 200-220 km. The TC1 model is presented by a set of maps, which show significant thermal heterogeneity within continental upper mantle. The strongest lateral temperature variations (as large as 800 deg C) are typical of the shallow mantle (depth less than 100 km). A map of the

  16. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    than 250 km) lithosphere is restrictedsolely to young Archean terranes (3.0–2.6 Ga), while in old Archean cratons (3.6–3.0 Ga) lithospheric roots donot extend deeper than 200–220 km.The TC1 model is presented by a set of maps, which show significant thermal heterogeneity within continentalupper mantle......This presentation reports a 1 deg 1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The modelis digitally available from the author’s web-site: www.lithosphere.info.Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliabledata...... of the continents, the remaining areas (ca. 60% ofthe continents) are filled by the statistical numbers derived from the thermal model constrained by boreholedata. Continental geotherms are statistically analyzed as a function of age and are used to estimate lithospherictemperatures in continental regions...

  17. Regulation of Rad51-Mediated Homologous Recombination by BRCA2, DSS1 and RAD52

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rants, Louise Olthaver Juhl

    Homologous recombination (HR) provides a mechanism to restore integrity and maintain stability of the genetic material. HR is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), recovery of broken replication forks and generation of meiotic crossovers. The defining step in HR...... in governing the activity of Rad51 and to learn how other recombination-associated proteins such as DSS1 and RAD52 contribute to its regulation. We use the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis and the avian DT40 cell line as experimental systems since both have a well-conserved BRCA2-based recombinational repair...

  18. TODRA, a lncRNA at the RAD51 Locus, Is Oppositely Regulated to RAD51, and Enhances RAD51-Dependent DSB (Double Strand Break) Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renbaum, Paul; Zeligson, Sharon; Eini, Lital; Bashari, Dana; Smith, Yoav; Lahad, Amnon; Goldberg, Michal; Ginsberg, Doron; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat

    2015-01-01

    Expression of RAD51, a crucial player in homologous recombination (HR) and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is dysregulated in human tumors, and can contribute to genomic instability and tumor progression. To further understand RAD51 regulation we functionally characterized a long non-coding (lnc) RNA, dubbed TODRA (Transcribed in the Opposite Direction of RAD51), transcribed 69bp upstream to RAD51, in the opposite direction. We demonstrate that TODRA is an expressed transcript and that the RAD51 promoter region is bidirectional, supporting TODRA expression (7-fold higher than RAD51 in this assay, p = 0.003). TODRA overexpression in HeLa cells induced expression of TPIP, a member of the TPTE family which includes PTEN. Similar to PTEN, we found that TPIP co-activates E2F1 induction of RAD51. Analysis of E2F1's effect on the bidirectional promoter showed that E2F1 binding to the same site that promotes RAD51 expression, results in downregulation of TODRA. Moreover, TODRA overexpression induces HR in a RAD51-dependent DSB repair assay, and increases formation of DNA damage-induced RAD51-positive foci. Importantly, gene expression in breast tumors supports our finding that E2F1 oppositely regulates RAD51 and TODRA: increased RAD51 expression, which is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype (e.g. negative correlation with positive ER (r = -0.22, p = 0.02) and positive PR status (r = -0.27, p<0.001); positive correlation with ki67 status (r = 0.36, p = 0.005) and HER2 amplification (r = 0.41, p = 0.001)), correlates as expected with lower TODRA and higher E2F1 expression. However, although E2F1 induction resulted in TPIP downregulation in cell lines, we find that TPIP expression in tumors is not reduced despite higher E2F1 expression, perhaps contributing to increased RAD51 expression. Our results identify TPIP as a novel E2F1 co-activator, suggest a similar role for other TPTEs, and indicate that the TODRA lncRNA affects RAD51 dysregulation and RAD51

  19. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

  20. La poesia sabiana degli Anni Venti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilij Rakar

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Muovendo da un confronto fra il Saba del primo Canzoniere e le Figure e canti coi quali l'opera del poeta triestino continua negli anni venti, l'autore cerca di individuare i caratteri che meglio definiscono la poesia sabiana di questo secondo periodo. Messi in evidenza alcuni temi su cui verte il discorso sabiano fin delle Poesie dell'adolescenza e giovanili, le opere degli anni venti si rivelano come esiti di un poliforme compendio in cui il poeta vuol chiarire il senso del cammino percorso e comp:tendere quelle che sono le ragioni prime del suo poetare. Si manifestano qui, anche in maniera esplicita, alcuni motivi fondamentali del Canzionere: basti pensare, ad esempio, a Il borgo che offre la chiave per l'interprezazione di tutto un filone della tematica sabiana, o alle Fughe, con le quali il poeta vuol esprimere l'essenza del proprio sentire. La poetica delle »figure« e dei »canti« composti negli anni venti, non segnerebbe dunque una conversione di Saba ai »miti della forma«, come inducono a credere anche certe apostrofi del poeta stesso, rna può esser definita solo se vista in funzione dei contenuti che determinano il suo formarsi.

  1. Spin Interference in Rashba 2DEG Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Junsaku

    The gate controllable SOI provides useful information about spin interference.1 Spin interference effects are studied in two different interference loop structures. It is known that sample specific conductance fluctuations affect the conductance in the interference loop. By using array of many interference loops, we carefully pick up TRS Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS)-type oscillation which is not sample specific and depends on the spin phase. The experimentally obtained gate voltage dependence of AAS oscillations indicates that the spin precession angle can be controlled by the gate voltage.2 We demonstrate the time reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in small arrays of mesoscopic rings.3 By using an electrostatic gate we can control the spin precession angle rate and follow the AC phase over several interference periods. We also see the second harmonic of the AC interference, oscillating with half the period. The spin interference is still visible after more than 20π precession angle. We have proposed a Stern-Gerlach type spin filter based on the Rashba SOI.4 A spatial gradient of effective magnetic field due to the nonuniform SOI separates spin up and down electrons. This spin filter works even without any external magnetic fields and ferromagnetic contacts. We show the semiconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structure is an effective way to detect magnetization process of submicron magnets. The problem of the spin injection from ferromagnetic contact into 2DEG is also disicussed. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  2. Evaluation of reconstruction arc in myocardial SPECT imaging using a cardiac phantom. Comparison between 360deg and 180deg arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikura, Kenichi [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kashikura, Akemi; Terada, Shinichirou; Kobayashi, Hideki

    1996-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of reconstruction arc on myocardial SPECT images, a series of phantom studies was performed with and without plastic chambers simulating perfusion defects using {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc. Coefficient of variations (CV) of the counts among the ROIs and defect contrast were evaluated in 360deg and 180deg images reconstructed from the same 360deg projection data. Reconstruction processes were identical for all images. In the absence of defects, the CV of the counts were approximately the same in 360deg and 180deg images. The CV of the counts in the 360deg {sup 201}Tl image, among 4 defects located on the anterior, lateral, inferoposterior, and septal walls, was superior to those in the 180deg images. In contrast, in the {sup 99m}Tc images, the CV of the counts among the 4 defects in the 180deg image was superior to those of the 360deg image. The defect contrast was changed both by the location of the defect and by the reconstruction arc ({sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc). The defect contrast of the 180deg images, in both {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc experiments, was closer to the true contrast value as calculated by the count ratio between myocardium and defect. Although the defect contrast in the anterior, lateral and septal walls was more emphasized in the 180deg images, the defect contrast in the inferoposterior wall was less emphasized in the 180deg images compared to the 360deg ({sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc). (author)

  3. Analysis list: Rad51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rad51 Blood,Gonad + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad51.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad51.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/k...yushu-u/mm9/target/Rad51.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad51.Blood.tsv,http://d...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad51.Gonad.tsv http://dbarchive.bios...ciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml ...

  4. Manfaat Datawarehouse pada Rumah Sakit ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristus Didik M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is objected to analyze the current system to find the problems being faced by ABC Hospital and propose alternative solutions. Additionally, it aims to generate information needed by the hospital management to design a data warehouse according to the information needs. The research method used is theanalysis and design of data warehouse by Kimball and Ross cited by Connolly and Begg, known as Nine-Step Methodology. The result obtained is a data warehouse application with a multidimensional historical data that can assist the hospital management in decision making. Designing data warehouse at ABC Hospital makesenterprise data into concise and can be viewed from several dimensions that help users analyze data for strategic decision quickly and accurately.

  5. MANFAAT DATA WAREHOUSE PADA PT ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristus Didik Madyatmadja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current system to find out problems faced by the company and propose alternative solutions and generate information needed by management by designing a data warehouse according to the information needs of PT ABC. This research implements analysis and design of data warehouse by Ralph Kimball and Ross cited by Connolly and Begg, known as Nine-Step Methodology. The result obtained is a data warehouse application that may present a multidimensional historical data that can assist the management in decisions. Designing data warehouse at PT ABC makes concise the enterprise data and can be viewed from several dimensions. It helps users analyze data for strategic decision quickly and accurately.

  6. ABC Transporters and the Alzheimer's Disease Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Hartz, Anika M S

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered the "disease of the twenty-first century." With a 10-fold increase in global incidence over the past 100 years, AD is now reaching epidemic proportions and by all projections, AD patient numbers will continue to rise. Despite intense research efforts, AD remains a mystery and effective therapies are still unavailable. This represents an unmet need resulting in clinical, social, and economic problems. Over the last decade, a new AD research focus has emerged: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In this article, we provide an overview of the ABC transporters ABCA1, ABCA2, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (ABCC1), and BCRP (ABCG2), all of which are expressed in the brain and have been implicated in AD. We summarize recent findings on the role of these five transporters in AD, and discuss their potential to serve as therapeutic targets.

  7. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  8. Variation in the RAD51 gene and familial breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lose, Felicity; Lovelock, Paul; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Mann, Graham J; Pupo, Gulietta M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Human RAD51 is a homologue of the Escherichia coli RecA protein and is known to function in recombinational repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. Mutations in the lower eukaryotic homologues of RAD51 result in a deficiency in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. Loss of RAD51 function would therefore be expected to result in an elevated mutation rate, leading to accumulation of DNA damage and, hence, to increased cancer risk. RAD51 interacts directly or indirectly with a number of proteins implicated in breast cancer, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Similar to BRCA1 mice, RAD51-/- mice are embryonic lethal. The RAD51 gene region has been shown to exhibit loss of heterozygosity in breast tumours, and deregulated RAD51 expression in breast cancer patients has also been reported. Few studies have investigated the role of coding region variation in the RAD51 gene in familial breast cancer, with only one coding region variant – exon 6 c.449G>A (p.R150Q) – reported to date. Methods All nine coding exons of the RAD51 gene were analysed for variation in 46 well-characterised, BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer families using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotyping of the exon 6 p.R150Q variant was performed in an additional 66 families. Additionally, lymphoblastoid cell lines from breast cancer patients were subjected to single nucleotide primer extension analysis to assess RAD51 expression. Results No coding region variation was found, and all intronic variation detected was either found in unaffected controls or was unlikely to have functional consequences. Single nucleotide primer extension analysis did not reveal any allele-specific changes in RAD51 expression in all lymphoblastoid cell lines tested. Conclusion Our study indicates that RAD51 is not a major familial breast cancer predisposition gene. PMID:16762046

  9. Phase Fluctuations in the ABC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2011-11-01

    We analyze the fluctuations of the steady state profiles in the modulated phase of the ABC model. For a system of L sites, the steady state profiles move on a microscopic time scale of order L 3. The variance of their displacement is computed in terms of the macroscopic steady state profiles by using fluctuating hydrodynamics and large deviations. Our analytical prediction for this variance is confirmed by the results of numerical simulations.

  10. ABC of physics a very brief guide

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    2012-01-01

    This little book concentrates on the foundations of modern physics (its "ABC's") and its most fundamental constants: c - the velocity of light and ? - the quantum of action. First of all, the book is addressed to professional physicists, but in order to achieve maximal concentration and clarity it uses the simplest (high school) mathematics. As a result many pages of the book will be useful to college students and may appeal to a more general audience.

  11. Inferring phylogenies from RAD sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E R Rubin

    Full Text Available Reduced-representation genome sequencing represents a new source of data for systematics, and its potential utility in interspecific phylogeny reconstruction has not yet been explored. One approach that seems especially promising is the use of inexpensive short-read technologies (e.g., Illumina, SOLiD to sequence restriction-site associated DNA (RAD--the regions of the genome that flank the recognition sites of restriction enzymes. In this study, we simulated the collection of RAD sequences from sequenced genomes of different taxa (Drosophila, mammals, and yeasts and developed a proof-of-concept workflow to test whether informative data could be extracted and used to accurately reconstruct "known" phylogenies of species within each group. The workflow consists of three basic steps: first, sequences are clustered by similarity to estimate orthology; second, clusters are filtered by taxonomic coverage; and third, they are aligned and concatenated for "total evidence" phylogenetic analysis. We evaluated the performance of clustering and filtering parameters by comparing the resulting topologies with well-supported reference trees and we were able to identify conditions under which the reference tree was inferred with high support. For Drosophila, whole genome alignments allowed us to directly evaluate which parameters most consistently recovered orthologous sequences. For the parameter ranges explored, we recovered the best results at the low ends of sequence similarity and taxonomic representation of loci; these generated the largest supermatrices with the highest proportion of missing data. Applications of the method to mammals and yeasts were less successful, which we suggest may be due partly to their much deeper evolutionary divergence times compared to Drosophila (crown ages of approximately 100 and 300 versus 60 Mya, respectively. RAD sequences thus appear to hold promise for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in younger clades in

  12. Inferring phylogenies from RAD sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Benjamin E R; Ree, Richard H; Moreau, Corrie S

    2012-01-01

    Reduced-representation genome sequencing represents a new source of data for systematics, and its potential utility in interspecific phylogeny reconstruction has not yet been explored. One approach that seems especially promising is the use of inexpensive short-read technologies (e.g., Illumina, SOLiD) to sequence restriction-site associated DNA (RAD)--the regions of the genome that flank the recognition sites of restriction enzymes. In this study, we simulated the collection of RAD sequences from sequenced genomes of different taxa (Drosophila, mammals, and yeasts) and developed a proof-of-concept workflow to test whether informative data could be extracted and used to accurately reconstruct "known" phylogenies of species within each group. The workflow consists of three basic steps: first, sequences are clustered by similarity to estimate orthology; second, clusters are filtered by taxonomic coverage; and third, they are aligned and concatenated for "total evidence" phylogenetic analysis. We evaluated the performance of clustering and filtering parameters by comparing the resulting topologies with well-supported reference trees and we were able to identify conditions under which the reference tree was inferred with high support. For Drosophila, whole genome alignments allowed us to directly evaluate which parameters most consistently recovered orthologous sequences. For the parameter ranges explored, we recovered the best results at the low ends of sequence similarity and taxonomic representation of loci; these generated the largest supermatrices with the highest proportion of missing data. Applications of the method to mammals and yeasts were less successful, which we suggest may be due partly to their much deeper evolutionary divergence times compared to Drosophila (crown ages of approximately 100 and 300 versus 60 Mya, respectively). RAD sequences thus appear to hold promise for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in younger clades in which sufficient

  13. Rad51 activates polyomavirus JC early transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn K White

    Full Text Available The human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV causes the fatal CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. JCV infection is very common and after primary infection, the virus is able to persist in an asymptomatic state. Rarely, and usually only under conditions of immune impairment, JCV re-emerges to actively replicate in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of the brain causing PML. The regulatory events involved in the reactivation of active viral replication in PML are not well understood but previous studies have implicated the transcription factor NF-κB acting at a well-characterized site in the JCV noncoding control region (NCCR. NF-κB in turn is regulated in a number of ways including activation by cytokines such as TNF-α, interactions with other transcription factors and epigenetic events involving protein acetylation--all of which can regulate the transcriptional activity of JCV. Active JCV infection is marked by the occurrence of rapid and extensive DNA damage in the host cell and the induction of the expression of cellular proteins involved in DNA repair including Rad51, a major component of the homologous recombination-directed double-strand break DNA repair machinery. Here we show that increased Rad51 expression activates the JCV early promoter. This activation is co-operative with the stimulation caused by NF-κB p65, abrogated by mutation of the NF-κB binding site or siRNA to NFκB p65 and enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. These data indicate that the induction of Rad51 resulting from infection with JCV acts through NF-κB via its binding site to stimulate JCV early transcription. We suggest that this provides a novel positive feedback mechanism to enhance viral gene expression during the early stage of JCV infection.

  14. Fast correlation attack on stream cipher ABC v3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HaiNa; LI Lin; WANG XiaoYun

    2008-01-01

    ABC v3 is a stream cipher submitted to the ECRYPT eStream project and has entered the second evaluation phase.Its key length is 128 bits.In this paper,we find large numbers of new weak keys of ABC family and introduce a method to search for them,and then apply a fast correlation attack to break ABC v3 with weak keys.We show that there are at least 2103.71 new weak keys in ABC v3.Recovering the internal state of a weak key requires 236.05 keystream words and 250.56 operations.The attack can be applied to ABC v1 and v2 with the same complexity as that of ABC v3.However,the number of weak keys of ABC v1 as well as ABC v2 decreases to 297+295.19.It reveals that ABC v3 incurs more weak keys than that of ABC v1 and v2.

  15. Rad52 SUMOylation affects the efficiency of the DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Arneric, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) plays a vital role in DNA metabolic processes including meiosis, DNA repair, DNA replication and rDNA homeostasis. HR defects can lead to pathological outcomes, including genetic diseases and cancer. Recent studies suggest that the post-translational modification...... recombination mediator protein Rad52. Interestingly, Rad52 SUMOylation is enhanced by single-stranded DNA, and we show that SUMOylation of Rad52 also inhibits its DNA binding and annealing activities. The biochemical effects of SUMO modification in vitro are accompanied by a shorter duration of spontaneous Rad...... of recombination and DNA repair....

  16. Roles of C-Terminal Region of Yeast and Human Rad52 in Rad51-Nucleoprotein Filament Formation and ssDNA Annealing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh V Khade

    Full Text Available Yeast Rad52 (yRad52 has two important functions at homologous DNA recombination (HR; annealing complementary single-strand DNA (ssDNA molecules and recruiting Rad51 recombinase onto ssDNA (recombination mediator activity. Its human homolog (hRAD52 has a lesser role in HR, and apparently lacks mediator activity. Here we show that yRad52 can load human Rad51 (hRAD51 onto ssDNA complexed with yeast RPA in vitro. This is biochemically equivalent to mediator activity because it depends on the C-terminal Rad51-binding region of yRad52 and on functional Rad52-RPA interaction. It has been reported that the N-terminal two thirds of both yRad52 and hRAD52 is essential for binding to and annealing ssDNA. Although a second DNA binding region has been found in the C-terminal region of yRad52, its role in ssDNA annealing is not clear. In this paper, we also show that the C-terminal region of yRad52, but not of hRAD52, is involved in ssDNA annealing. This suggests that the second DNA binding site is required for the efficient ssDNA annealing by yRad52. We propose an updated model of Rad52-mediated ssDNA annealing.

  17. The structures of Arabidopsis Deg5 and Deg8 reveal new insights into HtrA proteases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Feng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Fan, Haitian; Shan, Xiaoyue [Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Renhua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Haidian District, Beijing 100093 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lin, E-mail: liulin@ibcas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Haidian District, Beijing 100093 (China); Gong, Weimin, E-mail: liulin@ibcas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structures of Arabidopsis Deg5 and Deg8 have been determined to resolutions of 2.6 and 2.0 Å, respectively, revealing novel structural features of HtrA proteases. Plant Deg5 and Deg8 are two members of the HtrA proteases, a family of oligomeric serine endopeptidases that are involved in a variety of protein quality-control processes. These two HtrA proteases are located in the thylakoid lumen and participate in high-light stress responses by collaborating with other chloroplast proteins. Deg5 and Deg8 degrade photodamaged D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction centre, allowing its in situ replacement. Here, the crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana Deg5 (S266A) and Deg8 (S292A) are reported at 2.6 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. The Deg5 trimer contains two calcium ions in a central channel, suggesting a link between photodamage control and calcium ions in chloroplasts. Previous structures of HtrA proteases have indicated that their regulation usually requires C-terminal PDZ domain(s). Deg5 is unique in that it contains no PDZ domain and the trimeric structure of Deg5 (S266A) reveals a novel catalytic triad conformation. A similar triad conformation is observed in the hexameric structure of the single PDZ-domain-containing Deg8 (S292A). These findings suggest a novel activation mechanism for plant HtrA proteases and provide structural clues to their function in light-stress response.

  18. Two DNA repair and recombination genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, are induced during meiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, G.M.; Mortimer, R.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Schild, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-07-01

    The DNA repair and recombination genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, were transcriptionally induced approximately 10- to 15-fold in sporulating MATa/{alpha} cells. Congenic MATa/a cells, which did not sporulate, did not show similar increases. Assays of {beta}-galactosidase activity in strains harboring either a RAD52- or RAD54-lacZ gene fusion indicated that this induction occurred at a time concomitant with a commitment to meiotic recombination, as measured by prototroph formation from his1 heteroalleles.

  19. Neutron irradiation of silicon diodes at temperatures of +20deg C and -20deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghinolfi, F.; Glaser, M.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Jarron, P.; Lemeilleur, F.; Occelli, E.; Poppleton, A. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bardos, R.; Gorfine, G.; Moorhead, G.; Taylor, G.; Tovey, S. (School of Physics, Univ. Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)); Bates, S.J.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A. (Cavendish Lab., Univ. Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Wu, X. (DPNC, Univ. Geneva (Switzerland)); Claussen, N.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Papendick, B.; Schulz, T.; Wunstorf, R. (Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Hamburg (Germany)); Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R.; Pagel, H.; Pollmann, D.; Rolf, A. (Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Dortmund (Germany)); Scampoli, P. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Perugia (Italy) INFN, Sezione Perugia (Italy)); Weidberg, A.R. (Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)); RD2 Collaboration

    1993-03-01

    We report measurements of the behaviour of silicon diodes when exposed to integrated neutron doses of up to 5x10[sup 13] neutrons/cm[sup 2]. The measurements have been made at diode temperatures between room temperature and -20deg C. From measurements of the diode leakage current and depletion voltage, and consequent evaluations of the effective impurity concentration, the temperature dependence of these quantities is discussed in terms of the annealing behaviour of the diodes. Comments are made on the suitability of silicon as a detector medium for particle physics experiments at future accelerators. (orig.).

  20. DegP Chaperone Suppresses Toxic Inner Membrane Translocation Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braselmann, Esther; Chaney, Julie L.; Champion, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    The periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria includes a variety of molecular chaperones that shepherd the folding and targeting of secreted proteins. A central player of this quality control network is DegP, a protease also suggested to have a chaperone function. We serendipitously discovered that production of the Bordetella pertussis autotransporter virulence protein pertactin is lethal in Escherichia coli ΔdegP strains. We investigated specific contributions of DegP to secretion of pertactin as a model system to test the functions of DegP in vivo. The DegP chaperone activity was sufficient to restore growth during pertactin production. This chaperone dependency could be relieved by changing the pertactin signal sequence: an E. coli signal sequence leading to co-translational inner membrane (IM) translocation was sufficient to suppress lethality in the absence of DegP, whereas an E. coli post-translational signal sequence was sufficient to recapitulate the lethal phenotype. These results identify a novel connection between the DegP chaperone and the mechanism used to translocate a protein across the IM. Lethality coincided with loss of periplasmic proteins, soluble σE, and proteins regulated by this essential stress response. These results suggest post-translational IM translocation can lead to the formation of toxic periplasmic folding intermediates, which DegP can suppress. PMID:27626276

  1. DegP Chaperone Suppresses Toxic Inner Membrane Translocation Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braselmann, Esther; Chaney, Julie L; Champion, Matthew M; Clark, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria includes a variety of molecular chaperones that shepherd the folding and targeting of secreted proteins. A central player of this quality control network is DegP, a protease also suggested to have a chaperone function. We serendipitously discovered that production of the Bordetella pertussis autotransporter virulence protein pertactin is lethal in Escherichia coli ΔdegP strains. We investigated specific contributions of DegP to secretion of pertactin as a model system to test the functions of DegP in vivo. The DegP chaperone activity was sufficient to restore growth during pertactin production. This chaperone dependency could be relieved by changing the pertactin signal sequence: an E. coli signal sequence leading to co-translational inner membrane (IM) translocation was sufficient to suppress lethality in the absence of DegP, whereas an E. coli post-translational signal sequence was sufficient to recapitulate the lethal phenotype. These results identify a novel connection between the DegP chaperone and the mechanism used to translocate a protein across the IM. Lethality coincided with loss of periplasmic proteins, soluble σE, and proteins regulated by this essential stress response. These results suggest post-translational IM translocation can lead to the formation of toxic periplasmic folding intermediates, which DegP can suppress.

  2. Involvement of DEG5 and DEG8 proteases in the turnover of the photosystem II reaction center D1 protein under heat stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN XuWu; WANG LiYuan; ZHANG LiXin

    2007-01-01

    Deg5,deg8 and the double mutant,deg5deg8 of Arabidopsis thaliana were used to study the physiological role of the DEG proteases in the repair cycle of photosystem II (PSII) under heat stress. PSII activity in deg mutants showed increased sensitivity to heat stress,and the extent of this effect was greater in the double mutant,deg5deg8,than in the single mutants,deg5 and deg8. Degradation of the D1 protein was slower in the mutants than in the WT plants. Furthermore,the levels of other PSII reaction center proteins tested remained relatively stable in the mutant and WT plants following high-temperature treatment. Thus,our results indicate that DEG5 and DEG8 may have synergistic function in degradation of D1 protein under heat stress.

  3. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  4. Smooth solutions to the equation A+B=C

    CERN Document Server

    Lagarias, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies integer solutions to the ABC equation A+B+C=0 in which none of A, B, C has a large prime factor. Set H(A,B, C)= max(|A|,|B|,|C|) and set the smoothness S(A, B, C) to be the largest prime factor of ABC. We consider primitive solutions (gcd(A, B, C)=1) having smoothness no larger than a fixed power p of log H. Assuming the abc Conjecture we show that there are finitely many solutions if p8. We sketch some details of the proof of the latter result.

  5. Reappearance from Obscurity: Mammalian Rad52 in Homologous Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Hanamshet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. It is responsible for repair of the most harmful DNA lesions, DNA double-strand breaks and inter-strand DNA cross-links. HR function is also essential for proper segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, maintenance of telomeres, and resolving stalled replication forks. Defects in HR often lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Rad52 is one of the key HR proteins, which is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. In yeast, Rad52 is important for most HR events; Rad52 mutations disrupt repair of DNA double-strand breaks and targeted DNA integration. Surprisingly, in mammals, Rad52 knockouts showed no significant DNA repair or recombination phenotype. However, recent work demonstrated that mutations in human RAD52 are synthetically lethal with mutations in several other HR proteins including BRCA1 and BRCA2. These new findings indicate an important backup role for Rad52, which complements the main HR mechanism in mammals. In this review, we focus on the Rad52 activities and functions in HR and the possibility of using human RAD52 as therapeutic target in BRCA1 and BRCA2-deficient familial breast cancer and ovarian cancer.

  6. RadNet Air Data From Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Salt Lake City, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  7. Study on Performance of Empore~(TM) Technetium Rad Disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    EmporeTM Technetium Rad disks produced by 3M Company contain GD-1 sorbent loaded on particles that are embedded in an inert PTFE matrix. In this study, several experiments have been accomplished to evaluate the performance of EmporeTM Technetium Rad disks.

  8. La formazione iniziale degli insegnanti in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cappa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo è diviso in tre parti. La prima presenta gli elementi storici e di sfondo che occorre tenere presenti per comprendere l’evoluzione della formazione iniziale degli insegnanti verso gli attuali modelli, che pur essendo oggi tutti gestiti dalle università conservano una sensibile diversità a seconda che si tratti di formare maestri per la scuola dell’infanzia e primaria oppure professori di scuola secondaria di primo e secondo grado. La seconda parte analizza il passaggio, maturato tra la fine del secolo scorso e l’inizio del XXI secolo, della formazione dei maestri dalla scuola secondaria (Istituto magistrale all’università (Corso di laurea in Scienze della formazione primaria, e l’istituzione delle Scuole di Specializzazione per l’Insegnamento Secondario (SSIS fino alla soppressione di queste ultime, avvenuta nel 2009. La terza parte presenta il quadro attuale della formazione iniziale dei docenti in Italia con riguardo soprattutto agli insegnanti della scuola secondaria, per i quali – a differenza che per i maestri - sono intervenute dal 2010 importanti innovazioni legislative. Le SSIS sono state infatti sostituite con il Tirocinio Formativo Attivo (TFA, attualmente in fase di attuazione da parte delle università. Nella parte finale dell’articolo si traccia un primo bilancio dell’esperienza del TFA e si indicano alcuni problemi aperti. Il focus rimane sostanzialmente sulla formazione iniziale, in quanto in Italia la formazione in servizio, che pure non è del tutto assente, non è mai stata oggetto di una normativa né di una azione organica, ma avviene, quando avviene, sulla base di iniziative di specifici gruppi o associazioni.The article is organised in three parts. The first one illustrates the historical features and the institutional and political background that have to be taken into account in order to understand how initial teacher education and training has developed in Italy. Presently, all teacher

  9. The role of the atypical kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in abscisic acid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eManara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase is represented in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling.

  10. APOLLO 13: A News Bulletin from ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: ABC breaks the news of a mishap aboard the spacecraft From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  11. Nap1 stimulates homologous recombination by RAD51 and RAD54 in higher-ordered chromatin containing histone H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Shinichi; Takaku, Motoki; Ikura, Masae; Sun, Jiying; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Wataru; Kinomura, Aiko; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Fukuto, Atsuhiko; Matsuda, Ryo; Ura, Kiyoe; Tashiro, Satoshi; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-05-06

    Homologous recombination plays essential roles in mitotic DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and meiotic genetic recombination. In eukaryotes, RAD51 promotes the central homologous-pairing step during homologous recombination, but is not sufficient to overcome the reaction barrier imposed by nucleosomes. RAD54, a member of the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor family, is required to promote the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in nucleosomal DNA. In higher eukaryotes, most nucleosomes form higher-ordered chromatin containing the linker histone H1. However, the mechanism by which RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing occurs in higher-ordered chromatin has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that a histone chaperone, Nap1, accumulates on DSB sites in human cells, and DSB repair is substantially decreased in Nap1-knockdown cells. We determined that Nap1 binds to RAD54, enhances the RAD54-mediated nucleosome remodeling by evicting histone H1, and eventually stimulates the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in higher-ordered chromatin containing histone H1.

  12. A Polar and Nucleotide-Dependent Mechanism of Action for RAD51 Paralogs in RAD51 Filament Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martin R G; Špírek, Mário; Jian Ma, Chu; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Takaki, Tohru; Collinson, Lucy M; Greene, Eric C; Krejci, Lumir; Boulton, Simon J

    2016-12-01

    Central to homologous recombination in eukaryotes is the RAD51 recombinase, which forms helical nucleoprotein filaments on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and catalyzes strand invasion with homologous duplex DNA. Various regulatory proteins assist this reaction including the RAD51 paralogs. We recently discovered that a RAD51 paralog complex from C. elegans, RFS-1/RIP-1, functions predominantly downstream of filament assembly by binding and remodeling RAD-51-ssDNA filaments to a conformation more proficient for strand exchange. Here, we demonstrate that RFS-1/RIP-1 acts by shutting down RAD-51 dissociation from ssDNA. Using stopped-flow experiments, we show that RFS-1/RIP-1 confers this dramatic stabilization by capping the 5' end of RAD-51-ssDNA filaments. Filament end capping propagates a stabilizing effect with a 5'→3' polarity approximately 40 nucleotides along individual filaments. Finally, we discover that filament capping and stabilization are dependent on nucleotide binding, but not hydrolysis by RFS-1/RIP-1. These data define the mechanism of RAD51 filament remodeling by RAD51 paralogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aktsiisiseaduse muudatused 2006. aastal : aktsiisimäärad / Urmas Koidu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koidu, Urmas

    2006-01-01

    2006. aastal jõustunud alkoholi-, tubaka- ja kütuseaktsiisi seaduse muudatustest. Lisatud tabelid: alkoholi aktsiisimäärad Eestis 2006-2008 ja ELi aktsiisi alammäärad (krooni); tubakatoodete aktsiisimäärad Eestis 2006-2008 ja ELi aktsiisi alammäärad; mootorikütuse aktsiisimäärad Eestis ja ELi alammäärad; kütteainete ja elektrienergia aktsiisimäärad Eestis ja ELi alammäärad

  14. Aktsiisiseaduse muudatused 2006. aastal : aktsiisimäärad / Urmas Koidu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koidu, Urmas

    2006-01-01

    2006. aastal jõustunud alkoholi-, tubaka- ja kütuseaktsiisi seaduse muudatustest. Lisatud tabelid: alkoholi aktsiisimäärad Eestis 2006-2008 ja ELi aktsiisi alammäärad (krooni); tubakatoodete aktsiisimäärad Eestis 2006-2008 ja ELi aktsiisi alammäärad; mootorikütuse aktsiisimäärad Eestis ja ELi alammäärad; kütteainete ja elektrienergia aktsiisimäärad Eestis ja ELi alammäärad

  15. Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Lyne; Chang, Ya-Ting; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Russell, Paul; Nakamura, Toru M

    2010-06-01

    While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes.

  16. The SRS2 suppressor of rad6 mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts by channeling DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiestl, R.H.; Prakash, S.; Prakash, L. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    rad6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are defective in the repair of damaged DNA, DNA damage induced mutagenesis, and sporulation. In order to identify genes that can substitute for RAD6 function, the authors have isolated genomic suppressors of the UV sensitivity of rad6 deletion (rad6{Delta}) mutations and show that they also suppress the {gamma}-ray sensitivity but not the UV mutagenesis or sporulation defects of rad6. The suppressors show semidominance for suppression of UV sensitivity and dominance for suppression of {gamma}-ray sensitivity. The six suppressor mutations they isolated are all alleles of the same locus and are also allelic to a previously described suppressor of the rad6-1 nonsense mutation, SRS2. They show that suppression of rad6{Delta} is dependent on the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway since suppression is not observed in the rad6{Delta} SRS2 strain containing an additional mutation in either the RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55 or RAD57 genes. Possible mechanisms by which SRS2 may channel unrepaired DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway are discussed.

  17. Classification and evolutionary history of the single-strand annealing proteins, RecT, Redβ, ERF and RAD52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind L

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA single-strand annealing proteins (SSAPs, such as RecT, Redβ, ERF and Rad52, function in RecA-dependent and RecA-independent DNA recombination pathways. Recently, they have been shown to form similar helical quaternary superstructures. However, despite the functional similarities between these diverse SSAPs, their actual evolutionary affinities are poorly understood. Results Using sensitive computational sequence analysis, we show that the RecT and Redβ proteins, along with several other bacterial proteins, form a distinct superfamily. The ERF and Rad52 families show no direct evolutionary relationship to these proteins and define novel superfamilies of their own. We identify several previously unknown members of each of these superfamilies and also report, for the first time, bacterial and viral homologs of Rad52. Additionally, we predict the presence of aberrant HhH modules in RAD52 that are likely to be involved in DNA-binding. Using the contextual information obtained from the analysis of gene neighborhoods, we provide evidence of the interaction of the bacterial members of each of these SSAP superfamilies with a similar set of DNA repair/recombination protein. These include different nucleases or Holliday junction resolvases, the ABC ATPase SbcC and the single-strand-binding protein. We also present evidence of independent assembly of some of the predicted operons encoding SSAPs and in situ displacement of functionally similar genes. Conclusions There are three evolutionarily distinct superfamilies of SSAPs, namely the RecT/Redβ, ERF, and RAD52, that have different sequence conservation patterns and predicted folds. All these SSAPs appear to be primarily of bacteriophage origin and have been acquired by numerous phylogenetically distant cellular genomes. They generally occur in predicted operons encoding one or more of a set of conserved DNA recombination proteins that appear to be the principal functional

  18. abc: The AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Chris; Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon;

    2005-01-01

    abc is an extensible, optimising compiler for AspectJ. It has been designed as a workbench for experimental research in aspect-oriented programming languages and compilers. We outline a programme of research in these areas, and we review how abc can help in achieving those research goals...

  19. ABC transporter architecture and regulatory roles of accessory domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, E; Doeven, MK; Poolman, B

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the architecture of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and dissect the systems in core and accessory domains. The ABC transporter core is formed by the transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that constitute the actual translocator. The a

  20. ABC implementation in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    1Cooper and Kaplan (1988) introduced activity-based costing (ABC) as an alternative to traditional ... H.M. van der Poll is in the School of Business. Leadership ... benchmark, and what the impact is on the successful implementation of ABC. • determine .... The interviews were recorded with a digital voice recorder with field ...

  1. ABC transporters and multidrug resistance in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The term multidrug resistance (MDR) stands for simultaneous cellular resistance to chemically unrelated toxicants and is often associated with overproduction of multidrug-efflux proteins of the A TP- b inding- c assette (ABC) superfamily. The ABC tr

  2. Dashboard auditing of ABC (Activity-Based Costing). Theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process of an enterprise from steel industry according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  3. Dashboard Auditing of Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  4. Mongoose: Creation of a Rad-Hard MIPS R3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Dan; Smith, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a 32 Bit, full MIPS R3000 code-compatible Rad-Hard CPU, code named Mongoose. Mongoose progressed from contract award, through the design cycle, to operational silicon in 12 months to meet a space mission for NASA. The goal was the creation of a fully static device capable of operation to the maximum Mil-883 derated speed, worst-case post-rad exposure with full operational integrity. This included consideration of features for functional enhancements relating to mission compatibility and removal of commercial practices not supported by Rad-Hard technology. 'Mongoose' developed from an evolution of LSI Logic's MIPS-I embedded processor, LR33000, code named Cobra, to its Rad-Hard 'equivalent', Mongoose. The term 'equivalent' is used to infer that the core of the processor is functionally identical, allowing the same use and optimizations of the MIPS-I Instruction Set software tool suite for compilation, software program trace, etc. This activity was started in September of 1991 under a contract from NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Flight Data Systems. The approach affected a teaming of NASA-GSFC for program development, LSI Logic for system and ASIC design coupled with the Rad-Hard process technology, and Harris (GASD) for Rad-Hard microprocessor design expertise. The program culminated with the generation of Rad-Hard Mongoose prototypes one year later.

  5. Rad54 protein promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazina, Olga M; Mazin, Alexander V

    2006-08-03

    Homologous recombination has a crucial function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in faithful chromosome segregation. The mechanism of homologous recombination involves the search for homology and invasion of the ends of a broken DNA molecule into homologous duplex DNA to form a cross-stranded structure, a Holliday junction (HJ). A HJ is able to undergo branch migration along DNA, generating increasing or decreasing lengths of heteroduplex. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the physical evidence for HJs, the key intermediate in homologous recombination, was provided by electron microscopy. In bacteria there are specialized enzymes that promote branch migration of HJs. However, in eukaryotes the identity of homologous recombination branch-migration protein(s) has remained elusive. Here we show that Rad54, a Swi2/Snf2 protein, binds HJ-like structures with high specificity and promotes their bidirectional branch migration in an ATPase-dependent manner. The activity seemed to be conserved in human and yeast Rad54 orthologues. In vitro, Rad54 has been shown to stimulate DNA pairing of Rad51, a key homologous recombination protein. However, genetic data indicate that Rad54 protein might also act at later stages of homologous recombination, after Rad51 (ref. 13). Novel DNA branch-migration activity is fully consistent with this late homologous recombination function of Rad54 protein.

  6. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  7. Evolution of RAD- and DIV-Like Genes in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental genetic studies of Antirrhinum majus demonstrated that two transcription factors from the MYB gene family, RADIALIS (RAD and DIVIRICATA (DIV, interact through antagonism to regulate floral dorsoventral asymmetry. Interestingly, similar antagonistic interaction found among proteins of FSM1 (RAD-like and MYBI (DIV-like in Solanum lycopersicum is involved in fruit development. Here, we report the reconstruction of the phylogeny of I-box-like and R-R-type clades, where RAD- and DIV-like genes belong, respectively. We also examined the homology of these antagonistic MYB proteins using these phylogenies. The results show that there are likely three paralogs of RAD-/I-box-like genes, RAD1, RAD2, and RAD3, which originated in the common ancestor of the core eudicots. In contrast, R-R-type sequences fall into two major clades, RR1 and RR2, the result of gene duplication in the common ancestor of both monocots and dicots. RR1 was divided into clades RR1A, RR1B, and RR1C, while RR2 was divided into clades RR2A/DIV1, RR2B/DIV2, and RR2C/DIV3. We demonstrate that among similar antagonistic interactions in An. Majus and So. lycopersicum, RAD-like genes originate from the RAD2 clade, while DIV-like genes originate from distantly related paralogs of the R-R-type lineage. The phylogenetic analyses of these two MYB clades lay the foundation for future comparative studies including testing the evolution of the antagonistic relationship of proteins.

  8. Liquid rad waste system improvement at YGN 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. S.; Kang, Y. H.; Shin, Y. H. [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc. (KOPEC), Yonggin, Kyunggido(Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The performance of the rad waste system is measured in terms of the generation of waste volumes, the release of radioactive materials to the environment and the occupational radiation exposure to workers. Based on our design and operating experience from PWR plants, various design goals for the liquid rad waste system were developed to improve system performance. As a result of feasibility studies for an improved liquid rad waste system, a design concept was developed to meet the basic design goals, which have been incorporated into the YGN 5 and 6 system. As a result, the performance of the system will be significantly improved. (author)

  9. ABC for network managers. Key to efficiency improvement; ABC voor netbeheerders. Sleutel tot efficiencyverbetering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osse, M.J.E. [Ernst and Young Consulting, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1999-12-01

    In order to give everyone who wants to supply electricity a fair chance, network managers must make costs transparent. Next to the rules for the tariff code, they can also make use of a cost charging method, the so-called ABC-N (Activity Based Costing for Networks). This method makes the costs transparent and therefore also helps the network managers to improve their efficiency. That is essential in view of the pressure from the supervisor for the Dutch electric power sector.

  10. RAD/COMM ''Cricket'' Test Report

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, P J

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The ''Cricket'' is manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems Corp., which is located in Ontario, Canada. The system is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is mounted to the base of a grappler and monitors material, while the grappler's tines hold the material. It can also be used to scan material in an attempt to isolate radioactive material if an alarm occurs. Testing was performed at the Environmental Effects Laboratory located at ORNL and operated by the Engineering Science and Technology Division. Tests performed included the following: (1) Background stability, (2) Energy response using sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, and sup 6 sup 0 Co, (3) Surface uniformity, (4) Angular dependence, (5) Alarm actuation, (6) Alarm threshold vs. background, (7) Shielding, (8) Re...

  11. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  12. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  13. Mre11-Rad50 complex crystals suggest molecular calisthenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wyman (Claire); J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecently published crystal structures of different Mre11 and Rad50 complexes show the arrangement of these proteins and imply dramatic ligand-induced rearrangements with important functional consequences.

  14. RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory contains measured data used to identify and measure specific radioactive materials in the atmosphere at...

  15. An Overview of the Reliability and Availability Data System (RADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. E. Wierman; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. A. Eide; D. M. Rasmuson

    2005-09-01

    The Reliability and Availability Data System (RADS) is a database and analysis code, developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The code is designed to estimate industry and plant-specific reliability and availability parameters for selected components in risk-important systems and initiating events for use in risk-informed applications. The RADS tool contains data and information based on actual operating experience from U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data contained in RADS is kept up-to-date by loading the most current quarter's Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX) data and by yearly lods of initiating event data from licensee event reports (LERS). The reliability parameters estimated by RADS are (1) probability of failure on demand, (2) failure rate during operation (used to calculate failure to run probability) and (3) time trends in reliability parameters.

  16. A comparative study between RadViz and Star Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Sánchez, Manuel; Raya, Laura; Díaz, Francisco; Sanchez, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    RadViz and star coordinates are two of the most popular projection-based multivariate visualization techniques that arrange variables in radial layouts. Formally, the main difference between them consists of a nonlinear normalization step inherent in RadViz. In this paper we show that, although RadViz can be useful when analyzing sparse data, in general this design choice limits its applicability and introduces several drawbacks for exploratory data analysis. In particular, we observe that the normalization step introduces nonlinear distortions, can encumber outlier detection, prevents associating the plots with useful linear mappings, and impedes estimating original data attributes accurately. In addition, users have greater flexibility when choosing different layouts and views of the data in star coordinates. Therefore, we suggest that analysts and researchers should carefully consider whether RadViz's normalization step is beneficial regarding the data sets' characteristics and analysis tasks.

  17. Extreme Temperature, Rad-Hard Power Management ASIC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group will design a rad-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for spacecraft power management that is functional over a temperature range of...

  18. Role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51 paralogs in sister chromatid recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozlin, Amy M; Fung, Cindy W; Symington, Lorraine S

    2008-01-01

    Rad51 requires a number of other proteins, including the Rad51 paralogs, for efficient recombination in vivo. Current evidence suggests that the yeast Rad51 paralogs, Rad55 and Rad57, are important in formation or stabilization of the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament. To gain further insights into the function of the Rad51 paralogs, reporters were designed to measure spontaneous or double-strand break (DSB)-induced sister or nonsister recombination. Spontaneous sister chromatid recombination (SCR) was reduced 6000-fold in the rad57 mutant, significantly more than in the rad51 mutant. Although the DSB-induced recombination defect of rad57 was suppressed by overexpression of Rad51, elevated temperature, or expression of both mating-type alleles, the rad57 defect in spontaneous SCR was not strongly suppressed by these same factors. In addition, the UV sensitivity of the rad57 mutant was not strongly suppressed by MAT heterozygosity, even though Rad51 foci were restored under these conditions. This lack of suppression suggests that Rad55 and Rad57 have different roles in the recombinational repair of stalled replication forks compared with DSB repair. Furthermore, these data suggest that most spontaneous SCR initiates from single-stranded gaps formed at stalled replication forks rather than DSBs.

  19. Compensatory role for Rad52 during recombinational repair in Ustilago maydis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojic, Milorad; Mao, Ninghui; Zhou, Qingwen

    2008-01-01

    in spontaneous mutator activity, allelic recombination or meiosis. GFP-Rad51 foci were formed in rad52 cells following DNA damage, but were initially less intense than normal suggesting a possible role for Rad52 in formation of the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament. A search for interacting genes that confer...

  20. Rec2 Interplay with both Brh2 and Rad51 Balances Recombinational Repair in Ustilago maydis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojic, M.; Zhou, Q.; Lisby, M.;

    2006-01-01

    Rec2 is the single Rad51 paralog in Ustilago maydis. Here, we find that Rec2 is required for radiation-induced Rad51 nuclear focus formation but that Rec2 foci form independently of Rad51 and Brh2. Brh2 foci also form in the absence of Rad51 and Rec2. By coprecipitation from cleared extracts...

  1. Isolation, characterisation and expression patterns of a RAD51 ortholog from Pleurotus ostreatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T.S.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2002-01-01

    AB: Using degenerated primers for conserved regions of RecA homologs we have isolated a gene from Pleurotus ostreatus that shows characteristic features of RAD51 homologs. The encoded amino acid sequence of P. ostreatus RAD51 (PoRAD51) shows greatest sequence similarities with RAD51 from Coprinus

  2. Isolation, characterisation and expression patterns of a RAD51 ortholog from Pleurotus ostreatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T.S.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2002-01-01

    AB: Using degenerated primers for conserved regions of RecA homologs we have isolated a gene from Pleurotus ostreatus that shows characteristic features of RAD51 homologs. The encoded amino acid sequence of P. ostreatus RAD51 (PoRAD51) shows greatest sequence similarities with RAD51 from Coprinus ci

  3. Extracting BI-RADS Features from Portuguese Clinical Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Nassif, Houssam; Cunha, Filipe; Moreira, Inês C.; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Sousa, Eliana; Page, David; Burnside, Elizabeth; Dutra, Inês

    2012-01-01

    In this work we build the first BI-RADS parser for Portuguese free texts, modeled after existing approaches to extract BI-RADS features from English medical records. Our concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BIRADS lexicon and on iterative transferred expert knowledge. We compare the performance of our algorithm to manual annotation by a specialist in mammography. Our results show that our parser’s performance is comparable to the manual method.

  4. Extracting BI-RADS Features from Portuguese Clinical Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Nassif, Houssam; Cunha, Filipe; Moreira, Inês C; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Sousa, Eliana; Page, David; Burnside, Elizabeth; Dutra, Inês

    2012-01-01

    In this work we build the first BI-RADS parser for Portuguese free texts, modeled after existing approaches to extract BI-RADS features from English medical records. Our concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BIRADS lexicon and on iterative transferred expert knowledge. We compare the performance of our algorithm to manual annotation by a specialist in mammography. Our results show that our parser’s performance is comparable to the manual method.

  5. Structured reporting platform improves CAD-RADS assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilveszter, Bálint; Kolossváry, Márton; Karády, Júlia; Jermendy, Ádám L; Károlyi, Mihály; Panajotu, Alexisz; Bagyura, Zsolt; Vecsey-Nagy, Milán; Cury, Ricardo C; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2017-09-18

    Structured reporting in cardiac imaging is strongly encouraged to improve quality through consistency. The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) was recently introduced to facilitate interdisciplinary communication of coronary CT angiography (CTA) results. We aimed to assess the agreement between manual and automated CAD-RADS classification using a structured reporting platform. Five readers prospectively interpreted 500 coronary CT angiographies using a structured reporting platform that automatically calculates the CAD-RADS score based on stenosis and plaque parameters manually entered by the reader. In addition, all readers manually assessed CAD-RADS blinded to the automatically derived results, which was used as the reference standard. We evaluated factors influencing reader performance including CAD-RADS training, clinical load, time of the day and level of expertise. Total agreement between manual and automated classification was 80.2%. Agreement in stenosis categories was 86.7%, whereas the agreement in modifiers was 95.8% for "N", 96.8% for "S", 95.6% for "V" and 99.4% for "G". Agreement for V improved after CAD-RADS training (p = 0.047). Time of the day and clinical load did not influence reader performance (p > 0.05 both). Less experienced readers had a higher total agreement as compared to more experienced readers (87.0% vs 78.0%, respectively; p = 0.011). Even though automated CAD-RADS classification uses data filled in by the readers, it outperforms manual classification by preventing human errors. Structured reporting platforms with automated calculation of the CAD-RADS score might improve data quality and support standardization of clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  7. A New Activity-Based Cost (ABC) Mathematical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shuo; SONG Lei

    2003-01-01

    Along with the product price competition growing intensely, it is apparently important for reasonably distributing and counting cost. But, in sharing indirect cost, traditional cost accounting unveils the limitations increasingly, especially in authenticity of cost information. And the accounting theory circles and industry circles begin seeking one kind of new accurate cost calculation method, and the activity-based cost (ABC) method emerges as the times require. In this paper, we will build its mathematical model by the basic principle of ABC, and will improve its mathematical model further. We will establish its comparison mathematical model and make the ABC method go a step further to its practical application.

  8. Recent Developments Using Small Molecules to Target RAD51: How to Best Modulate RAD51 for Anticancer Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budke, Brian; Lv, Wei; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved DNA repair process. Overexpression of the key HR protein RAD51 is a common feature of malignant cells. RAD51 plays two distinct genome-stabilizing roles, including HR-mediated repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the promotion of replication fork stability during replication stress. Because upregulation of RAD51 in cancer cells can promote tumor resistance to DNA-damaging oncologic therapies, we and others have worked to develop cancer therapeutics that target various aspects of RAD51 protein function. Herein, we provide an overview of recent developments in this field, together with our perspectives on the challenges associated with these evolving anticancer strategies. PMID:27781374

  9. Regulation of Rad51-Mediated Homologous Recombination by BRCA2, DSS1 and RAD52

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rants, Louise Olthaver Juhl

    in governing the activity of Rad51 and to learn how other recombination-associated proteins such as DSS1 and RAD52 contribute to its regulation. We use the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis and the avian DT40 cell line as experimental systems since both have a well-conserved BRCA2-based recombinational repair...... system that resembles the one seen in human. In U. maydis, we show that Brh2, the BRCA2 homologue, and Dss1 colocalize at DNA damage-induced foci, with Dss1 exhibiting a dynamic association with Brh2 foci. Dss1 focus formation is dependent on interaction with full-length Brh2, and the Dss1-Brh2...... interaction is required for resistance to DNA damage. In avian DT40 cells, we show that endogenously tagged DSS1 redistributes into subnuclear foci in response to DNA damaging agents. However, DSS1 rarely colocalizes with BRCA2. Our data also indicate that both U. maydis Dss1 and avian DSS1 are involved...

  10. The AtRAD21.1 and AtRAD21.3 Arabidopsis cohesins play a synergistic role in somatic DNA double strand break damage repair

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The RAD21 cohesin plays, besides its well-recognised role in chromatid cohesion, a role in DNA double strand break (dsb) repair. In Arabidopsis there are three RAD21 paralog genes (AtRAD21.1, AtRAD21.2 and AtRAD21.3), yet only AtRAD21.1 has been shown to be required for DNA dsb damage repair. Further investigation of the role of cohesins in DNA dsb repair was carried out and is here reported. Results We show for the first time that not only AtRAD21.1 but also AtRAD21.3 play a role ...

  11. Associations of UBE2I with RAD52, UBL1, p53, and RAD51 proteins in a yeast two-hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Pardington-Purtymun, P.E.; Comeaux, J.C. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-15

    The yeast RAD52-dependent pathway is involved in DNA recombination and double-strand break repair. Yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC9 participates in S- and M-phase cyclin degradation and mitotic control. Using the human RAD52 protein as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a human homolog of yeast UBC9, designated UBE2I, that interacts with RAD52, RAD51, p53, and a ubiquitin-like protein UBL1. These interactions are UBE2I-specific, since another DNA repair-related ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, RAD6 (UBC2), does not interact with these proteins. The interaction of UBE2I with RAD52 is mediated by RAD52`s self-association region. These results suggest that the RAD52-dependent processes, cell cycle control, p53-mediated pathway(s), and ubiquitination interact through human UBE2I. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Evaluation of COTS Rad Detection Apps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Eric [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mobile applications are currently under distribution to smart phones utilizing the built-in charge coupled-device (CCD) camera as a radiation detector. The CCD detector has a very low but measurable gamma interaction cross section so the mechanism is feasible, especially for higher dose rate environments. Given that in a large release of radioactive material these ‘crowd sourced’ measurements will be put forth for consideration, a testing and evaluation of the accuracy and uncertainty of the Apps is a critical endeavor. Not only is the accuracy of the reported measurement of concern to the immediate user’s safety, a quantitative uncertainty is required for a government response such as the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) to accept the values for consideration in the determination of regions exceeding protective action guidelines. Already, prompted by the Fukushima nuclear material releases, several repositories of this crowd-sourced data have been created (http://japan.failedrobot.com, http://www.stubbytour.com/nuc/index_en.asp, and http://www.rdtn.org) although the question remains as to the reliability of measurements incorporated into these repositories. In cases of conflict between the real-time published crowd-sourced data and governmental protective actions prepared literature should be on-hand documenting why the difference, if any, exists. Four applications for iOS devices were obtained along with hardware to benchmark their performance. Gamma/X-Ray Detector by Stephan Hotto, Geiger Camera by Senscare, and RadioactivityCounter App by Hotray LTD are all the applications available for distribution within the US that utilize the CCD camera sensor for detection of radiation levels. The CellRad app under development by Idaho National Laboratory for the Android platform was evaluated. In addition, iRad Geiger with the associated hardware accessory was also benchmarked. Radiation fields were generated in a Cs-137 JL Shepherd

  13. The family of Deg/HtrA proteases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuhmann Holger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Deg/HtrA family of ATP-independent serine endopeptidases is present in nearly all organisms from bacteria to human and vascular plants. In recent years, multiple deg/htrA protease genes were identified in various plant genomes. During genome annotations most proteases were named according to the order of discovery, hence the same names were sometimes given to different types of Deg/HtrA enzymes in different plant species. This can easily lead to false inference of individual protease functions based solely on a shared name. Therefore, the existing names and classification of these proteolytic enzymes does not meet our current needs and a phylogeny-based standardized nomenclature is required. Results Using phylogenetic and domain arrangement analysis, we improved the nomenclature of the Deg/HtrA protease family, standardized protease names based on their well-established nomenclature in Arabidopsis thaliana, and clarified the evolutionary relationship between orthologous enzymes from various photosynthetic organisms across several divergent systematic groups, including dicots, a monocot, a moss and a green alga. Furthermore, we identified a “core set” of eight proteases shared by all organisms examined here that might provide all the proteolytic potential of Deg/HtrA proteases necessary for a hypothetical plant cell. Conclusions In our proposed nomenclature, the evolutionarily closest orthologs have the same protease name, simplifying scientific communication when comparing different plant species and allowing for more reliable inference of protease functions. Further, we proposed that the high number of Deg/HtrA proteases in plants is mainly due to gene duplications unique to the respective organism.

  14. Multicompartment Micelles From π-Shaped ABC Block Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; ZHONG Chong-Li

    2007-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics simulations were performed on the morphology and structure of multicompartment micelles formed from n-shaped ABC block copolymers in water. The influences of chain architectures were studied in a systematic way, and a rich variety of morphologies were observed, such as spherical, wormlike,X-shaped, Y-shaped, ribbon-like, layered rod-like, layered disk-like, as well as network morphologies. The simulations show that the distance between the two grafts plays an important role in control of the morphology. Since π-shaped ABC block copolymers can be reduced to linear ABC and star ABC block copolymers, they are good model copolymers for studying the self-assembly of complex block copolymers into micelles. The knowledge obtained in this work as well as the new morphologies identified provide useful information for future rational design and synthesis of novel multicompartment micelles.

  15. Redundancy Level Optimization in Modular Software System Models using ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of optimization algorithms is problem dependent and as per no free lunch theorem, there exists no such algorithm which can be efficiently applied to every type of problem(s. However, we can modify the algorithm/ technique in a manner such that it is able to deal with a maximum type of problems. In this study we have modified the structure of basic Artificial Bee Colony (ABC, a recently proposed metaheuristic algorithm based on the concept of swarm intelligence to optimize the models of software reliability. The modified variant of ABC is termed as balanced ABC (B-ABC. The simulated results show the efficiency and capability of the variant to solve such type of the problems.

  16. MDR-ABC transporters: biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márki-Zay, János; Tauberné Jakab, Katalin; Szerémy, Péter; Krajcsi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    MDR-ABC transporters are widely expressed in cell types relevant to pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports demonstrate the interaction of small molecule drugs with MDR-ABC transporters. Cell-based assays for disease relevant cell types can be easily gated and could reveal specific drug targets and may increase significance and utilisation of data in clinical practice. Many commonly used DMARDs (e.g. methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide/teriflunomide, hydroxychloroquine) are ABCG2 substrates. Consequently, the activity of this transporter in patients should be determined to understand the disposition and pharmacokinetics of the therapy. In addition, MDR-ABC transporters transport a variety of endobiotics that play important roles in cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and inflammation. Therefore, MDR-ABC transporters are important biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Examination of the nature of the ABC effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Skorodko, T.

    2017-02-01

    Recently it has been shown by exclusive and kinematically complete experiments that the appearance of a narrow resonance structure in double-pionic fusion reactions is strictly correlated with the appearance of the so-called ABC effect, which denotes a pronounced low-mass enhancement in the ππ-invariant mass spectrum. Whereas the resonance structure got its explanation by the d* (2380) dibaryonic resonance, a satisfactory explanation for the ABC effect is still pending. In this paper we discuss possible explanations of the ABC effect and their consequences for the internal structure of the d* dibaryon. To this end we examine and review a variety of proposed explanations for the ABC effect, add a new hypothesis and confront all of them with the experimental results for the np → dπ0π0 and np → npπ0π0 reactions, which are the most challenging ones for this topic.

  18. Yang-Mills Theory and the ABC Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yang-Hui; Probst, Malte; Read, James

    2016-01-01

    We establish a precise correspondence between the ABC Conjecture and N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This is achieved by combining three ingredients: (i) Elkies' method of mapping ABC-triples to elliptic curves in his demonstration that ABC implies Mordell/Faltings; (ii) an explicit pair of elliptic curve and associated Belyi map given by Khadjavi-Scharaschkin; and (iii) the fact that the bipartite brane-tiling/dimer model for a gauge theory with toric moduli space is a particular dessin d'enfant in the sense of Grothendieck. We explore this correspondence for the highest quality ABC-triples as well as large samples of random triples. The Conjecture itself is mapped to a statement about the fundamental domain of the toroidal compactification of the string realization of N=4 SYM.

  19. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  20. The ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Chang, Philip; Maguina, Pirko; Combs, Elena; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-01-01

    On June 5, 2009, the ABC Daycare facility in Hermosillo, Mexico, caught on fire with an estimated 142 children and 6 adult caregivers inside. The purpose of this article is to describe the factors contributing to the disaster including care of the survivors, tertiary burn center triage, patient transport, and treatment for this international mass casualty event. Finally, the results of an investigation performed by the Mexican Government are reviewed. A summary of the Mexican Government's investigation of the circumstances of fire and an examination of prevention lapses in other Mexican daycare centers was obtained from their public Web site. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the children transported to the burn center were obtained from the patients' medical records and transport data sheets. The ABC Daycare had many fire safety breaches that contributed to the severity of the tragedy. Twenty-nine children died at the scene and more than 35 children were hospitalized throughout Mexico. A total of 12 children were transported to two Shriners Hospitals, 9 to Sacramento, and 3 to Cincinnati. The mean age of patients sent to the Shriners Hospitals was 2.9 ± 0.16 years (2-4 years), with 5 being male and 7 female. The mean duration between injury and arrival was 9.2 ± 2.1 days, the burn size was 43.0 ± 6.8% TBSA (6.5-80%), and there were 3.75 operations per patient. Four had fourth-degree burns requiring finger amputations (2), flaps to cover bone (1), or a through-knee amputation (1). Ten patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and nine patients (seven with inhalation injury) required mechanical ventilation for a mean of 23.6 ± 10.3 days. All the surviving children were discharged after a mean length of stay of 45.9 ± 8.7 days. In the first year postinjury, seven children were readmitted a total of 11 times for reconstructive surgery, wound care, or rehabilitation. Ultimately, a total of 49 children died. A review of other daycare centers

  1. RAD18 mediates resistance to ionizing radiation in human glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Hongwei; Cheng, Hongbin; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Zhi, E-mail: drzwang@gmail.com; Yue, Wu, E-mail: drwuyue@gmail.com

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in glioma cell lines. • RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis. • The elevated expression of RAD18 is associated with recurrent GBM who underwent IR therapy. - Abstract: Radioresistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). RAD18 a central regulator of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), has been shown to play an important role in regulating genomic stability and DNA damage response. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between RAD18 and resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and examined the expression levels of RAD18 in primary and recurrent GBM specimens. Our results showed that RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in GBM. The expression level of RAD18 in glioma cells correlates with their resistance to IR. Ectopic expression of RAD18 in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells confers significant resistance to IR treatment. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells sensitized these cells to IR treatment. Moreover, RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells, whereas cells deficient in RAD18 exhibit increased apoptosis induced by IR. Furthermore, knockdown of RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells disrupts HR-mediated repair, resulting in increased accumulation of DSB. In addition, clinical data indicated that RAD18 was significantly higher in recurrent GBM samples that were exposed to IR compared with the corresponding primary GBM samples. Collectively, our findings reveal that RAD18 may serve as a key mediator of the IR response and may function as a potential target for circumventing IR resistance in human GBM.

  2. ABC-B transporter genes in Dirofilaria immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bourguinat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode causing infection and heartworm disease in dogs and other canids, cats, and occasionally in humans. Prevention with macrocyclic lactones (ML is recommended during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been reported. ABC-B transporter genes are thought to be involved in the mechanism of ML resistance in other nematodes. This study aimed to identify all the ABC-B transporter genes in D. immitis using as a reference the nDi.2.2 D. immitis whole genome, which is not completely annotated. Using bioinformatic tools and PCR amplification on pooled D. immitis genomic DNA and on pooled cDNA, nine ABC transporter genes including one pseudogene were characterized. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses allowed identification of three P-glycoproteins (Pgps (Dim-pgp-3 Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11, of two ABC-B half transporter genes (one ortholog of Cel-haf-4 and Cel-haf-9; and one ortholog of Cel-haf-1 and Cel-haf-3, of one ABC half transporter gene (ortholog of Cel-haf-5 that contained an ABC-C motif, and of one additional half transporter that would require functional study for characterization. The number of ABC-B transporter genes identified was lower than in Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus. Further studies are needed to understand their possible role in ML resistance in D. immitis. These ABC transporters constitute a base for ML resistance investigation in D. immitis and advance our understanding of the molecular biology of this parasite.

  3. ABC transporters and multidrug resistance in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRADE, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    The term multidrug resistance (MDR) stands for simultaneous cellular resistance to chemically unrelated toxicants and is often associated with overproduction of multidrug-efflux proteins of the A TP- b inding- c assette (ABC) superfamily. The ABC transporters comprise a large and multifunctional family of proteins. Besides multidrug transporters, the superfamily includes proteins involved in transmembrane transport of various substances such as ions, amino acids, peptides, sugars, vitamins, s...

  4. The C-terminal region of Rad52 is essential for Rad52 nuclear and nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DNA damage sites immediately after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Manabu, E-mail: m_koike@nirs.go.jp [DNA Repair Gene Res., National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yutoku, Yasutomo [DNA Repair Gene Res., National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Koike, Aki [DNA Repair Gene Res., National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Rad52 might play a key role in the repair of DSB immediately after irradiation. •EYFP-Rad52 accumulates rapidly at DSB sites and colocalizes with Ku80. •Accumulation of Rad52 at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors. •Localization and recruitment of Rad52 to DSB sites are dependent on the Rad52 CTR. •Basic amino acids in Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among vertebrate species. -- Abstract: Rad52 plays essential roles in homologous recombination (HR) and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, in vertebrates, knockouts of the Rad52 gene show no hypersensitivity to agents that induce DSBs. Rad52 localizes in the nucleus and forms foci at a late stage following irradiation. Ku70 and Ku80, which play an essential role in nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ), are essential for the accumulation of other core NHEJ factors, e.g., XRCC4, and a HR-related factor, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that the subcellular localization of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) changes dynamically during the cell cycle. In addition, EYFP-Rad52(1–418) accumulates rapidly at microirradiated sites and colocalizes with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. Moreover, the accumulation of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors, i.e., Ku80 and XRCC4. Furthermore, we observed that EYFP-Rad52(1–418) localizes in nucleoli in CHO-K1 cells and XRCC4-deficient cells, but not in Ku80-deficient cells. We also found that Rad52 nuclear localization, nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DSB sites are dependent on eight amino acids (411–418) at the end of the C-terminal region of Rad52 (Rad52 CTR). Furthermore, basic amino acids on Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among mammalian, avian, and fish homologues, suggesting that Rad52 CTR is important for the regulation and function of Rad52 in vertebrates. These findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the regulation of subcellular localization of Rad52 is

  5. Limiting Global Warming to 2 deg C and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the question of how feasible is it to limit global warming to a specific temperature rise, whether 1.5, 2 or 3 deg C. Inherent in the idea of limiting global warming to a specific temperature level is the notion that future GHG emissions will be subject to a top-down international agreement. In the post-Copenhagen era, however, such an agreement is unlikely, and a bottoms-up approach of national pledges will likely have to serve as a surrogate for achieving emissions reduction. In this case, an additional question is what temperature targets are realistic under scenarios that are bounded by achievable national pledges as opposed to binding mandates. The question of feasibility depends largely on future emission pathways of CO2, other GHGs, black carbon and aerosols. Those pathways depend on many societal, technological and economic factors, but it is likely that the ultimate limiting factor is the maximum possible rate of absolute emission reduction. That rate is limited by how rapidly energy infrastructure can be turned over. Most studies suggest that an absolute emission reduction rate of 3.5% is the highest rate achievable. Climate sensitivity and the current cooling effect of aerosols and earth system responses such as the rate of ocean heat uptake and carbon cycle feedbacks determine how a specific emissions pathway translates into probable climate change. A useful framework for CO2 alone is provided by the newly emerging paradigm of cumulative emissions, which holds that peak temperature can be largely predicted by the total amount of carbon emitted, regardless of pathway. Most studies suggest that 1 Tt of cumulative carbon is equivalent to ~2 deg of peak warming. A consideration of these factors suggests that limiting warming to 1.5 deg C is no longer possible under any feasible economic scenario. For one, currently emitted GHGs are equivalent to a ~1.3 deg C warming commitment. This leaves very little room for future emissions

  6. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  7. Tropospheric ozone over a tropical Atlantic station in the Northern Hemisphere: Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N, 55 deg W)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M.C. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (Netherlands); Fortuin, J.P.F.; Kelder, H.M. [Koninklijke Nederlandse Meteorologische Dienst, De Bilt (Netherlands); Thompson, A.M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Becker, C.R. [Meteorologische Dienst Suriname, Paramaribo (Suriname); Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    We present an analysis of 2.5 yr of weekly ozone soundings conducted at a new monitoring station in Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N, 55 deg W). This is currently one of only three ozone sounding stations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropics, and the only one in the equatorial Atlantic region. Paramaribo is part of the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozone Sounding program (SHADOZ). Owing to its position close to the equator, the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) passes over Paramaribo twice per year, which results in a semi-annual seasonality of many parameters including relative humidity and ozone. The dataset from Paramaribo is used to: (1) evaluate the ozone variability relative to precipitation, atmospheric circulation patterns and biomass burning; (2) contrast ozone at the NH equatorial Atlantic with that at nearby Southern Hemisphere (SH) stations Natal (6 deg S, 35 deg W) and Ascension (8 deg S, 14 deg W); (3) compare the seasonality of tropospheric ozone with a satellite-derived ozone product: tropical tropospheric ozone columns from the modified residual method (MR-TTOC). We find that Paramaribo is a distinctly Atlantic station. Despite its position north of the equator, it resembles nearby SH stations during most of the year. Transport patterns in the lower and middle troposphere during February and March differ from SH stations, which leads to a seasonality of ozone with two maxima. MR-TTOC over Paramaribo does not match the observed seasonality of ozone due to the use of a SH ozone sonde climatology in the MR method. The Paramaribo ozone record is used to suggest an improvement for Northern Hemisphere MR-TTOC retrievals. We conclude that station Paramaribo shows unique features in the region, and clearly adds new information to the existing SHADOZ record.

  8. Phase transition in the ABC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clincy, M.; Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-β/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero βc. The value of βc=2π(3) and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.

  9. Radio identification of decameter-wave sources. II: The 30degdeg declination interval

    CERN Document Server

    Verkhodanov, O V; Andernach, H; 10.1134/S1990341309010052

    2009-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the identification of decameter-wave sources of the UTR catalog within declination interval 30degdeg. UTR sources are cross-identified with CATS database catalogs within 40'x40' error boxes. The sources are deblended using the data on the coordinates of the objects and the behavior of their continuum radio spectra. The spectra of 876 sources are derived and fitted by standard analytical functions. Of these sources, 221 objects have straight-line spectra with spectral indices alpha<-1.0. All objects are catalogued and stored in the CATS database.

  10. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  11. Interdependence of the Rad50 hook and globular domain functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Marcel; Kochańczyk, Tomasz; Tous, Cristina; Aguilera, Andrés; Krężel, Artur; Petrini, John H J

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Rad50 contains a conserved Zn2+ coordination domain (the Rad50 hook) that functions as a homodimerization interface. Hook ablation phenocopies Rad50 deficiency in all respects. Here we focused on rad50 mutations flanking the Zn2+-coordinating hook cysteines. These mutants impaired hook-mediated dimerization, but recombination between sister chromatids was largely unaffected. This may reflect that cohesin-mediated sister chromatid interactions are sufficient for double strand break repair. However, Mre11 complex functions specified by the globular domain, including Tel1 (ATM) activation, nonhomologous end-joining, and DNA double strand break end resection were affected, suggesting that dimerization exerts a broad influence on Mre11 complex function. These phenotypes were suppressed by mutations within the coiled coil and globular ATPase domain, suggesting a model in which conformational changes in the hook and globular domains are transmitted via the extended coils of Rad50. We propose that transmission of spatial information in this manner underlies the regulation of Mre11 complex functions. PMID:25601756

  12. Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of P. aeruginosa alkaline protease (AprA, lipase ABC transporter domains (LARDs were designed for the secretion of fusion proteins. Results The LARDs included four glycine-rich repeats comprising a β-roll structure, and were added to the C-terminus of test proteins. Either Pro-Gly linker or Factor Xa site was added between fusion proteins and LARDs. We attached different length of LARDs such as LARD0, LARD1 or whole TliA (the longest LARD to three types of proteins; green fluorescent protein (GFP, epidermal growth factor (EGF and cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP. These fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli together with ABC transporter of either P. fluorescens or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Export of fusion proteins with the whole TliA through the ABC transporter was evident on the basis of lipase enzymatic activity. Upon supplementation of E. coli with ABC transporter, GFP-LARDs and EGF-LARDs were excreted into the culture supernatant. Conclusion The LARDs or whole TliA were attached to C-termini of model proteins and enabled the export of the model proteins such as GFP and EGF in E. coli supplemented with ABC transporter. These results open the possibility for the extracellular production of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas using LARDs or TliA as a C-terminal signal sequence.

  13. Opposing Roles for Two Molecular Forms of Replication Protein A in Rad51-Rad54-Mediated DNA Recombination in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial RecA protein and its eukaryotic homologue Rad51 play a central role in the homologous DNA strand exchange reaction during recombination and DNA repair. Previously, our lab has shown that PfRad51, the Plasmodium falciparum homologue of Rad51, exhibited ATPase activity and promoted DNA strand exchange in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the catalytic functions of PfRad51 in the presence of putative interacting partners, especially P. falciparum homologues of Rad54 and r...

  14. RAD51AP1-deficiency in vertebrate cells impairs DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parplys, Ann C; Kratz, Katja; Speed, Michael C; Leung, Stanley G; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is critical for homologous recombination (HR) by interacting with and stimulating the activities of the RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases. In human somatic cells, knockdown of RAD51AP1 results in increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and to impaired HR, but the formation of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is unaffected. Here, we generated a genetic model system, based on chicken DT40 cells, to assess the phenotype of fully inactivated RAD51AP1 in vertebrate cells. Targeted inactivation of both RAD51AP1 alleles has no effect on either viability or doubling-time in undamaged cells, but leads to increased levels of cytotoxicity after exposure to cisplatin or to ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GgRAD51AP1, but not of HsRAD51AP1 is able to fully complement in cell survival assays. Notably, in RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells the resolution of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is greatly slowed down, while their formation is not impaired. We also identify, for the first time, an important role for RAD51AP1 in counteracting both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced replication stress. In human and in chicken cells, RAD51AP1 is required to maintain wild type speed of replication fork progression, and both RAD51AP1-depleted human cells and RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells respond to replication stress by a slow-down of replication fork elongation rates. However, increased firing of replication origins occurs in RAD51AP1-/- DT40 cells, likely to ensure the timely duplication of the entire genome. Taken together, our results may explain why RAD51AP1 commonly is overexpressed in tumor cells and tissues, and we speculate that the disruption of RAD51AP1 function could be a promising approach in targeted tumor therapy.

  15. Metodologia ABC: implantação numa microempresa ABC methodology: implementation on a micro firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a implantação da metodologia de custos baseados em atividades numa microempresa do ramo metalúrgico. A proposta pretende demonstrar a viabilidade de aplicar esta técnica em empresas sem importar seu tamanho, só realizando algumas adaptações que garantam baixo investimento e curto espaço de tempo para obter os resultados. Na parte final do trabalho se realiza uma análise dos resultados obtidos verificando-se o potencial da informação gerada pela metodologia e seu uso como ferramenta de gestão.This paper presents an implementation of the activity based costing (ABC methodology in a small firm. The approach presented is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the ABC methodology at any sized firm, only through few adaptations for ensuring low investments fees and speed in obtaining results and information from the system. Discussion about the results obtained during the implementation case are presented and the potential of using the information generated from the system as a managing tool is commented.

  16. Mating-type suppression of the DNA-repair defect of the yeast rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of genes in the RAD52 epistasis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y X; Schiestl, R H; Prakash, L

    1995-06-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for post-replication repair of UV-damaged DNA, UV mutagenesis, and sporulation. Here, we show that the radiation sensitivity of a MATa rad6 delta strain can be suppressed by the MAT alpha 2 gene carried on a multicopy plasmid. The a1-alpha 2 suppression is specific to the RAD6 pathway, as mutations in genes required for nucleotide excision repair or for recombinational repair do not show such mating-type suppression. The a1-alpha 2 suppression of the rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of the RAD52 group of genes, suggesting that suppression occurs by channelling of post-replication gaps present in the rad6 delta mutant into the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway. The a1-alpha 2 repressor could mediate this suppression via an enhancement in the expression, or the activity, of recombination genes.

  17. RadCat 3.0 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, Daniel; Penisten, Janelle J.; Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2009-05-01

    RADTRAN is an internationally accepted program and code for calculating the risks of transporting radioactive materials. The first versions of the program, RADTRAN I and II, were developed for NUREG-0170 (USNRC, 1977), the first environmental statement on transportation of radioactive materials. RADTRAN and its associated software have undergone a number of improvements and advances consistent with improvements in both available data and computer technology. The version of RADTRAN currently bundled with RadCat is RADTRAN 6.0. This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 3.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code. RadCat 3.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0 which includes an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.0.

  18. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS and four loss of efficacy (LOE pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development.

  19. "ABC's Earthquake" (Experiments and models in seismology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Ana Almeida, Portugal Almeida, Ana Escola Básica e Secundária Dr. Vieira de Carvalho Moreira da Maia, Portugal The purpose of this presentation, in poster format, is to disclose an activity which was planned and made by me, in a school on the north of Portugal, using a kit of materials simple and easy to use - the sismo-box. The activity "ABC's Earthquake" was developed under the discipline of Natural Sciences, with students from 7th grade, geosciences teachers and other areas. The possibility of work with the sismo-box was seen as an exciting and promising opportunity to promote science, seismology more specifically, to do science, when using the existing models in the box and with them implement the scientific method, to work and consolidate content and skills in the area of Natural Sciences, to have a time of sharing these materials with classmates, and also with other teachers from the different areas. Throughout the development of the activity, either with students or teachers, it was possible to see the admiration by the models presented in the earthquake-box, as well as, the interest and the enthusiasm in wanting to move and understand what the results after the proposed procedure in the script. With this activity, we managed to promote: - educational success in this subject; a "school culture" with active participation, with quality, rules, discipline and citizenship values; fully integration of students with special educational needs; strengthen the performance of the school as a cultural, informational and formation institution; provide activities to date and innovative; foment knowledge "to be, being and doing" and contribute to a moment of joy and discovery.Learn by doing!

  20. Embrittlement of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in HFIR at 300 deg. C and 400 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. E-mail: ku2@ornl.gov; Sokolov, M.A.; Shiba, K.; Miwa, Y.; Robertson, J.P

    2000-12-01

    Miniature tensile and Charpy specimens of four ferritic/martensitic steels were irradiated at 300 deg. C and 400 deg. C in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) to a maximum dose of {approx}12 dpa. The steels were standard F82H (F82H-Std), a modified F82H (F82H-Mod), ORNL 9Cr-2WVTa, and 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni, the 9Cr-2WVTa containing 2% Ni to produce helium by (n,{alpha}) reactions with thermal neutrons. More helium was produced in the F82H-Std than the F82H-Mod because of the presence of boron. Irradiation embrittlement in the form of an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature ({delta}DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy (USE) occurred for all the steels. The two F82H steels had similar {delta}DBTTs after irradiation at 300 deg. C, but after irradiation at 400 deg. C, the {delta}DBTT for F82H-Std was less than for F82H-Mod. Under these irradiation conditions, little effect of the extra helium in the F82H-Std could be discerned. Less embrittlement was observed for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated at 400 deg. C than for the two F82H steels. The 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni steel with {approx}115 appm He had a larger {delta}DBTT than the 9Cr-2WVTa with {approx}5 appm He, indicating a possible helium effect.

  1. RadMonitor: radiology operations data mining in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Richard; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Channin, David S

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the web-based visualization interface of RadMonitor, a platform-independent web application designed to help manage the complexity of information flow within a health care enterprise. The system eavesdrops on Health Layer 7 traffic and parses statistical operational information into a database. The information is then presented to the user as a treemap--a graphical visualization scheme that simplifies the display of hierarchical information. While RadMonitor has been implemented for the purpose of analyzing radiology operations, its XML backend allows it to be reused for virtually any other hierarchical data set.

  2. Modello metodologico per il monitoraggio degli incidenti stradali in Trentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fateh-Moghadam

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: realizzazione di un’infrastruttura informatica, per l’unificazione tempestiva dei flussi sugli incidenti stradali (ISTAT-ACI e sanitari con la georeferenziazione degli eventi a partire dall’anno 2000.

    Materiali e Metodi: dall’archivio di Trentino emergenza sono stati estratti gli interventi per incidente stradale selezionando la combinazione: descrizione patologica: “traumatismi”, tipologia luogo: “strada”, tipologia incidente. Dai dati di ogni Pronto soccorso è stato costruito un archivio unico contenente il totale degli accessi e sono stati estratti gli accessi per “incidente stradale” e quelli per lesioni accidentali in generale. Dall’archivio SDO si sono selezionati sia i ricoveri con il criterio “3” alla variabile mtraav (=incidente stradale che quelli per traumatismi.

    Nell’ambito del progetto “Metodi informatici predittivi per la mitigazione del rischio da incidenti stradali” (Mitris, finanziato dal Ministero della Salute, è stata realizzata l’immissione tramite interfaccia internet o decodifica automatica dei verbali informatizzati delle Forze dell’ordine, e la contestuale realizzazione di un interfaccia WebGIS
    in grado di visualizzare la localizzazione degli incidenti stradali.

    Risultati: tramite la combinazione “data nascita”,
    “data incidente”, “sesso” è stato eseguito un primo collegamento tra gli archivi. Aggiungendo alla data incidente uno o più giorni, è stato costruito un nuovo archivio PS contenente il 97,4% degli eventi raccolti dalle forze dell’Ordine e contenuti nel data base Mitris. Approccio analogo è stato seguito per il linkage con SDO e 118. Tramite interfaccia WebGIS è stata creata una mappa degli incidenti interrogabile on-line, che oltre alla semplice localizzazione riporta dinamica e esiti con possibilità di produrre statistiche e grafici. Il sistema copre attualmente

  3. Functional characterization and identification of mouse Rad51d splice variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Changanamkandath

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The homologous recombination (HR pathway is vital for maintaining genomic integrity through the restoration of double-stranded breaks and interstrand crosslinks. The RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3 are essential for this process in vertebrates, and the RAD51D paralog is unique in that it participates in both HR repair and telomere maintenance. RAD51D is also known to directly interact with the RAD51C and XRCC2 proteins. Rad51d splice variants have been reported in mouse and human tissues, supportive of a role for alternative splicing in HR regulation. The present study evaluated the interaction of the Rad51d splice isoform products with RAD51C and XRCC2 and their expression patterns. Results Yeast-2-hybrid analysis was used to determine that the Mus musculus Rad51d splice variant product RAD51DΔ7b (deleted for residues 219 through 223 was capable of interacting with both RAD51C and XRCC2 and that RAD51D+int3 interacted with XRCC2. In addition, the linker region (residues 54 through 77 of RAD51D was identified as a region that potentially mediates binding with XRCC2. Cellular localization, detected by EGFP fusion proteins, demonstrated that each of the splice variant products tested was distributed throughout the cell similar to the full-length protein. However, none of the splice variants were capable of restoring resistance of Rad51d-deficient cell lines to mitomycin C. RT-PCR expression analysis revealed that Rad51dΔ3 (deleted for exon 3 and Rad51dΔ5 (deleted for exon 5transcripts display tissue specific expression patterns with Rad51dΔ3 being detected in each tissue except ovary and Rad51dΔ5 not detected in mammary gland and testis. These expression studies also led to the identification of two additional Rad51d ubiquitously expressed transcripts, one deleted for both exon 9 and 10 and one deleted for only exon 10. Conclusion These results suggest Rad51d alternative splice variants potentially

  4. Searching for the fastest dynamo: laminar ABC flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2011-08-01

    The growth rate of the dynamo instability as a function of the magnetic Reynolds number R(M) is investigated by means of numerical simulations for the family of the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flows and for two different forcing scales. For the ABC flows that are driven at the largest available length scale, it is found that, as the magnetic Reynolds number is increased: (a) The flow that results first in a dynamo is the 2 1/2-dimensional flow for which A=B and C=0 (and all permutations). (b) The second type of flow that results in a dynamo is the one for which A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations). (c) The most symmetric flow, A=B=C, is the third type of flow that results in a dynamo. (d) As R(M) is increased, the A=B=C flow stops being a dynamo and transitions from a local maximum to a third-order saddle point. (e) At larger R(M), the A=B=C flow reestablishes itself as a dynamo but remains a saddle point. (f) At the largest examined R(M), the growth rate of the 2 1/2-dimensional flows starts to decay, the A=B=C flow comes close to a local maximum again, and the flow A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations) results in the fastest dynamo with growth rate γ≃0.12 at the largest examined R(M). For the ABC flows that are driven at the second largest available length scale, it is found that (a) the 2 1/2-dimensional flows A=B,C=0 (and permutations) are again the first flows that result in a dynamo with a decreased onset. (b) The most symmetric flow, A=B=C, is the second type of flow that results in a dynamo. It is, and it remains, a local maximum. (c) At larger R(M), the flow A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations) appears as the third type of flow that results in a dynamo. As R(M) is increased, it becomes the flow with the largest growth rate. The growth rates appear to have some correlation with the Lyapunov exponents, but constructive refolding of the field lines appears equally important in determining the fastest dynamo flow.

  5. Independent activity of the homologous small regulatory RNAs AbcR1 and AbcR2 in the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Torres-Quesada

    Full Text Available The legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti expresses a plethora of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs whose function is mostly unknown. Here, we have functionally characterized two tandemly encoded S. meliloti Rm1021 sRNAs that are similar in sequence and structure. Homologous sRNAs (designated AbcR1 and AbcR2 have been shown to regulate several ABC transporters in the related α-proteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella abortus. In Rm1021, AbcR1 and AbcR2 exhibit divergent unlinked regulation and are stabilized by the RNA chaperone Hfq. AbcR1 is transcribed in actively dividing bacteria, either in culture, rhizosphere or within the invasion zone of mature alfalfa nodules. Conversely, AbcR2 expression is induced upon entry into stationary phase and under abiotic stress. Only deletion of AbcR1 resulted into a discrete growth delay in rich medium, but both are dispensable for symbiosis. Periplasmic proteome profiling revealed down-regulation of the branched-chain amino acid binding protein LivK by AbcR1, but not by AbcR2. A double-plasmid reporter assay confirmed the predicted specific targeting of the 5'-untranslated region of the livK mRNA by AbcR1 in vivo. Our findings provide evidences of independent regulatory functions of these sRNAs, probably to fine-tune nutrient uptake in free-living and undifferentiated symbiotic rhizobia.

  6. Independent Activity of the Homologous Small Regulatory RNAs AbcR1 and AbcR2 in the Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Quesada, Omar; Millán, Vicenta; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael; Bardou, Florian; Crespi, Martín; Toro, Nicolás; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I.

    2013-01-01

    The legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti expresses a plethora of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) whose function is mostly unknown. Here, we have functionally characterized two tandemly encoded S. meliloti Rm1021 sRNAs that are similar in sequence and structure. Homologous sRNAs (designated AbcR1 and AbcR2) have been shown to regulate several ABC transporters in the related α-proteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella abortus. In Rm1021, AbcR1 and AbcR2 exhibit divergent unlinked regulation and are stabilized by the RNA chaperone Hfq. AbcR1 is transcribed in actively dividing bacteria, either in culture, rhizosphere or within the invasion zone of mature alfalfa nodules. Conversely, AbcR2 expression is induced upon entry into stationary phase and under abiotic stress. Only deletion of AbcR1 resulted into a discrete growth delay in rich medium, but both are dispensable for symbiosis. Periplasmic proteome profiling revealed down-regulation of the branched-chain amino acid binding protein LivK by AbcR1, but not by AbcR2. A double-plasmid reporter assay confirmed the predicted specific targeting of the 5′-untranslated region of the livK mRNA by AbcR1 in vivo. Our findings provide evidences of independent regulatory functions of these sRNAs, probably to fine-tune nutrient uptake in free-living and undifferentiated symbiotic rhizobia. PMID:23869210

  7. ABC multidrug transporters in schistosomes and other parasitic flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions, is caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Treatment and control of schistosomiasis relies almost exclusively on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), a dangerous situation for a disease of this magnitude. Though PZQ is highly effective overall, it has drawbacks, and reports of worms showing PZQ resistance, either induced in the laboratory or isolated from the field, are disconcerting. Multidrug transporters underlie multidrug resistance (MDR), a phenomenon in which resistance to a single drug is accompanied by unexpected cross-resistance to several structurally unrelated compounds. Some of the best studied multidrug transporters are members of the ancient and very large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of efflux transporters. ABC multidrug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) are also associated with drug resistance in parasites, including helminths such as schistosomes. In addition to their association with drug resistance, however, ABC transporters also function in a wide variety of physiological processes in metazoans. In this review, we examine recent studies that help define the role of schistosome ABC transporters in regulating drug susceptibility, and in normal schistosome physiology, including reproduction and excretory activity. We postulate that schistosome ABC transporters could be useful targets for compounds that enhance the effectiveness of current therapeutics as well as for agents that act as antischistosomals on their own.

  8. Alleles of the homologous recombination gene, RAD59, identify multiple responses to disrupted DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Lauren C; Manthey, Glenn M; Owens, Shannon N; Fu, Becky X H; Bailis, Adam M

    2013-10-14

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad59 is required for multiple homologous recombination mechanisms and viability in DNA replication-defective rad27 mutant cells. Recently, four rad59 missense alleles were found to have distinct effects on homologous recombination that are consistent with separation-of-function mutations. The rad59-K166A allele alters an amino acid in a conserved α-helical domain, and, like the rad59 null allele diminishes association of Rad52 with double-strand breaks. The rad59-K174A and rad59-F180A alleles alter amino acids in the same domain and have genetically similar effects on homologous recombination. The rad59-Y92A allele alters a conserved amino acid in a separate domain, has genetically distinct effects on homologous recombination, and does not diminish association of Rad52 with double-strand breaks. In this study, rad59 mutant strains were crossed with a rad27 null mutant to examine the effects of the rad59 alleles on the link between viability, growth and the stimulation of homologous recombination in replication-defective cells. Like the rad59 null allele, rad59-K166A was synthetically lethal in combination with rad27. The rad59-K174A and rad59-F180A alleles were not synthetically lethal in combination with rad27, had effects on growth that coincided with decreased ectopic gene conversion, but did not affect mutation, unequal sister-chromatid recombination, or loss of heterozygosity. The rad59-Y92A allele was not synthetically lethal when combined with rad27, stimulated ectopic gene conversion and heteroallelic recombination independently from rad27, and was mutually epistatic with srs2. Unlike rad27, the stimulatory effect of rad59-Y92A on homologous recombination was not accompanied by effects on growth rate, cell cycle distribution, mutation, unequal sister-chromatid recombination, or loss of heterozygosity. The synthetic lethality conferred by rad59 null and rad59-K166A alleles correlates with their inhibitory effect on association

  9. Hybridization Capture Using RAD Probes (hyRAD, a New Tool for Performing Genomic Analyses on Collection Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Suchan

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been published. Among them, RAD-sequencing is one of the most widely used. It relies on digesting DNA with specific restriction enzymes and performing size selection on the resulting fragments. Despite its acknowledged utility, this method is of limited use with degraded DNA samples, such as those isolated from museum specimens, as these samples are less likely to harbor fragments long enough to comprise two restriction sites making possible ligation of the adapter sequences (in the case of double-digest RAD or performing size selection of the resulting fragments (in the case of single-digest RAD. Here, we address these limitations by presenting a novel method called hybridization RAD (hyRAD. In this approach, biotinylated RAD fragments, covering a random fraction of the genome, are used as baits for capturing homologous fragments from genomic shotgun sequencing libraries. This simple and cost-effective approach allows sequencing of orthologous loci even from highly degraded DNA samples, opening new avenues of research in the field of museum genomics. Not relying on the restriction site presence, it improves among-sample loci coverage. In a trial study, hyRAD allowed us to obtain a large set of orthologous loci from fresh and museum samples from a non-model butterfly species, with a high proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in all eight analyzed specimens, including 58-year-old museum samples. The utility of the method was further validated using 49 museum and fresh samples of a Palearctic grasshopper species for which the spatial genetic structure was previously assessed using mtDNA amplicons. The application of the method is eventually discussed in a wider context. As it does not rely on the restriction site presence, it is therefore not sensitive to among-sample loci polymorphisms in the restriction sites

  10. Immagini dinamiche: appunti per un catalogo degli usi didattici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Bruni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le immagini dinamiche costituiscono un’importante risorsa per le attività didattiche. A partire da una riflessione storica, si evidenzia in primo luogo l’importanza di un loro uso efficace alla luce della classificazione operata da Clark e Lyons. In secondo luogo si segnalano alcune attività emergenti legate alla documentazione, al digital storytelling e alla formazione degli insegnanti.

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Preclinical Characterization of the Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) RAD140.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris P; Shomali, Maysoun; Lyttle, C Richard; O'Dea, Louis St L; Herendeen, Hillary; Gallacher, Kyla; Paquin, Dottie; Compton, Dennis R; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan; Kerrigan, Sean A; Burge, Matthew S; Nickels, Michael; Green, Jennifer L; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Tchesnokov, Alexei; Hattersley, Gary

    2011-02-10

    This report describes the discovery of RAD140, a potent, orally bioavailable, nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM). The characterization of RAD140 in several preclinical models of anabolic androgen action is also described.

  12. Multiple start codons and phosphorylation result in discrete Rad52 protein species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mayolo, A.A.; Lisby, M.; Erdeniz, N.

    2006-01-01

    protein species are due to promiscuous choice of start codons as well as post-translational modification. Specifically, Rad52 is phosphorylated both in a cell cycle-independent and in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Furthermore, phosphorylation is dependent on the presence of the Rad52 C terminus......The sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD52 gene contains five potential translation start sites and protein-blot analysis typically detects multiple Rad52 species with different electrophoretic mobilities. Here we define the gene products encoded by RAD52. We show that the multiple Rad52......, but not dependent on its interaction with Rad51. We also show that the Rad52 protein can be translated from the last three start sites and expression from any one of them is sufficient for spontaneous recombination and the repair of gamma-ray-induced double-strand breaks....

  13. The architecture of the human Rad54-DNA complex provides evidence for protein translocation along DNA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Ristic (Dejan); C. Wyman (Claire); C. Paulusma (Coen); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractProper maintenance and duplication of the genome require accurate recombination between homologous DNA molecules. In eukaryotic cells, the Rad51 protein mediates pairing between homologous DNA molecules. This reaction is assisted by the Rad54 protein. To gai

  14. Technical Note: Using DEG CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, D; Nieminen, T; Duplissy, J; Ehrhart, S; Almeida, J; Rondo, L; Franchin, A; Kreissl, F; Manninen, H E; Kulmala, M; Curtius, J; Petäjä, T

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, several Condensation Particle Counters (CPC) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of Diethylene glycol (DEG) based CPCs at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. The data shown here is the first set of verification measurements for sub-3 nm CPCs under upper tropospheric temperatures using atmospherically relevant aerosol particles. To put the results in perspective we calibrated the DEG-CPC at room temperature, resulting in a cut-off diameter of 1.4 nm. All diameters refer to mobility equivalent diameters in this manuscript. At upper tropospheric temperatures between −25 °C and −65 °C, we found cut-off sizes in the range of 2.5 and 2.8 nm. Due to low number concentration after size classification, the cut-off diameters have a high uncertainty (±0.3 nm) associated with them. Operating two laminar flow DEG CPCs with different cut-off sizes together with other aeroso...

  15. RAD1 and RAD10, but not other excision repair genes, are required for double-strand break-induced recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, E L; Haber, J E

    1995-04-01

    HO endonuclease-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be repaired by the process of gap repair or, alternatively, by single-strand annealing if the site of the break is flanked by directly repeated homologous sequences. We have shown previously (J. Fishman-Lobell and J. E. Haber, Science 258:480-484, 1992) that during the repair of an HO-induced DSB, the excision repair gene RAD1 is needed to remove regions of nonhomology from the DSB ends. In this report, we present evidence that among nine genes involved in nucleotide excision repair, only RAD1 and RAD10 are required for removal of nonhomologous sequences from the DSB ends. rad1 delta and rad10 delta mutants displayed a 20-fold reduction in the ability to execute both gap repair and single-strand annealing pathways of HO-induced recombination. Mutations in RAD2, RAD3, and RAD14 reduced HO-induced recombination by about twofold. We also show that RAD7 and RAD16, which are required to remove UV photodamage from the silent HML, locus, are not required for MAT switching with HML or HMR as a donor. Our results provide a molecular basis for understanding the role of yeast nucleotide excision repair gene and their human homologs in DSB-induced recombination and repair.

  16. 基于ABC-PCNN模型的图像分割%Image segmentation based on ABC-PCNN model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖传柱; 张旦; 江铭炎

    2014-01-01

    为使标准脉冲耦合神经网络( Pulse coupled neural network,PCNN)模型在图像分割中能够自适应地调整模型参数与全局阈值,提高分割效果,该文提出一种基于人工蜂群( Artificial bee colony,ABC)算法改进的自适应PCNN 模型,即人工蜂群算法-脉冲耦合神经网络( ABC-PCNN)模型;提出了改进后的乘积型交叉熵函数,并利用ABC算法将此函数作为其适应度函数优化输出其连接系数和阈值。采用Lena图像和血细胞图像评估PCNN模型和ABC-PCNN模型的性能。实验结果表明:ABC-PCNN模型对图像的自适应分割效果优于PCNN模型。针对血细胞分割图像中存在的重叠区域,该文结合角点和质点坐标定位重叠区域的二次分割线得到最终分割图像,所提算法高效且能得到较好的分割结果。%In order to adjust the model parameters and the global threshold for image segmentation, an improved pulse coupled neural network ( PCNN ) model based on artificial bee colony ( ABC ) algorithm,namely ABC-PCNN,is proposed here. It combines a new criterion of product cross entropy with the standard simplified PCNN model. The product cross entropy is used as the fitness function to optimize the connection output coefficient and threshold value by the ABC algorithm. Lena image and blood cell image are used to evaluate the PCNN model and the ABC-PCNN model respectively. The experimental results show that the adaptive image segmentation by the ABC-PCNN model outperforms that by the PCNN model. As the overlapping areas need secondary segmentation in the segmented blood cell image,corners and center coordinates are used to locate the dividing line and to get the final image segmentation. The method proposed here is effective and can obtain better segmentation results.

  17. 如何实现ABC/ABM与ERP的集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍冬凤

    2006-01-01

    上世纪70年代之后,高新技术的蓬勃发展和广泛应用,为作业成本计算(Activity-Based Cost,ABC)和作业管理(Activity Based Management,ABM)的出现奠定了基础.本文以成本管理理论为起点,结合分析企业资源计划(Enterprise Resources Planning,ERP)系统基本原理与成本管理功能,据以提出一种将ABC/ABM与ERP集成的策略,并描述了ABC/ABM模块主要数据维护流程图.

  18. Observation of the ABC effect and final-state isospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, E. A.; Bashkanov, M. A.; Clement, H.; Perez del Rio, E.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T. Yu.; Wagner, G. J.

    2014-07-01

    Despite the number of inclusive measurements of the pionic fusion reactions, the nature of the ABC effect discovered in 1960 was not completely established. Exclusive measurements of the doublepion-production reactions leading to either fused d, 3He and 4He nuclear final states or pp pairs are analyzed. A significant ABC effect—enhancement in the region of low ππ mass—is found only in the isoscalar ππ channel while in the isovector channels it is small or absent. For the reaction with isovector pp final state an ABC effect was not observed even at the special kinematic conditions to reproduce a quasi-bound two-proton state. The total cross sections for the d and 4He fusion reactions show similar resonance-like energy dependence.

  19. Chondroitinase ABC improves recovery of long sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailong Yu; Liangbi Xiang; Wenjing Xu; Bin Zhao; Yu Wang; Jiang Peng; Shibi Lu

    2012-01-01

    Sciatic nerves from allogeneic Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with chondroitinase ABC and were used to bridge damaged sciatic nerves in Wistar rats. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans were removed from the chemically extracted acellular nerves. At 3 months after grafting, the footplate pinch test result was positive in the Wistar rats. Autotomy scores decreased, and increased muscular contraction tension appeared when triceps surae muscles were stimulated. In addition, the recovery rate of wet triceps surae muscle weight increased, and the distal segment of the chondroitinase ABC-treated graft exhibited Schwann cells next to the nerve fibers. These results suggested that chondroitinase ABC pretreatment enhanced repair of long nerve defects via acellular nerve grafting.

  20. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    Research in the design of aspect-oriented programming languages requires a workbench that facilitates easy experimentation with new language features and implementation techniques. In particular, new features for AspectJ have been proposed that require extensions in many dimensions: syntax, type...... checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its front end is built using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The back end is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general...

  1. Book review. La forma degli animali. Adolf Portmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1931 il biologo Adolf Portmann era già talmente noto a livello internazionale per le sue ricerche da guadagnarsi la cattedra in zoologia nell'università della sua città natale, Basilea, all'età di appena 34 anni. All'attività di docente universitario ha sempre affiancato un'originale riflessione sul significato delle scienze della vita, imponendosi come una delle figure chiave nel dibattito tra biologia teoretica, estetica e antropologia filosofica. La forma degli animali, la sua opera più celebre, si pone al confine tra varie discipline e conserva un grande interesse ancora oggi che il dialogo tra estetica e biologia si è fatto nuovamente intenso. Pubblicata nel 1948 e in forma ampliata nel 1960 (da cui deriva questa prima edizione italiana a cura di Pietro Conte l'opera rappresenta il frutto più maturo delle sue ricerche "interdisciplinari".Un saggio che nasce dall'insoddisfazione nei confronti dei paradigmi scientifici consolidati e che ripropone l'idea morfologica in biologia sulla scorta del pensiero di J. W. Goethe il quale affermava che "tutto ciò che è deve anche dar cenno di sé e mostrarsi". Adolf Portmann è un convinto sostenitore che dalla forma si possano dedurne le complessive caratteristiche interne ed esterne degli animali. Secondo questa prospettiva la peculiare fisionomia dell'organismo dipende dalla congiunzione delle sue parti e dalle loro reciproche funzioni. Tuttavia l'autore non vede nello studio della forma l'alternativa al funzionalismo quanto, piuttosto, il suo necessario bilanciamento come dichiara nell'introduzione: "… per giungere alla conoscenza della vita animale di strade ce ne sono molte, e tutte possono contribuire ad arricchire la nostra esperienza. Questo lavoro si occupa della forma degli animali e si propone di mettere in luce la peculiare natura dell'aspetto visibile. Ci sono persone che si dedicano allo studio degli animali, conoscono moltissime specie, hanno imparato centinaia di nomi e

  2. Geology of the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield and Salina 1 deg x 2 deg NTMS quadrangles, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, P. A.

    1981-11-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy is responsible for administering the program. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is responsible for hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) of 3.9 million sq km (1,500,000 mi(2)) in 37 eastern and western states. This document provides geologic and mineral resources reports for the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 1 deg x 2 deg National Topographic Map Series quadrangles, Utah. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. Except for the Escalante Quadrangle, each report is accompanied by a geologic map and a mineral locality map (Plates 1-8, in pocket).

  3. Rad51同系物与DNA重组修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汉春; 彭兴华

    2003-01-01

    真核细胞Rad51蛋白质与原核细胞RecA蛋白质具有结构及功能同源性,是促使细胞有丝分裂及减数分裂过程中DNA同源重组的关键性蛋白质.已在酵母细胞中鉴定出Rad55和Rad57两种Rad51同系物,从脊椎动物细胞中鉴定出5种Rad51同系物,即Rad51B、Rad51C、Rad51D、Xrcc2和Xrcc3.这些Rad51同系物与Rad51之间及各同系物之间共享20%~30%的序列同一性,这些Rad51同系物与Rad51蛋白质共同作用而在受损DNA的同源重组修复过程中发挥重要作用.

  4. File list: Oth.EmF.10.Rad21.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.EmF.10.Rad21.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Rad21 Embryonic fibroblast SRX976730,SR...X976731,SRX976732,SRX976729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.EmF.10.Rad21.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Spl.50.Rad21.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Spl.50.Rad21.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Rad21 Spleen SRX701158,SRX701162,SRX701...161,SRX701156,SRX701154,SRX701157,SRX701155,SRX701159,SRX701160 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Spl.50.Rad21.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.20.Rad21.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.Rad21.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Rad21 Neural SRX326210,SRX116260,SRX326...212,SRX116261 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.Rad21.AllCell.bed ...

  7. ATP-dependent and independent functions of Rad54 in genome maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Agarwal (Sheba); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); A. Guénolé (Aude); B. Eppink (Berina); S.E.V. Linsen (Sam); E. Meijering (Erik); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); R. Kanaar (Roland); J. Essers (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRad54, a member of the SWI/SNF protein family of DNA-dependent ATPases, repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through homologous recombination. Here we demonstrate that Rad54 is required for the timely accumulation of the homologous recombination proteins Rad51 and Brca2 at DSBs. Becau

  8. Disruption of mouse RAD54 reduces ionizing radiation resistance and homologous recombination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Essers (Jeroen); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); C. Troelstra (Christine); J. de Wit (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractDouble-strand DNA break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination occurs through the RAD52 pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its biological importance is underscored by the conservation of many RAD52 pathway genes, including RAD54, from fungi to humans. We have analyzed the phenotype o

  9. Nuclear dynamics of RAD52 group homologous recombination proteins in response to DNA damage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Essers (Jeroen); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); L.R. van Veelen (Lieneke); C. Paulusma (Coen); A.L. Nigg (Alex); A. Pastink (Albert); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRecombination between homologous DNA molecules is essential for the proper maintenance and duplication of the genome, and for the repair of exogenously induced DNA damage such as double-strand breaks. Homologous recombination requires the RAD52 group proteins, including Rad51, Rad52 and

  10. Meiotic and mitotic functions of mammalian RAD 18 in DNA double-strand break repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Inagaki (Akiko)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the role of RAD 18 in DNA double-strand break (DSB ) repair. Much is known about the role of RAD 18, and its critical substrate PCNA in replication damage bypass (RDB ) repair. However, the roles of RAD 18 in DSB repair are still elusive, although several

  11. Utilization of Rad51C promoter for transcriptional targeting of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Ying; Tian, Xiao; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Mao, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Cancer therapy that specifically targets malignant cells with minimal or no toxicity to normal tissue has been a long-standing goal of cancer research. Rad51 expression is elevated in a wide range of cancers and Rad51 promoter has been used to transcriptionally target tumor cells, however, a large size of Rad51 promoter limits its application for gene therapy. To identify novel tumor-specific promoters, we examined expression levels of Rad51 paralogs, Rad51B, Rad51C, and Rad51D as well as Rad52 in a panel of normal and tumor cell lines. We found that Rad51C is significantly overexpressed in cancer cells. The expression was up-regulated by approximately 6-fold at the mRNA level and 9-fold at the protein level. Interestingly, the 2064 bp long Rad51C promoter fragment was approximately 300-fold higher in cancer cells than in normal cells. A construct containing Rad51C promoter driving diphtheria toxin A efficiently killed several types of cancer cells with very mild effect to normal cells. These results underscore the potential of targeting the homologous recombination pathway in cancer cells and provide a proof of principle that the Rad51C promoter fragment can be used to transcriptionally target cancer cells. PMID:24742710

  12. Meiotic and mitotic functions of mammalian RAD 18 in DNA double-strand break repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Inagaki (Akiko)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the role of RAD 18 in DNA double-strand break (DSB ) repair. Much is known about the role of RAD 18, and its critical substrate PCNA in replication damage bypass (RDB ) repair. However, the roles of RAD 18 in DSB repair are still elusive, although several interacti

  13. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  14. Effect of bacterial recA expression on DNA repair in the rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Morais Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and functional homology between yeast proteins pRad51 and pRad52 and Escherichia coli pRecA involved in recombinational DNA repair led us to investigate possible effects of recA gene expression on DNA repair in rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant cells were subjected to one of the following treatments: preincubation with 8-methoxypsoralen and subsequent irradiation with 360-nm ultraviolet (UVA (8-MOP + UVA, irradiation with 254-nm UV light or treatment with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS. While recA expression did not repair lethal DNA lesions in mutant rad51, it was able to partially restore resistance to 8-MOP + UVA and MMS in rad52. Expression of recA could not complement the sensitivity of rad51rad52 double mutants, indicating that pRad51 may be essential for the repair-stimulating activity of pRecA in the rad52 mutant. Spontaneous mutagenesis was increased, and 8-MOP-photoinduced mutagenesis was decreased by the presence of pRecA in rad52, whereas pRecA decreased UV-induced mutagenesis in rad51. Thus, pRecA may function in yeast DNA repair either as a member of a protein complex or as an individual protein that binds to mutagen-damaged DNA.A homologia tanto a nível molecular como funcional entre as proteínas de leveduras pRad51 e pRad52 envolvidas na reparação de DNA tipo recombinacional e pRecA de E. coli nos levou a analisar os possíveis efeitos da expressão do gene recA sobre a reparação de DNA nos mutantes rad51 e rad52 de S. cerevisiae após tratamento com 8-MOP + UVA, com UV e com MMS. A expressão de recA não foi capaz de restaurar a reparação das lesões induzidas no DNA do mutante rad51 após tratamento com esses agentes, entretanto ela restaurou parcialmente a resistência ao 8-MOP + UVA e ao MMS no mutante rad52. A expressão de recA não complementou a sensibilidade do duplo mutante rad51rad52, indicando que pRad51 pode ser essencial para estimular a atividade de reparação da p

  15. Comparing the morphology and phase diagram of H-shaped ABC block copolymers and linear ABC block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianggui; Yu, Xifei; Sun, Zhaoyan; An, Lijia

    2006-06-22

    By using a combinatorial screening method based on the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for polymers, we have investigated the morphology of H-shaped ABC block copolymers (A2BC2) and compared them with those of the linear ABC block copolymers. By changing the ratios of the volume fractions of two A arms and two C arms, one can obtain block copolymers with different architectures ranging from linear block copolymer to H-shaped block copolymer. By systematically varying the volume fractions of block A, B, and C, the triangle phase diagrams of the H-shaped ABC block copolymer with equal interactions among the three species are constructed. In this study, we find four different morphologies (lamellar phase (LAM), hexagonal lattice phase (HEX), core-shell hexagonal lattice phase (CSH), and two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice (TET2)). Furthermore, the order-order transitions driven by architectural change are discussed.

  16. Optimization of the drug management by the ABC-VEN method%ABC-VEN法优化药品管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶萍

    2010-01-01

    目的 优化药品库存,提高药品管理水平,节约药品管理成本.方法 使用ABC-VEN法对药品进行科学分类,根据分类采用不同的库存管理.结果 使用ABC-VEN法对药品实行优化管理,保证了临床药品供应,压缩了药品库存,提高了药品管理效率.结论 运用ABC-VEN法对药品进行优化管理切实可行,为医院药品管理提供了一定的理论和实践参考.

  17. Role of reciprocal exchange, one-ended invasion crossover and single-strand annealing on inverted and direct repeat recombination in yeast: Different requirements for the RAD1, RAD 10, and RAD52 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, F.; Aguilera, A. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-01-01

    We have constructed novel DNA substrates (one inverted and three direct repeats) based on the same 0.6-kb repeat sequence to study deletions and inversions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Spontaneous deletions occur six to eight times more frequently than inversions, irrespective of the distance between the repeats. This difference can be explained by the observation that deletion events can be mediated by a recombination mechanism that can initiate within the intervening sequence of the repeats. Spontaneous and double-strand break (DSB)-induced deletions occur as RAD52-dependent and RAD52-independent events. Those deletion events initiated through a DSB in the unique intervening sequence require the Rad1/Rad10 endonuclease only if the break is distantly located from the flanking DNA repeats. We propose that deletions can occur as three types of recombination events: the conservative RAD52-dependent reciprocal exchange and the nonconservative events, one-ended invasion crossover, and single-strand annealing (SSA). We suggest that one-ended invasion is RAD52 dependent, whereas SSA is RAD52 independent. Whereas deletions, like inversions, occur through reciprocal exchange, deletions can also occur through SSA or one-ended invasion. We propose that the contribution of reciprocal exchange and one-ended invasion crossover vs. SSA events to overall spontaneous deletions is a feature specific for each repeat system, determined by the initiation event and the availability of the Rad52 protein. We discuss the role of the Rad1/Rad10 endonuclease on the initial steps of one-ended invasion crossover and SSA as a function of the location of the initiation event relative to the repeats. We also show that the frequency of recombination between repeats is the same independent of their location (whether on circular plasmids, linear minichromosomes, or natural chromosomes) and have similar RAD52 dependence. 74 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Role of recA/RAD51 family proteins in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata,Masahiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available

    DNA damage causes chromosomal instability leading to oncogenesis, apoptosis, and severe failure of cell functions. The DNA repair system includes base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, translesion replication, non-homologous end-joining, and recombinational repair. Homologous recombination performs the recombinational repair. The RAD51 gene is an ortholog of Esherichia coli recA, and the gene product Rad51 protein plays a central role in the homologous recombination. In mammals, 7 recA-like genes have been identified: RAD51, RAD51L1/B, RAD51L2/C, RAD51L3/D, XRCC2, XRCC3, and DMC1. These genes, with the exception of meiosis-specific DMC1, are essential for development in mammals. Disruption of the RAD51 gene leads to cell death, whereas RAD51L1/B, RAD51L2/C, RAD51L3/D, XRCC2, and XRCC3 genes (RAD51 paralogs are not essential for viability of cells, but these gene-deficient cells exhibit a similar defective phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis, co-immunoprecipitation, mutation analysis, and domain mapping of Rad51 and Rad51 paralogs have revealed protein-protein interactions among these gene products. Recent investigations have shown that Rad51 paralogs play a role not only in an early step, but also in a late step of homologous recombination. In addition, identification of alternative transcripts of some RAD51 paralogs may reflect the complexity of the homologous recombination system.

  19. Environmental radon with RAD7 detector; Radon ambiental con detector RAD7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez G, I. M.; Capote F, E., E-mail: arturo.lopez@inin.gob.mx [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Carretera La Victoria II Km 2.5 e/ Monumental y Final, Guanabacoa, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-09-15

    Experimental results of the radon detection with the equipment RAD7 are presented. The use of a solid state detector placed in a semi-spherical chamber with an electric field allows a high sensitivity of 0.4 cpm/P Ci/l. Radon detection is achieved by the spectroscopy of its decay products. In accordance with a table of errors for various ranges of counts and radon concentrations, reported by the manufacturer, an equation was obtained that allows establishing operation criteria of the equipment. For radon detection at ambient concentrations as low as 30 Bq m{sup -3}, is shown that short counts of 10 minutes are good enough to make decisions on radiation protection matter. In places where concentrations are close to 200 Bq m{sup -3}, counting intervals of the order of 0.5 hours will have an acceptable counting error of the order of 20%. The determination of radon in soil was, according to the expected, on the order of 10 kBq m{sup -3}, and was found that even with the recommended counting times of 5 minutes, there is a risk of increased humidity inside the detector above 20% Rh, with associated reduction of detection efficiency, if the desiccant is not used properly. The equipment was subjected to a radon exposure in air of 13, 373 Bq m{sup -3} ± 3.7%, contained within a controlled chamber, with a variation in temperature of (19-21) degrees Celsius and in the relative humidity of (5-7) %, the good stability of the chamber allows to propose calibration processes of these equipment s by assessing the concentration by means of a Ge (Hp) detector. (Author)

  20. On Application of ABC Approach in Management of Agri- scientific Research Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangchun; ZHA

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced theoretical background of the Activity-Based Costing(ABC). Then,it analyzed necessity,extension resistance and difficulty of ABC approach in agri-scientific research institutions. Finally,it came up with some recommendations for scientifically learning and steadily promoting ABC method in agri-scientific research field.

  1. Technical Note: Using DEG-CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, D.; Lehtipalo, K.; Nieminen, T.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Almeida, J.; Rondo, L.; Franchin, A.; Kreissl, F.; Bianchi, F.; Manninen, H. E.; Kulmala, M.; Curtius, J.; Petäjä, T.

    2015-07-01

    Over the last few years, several condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of CPCs based on diethylene glycol (DEG) at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. The data shown here are the first set of verification measurements for sub-3 nm CPCs under upper tropospheric temperatures using atmospherically relevant aerosol particles. To put the results in perspective we calibrated the DEG-CPC at room temperature, resulting in a cut-off diameter of 1.4 nm. All diameters refer to mobility equivalent diameters in this paper. At upper tropospheric temperatures ranging from 246.15 K to 207.15 K, we found cut-off sizes relative to a particle size magnifier in the range of 2.5 to 2.8 nm. Due to low number concentration after size classification, the cut-off diameters have a high uncertainty (±0.3 nm) associated with them. Operating two laminar flow DEG-CPCs with different cut-off sizes together with other aerosol instruments, we looked at the growth rates of aerosol population in the CLOUD chamber for particles smaller than 10 nm at different temperatures. A more consistent picture emerged when we normalized the growth rates to a fixed gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration. All of the instruments detected larger growth rates at lower temperatures, and the observed growth rates decreased as a function of temperature, showing a similar trend for all instruments. The theoretical calculations had a similar but much smaller temperature dependency.

  2. RAD51 is required for propagation of the germinal nucleus in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, T C; Cole, E. S.; Stuart, K R; Campbell, C; Romero, D P

    2000-01-01

    RAD51, the eukaryote homolog of the Escherichia coli recA recombinase, participates in homologous recombination during mitosis, meiosis, and in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The Tetrahymena thermophila RAD51 gene was recently cloned, and the in vitro activities and induction of Rad51p following DNA damage were shown to be similar to that of RAD51 from other species. This study describes the pattern of Tetrahymena RAD51 expression during both the cell cycle and conjugation. Tetrahy...

  3. Monitoreo de Radón 222 en la zona sur de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Hancco, Jhonny Jonnatan

    2016-01-01

    Existen diversos estudios de las concentraciones de Radón 222 [36], los cuales comenzaron en minas, el objetivo de este tipo de estudios era determinar la dosis a la que estaban expuestos los trabajadores por diversas fuentes naturales entre ellas el Radón, las concentraciones de Radón 222 encontradas fueron muy elevadas llegando a la conclusión que las hijas del Radón 222 son las mas nocivas adicionándose a los efectos que causa el fumar, dado que el Radón 222 es un gas exhalado por el suelo...

  4. Mutations suppressing the loss of DegQ function in Bacillus subtilis (natto) poly-γ-glutamate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thi-Huyen; Suzuki, Yuki; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-12-01

    The degQ gene of Bacillus subtilis (natto), encoding a small peptide of 46 amino acids, is essential for the synthesis of extracellular poly-gamma-glutamate (γPGA). To elucidate the role of DegQ in γPGA synthesis, we knocked out the degQ gene in Bacillus subtilis (natto) and screened for suppressor mutations that restored γPGA synthesis in the absence of DegQ. Suppressor mutations were found in degS, the receptor kinase gene of the DegS-DegU two-component system. Recombinant DegS-His(6) mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells and subjected to an in vitro phosphorylation assay. Compared with the wild type, mutant DegS-His(6) proteins showed higher levels of autophosphorylation (R208Q, M195I, L248F, and D250N), reduced autodephosphorylation (D250N), reduced phosphatase activity toward DegU, or a reduced ability to stimulate the autodephosphorylation activity of DegU (R208Q, D249G, M195I, L248F, and D250N) and stabilized DegU in the phosphorylated form. These mutant DegS proteins mimic the effect of DegQ on wild-type DegSU in vitro. Interestingly, DegQ stabilizes phosphorylated DegS only in the presence of DegU, indicating a complex interaction of these three proteins.

  5. Mutations Suppressing the Loss of DegQ Function in Bacillus subtilis (natto) Poly-γ-Glutamate Synthesis ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thi-Huyen; Suzuki, Yuki; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-01-01

    The degQ gene of Bacillus subtilis (natto), encoding a small peptide of 46 amino acids, is essential for the synthesis of extracellular poly-gamma-glutamate (γPGA). To elucidate the role of DegQ in γPGA synthesis, we knocked out the degQ gene in Bacillus subtilis (natto) and screened for suppressor mutations that restored γPGA synthesis in the absence of DegQ. Suppressor mutations were found in degS, the receptor kinase gene of the DegS-DegU two-component system. Recombinant DegS-His6 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells and subjected to an in vitro phosphorylation assay. Compared with the wild type, mutant DegS-His6 proteins showed higher levels of autophosphorylation (R208Q, M195I, L248F, and D250N), reduced autodephosphorylation (D250N), reduced phosphatase activity toward DegU, or a reduced ability to stimulate the autodephosphorylation activity of DegU (R208Q, D249G, M195I, L248F, and D250N) and stabilized DegU in the phosphorylated form. These mutant DegS proteins mimic the effect of DegQ on wild-type DegSU in vitro. Interestingly, DegQ stabilizes phosphorylated DegS only in the presence of DegU, indicating a complex interaction of these three proteins. PMID:21965392

  6. The Codice digitale degli archivi veronesi. A research instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brugnoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Codice digitale degli archivi veronesi (Verona’s archives digital code ‹http://cdavr.dtesis.univr.it› makes available online the digital reproductions of the documents produced by corporate bodies and family of Verona between the eighth and twelfth century. The framework of the site reflects the current organisation of the archives. A brief description of the circumstances around the creation of each archive, the corporate body or individual responsible for it and its structure is provided. Each archival unit is identified by its key elements: chronological date, name and qualification of the notary, original/copy, main editions.

  7. The Codice digitale degli archivi veronesi. A research instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brugnoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Codice digitale degli archivi veronesi (Verona’s archives digital code ‹http://cdavr.dtesis.univr.it› makes available online the digital reproductions of the documents produced by corporate bodies and family of Verona between the eighth and twelfth century. The framework of the site reflects the current organisation of the archives. A brief description of the circumstances around the creation of each archive, the corporate body or individual responsible for it and its structure is provided. Each archival unit is identified by its key elements: chronological date, name and qualification of the notary, original/copy, main editions.

  8. Islam, rappresentanza degli interessi religiosi e diritto comune europeo *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Macrì

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributo destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti del Convegno: Europa e Islam. Ridiscutere i fondamenti per la disciplina delle libertà religiose, svoltosi a Salerno il 3 dicembre 2007.SOMMARIO: Premessa - 1. La società «reticolare» europea: sistema di governance e valori unificanti - 2. Europa e fenomeno religioso - 3. La sostanza del Trattato di Lisbona e il ruolo delle organizzazioni religiose - 4. Il dibattito interno all’Islam europeo - 5. La Carta dei musulmani d’Europa - 6. La rappresentanza degli interessi religiosi dell’Islam in Europa - Conclusioni.

  9. Lipid dependence of ABC transporter localization and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in many cellular functions, including protein and lipid transport and signal transduction. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have also been localized in these membrane domains. In this review the evidence for this specific localization will be evaluated and dis

  10. Dynamics of 'abc' and 'qd' constant parameters induction generator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajardo-R, L.A.; Medina, A.; Iov, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, parametric sensibility effects on dynamics of the induction generator in the presence of local perturbations are investigated. The study is conducted in a 3x2 MW wind park dealing with abc, qd0 and qd reduced order, induction generator model respectively, and with fluxes as state v...

  11. Lipid dependence of ABC transporter localization and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in many cellular functions, including protein and lipid transport and signal transduction. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have also been localized in these membrane domains. In this review the evidence for this specific localization will be evaluated and dis

  12. Lipid dependence of ABC transporter localization and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in many cellular functions, including protein and lipid transport and signal transduction. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have also been localized in these membrane domains. In this review the evidence for this specific localization will be evaluated and

  13. ABCs of Being Smart... G Is for Gifted!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Giftedness can generate speculation, misconceptions, expectations, pride, innuendo, apprehension, puzzlement--and the list goes on. What does it mean to be a gifted learner? In this installment of the series "ABCs of Being Smart," the author grapples with the term gifted, giving a glimpse into giftedness, along with some general guidelines for…

  14. ABC transporters from Botrytis cinerea in biotic and abiotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.

    2004-01-01

    Botrytis cinereais the causal agent of grey mould disease on a wide variety of crop plants. It is relatively insensitive to natural and synthetic fungitoxic compounds. This thesis describes how ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters contribute to protection by actively secre

  15. ABC transporters van Botrytis cinerea in biotische en abiotische interacties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.

    2005-01-01

    Op 29 november 2004 promoveerde Henk-jan Schoonbeek aan Wageningen Universiteit op het proefschrift getiteld 'ABC transporters from Botrytis cinerea in biotic and abiotic interactions'. Promotor was Prof. dr. ir. P.J.G.M. de Wit en co-promotor was dr.ir. M.A. de Waard, leerstoelgroep Fytopathologie,

  16. ABCs of Being Smart... G Is for Gifted!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Giftedness can generate speculation, misconceptions, expectations, pride, innuendo, apprehension, puzzlement--and the list goes on. What does it mean to be a gifted learner? In this installment of the series "ABCs of Being Smart," the author grapples with the term gifted, giving a glimpse into giftedness, along with some general guidelines for…

  17. ABC transporters of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, L.H.

    2002-01-01

     A TP- b inding c assette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families known. They play a role in numerous vital processes in the cell and are characterised by their capacity to transport a broad variety of substrates, ranging fr

  18. I am Calm: Towards a Psychoneurological Evaluation of ABC Ringtones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N.A. Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology-Based Computing (ABC suggests that socio-cultural, neurological, and physiological parameters of normal human interaction with the world can be applied to current technology in order to improve Human-Computer Interaction (HCI. To challenge this theory, we hypothesized smartphone ringtones that could be targeted to specific people in a manner that would inform them without disturbing their work or the work of others. In this paper we report the quantitative data from the first formal trials of these ‘ABC ringtones’. Beta Wave activity patterns were recorded in the brains of 10 participants exposed to 5 different ringtones at three different volumes while they were focused on performing a typing test in a noisy environment. Our preliminary findings seem to show that the ABC ringtones - at a volume too low to be consciously heard - triggered a response in the pre-attentive part of the brain, and that the embedded information was transferred to the attentive part of the brain by an internal mechanism that did not disrupt the work being done in the typing task. We propose that these results provide preliminary evidence for the ABC model of HCI and its explanation of the centering mechanism that is requisite if Peripheral Interaction is to be applied in changing Ubiquitous Computing into Calm Technology.

  19. The ABC Model and its Applicability to Basal Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Douglas E.; Chanderbali, André S.; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Scope and Conclusions Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer ‘fading borders’ as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms. PMID:17616563

  20. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The back end is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general...

  1. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  2. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service…

  3. Sistema de costos ABC en la mediana empresa industrial mexicana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez-Mejia, Maria Rosa; Gomez-Martinez, Alicia; Marin-Hernandez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    ... industriales; aunado a lo antes expuesto, se advierte que el sistema de costos ABC o ABM, llamado asi por sus siglas en ingles activity-based costing o activity based management, resulta interesante y conveniente para empresas en ambientes competitivos que requieren reducir costos (Chenhall & Langfield-Smith, 1998). Constantemente se senala que el sistema d...

  4. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  5. RadA: A protein involved in DNA damage repair processes of Deinococcus radiodurans R1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qing; ZHANG Xinjue; XU Hong; XU Bujin; HUA Yuejin

    2006-01-01

    RadA is highly conserved in bacteria and belongs to the RecA/RadA/Rad51 protein superfamily found in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In Archaea, it plays a critical role in homologous recombination process due to its RecA-like function. In Escherichia coli, it takes part in conjugational recombination and DNA repair but is not as important as that of archaea. Using PSI-BLAST searches, we found that Deinococcus radiodurans RadA had a higher similarity to that of bacteria than archaea and eukarya. Disruption of radA gene in D. radiodurans resulted in a modestly decreased resistance to gamma radiation and ultraviolet, but had no effect on the resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Complementation of the radA disruptant by both E. coli radA and D.radiodurans radA could fully restore its resistance to gamma radiation and ultraviolet irradiation. Further domain function analyses of D. radiodurans RadA showed that the absence of the zinc finger domain resulted in a slightly more sensitive phenotype togamma and UV radiation than that of the radA mutant,while the absence of the Lon protease domain exhibited a slightly increased resistance to gamma and UV radiation. These data suggest that D. radiodurans RadA does play an important role in the DNA damage repair processes and its three different domains have different functions.

  6. The Different Roles of hRAD50 in Microsatellite Stable and Unstable Colorectal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Gao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RAD50 protein is essential for DNA double-strand break repair and maintaining genomic integrity. In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological significance of hRAD50 expression and mutation in microsatellite stable (MSS and unstable (MSI colorectal cancers (CRCs. hRAD50 expression was examined in primary CRC (n=268, the corresponding distant (n=69 and adjacent normal mucosa (n=138, and lymph node metastasis (n=44 by immunohistochemistry. hRAD50 mutation was analyzed in 87 primary CRCs by PCR-SSCP-DNA sequencing. hRAD50 expression was increased in MSS primary CRCs, but not MSI ones, compared with distant/adjacent normal mucosa (p<0.05. There was no difference in the hRAD50 expression between primary and metastatic CRCs. The increased hRAD50 expression in MSS primary CRCs was related (p<0.05 or tended to be related (p=0.05 to early tumor stage, better differentiation, high inflammatory infiltration, p53 overexpression. Frameshift mutations of (A9 at coding region of hRAD50 were only found in MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that hRAD50 may play different roles in the development of MSS and MSI CRCs: increased hRAD50 expression in MSS CRCs may be a cellular response against tumor from further progression, while hRAD50 mutation may be involved in the development of MSI CRCs.

  7. The Bloom syndrome protein limits the lethality associated with RAD51 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj, Kenza; Rouzeau, Sébastien; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Chabosseau, Pauline; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Bayart, Emilie; Cordelières, Fabrice; Couturier, Jérôme; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about the functional interaction between the Bloom's syndrome protein (BLM) and the recombinase RAD51 within cells. Using RNA interference technology, we provide the first demonstration that RAD51 acts upstream from BLM to prevent anaphase bridge formation. RAD51 downregulation was associated with an increase in the frequency of BLM-positive anaphase bridges, but not of BLM-associated ultrafine bridges. Time-lapse live microscopy analysis of anaphase bridge cells revealed that BLM promoted cell survival in the absence of Rad51. Our results directly implicate BLM in limiting the lethality associated with RAD51 deficiency through the processing of anaphase bridges resulting from the RAD51 defect. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of some cancers possibly associated with variants of the RAD51 gene family.

  8. Placental ABC transporters, cellular toxicity and stress in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-25

    The human placenta, in addition to its roles as a nutrient transfer and endocrine organ, functions as a selective barrier to protect the fetus against the harmful effects of exogenous and endogenous toxins. Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins limit the entry of xenobiotics into the fetal circulation via vectorial efflux from the placenta to the maternal circulation. Several members of the ABC family, including proteins from the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC and ABCG subfamilies, have been shown to be functional in the placenta with clinically significant roles in xenobiotic efflux. However, recent findings suggest that these transporters also protect placental tissue by preventing the cellular accumulation of cytotoxic compounds such as lipids, sterols and their derivatives. Such protective functions are likely to be particularly important in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory or oxidative stress, where the generation of toxic metabolites is enhanced. For example, ABC transporters have been shown to protect against the harmful effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress through increased expression and efflux of oxysterols and glutathione conjugated xenobiotics. However, this protective capacity may be diminished in response to the same stressors. Several studies in primary human trophoblast cells and animal models have demonstrated decreased expression and activity of placental ABC transporters with inflammatory, oxidative or metabolic stress. Several clinical studies in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory conditions such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes support these findings, although further studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the relationships between placental ABC transporter expression and activity, and placental function in stressed pregnancies. Such studies are necessary to fully understand the consequences of pregnancy disorders on placental function and viability in order to optimise pregnancy

  9. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  10. Zoogeografia storica e attuale dei carnivori e degli ungulati italiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Come per la maggior parte degli altri paesi europei, anche l'attuale composizione delle specie a mammiferi italiane si prefigura in gran parte come il risultato della plurima e prolungata azione antropica condotta sull'ambiente naturale. Questa, avviatasi alcuni millenni or sono, condiziona oggi più che mai la ridefinizione degli equilibri ecologici del nostro Paese. All'interno dell'attuale teriofauna terrestre italiana viene segnalata la presenza di 18 specie di carnivori e di 9 artiodattili, che può rivelarsi in alcuni casi come il risultato di acclimatazioni e/o naturalizzazioni di specie esotiche avvenute in cronologie diverse, anche di epoca molto recente. All'interno dei confini biogeografici dell'Italia andrebbero anche annoverate quelle popolazioni del cervo pomellato medio-orientale, Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777, che sono state naturalizzate in epoca storica assai recente in Istria ed in alcune isole del golfo del Quarnaro (Brioni Maggiore, Cherso e Plauno. Considerazioni analoghe potrebbero forse essere condotte anche per la diffusione artificiale di Herpestes auropunctatus Hodgson, 1836, su alcune isole della Croazia. Le specie fitofaghe riferibili ai gruppi tassonomici dei lagomorfi e degli artiodattili, e che vengono convenzionalmente comprese nella categoria della cosiddetta "selvaggina", sono tra quelle che hanno più subito un'alterazione condotta in profondità dei quadri faunistici originari, proprio in virtù dell'interesse economico e culturale che ancora rappresentano. Nel caso particolare di queste specie di interesse venatorio ci troviamo quasi sempre di fronte a popolazioni che sono state sottoposte ad intensa gestione e che hanno subito frequenti estinzioni locali seguite da reiterate reintroduzioni. Attualmente, data l'espansione sia naturale che artificiale degli ecotipi indigeni e di quelli alloctoni, si osserva ormai una sovrapposizione degli areali, per cui sembra piuttosto difficile riuscire in

  11. Ejecta model development at pRad (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, William T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Terrones, Guillermo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bainbridge, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hogan, Gary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollander, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, David B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiathowski, Kris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marr-Lyon, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mariam, Fesseha G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nedrow, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, C L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stone, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tupa, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-02-09

    In July 2009 we fielded three explosively (HE) driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments at the LANSCE Proton Radiography Facility (pRad), and in August of 2009 we fielded one flyer plate experiment on the pRad 40 mm powder gun. One HE experiment was done in vacuum, and the other two within four atmospheres of noble gasses: Xe and Ne. These two gases were chosen to study the viscous effects on ejecta formation. It is unexpected, but the viscosity {eta} of Ne is twice that of Xe, and, due to the atomic mass difference between the two, the kinematic viscosity ({eta}/{rho}) of Ne is about ten times that of Xe. The results showed that ejecta formation is sensitively linked to the gas density, which implies that the Weber number is more important in ejecta formation than the Reynolds number.

  12. Radiomic modeling of BI-RADS density categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir

    2017-03-01

    Screening mammography is the most effective and low-cost method to date for early cancer detection. Mammographic breast density has been shown to be highly correlated with breast cancer risk. We are developing a radiomic model for BI-RADS density categorization on digital mammography (FFDM) with a supervised machine learning approach. With IRB approval, we retrospectively collected 478 FFDMs from 478 women. As a gold standard, breast density was assessed by an MQSA radiologist based on BI-RADS categories. The raw FFDMs were used for computerized density assessment. The raw FFDM first underwent log-transform to approximate the x-ray sensitometric response, followed by multiscale processing to enhance the fibroglandular densities and parenchymal patterns. Three ROIs were automatically identified based on the keypoint distribution, where the keypoints were obtained as the extrema in the image Gaussian scale-space. A total of 73 features, including intensity and texture features that describe the density and the parenchymal pattern, were extracted from each breast. Our BI-RADS density estimator was constructed by using a random forest classifier. We used a 10-fold cross validation resampling approach to estimate the errors. With the random forest classifier, computerized density categories for 412 of the 478 cases agree with radiologist's assessment (weighted kappa = 0.93). The machine learning method with radiomic features as predictors demonstrated a high accuracy in classifying FFDMs into BI-RADS density categories. Further work is underway to improve our system performance as well as to perform an independent testing using a large unseen FFDM set.

  13. Disparate requirements for the Walker A and B ATPase motifs ofhuman RAD51D in homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Hinz, John M.; Tebbs, Robert S.; Nham, Peter B.; Urbin, Salustra S.; Collins, David W.; Thompson, Larry H.; Schild, David

    2006-04-21

    In vertebrates, homologous recombinational repair (HRR) requires RAD51 and five RAD51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D) that all contain conserved Walker A and B ATPase motifs. In human RAD51D we examined the requirement for these motifs in interactions with XRCC2 and RAD51C, and for survival of cells in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks. Ectopic expression of wild type human RAD51D or mutants having a non-functional A or B motif was used to test for complementation of a rad51d knockout hamster CHO cell line. Although A-motif mutants complement very efficiently, B-motif mutants do not. Consistent with these results, experiments using the yeast two- and three-hybrid systems show that the interactions between RAD51D and its XRCC2 and RAD51C partners also require a functional RAD51D B motif, but not motif A. Similarly, hamster Xrcc2 is unable to bind to the non-complementing human RAD51D B-motif mutants in co-immunoprecipitation assays. We conclude that a functional Walker B motif, but not A motif, is necessary for RAD51D's interactions with other paralogs and for efficient HRR. We present a model in which ATPase sites are formed in a bipartite manner between RAD51D and other RAD51 paralogs.

  14. The human RAD54 recombinational DNA repair protein is a double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Essers (Jeroen); J. de Wit (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDNA double-strand break repair through the RAD52 homologous recombination pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires, among others, the RAD51, RAD52, and RAD54 genes. The biological importance of homologous recombination is underscored by the conservation of

  15. Cloning, comparative mapping, and RNA expression of the mouse homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleotide excision repair gene RAD23.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Spek (Peter); C.E. Visser (Cécile); F. Hanaoka (Fumio); B. Smit (Bep); A. Hagemeijer (Anne); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD23 gene is involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Two human homologs of RAD23, HHR23A and HHR23B (HGMW-approved symbols RAD23A and RAD23B), were previously isolated. The HHR23B protein is complexed with the protein defective in the cancer-prone

  16. Cloning of human and mouse genes homologous to RAD52, a yeast gene involved in DNA repair and recombination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F.R. Muris; O.Y. Bezzubova (Olga); J-M. Buerstedde; K. Vreeken; A.S. Balajee; C.J. Osgood; C. Troelstra (Christine); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); K. Ostermann; H. Schmidt (Henning); A.T. Natarajan; J.C.J. Eeken; P.H.M. Lohmann (Paul); A. Pastink (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe RAD52 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for recombinational repair of double-strand breaks. Using degenerate oligonucleotides based on conserved amino acid sequences of RAD52 and rad22, its counterpart from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, RAD52 homologs from man and mouse were

  17. Critical interaction domains between bloom syndrome protein and RAD51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Krystal L; Murphy, Eileen L; Brown, Lily W; Almeida, Karen H

    2011-01-01

    The American Cancer Society's 2009 statistics estimate that 1 out of every 4 deaths is cancer related. Genomic instability is a common feature of cancerous states, and an increase in genomic instability is the diagnostic feature of Bloom Syndrome. Bloom Syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by a predisposition to cancer, is caused by mutations of the BLM gene. This study focuses on the partnerships of BLM protein to RAD51, a Homologous Recombination repair protein essential for survival. A systematic set of BLM deletion fragments were generated to refine the protein binding domains of BLM to RAD51 and determine interacting regions of BLM and ssDNA. Results show that RAD51 and ssDNA interact in overlapping regions; BLM₁₀₀₋₂₁₄ and BLM₁₃₁₇₋₁₃₆₇. The overlapping nature of these regions suggests a preferential binding for one partner that could function to regulate homologous recombination and therefore helps to clarify the role of BLM in maintaining genomic stability.

  18. Rapid SNP discovery and genetic mapping using sequenced RAD markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A Baird

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery and genotyping are essential to genetic mapping. There remains a need for a simple, inexpensive platform that allows high-density SNP discovery and genotyping in large populations. Here we describe the sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD tags, which identified more than 13,000 SNPs, and mapped three traits in two model organisms, using less than half the capacity of one Illumina sequencing run. We demonstrated that different marker densities can be attained by choice of restriction enzyme. Furthermore, we developed a barcoding system for sample multiplexing and fine mapped the genetic basis of lateral plate armor loss in threespine stickleback by identifying recombinant breakpoints in F(2 individuals. Barcoding also facilitated mapping of a second trait, a reduction of pelvic structure, by in silico re-sorting of individuals. To further demonstrate the ease of the RAD sequencing approach we identified polymorphic markers and mapped an induced mutation in Neurospora crassa. Sequencing of RAD markers is an integrated platform for SNP discovery and genotyping. This approach should be widely applicable to genetic mapping in a variety of organisms.

  19. RadNet: Open network protocol for radiation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, B.; Olson, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Beckes-Talcott, J.; Kadner, S.; Wenderlich, T.; Hoy, M.; Doyle, W. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koskelo, M. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Safeguards instrumentation is increasingly being incorporated into remote monitoring applications. In the past, vendors of radiation monitoring instruments typically provided the tools for uploading the monitoring data to a host. However, the proprietary nature of communication protocols lends itself to increased computer support needs and increased installation expenses. As a result, a working group of suppliers and customers of radiation monitoring instruments defined an open network protocol for transferring packets on a local area network from radiation monitoring equipment to network hosts. The protocol was termed RadNet. While it is now primarily used for health physics instruments, RadNet`s flexibility and strength make it ideal for remote monitoring of nuclear materials. The incorporation of standard, open protocols ensures that future work will not render present work obsolete; because RadNet utilizes standard Internet protocols, and is itself a non-proprietary standard. The use of industry standards also simplifies the development and implementation of ancillary services, e.g. E-main generation or even pager systems.

  20. Association between RAD 51 rs1801320 and susceptibility to glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, S; Tomei, S; Mazzanti, C M; Lessi, F; Aretini, P; La Ferla, M; De Gregorio, V; Pasqualetti, F; Zavaglia, K; Bevilacqua, G; Naccarato, A G

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. Despite decades of research and the advent of new therapies, patients with glioblastoma continue to have a very poor prognosis. Radiation therapy has a major role as adjuvant treatment for glioblastoma following surgical resection. Many studies have shown that polymorphisms of genes involved in pathways of DNA repair may affect the sensitivity of the cells to treatment. Although the role of these polymorphisms has been investigated in relation to response to radiotherapy, their role as predisposing factors to glioblastoma has not been clarified yet. In the present study, we evaluated the association between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, namely: XRCC1 rs25487, XRCC3 rs861539 and RAD51 rs1801320, with the susceptibility to develop glioblastoma. Eighty-five glioblastoma patients and 70 matched controls were recruited for this study. Data from the 1000 Genomes Project (98 Tuscans) were also downloaded and used for the association analysis. Subjects carrying RAD51 rs1801320 GC genotype showed an increased risk of glioblastoma (GC vs GG, χ(2) = 10.75; OR 3.0087; p = 0.0010). The C allele was also significantly associated to glioblastoma (χ(2) = 8.66; OR 2.5674; p = 0.0032). Moreover, RAD51 rs1801320 C allele increased the risk to develop glioblastoma also when combined to XRCC1 rs25487 G allele and XRCC3 rs861539 C allele (χ(2) = 6.558; p = 0.0053).

  1. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  2. A Compute Environment of ABC95 Array Computer Based on Multi-FPGA Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ABC95 array computer is a multi-function network's computer based on FPGA technology, The multi-function network supports processors conflict-free access data from memory and supports processors access data from processors based on enhanced MESH network.ABC95 instruction's system includes control instructions, scalar instructions, vectors instructions.Mostly net-work instructions are introduced.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer assemble language is designed.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer for VC++ is advanced.It includes load function of ABC95 array computer program and data, store function, run function and so on.Specially, The data type of ABC95 array computer conflict-free access is defined.The results show that these technologies can develop programmer of ABC95 array computer effectively.

  3. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the West Greenland (68 deg.-72 deg. N) coastal zone, 2nd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, D.; Johansen, Kasper L.; Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Wegeberg, S.

    2012-12-15

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68 deg. N and 72 deg. N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. (Author)

  4. On the rms anisotropy at 7 deg and 10 deg observed in the COBE-DMR two year sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Tenorio, L.; Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Lineweaver, C. H.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency-independent rms temperature fluctuations determined from the Cosmic Background Explorer-Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE-DMR) two-year sky maps are used to infer the parameter Q(sub rms-PS), which characterizes the normalization of power-law models of primordial cosmological temperature anisotropy, for a forced fit to a scale-invariant Harrison-Zel'dovich (n = 1) spectral model. Using a joint analysis of the 7 deg and 10 deg 'cross'-rms derived from both the 53 and 90 GHz sky maps, we find Q(sub rms-PS) = 17.0(sub -2.1 sup +2.5) micro Kelvin when the low quadrupole is included, and Q(sub rms-PS) = 19.4(sub -2.1 sup +2.3) micro Kelvin excluding the quadrupole. These results are consistent with the n = 1 fits from more sensitive methods. The effect of the low quadrupole derived from the COBE-DMR data on the inferred Q(sub rms-PS) normalization is investigated. A bias to lower Q(sub rms-PS) is found when the quadrupole is included. The higher normalization for a forced n = 1 fit is then favored by the cross-rms technique.

  5. Rad18 and Rnf8 facilitate homologous recombination by two distinct mechanisms, promoting Rad51 focus formation and suppressing the toxic effect of nonhomologous end joining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, S.; Kasaishi, Y.; Nakada, S.; Takagi, T.; Era, S.; Motegi, A.; Chiu, R. K.; Takeda, S.; Hirota, K.

    2015-01-01

    The E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and the E3 ubiquitin ligases Rad18 and Rnf8 promote homologous recombination (HR)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair by enhancing polymerization of the Rad51 recombinase at.-ray-induced DSB sites. To analyze functional interactions between the three

  6. Rad18 and Rnf8 facilitate homologous recombination by two distinct mechanisms, promoting Rad51 focus formation and suppressing the toxic effect of nonhomologous end joining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, S.; Kasaishi, Y.; Nakada, S.; Takagi, T.; Era, S.; Motegi, A.; Chiu, R. K.; Takeda, S.; Hirota, K.

    2015-01-01

    The E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and the E3 ubiquitin ligases Rad18 and Rnf8 promote homologous recombination (HR)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair by enhancing polymerization of the Rad51 recombinase at.-ray-induced DSB sites. To analyze functional interactions between the three e

  7. 75 FR 49549 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... operation of this trackage in FD 35356, ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line...

  8. A phosphorylation-deubiquitination cascade regulates the BRCA2-RAD51 axis in homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kuntian; Li, Lei; Li, Yunhui; Wu, Chenming; Yin, Yujiao; Chen, Yuping; Deng, Min; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yuan, Jian; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-12-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is one of the major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways in mammalian cells. Defects in HR trigger genomic instability and result in cancer predisposition. The defining step of HR is homologous strand exchange directed by the protein RAD51, which is recruited to DSBs by BRCA2. However, the regulation of the BRCA2-RAD51 axis remains unclear. Here we report that ubiquitination of RAD51 hinders RAD51-BRCA2 interaction, while deubiquitination of RAD51 facilitates RAD51-BRCA2 binding and RAD51 recruitment and thus is critical for proper HR. Mechanistically, in response to DNA damage, the deubiquitinase UCHL3 is phosphorylated and activated by ATM. UCHL3, in turn, deubiquitinates RAD51 and promotes the binding between RAD51 and BRCA2. Overexpression of UCHL3 renders breast cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, while depletion of UCHL3 sensitizes cells to these treatments, suggesting a determinant role of UCHL3 in cancer therapy. Overall, we identify UCHL3 as a novel regulator of DNA repair and reveal a model in which a phosphorylation-deubiquitination cascade dynamically regulates the BRCA2-RAD51 pathway. © 2016 Luo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Caffeine inhibits gene conversion by displacing Rad51 from ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabar, Michael; Mason, Jennifer M.; Chan, Yuen-Ling; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination relies on the formation of a Rad51 recombinase filament that forms on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) created at DSB ends. This filament facilitates the search for a homologous donor sequence and promotes strand invasion. Recently caffeine treatment has been shown to prevent gene targeting in mammalian cells by increasing non-productive Rad51 interactions between the DSB and random regions of the genome. Here we show that caffeine treatment prevents gene conversion in yeast, independently of its inhibition of the Mec1ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent DNA damage response or caffeine's inhibition of 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends. Caffeine treatment results in a dosage-dependent eviction of Rad51 from ssDNA. Gene conversion is impaired even at low concentrations of caffeine, where there is no discernible dismantling of the Rad51 filament. Loss of the Rad51 filament integrity is independent of Srs2's Rad51 filament dismantling activity or Rad51's ATPase activity and does not depend on non-specific Rad51 binding to undamaged double-stranded DNA. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, promoting loss of previously assembled Rad51 foci. We conclude that caffeine treatment can disrupt gene conversion by disrupting Rad51 filaments. PMID:26019181

  10. Effects of mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus (RAD001) on Bladder Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Edmund; Lee, I-Ling; Dadbin, Ali; Sabichi, Anita L; Harris, Loleta; Urbauer, Diana; McConkey, David; Dickstein, Rian Jason; Cheng, Tiewei; Grossman, H. Barton

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effect of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) on human bladder cancer (BC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design The effect of RAD001 on the growth of UM-UC-3, UM-UC-6, UM-UC-9, and UM-UC-14 BC cells were assessed by crystal violet and [3H]Thymidine incorporation assays . Flow cytometry cell cycle analyses were performed to measure the apoptotic cell fraction. Protein synthesis was measured using tritium-labeled leucine–incorporation assays. The effects of RAD001 on the mTOR pathway were analyzed by western blotting. To test the effects of RAD001 in vivo, UM-UC-3, UM-UC-6, and UMUC-9 cells were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated orally with RAD001 or placebo. Tumors were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis. Results In vitro, RAD001 transiently inhibited BC cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was augmented by retreatment of cells after 3 days. UM-UC-14 cells were the most sensitive to RAD001, while UM-UC-9 cells were the least sensitive. After retreatment with RAD001, only sensitive cell lines showed G1 phase arrest, with no evidence of apoptosis. RAD001 significantly inhibited the growth of tumors that were subcutaneously implanted in mice. Inhibition of protein synthesis through the S6K and 4E-BP1 pathways appears to be the main mechanism for the RAD001-induced growth inhibition. However, inhibition of angiogenesis was the predominant mechanism of RAD001's effect on UM-UC-9 cells. Conclusions The mTOR inhibitor RAD001 inhibits growth of BC cells in vitro. RAD001 is effective in treating BC tumors in an in vivo nude mouse model despite the heterogeneity of in vitro responses. PMID:21415218

  11. Dislocation Majorana zero modes in perovskite oxide 2DEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Suk Bum; Chan, Cheung; Yao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Much of the current experimental efforts for detecting Majorana zero modes have been centered on probing the boundary of quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling. The same type of Majorana zero mode can also be realized at crystalline dislocations in 2D superconductors with the nontrivial weak topological indices. Unlike at an Abrikosov vortex, at such a dislocation, there is no other low-lying midgap state than the Majorana zero mode so that it avoids usual complications encountered in experimental detections such as scanning tunneling microscope (STM) measurements. We will show that, using the anisotropic dispersion of the t2g orbitals of Ti or Ta atoms, such a weak topological superconductivity can be realized when the surface two-dimensional electronic gas (2DEG) of SrTiO3 or KTaO3 becomes superconducting, which can occur through either intrinsic pairing or proximity to existing s-wave superconductors.

  12. Giant magnetic quadrupole resonance studied with 180 deg. electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann-Cosel, P V

    1999-01-01

    The nuclei sup 4 sup 8 Ca and sup 9 sup 0 Zr were investigated in 180 deg. high-resolution inelastic electron scattering for momentum transfers q approx =0.35-0.8 fm sup - sup 1. Complete M2 strength distributions could be extracted in both nuclei up to excitation energies of about 15 MeV utilizing a fluctuation analysis technique. Second-RPA calculations successfully describe the experimentally observed strong fragmentation of the M2 mode. The quenching of the spin part is found to be comparable to the M1 case, contrary to previous claims suggesting a stronger reduction. A quantitative reproduction of the data requires the presence of appreciable orbital strength which can be interpreted as a torsional elastic vibration (the so-called twist mode).

  13. Laicità: finitezza degli ordini e governo delle differenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colaianni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Testo della relazione al Convegno Nazionale dell’ADEC sul tema “Per una disciplina che cambia. Il diritto canonico e il diritto ecclesiastico nel tempo presente” (Bologna, 7-9 novembre 2013, destinata alla pubblicazione negli Atti del Convegno. Contributo non sottoposto a valutazioneSOMMARIO: 1. La laicità dei giudici – 2. La laicità dei giuristi – 3. Né regola né valore: un principio – 4. La finitezza degli ordini distinti: dalle materie miste alla sfera dell’indecidibile – 5. L’aconfessionalità sostanziale: a ex parte ecclesiae – 6. (segue: b ex parte status – 7. La laicità come governance delle differenze.

  14. LA FORMAZIONE DEGLI ETNICI NELLA RIFLESSIONE LINGUISTICA DI FRANCESCO CHERUBINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Guerini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo si propone di fornire una descrizione della struttura del Vocabolario Patronimico di Francesco Cherubini e delle fonti empiriche consultate per la sua compilazione. Si accennerà poi a due questioni ricorrenti nel dibattito sulla formazione degli etnici in italiano, ovvero, la presenza di varianti allomorfiche o suppletive, e la motivazione morfo-pragmatica sottesa all’impiego di alcuni suffissi derivativi nella formazione di etnici e aggettivi deonomastici, cercando di chiarire quale attenzione tali tematiche abbiano ricevuto nella riflessione linguistica di Francesco Cherubini. Si formuleranno infine alcune osservazioni conclusive, evidenziando luci ed ombre del Vocabolario Patronimico e sottolineando alcuni degli spunti che tale opera ancora può offrire agli studiosi contemporanei. The formation of ethnic words in Francesco Cherubini’s reflection on language  The aim of this paper is to describe the structure and contents of Francesco Cherubini’s Vocabolario Patronimico, as well as the empirical sources consulted for its compilation. We will address two of the most common issues in the debate on the formation of ethnic nouns and adjectives in Italian, namely the existence of allomorphs and supplementary variants, and the morpho-pragmatic motivation displayed by some of the derivative suffixes occurring in ethnic nouns and adjectives derived from both personal and place names. We will offer a few observations on the place occupied by the above-mentioned issues in Cherubini’s thought and, by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the Vocabolario Patronimico, we will draw attention to a few topics which may be of some interest to contemporary scholars.

  15. A Rad53 independent function of Rad9 becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of the Recq helicase Sgs1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nielsen

    Full Text Available The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response to MMS-induced damage. Specifically, we show a strong synergistic functionality between SGS1 and RAD9 for recovery from MMS induced damage and for suppression of gross chromosomal rearrangements, which is not the case for SGS1 and RAD24. Intriguingly, it is a Rad53 independent function of Rad9, which becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of Sgs1. Despite this, our dissection of the MMS checkpoint response reveals parallel, but unequal pathways for Rad53 activation and highlights significant differences between MMS- and hydroxyurea (HU-induced checkpoint responses with relation to the requirement of the Sgs1 interacting partner Topoisomerase III (Top3. Thus, whereas earlier studies have documented a Top3-independent role of Sgs1 for an HU-induced checkpoint response, we show here that upon MMS treatment, Sgs1 and Top3 together define a minor but parallel pathway to that of Rad9.

  16. Ensemble inequivalence: Landau theory and the ABC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, O.; Mukamel, D.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that systems with long-range interactions may exhibit different phase diagrams when studied within two different ensembles. In many of the previously studied examples of ensemble inequivalence, the phase diagrams differ only when the transition in one of the ensembles is first order. By contrast, in a recent study of a generalized ABC model, the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles of the model were shown to differ even when they both exhibit a continuous transition. Here we show that the order of the transition where ensemble inequivalence may occur is related to the symmetry properties of the order parameter associated with the transition. This is done by analyzing the Landau expansion of a generic model with long-range interactions. The conclusions drawn from the generic analysis are demonstrated for the ABC model by explicit calculation of its Landau expansion.

  17. ABC Transporters and the Alzheimer’s Disease Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eWolf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is considered the disease of the 21st century. With a 10-fold increase in global incidence over the past 100 years, AD is now reaching epidemic proportions and by all projections, AD patient numbers will continue to rise. Despite intense research efforts, AD remains a mystery and effective therapies are still unavailable. This represents an unmet need resulting in clinical, social, and economic problems.Over the last decade, a new AD research focus has emerged: ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. In this article, we provide an overview of the ABC transporters ABCA1, ABCA2, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, Mrp1 (ABCC1 and BCRP (ABCG2, all of which are expressed in the brain and have been implicated in AD. We summarize recent findings on the role of these five transporters in AD, and discuss their potential to serve as therapeutic targets.

  18. Arnold Diffusion of Charged Particles in ABC Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro; Peralta-Salas, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    We prove the existence of diffusing solutions in the motion of a charged particle in the presence of ABC magnetic fields. The equations of motion are modeled by a 3DOF Hamiltonian system depending on two parameters. For small values of these parameters, we obtain a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold and we apply the so-called geometric methods for a priori unstable systems developed by A. Delshams, R. de la Llave and T.M. Seara. We characterize explicitly sufficient conditions for the existence of a transition chain of invariant tori having heteroclinic connections, thus obtaining global instability (Arnold diffusion). We also check the obtained conditions in a computer-assisted proof. ABC magnetic fields are the simplest force-free-type solutions of the magnetohydrodynamics equations with periodic boundary conditions, and can be considered as an elementary model for the motion of plasma-charged particles in a tokamak.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ABC COSTING IN A SERVICES PROVIDER COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo Aguena Jacintho Gil de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of the Activity-Based Cost (ABC method in a company of taxes and accounting services and outlines the positive and negative aspects encountered during implementation. It should be taken into account that this work has been developed in the fiscal area of cost verification. Bibliographical references, internal company documents and interviews with industry officials and the administrator responsible for the company were used. In the evolving of operations, the costs of the fiscal area and their main activities have been described monthly and through this information, drivers have been developed and the ABC (Activity-Based Costing method has been adopted. With the implementation it became clear that the system provides better visualization for the decision making process, it also provided learning for the company, so that the method should be used for an undetermined period of time.

  20. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  1. The ABC of Simulation Estimation with Auxiliary Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Forneron, Jean-Jacques; Ng, Serena

    2015-01-01

    The frequentist method of simulated minimum distance (SMD) is widely used in economics to estimate complex models with an intractable likelihood. In other disciplines, a Bayesian approach known as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) is far more popular. This paper connects these two seemingly related approaches to likelihood-free estimation by means of a Reverse Sampler that uses both optimization and importance weighting to target the posterior distribution. Its hybrid features enable us ...

  2. ABC Effect in Double-Pionic Fusion - a New Resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricking, A.; Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Perez del Rio, E.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    ABC effect, an intriguing low-mass enhancement in the ππ invariant mass spectrum — known since more than 50 years from inclusive measurements of double-pionic fusion reactions — is reexamined. To this end exclusive and kinematically complete high-statistics experiments of the fusion reactions to d, 3He and 4He have been carried out with WASA at COSY. These measurements cover the full energy region, where the ABC effect has been observed previously. They also complement the systematic measurements of nucleon-nucleon induced two-pion production. An isospin decomposition of all three basic double-pionic fusion reactions leading to the deuteron uniquely shows that solely the isoscalar reaction part exhibits the ABC effect tightly correlated with a narrow resonance structure in the total cross section. The peak energy of the resonance structure is about 90 MeV below the nominal ΔΔ threshold of 2 mΔ and its width of only 70 MeV is much less than the 2 ГΔ expected from the conventional t-channel ΔΔ process. Based on angular distributions the quantum numbers I(JP) = 0(3+) have been assigned. In the double-pionic fusion reaction dd→4Heπ0π0 again the ABC effect is observed to be correlated with the appearance of a resonance-like structure in the total cross section at the same excess energy. From this we conclude that this resonance structure obviously is strong enough to survive even in nuclei.

  3. Design of net-charged abc-type collagen heterotrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Avanish S.; Zahid, Sohail; Belure, Sandeep V.; Young, Robert; Hasan, Nida; Nanda, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Net-negatively-charged heterospecific A:B:C collagen peptide heterotrimers were designed using an automated computational approach. The design algorithm considers both target stability and the energy gap between the target states and misfolded competing states. Structural characterization indicates the net-negative charge balance on the new designs enhances the specificity of the target state at the expense of its stability. PMID:23603270

  4. Conservation and distribution of the benzalkonium chloride resistance cassette bcrABC in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Vikrant; Elhanafi, Driss; Kathariou, Sophia

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of a panel of 116 Listeria monocytogenes strains of diverse serotypes and sources (clinical, environment of food processing plants, and food) revealed that all but one of the 71 benzalkonium chloride-resistant (BC(r)) isolates harbored bcrABC, previously identified on a large plasmid (pLM80) of the 1998-1999 hot dog outbreak strain H7858. In contrast, bcrABC was not detected among BC-susceptible (BC(s)) isolates. The bcrABC sequences were highly conserved among strains of different serotypes, but variability was noted in sequences flanking bcrABC. The majority of the BC(r) isolates had either the pLM80-type of organization of the bcrABC region or appeared to harbor bcrABC on the chromosome, adjacent to novel sequences. Transcription of bcrABC was induced by BC (10 μg/ml) in strains of different serotypes and diverse bcrABC region organization. These findings reveal widespread dissemination of bcrABC across BC(r) L. monocytogenes strains regardless of serotype and source, while also suggesting possible mechanisms of bcrABC dissemination across L. monocytogenes genomes.

  5. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloatti, L., E-mail: alloatti@mit.edu; Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Froelich, A.; Wegener, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Frenzel, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freude, W. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leuthold, J.; Koos, C., E-mail: christian.koos@kit.edu [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  6. ABC and VED Analysis in Medical Stores Inventory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Gupta, K K; Jain, B R; Garg, R K

    2007-10-01

    The basic principle of inventory control is ABC based on cost criteria and VED on criticality. Based on ABC-VED matrix, economic analysis of drug expenditure of priced vocabulary of medical stores (PVMS) section 01 for the year 2003 of a 190 bedded service hospital was under taken. Out of 493 drugs in PVMS section 01, only 325 drugs were being used in the reference hospital. The total cost of drugs used was Rupees 55,23,503. Of these 325 drugs, 47(14.4%) drugs were Category A, consuming 70% of total expenditure, 73 (22.46 %) drugs Category B consuming 20% and rest 205 drugs (63.7 %) Category C drugs cost only 10% of expenditure. VED categorization done by consensus opinion of medical officers, found 24 (7.3%) drugs vital, 160 (49.3%) essential and rest 141 (43.3 %) desirable. On coupling the two techniques ABC-VED matrix was made and drugs were classified in to Category I (AV+BV+CV+AE+AD) comprising 68 drugs, Category II (BE + CE +BD) 159 and Category III (CD) 98 drugs. The management of Category I drugs was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital Category II by middle and Category III at lower mangerial level.

  7. High-level assessment of LANL ABC Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-15

    An annual weapon`s grade Pu disposition goal should be stated and related to the amount of Pu that needs to be disposed of. It needs to be determined to what extent it is possible to destroy Pu without building up any new Pu, i.e., how realistic this goal is. The strong positive Doppler coefficient for a Pu core might require the addition of some fertile material to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient. This in turn will affect the net Pu disposition rate. If a fertile material is required throughout the life of the ABC to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient, the difference between the molten salt ABC and other reactors in regard to Pu disposition is not a principled difference anymore but one of degree. A rationale has then to be developed that explains why {open_quotes}x{close_quotes} kg production of fissile material are acceptable but {open_quotes}y{close_quotes} kg are not. It is important to determine how a requirement for electricity production will impact on the ABC design choices. It is conceivable that DOE will not insist on electricity generation. In this case advantage has to be taken in terms of design simplifications and relaxed operating conditions.

  8. Mek1 Down Regulates Rad51 Activity during Yeast Meiosis by Phosphorylation of Hed1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Tracy L; Laureau, Raphaelle; Wan, Lihong; Chen, Xiangyu; Sandhu, Rima; Laljee, Saif; Zhou, Sai; Suhandynata, Ray T; Prugar, Evelyn; Gaines, William A; Kwon, YoungHo; Börner, G Valentin; Nicolas, Alain; Neiman, Aaron M; Hollingsworth, Nancy M

    2016-08-01

    During meiosis, programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired preferentially between homologs to generate crossovers that promote proper chromosome segregation at Meiosis I. In many organisms, there are two strand exchange proteins, Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1, required for interhomolog (IH) bias. This bias requires the presence, but not the strand exchange activity of Rad51, while Dmc1 is responsible for the bulk of meiotic recombination. How these activities are regulated is less well established. In dmc1Δ mutants, Rad51 is actively inhibited, thereby resulting in prophase arrest due to unrepaired DSBs triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. This inhibition is dependent upon the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1 and occurs through two different mechanisms that prevent complex formation with the Rad51 accessory factor Rad54: (i) phosphorylation of Rad54 by Mek1 and (ii) binding of Rad51 by the meiosis-specific protein Hed1. An open question has been why inhibition of Mek1 affects Hed1 repression of Rad51. This work shows that Hed1 is a direct substrate of Mek1. Phosphorylation of Hed1 at threonine 40 helps suppress Rad51 activity in dmc1Δ mutants by promoting Hed1 protein stability. Rad51-mediated recombination occurring in the absence of Hed1 phosphorylation results in a significant increase in non-exchange chromosomes despite wild-type levels of crossovers, confirming previous results indicating a defect in crossover assurance. We propose that Rad51 function in meiosis is regulated in part by the coordinated phosphorylation of Rad54 and Hed1 by Mek1.

  9. Mek1 Down Regulates Rad51 Activity during Yeast Meiosis by Phosphorylation of Hed1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Callender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis, programmed double strand breaks (DSBs are repaired preferentially between homologs to generate crossovers that promote proper chromosome segregation at Meiosis I. In many organisms, there are two strand exchange proteins, Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1, required for interhomolog (IH bias. This bias requires the presence, but not the strand exchange activity of Rad51, while Dmc1 is responsible for the bulk of meiotic recombination. How these activities are regulated is less well established. In dmc1Δ mutants, Rad51 is actively inhibited, thereby resulting in prophase arrest due to unrepaired DSBs triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. This inhibition is dependent upon the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1 and occurs through two different mechanisms that prevent complex formation with the Rad51 accessory factor Rad54: (i phosphorylation of Rad54 by Mek1 and (ii binding of Rad51 by the meiosis-specific protein Hed1. An open question has been why inhibition of Mek1 affects Hed1 repression of Rad51. This work shows that Hed1 is a direct substrate of Mek1. Phosphorylation of Hed1 at threonine 40 helps suppress Rad51 activity in dmc1Δ mutants by promoting Hed1 protein stability. Rad51-mediated recombination occurring in the absence of Hed1 phosphorylation results in a significant increase in non-exchange chromosomes despite wild-type levels of crossovers, confirming previous results indicating a defect in crossover assurance. We propose that Rad51 function in meiosis is regulated in part by the coordinated phosphorylation of Rad54 and Hed1 by Mek1.

  10. RadMAP: The Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Mark S.; Aucott, Timothy J.; Brubaker, Erik; Chivers, Daniel H.; Cooper, Reynold J.; Curtis, Joseph C.; Davis, John R.; Joshi, Tenzing H.; Kua, John; Meyer, Ross; Negut, Victor; Quinlan, Michael; Quiter, Brian J.; Srinivasan, Shreyas; Zakhor, Avideh; Zhang, Richard; Vetter, Kai

    2016-12-01

    The variability of gamma-ray and neutron background during the operation of a mobile detector system greatly limits the ability of the system to detect weak radiological and nuclear threats. The natural radiation background measured by a mobile detector system is the result of many factors, including the radioactivity of nearby materials, the geometric configuration of those materials and the system, the presence of absorbing materials, and atmospheric conditions. Background variations tend to be highly non-Poissonian, making it difficult to set robust detection thresholds using knowledge of the mean background rate alone. The Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP) system is designed to allow the systematic study of natural radiological background variations and to serve as a development platform for emerging concepts in mobile radiation detection and imaging. To do this, RadMAP has been used to acquire extensive, systematic background measurements and correlated contextual data that can be used to test algorithms and detector modalities at low false alarm rates. By combining gamma-ray and neutron detector systems with data from contextual sensors, the system enables the fusion of data from multiple sensors into novel data products. The data are curated in a common format that allows for rapid querying across all sensors, creating detailed multi-sensor datasets that are used to study correlations between radiological and contextual data, and develop and test novel techniques in mobile detection and imaging. In this paper we will describe the instruments that comprise the RadMAP system, the effort to curate and provide access to multi-sensor data, and some initial results on the fusion of contextual and radiological data.

  11. RAD52 Facilitates Mitotic DNA Synthesis Following Replication Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmick, Rahul; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Hickson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is necessary to counteract DNA replication stress. Common fragile site (CFS) loci are particularly sensitive to replication stress and undergo pathological rearrangements in tumors. At these loci, replication stress frequently activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis....... This mitotic DNA synthesis, termed MiDAS, requires the MUS81-EME1 endonuclease and a non-catalytic subunit of the Pol-delta complex, POLD3. Here, we examine the contribution of HR factors in promoting MiDAS in human cells. We report that RAD51 and BRCA2 are dispensable for MiDAS but are required to counteract...

  12. Rapid and cost-effective polymorphism identification and genotyping using restriction site associated DNA (RAD) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R; Dunham, Joseph P; Amores, Angel; Cresko, William A; Johnson, Eric A

    2007-02-01

    Restriction site associated DNA (RAD) tags are a genome-wide representation of every site of a particular restriction enzyme by short DNA tags. Most organisms segregate large numbers of DNA sequence polymorphisms that disrupt restriction sites, which allows RAD tags to serve as genetic markers spread at a high density throughout the genome. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of RAD markers for both individual and bulk-segregant genotyping. First, we show that these markers can be identified and typed on pre-existing microarray formats. Second, we present a method that uses RAD marker DNA to rapidly produce a low-cost microarray genotyping resource that can be used to efficiently identify and type thousands of RAD markers. We demonstrate the utility of the former approach by using a tiling path array for the fruit fly to map a recombination breakpoint, and the latter approach by creating and using an enriched RAD marker array for the threespine stickleback. The high number of RAD markers enabled localization of a previously identified region, as well as a second region also associated with the lateral plate phenotype. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RAD markers, and the method to develop a RAD marker microarray resource, allow high-throughput, high-resolution genotyping in both model and nonmodel systems.

  13. Functional and Physical Interaction between Rad24 and Rfc5 in the Yeast Checkpoint Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shimomura, Toshiyasu; Ando, Seiko; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    1998-01-01

    The RFC5 gene encodes a small subunit of replication factor C (RFC) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been shown to be required for the checkpoints which respond to replication block and DNA damage. Here we describe the isolation of RAD24, known to play a role in the DNA damage checkpoint, as a dosage-dependent suppressor of rfc5-1. RAD24 overexpression suppresses the sensitivity of rfc5-1 cells to DNA-damaging agents and the defect in DNA damage-induced Rad53 phosphorylation. Rad24...

  14. Structure of the single-strand annealing domain of human RAD52 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Singleton, Martin R.; Wentzell, Lois M.; Liu, Yilun; West, Stephen C.; Wigley, Dale B.

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RAD52 protein plays a central role in genetic recombination and DNA repair by (i) promoting the annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA and (ii) stimulation of the RAD51 recombinase. The single-strand annealing domain resides in the N-terminal region of the protein and is highly conserved, whereas the nonconserved RAD51-interaction domain is located in the C-terminal region. An N-terminal fragment of human RAD52 (residues 1–209) has been purified to homogeneity and...

  15. The epistatic relationship between BRCA2 and the other RAD51 mediators in homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available RAD51 recombinase polymerizes at the site of double-strand breaks (DSBs where it performs DSB repair. The loss of RAD51 causes extensive chromosomal breaks, leading to apoptosis. The polymerization of RAD51 is regulated by a number of RAD51 mediators, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD52, SFR1, SWS1, and the five RAD51 paralogs, including XRCC3. We here show that brca2-null mutant cells were able to proliferate, indicating that RAD51 can perform DSB repair in the absence of BRCA2. We disrupted the BRCA1, RAD52, SFR1, SWS1, and XRCC3 genes in the brca2-null cells. All the resulting double-mutant cells displayed a phenotype that was very similar to that of the brca2-null cells. We suggest that BRCA2 might thus serve as a platform to recruit various RAD51 mediators at the appropriate position at the DNA-damage site.

  16. A mRad51-GFP antimorphic allele affects homologous recombination and DNA damage sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uringa, Evert-Jan; Baldeyron, Céline; Odijk, Hanny; Wassenaar, Evelyne; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; Maas, Alex; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Baarends, Willy M; Kanaar, Roland; Essers, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Accurate DNA double-strand break repair through homologous recombination is essential for preserving genome integrity. Disruption of the gene encoding RAD51, the protein that catalyzes DNA strand exchange during homologous recombination, results in lethality of mammalian cells. Proteins required for homologous recombination, also play an important role during DNA replication. To explore the role of RAD51 in DNA replication and DSB repair, we used a knock-in strategy to express a carboxy-terminal fusion of green fluorescent protein to mouse RAD51 (mRAD51-GFP) in mouse embryonic stem cells. Compared to wild-type cells, heterozygous mRad51(+/wt-GFP) embryonic stem cells showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and mitomycin C. Moreover, gene targeting was found to be severely impaired in mRad51(+/wt-GFP) embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we found that mRAD51-GFP foci were not stably associated with chromatin. From these experiments we conclude that this mRad51-GFP allele is an antimorphic allele. When this allele is present in a heterozygous condition over wild-type mRad51, embryonic stem cells are proficient in DNA replication but display defects in homologous recombination and DNA damage repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular localization of mitotic RAD21 with repetitive amino acid motifs in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Go; Nishiuchi, Chikage; Tsuru, Asami; Kako, Eri; Li, Jian; Yamamoto, Maki; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    2013-02-10

    Onion can be used in experimental observation of mitotic cell division in plant science because its chromosome is large and easy to observe. However, molecular genetic studies are difficult in onion because of its large genome size, and only limited information of onion genes has been available to date. Here we cloned and characterized an onion homologue of mitotic RAD21 gene, AcRAD21-1, to develop a molecular marker of mitosis. The N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of deduced AcRAD21-1 protein sequence were conserved with Arabidopsis SYN4/AtRAD21.3 and rice OsRAD21-1, whereas three characteristic types of repetitive motifs (Repeat-1, Repeat-2/2', and Repeat-3) were observed between the conserved regions. Such inserted repetitive amino acid sequences enlarge the AcRAD21-1 protein into almost 200 kDa, which belongs to the largest class of plant proteins. Genomic organization of the AcRAD21-1 locus was also determined, and the possibility of tandem exon duplication in Repeat-2 was revealed. Subsequently, the polyclonal antiserum was raised against the N-terminal region of AcRAD21-1, and purified by affinity chromatography. Immunohistochemical analysis with the purified antibody successfully showed localization of AcRAD21-1 in onion mitosis, suggesting that it can be used as a molecular marker visualizing dynamic movement of cohesin.

  18. ATP-driven Rad50 conformations regulate DNA tethering, end resection, and ATM checkpoint signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Rajashree A; Williams, Gareth J; Limbo, Oliver; Williams, R Scott; Kuhnlein, Jeff; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Classen, Scott; Guenther, Grant; Russell, Paul; Tainer, John A; Paull, Tanya T

    2014-03-03

    The Mre11-Rad50 complex is highly conserved, yet the mechanisms by which Rad50 ATP-driven states regulate the sensing, processing and signaling of DNA double-strand breaks are largely unknown. Here we design structure-based mutations in Pyrococcus furiosus Rad50 to alter protein core plasticity and residues undergoing ATP-driven movements within the catalytic domains. With this strategy we identify Rad50 separation-of-function mutants that either promote or destabilize the ATP-bound state. Crystal structures, X-ray scattering, biochemical assays, and functional analyses of mutant PfRad50 complexes show that the ATP-induced 'closed' conformation promotes DNA end binding and end tethering, while hydrolysis-induced opening is essential for DNA resection. Reducing the stability of the ATP-bound state impairs DNA repair and Tel1 (ATM) checkpoint signaling in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, double-strand break resection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and ATM activation by human Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 in vitro, supporting the generality of the P. furiosus Rad50 structure-based mutational analyses. These collective results suggest that ATP-dependent Rad50 conformations switch the Mre11-Rad50 complex between DNA tethering, ATM signaling, and 5' strand resection, revealing molecular mechanisms regulating responses to DNA double-strand breaks.

  19. Regulated expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD7 in response to DNA damage and during sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J S; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1990-06-11

    The RAD7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects the proficiency of excision repair of DNA damaged by UV light. Here, we report our studies on the regulation of the RAD7 gene in response to UV irradiation and during sporulation. RAD7 transcript levels increased 6-fold within 40 min of exposure of cells to 37 J/m2 of UV light. Higher UV doses also elicited rapid increases in the level of RAD7 mRNA. RAD7 mRNA levels increased in sporulating MATa/MAT alpha diploid cells, but not in the asporogenous MATa/MATa strain exposed to sporulation conditions. The increase in RAD7 mRNA level in MATa/MAT alpha cells was 15-fold after 6 h and 9-fold after 7 h in sporulation medium; thereafter, RAD7 mRNA levels declined. Periodic transcription of RAD7 during sporulation suggests a role for RAD7 in this process.

  20. Role of teh Rad52 Amino-terminal DNA Binding Activity in DNA Strand Capture in Homologous Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Idina; Hallwyl, Swee Chuang Lim; Seong, Changhyun

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein promotes homologous recombination by nucleating the Rad51 recombinase onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA strands and also by directly annealing such strands. We show that the purified rad52-R70A mutant protein, with a compromised amino...... conversion intermediates reveals that rad52-R70A cells can mediate DNA strand invasion but are unable to complete the recombination event. These results provide evidence that DNA binding by the evolutionarily conserved amino terminus of Rad52 is needed for the capture of the second DNA end during homologous......-terminal DNA binding domain, is capable of Rad51 delivery to DNA but is deficient in DNA annealing. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments find that rad52-R70A associates with DNA double-strand breaks and promotes recruitment of Rad51 as efficiently as wild-type Rad52. Analysis of gene...

  1. A 360-deg Digital Image Correlation system for materials testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, K.; Cortese, L.; Rossi, M.; Amodio, D.

    2016-07-01

    The increasing research interest toward natural and advanced engineered materials demands new experimental protocols capable of retrieving highly dense sets of experimental data on the full-surface of samples under multiple loading conditions. Such information, in fact, would allow to capture the possible heterogeneity and anisotropy of the material by using up-to-date inverse characterization methods. Although the development of object-specific test protocols could represent the optimal choice to address this need, it is unquestionable that universal testing machines (UTM) remain the most widespread and versatile option to test materials and components in both academic and industrial contexts. A major limitation of performing standard material tests with UTM, however, consists in the scarce information obtainable with the commonly associated sensors since they provide only global (LVDTs, extensometers, 2D-video analyzers) or local (strain gages) measures of displacement and strain. This paper presents a 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system developed to perform highly accurate full-surface 360-deg measurements on either standard or custom-shaped samples under complex loading within universal testing machines. To this aim, a low cost and easy to setup video rig was specifically designed to overcome the practical limitations entailed with the integration of a multi-camera system within an already existing loading frame. In particular, the proposed system features a single SLR digital camera moved through multiple positions around the specimen by means of a large rotation stage. A proper calibration and data-processing procedure allows to automatically merge the experimental data obtained from the multiple views with an accuracy of 10-2 m m . The results of a full benchmarking of the metrological performances of the system are here reported and discussed together with illustrative examples of full-360-deg shape and deformation measurements on a Grade X65 steel

  2. Differential roles of XRCC2 in S-phase RAD51 focus formation induced by DNA replication inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, C; Liu, N

    2004-05-14

    RAD51 proteins accumulate in discrete nuclear foci in response to DNA damage. Previous studies demonstrated that human RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3) are essential for the assembly of RAD51 foci induced by ionizing radiation and cross-linking agents. Here we report that XRCC2 also plays important roles in RAD51 focus formation induced by replication arrest during S-phase of cell cycle. In wild-type hamster V79 cells treated with hydroxyurea (HU), RAD51 protein form punctuate nuclear foci, accompanied by increased RAD51 protein level in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions, and increased association of RAD51 with chromatin. In contrast, xrcc2 hamster mutant irs1 cells are deficient in the formation of RAD51 foci after HU treatment, suggesting that the function of XRCC2 is required for the assembly of RAD51 at HU-induced stalled replication forks. Interestingly, we found that irs1 cells are able to form intact RAD51 foci in S-phase cells treated with thymidine (TR) or aphidicolin, although irs1 cells are hypersensitive to both HU and TR. Our findings suggest that there may be two distinct pathways (XRCC2-dependent or XRCC2-independent) involved in loading of RAD51 onto stalled replication forks, probably depending upon the structure of DNA lesions.

  3. Object Detection Based on Template Matching through Use of Best-So-Far ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Banharnsakun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-so-far ABC is a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm used for optimization tasks. This algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence (SI algorithms proposed in recent literature, in which the results demonstrated that the best-so-far ABC can produce higher quality solutions with faster convergence than either the ordinary ABC or the current state-of-the-art ABC-based algorithm. In this work, we aim to apply the best-so-far ABC-based approach for object detection based on template matching by using the difference between the RGB level histograms corresponding to the target object and the template object as the objective function. Results confirm that the proposed method was successful in both detecting objects and optimizing the time used to reach the solution.

  4. COSMOS Photometric Redshifts with 30-bands for 2-deg2

    CERN Document Server

    Ilbert, O; Salvato, M; Aussel, H; McCracken, H J; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Kartaltepe, J; Arnouts, S; Le Floc'h, E; Mobasher, B; Taniguchi, Y; Lamareille, F; Leauthaud, A; Sasaki, S; Thompson, D; Zamojski, M; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Caputi, K I; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Cook, R; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Hasinger, G; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S; Looper, D; Maier, C; Mainieri, V; Mellier, Y; Mignoli, M; Murayama, T; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Renzini, A; Ricciardelli, E; Schiminovich, D; Scodeggio, M; Shioya, Y; Silverman, Joseph; Surace, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2008-01-01

    We present accurate photometric redshifts in the 2-deg2 COSMOS field. The redshifts are computed with 30 broad, intermediate, and narrow bands covering the UV (GALEX), Visible-NIR (Subaru, CFHT, UKIRT and NOAO) and mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC). A chi2 template-fitting method (Le Phare) was used and calibrated with large spectroscopic samples from VLT-VIMOS and Keck-DEIMOS. We develop and implement a new method which accounts for the contributions from emission lines (OII, Hbeta, Halpha and Ly) to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The treatment of emission lines improves the photo-z accuracy by a factor of 2.5. Comparison of the derived photo-z with 4148 spectroscopic redshifts (i.e. Delta z = zs - zp) indicates a dispersion of sigma_{Delta z/(1+zs)}=0.007 at i<22.5, a factor of 2-6 times more accurate than earlier photo-z in the COSMOS, CFHTLS and COMBO-17 survey fields. At fainter magnitudes i<24 and z<1.25, the accuracy is sigma_{Delta z/(1+zs)}=0.012. The deep NIR and IRAC coverage enables the ph...

  5. LE ZANZARE ITALIANE: GENERALITÀ E IDENTIFICAZIONE DEGLI ADULTI (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Severini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente lavoro vengono riportate le informazioni essenziali su tassonomia e biologia nonché sugli aspetti ecologici degli adulti dei Culicidi italiani. Attualmente la fauna culicidica italiana comprende 64 specie appartenenti a 2 sottofamiglie e 8 generi. Alla sottofamiglia Anophelinae appartiene soltanto il genere Anopheles, presente con 16 specie raggruppate in due sottogeneri. Alla sottofamiglia Culicinae appartengono i rimanenti 7 generi: Aedes con 6 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Coquillettidia con 2 specie, Ochlerotatus con 20 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Culex con 12 specie raggruppate in 4 sottogeneri, Culiseta con 6 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Orthopodomyia e Uranotaenia con una specie ognuna. In questo contesto vengono fornite le chiavi di identificazione specifica per le zanzare adulte, in italiano e in inglese. Le chiavi sono corredate da un’ampia iconografia (figure 1-75. Alle chiavi fa seguito la diagnosi morfologica dell’adulto di ogni specie con note sulla relativa biologia e distribuzione. Per ulteriori approfondimenti viene riportata la bibliografia completa sulle zanzare della fauna italiana dal 1960 ed i precedenti lavori più autorevoli.

  6. Come e cosa desidera la narrativa italiana degli anni Zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Simonetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo analizza il trattamento del tema del desiderio - erotico e amoroso - nel romanzo italiano degli ultimi anni, impegnandosi nell'esame ravvicinato di alcuni testi esemplari. La campionatura vuole da un lato isolare alcune opere rappresentative della situazione attuale della narrativa contemporanea, dall'altro  proporre un'ipotesi categoriale che seziona il campo di studio in tre parti; il sondaggio sembra infatti suggerire che le dinamiche del desiderio vengono rese in maniera specifica nei diversi ambiti della letteratura di consumo, in quella di 'nobile intrattenimento' e in quella 'forte' e letterariamente più ambiziosa. L'analisi formale risulta insomma integrata a una prospettiva di stroria dello stile, secondo un metodo che permette di utilizzare la figuralità letteraria come 'indicatore sociologico' di processi politici (e forse antropologici in atto.

  7. Le caratteristiche degli acquirenti e venditori di abitazioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ghiraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’incrocio dei dati contenuti nelle dichiarazioni dei redditi con quelli contenuti negli archivi della Pubblicità Immobiliare (ex Conservatorie rende disponibili molte informazioni sulle caratteristiche dei contraenti che hanno effettuato una compravendita di unità immobiliari. Considerando principalmente le compravendite di unità immobiliari del settore residenziale effettuate da persone fisiche sono trattate informazioni sul reddito dichiarato al fisco, l’età e l’attività di lavoro prevalente. È fornito un quadro sintetico della distribuzione delle compravendite, in termini di Numero di Transazioni Normalizzate (NTN e per dimensione delle abitazioni, per ciascuna caratteristica sia per gli acquirenti che per i venditori. La disponibilità dell’informazione sulla residenza dei soggetti consente, inoltre, di condurre un’analisi sulla provenienza degli acquirenti rispetto al luogo di ubicazione dell’immobile compravenduto. E’ possibile così analizzare la composizione del mercato distinguendo la quota di acquisti imputabile a soggetti residenti nello stesso Comune di ubicazione dell’immobile (mercato comunale dalla quota alimentata da soggetti residenti in altro Comune di una stessa provincia (mercato infraprovinciale o di altra provincia (mercato extra-provinciale. Quest’ultima indagine risulta molto interessante se effettuata su singole città. Sono, quindi, riportati i risultati dell’analisi per i mercati delle città di Milano, Roma e Napoli.

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Protection Rad Neshaps Radionuclide Inventory Web Database and Rad Neshaps Source and Dose Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Patricia A; Smith, Linda L; Johnson, David N

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U.S. Department of Energy operations on Oak Ridge Reservation, combined, must meet the annual dose limit of 0.1 mSv. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are monitored sources and numerous unmonitored sources. To maintain radiological source and inventory information for these unmonitored sources, e.g., laboratory hoods, equipment exhausts, and room exhausts not currently venting to monitored stacks on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus, the Environmental Protection Rad NESHAPs Inventory Web Database was developed. This database is updated annually and is used to compile emissions data for the annual Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad NESHAPs) report required by 40 CFR 61.94. It also provides supporting documentation for facility compliance audits. In addition, a Rad NESHAPs source and dose database was developed to import the source and dose summary data from Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer model files. This database provides Oak Ridge Reservation and facility-specific source inventory; doses associated with each source and facility; and total doses for the Oak Ridge Reservation dose.

  9. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gadsby, David C.; Vergani, Paola; Csanády, László

    2006-01-01

    CFTR chloride channels are encoded by the gene mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. These channels belong to the superfamily of ABC transporter ATPases. ATP-driven conformational changes, which in other ABC proteins fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes, in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. New structural and biochemical information from prokaryotic ABC proteins and functional information from CFTR ch...

  10. Creating an iPhone application for collecting continuous ABC data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data-collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to an e-mail account after observations have concluded. Further suggestions are provided to customize the ABC data- collection system for individual preferences and clinical needs.

  11. JPIC-Rad-Hard JPEG2000 Image Compression ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Nikos; Ginosar, Ran; Broyde, Amitai; Alon, Dov

    2010-08-01

    JPIC is a rad-hard high-performance image compression ASIC for the aerospace market. JPIC implements tier 1 of the ISO/IEC 15444-1 JPEG2000 (a.k.a. J2K) image compression standard [1] as well as the post compression rate-distortion algorithm, which is part of tier 2 coding. A modular architecture enables employing a single JPIC or multiple coordinated JPIC units. JPIC is designed to support wide data sources of imager in optical, panchromatic and multi-spectral space and airborne sensors. JPIC has been developed as a collaboration of Alma Technologies S.A. (Greece), MBT/IAI Ltd (Israel) and Ramon Chips Ltd (Israel). MBT IAI defined the system architecture requirements and interfaces, The JPEG2K-E IP core from Alma implements the compression algorithm [2]. Ramon Chips adds SERDES interfaces and host interfaces and integrates the ASIC. MBT has demonstrated the full chip on an FPGA board and created system boards employing multiple JPIC units. The ASIC implementation, based on Ramon Chips' 180nm CMOS RadSafe[TM] RH cell library enables superior radiation hardness.

  12. Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Thomson, Marian; Bodles, William J A; Crawford, Robert M M; Hunt, Harriet V; Featherstone, Alan Watson; Pellicer, Jaume; Buggs, Richard J A

    2013-06-01

    New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridization. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 66× short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) - a diploid that is the keystone woody species of subarctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present 100 bp PstI RAD markers for B. nana and closely related Betula tree species. Assembly of RAD markers in 15 individuals by alignment to the reference B. nana genome yielded 44-86k RAD loci per individual, whereas de novo RAD assembly yielded 64-121k loci per individual. Of the loci assembled by the de novo method, 3k homologous loci were found in all 15 individuals studied, and 35k in 10 or more individuals. Matching of RAD loci to RAD locus catalogues from the B. nana individual used for the reference genome showed similar numbers of matches from both methods of RAD locus assembly but indicated that the de novo RAD assembly method may overassemble some paralogous loci. In 12 individuals hetero-specific to B. nana 37-47k RAD loci matched a catalogue of RAD loci from the B. nana individual used for the reference genome, whereas 44-60k RAD loci aligned to the B. nana reference genome itself. We present a preliminary study of allele sharing among species, demonstrating the utility of the data for introgression studies and for the identification of species-specific alleles.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD27 complements its Escherichia coli homolog in damage repair but not mutation avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Gaku; Daigaku, Yasukazu; Nagata, Yuki; Ihara, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    In eukaryotes, the flap endonuclease of Rad27/Fen-1 is thought to play a critical role in lagging-strand DNA replication by removing ribonucleotides present at the 5' ends of Okazaki fragments, and in base excision repair by cleaving a 5' flap structure that may result during base excision repair. Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad27Delta mutants further display a repeat tract instability phenotype and a high rate of forward mutations to canavanine resistance that result from duplications of DNA sequence, indicating a role in mutation avoidance. Two conserved motifs in Rad27/Fen-1 show homology to the 5' --> 3' exonuclease domain of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. The strain defective in the 5' --> 3' exonuclease domain in DNA polymerase I shows essentially the same phenotype as the yeast rad27Delta strain. In this study, we expressed the yeast RAD27 gene in an E. coli strain lacking the 5' --> 3' exonuclease domain in DNA polymerase I in order to test whether eukaryotic RAD27/FEN-1 can complement the defect of its bacterial homolog. We found that the yeast Rad27 protein complements sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate in an E. coli mutant. On the other hand, Rad27 protein did not reduce the high rate of spontaneous mutagenesis in the E. coli tonB gene which results from duplication of DNA. These results indicate that the yeast Rad27 and E. coli 5' --> 3' exonuclease act on the same substrate. We argue that the lack of mutation avoidance of yeast RAD27 in E. coli results from a lack of interaction between the yeast Rad27 protein and the E. coli replication clamp (beta-clamp).

  14. Plant ABC transporters enable many unique aspects of a terrestrial plant's lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Jae-Ung; Song, Won-Yong; Hong, Daewoong

    2016-01-01

    processes and functions necessary for life on dry land. These results suggest that ABC transporters multiplied during evolution and assumed novel functions that allowed plants to adapt to terrestrial environmental conditions. Examining the literature on plant ABC transporters from this viewpoint led us......Terrestrial plants have two to four times more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes than other organisms, including their ancestral microalgae. Recent studies found that plants harboring mutations in these transporters exhibit dramatic phenotypes, many of which are related to developmental...... to propose that diverse ABC transporters enabled many unique and essential aspects of a terrestrial plant's lifestyle, by transporting various compounds across specific membranes of the plant....

  15. The BLAST View of the Star Forming Region in Aquila (ell=45deg,b=0deg)

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out the first general submillimeter analysis of the field towards GRSMC 45.46+0.05, a massive star forming region in Aquila. The deconvolved 6 deg^2 (3\\degree X 2\\degree) maps provided by BLAST in 2005 at 250, 350, and 500 micron were used to perform a preliminary characterization of the clump population previously investigated in the infrared, radio, and molecular maps. Interferometric CORNISH data at 4.8 GHz have also been used to characterize the Ultracompact HII regions (UCHIIRs) within the main clumps. By means of the BLAST maps we have produced an initial census of the submillimeter structures that will be observed by Herschel, several of which are known Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs). Our spectral energy distributions of the main clumps in the field, located at ~7 kpc, reveal an active population with temperatures of T~35-40 K and masses of ~10^3 Msun for a dust emissivity index beta=1.5. The clump evolutionary stages range from evolved sources, with extended HII regions and prominent IR ...

  16. A Rad53 Independent Function of Rad9 Becomes Crucial for Genome Maintenance in the Absence of the RecQ Helicase Sgs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ida; Bentsen, Iben Bach; Andersen, Anni Hangaard;

    2013-01-01

    The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses......, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between...... SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response...

  17. ATR, Claspin and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex regulate Chk1 and Cdc25A in the absence of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Syljuåsen, Randi G; Lukas, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    The ATR and Chk1 kinases are essential to maintain genomic integrity. ATR, with Claspin and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, activates Chk1 after DNA damage. Chk1-mediated phosphorylation of the Cdc25A phosphatase is required for the mammalian S-phase checkpoint. Here, we show that during physiological...... S phase the regulation of the Chk1-Cdc25A pathway depends on ATR, Claspin, Rad9, and Hus1. Human cells with chemically or genetically ablated ATR showed inhibition of Chk1-dependent phosphorylation of Cdc25A, and they accumulated Cdc25A without external DNA damage. Furthermore, si......RNA-mediated depletion of Claspin, Rad9 and Hus1 also stabilized Cdc25A. ATR ablation also inhibited the activatory phosphorylation of Chk1 on serine 345. Thus, the ATR-Chk1-Cdc25A pathway represents an integral part of physiological S-phase progression, and interference with this mechanism undermines viability...

  18. Polymorphisms of Homologous Recombination RAD51, RAD51B, XRCC2, and XRCC3 Genes and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nowacka-Zawisza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may induce individual variations in DNA repair capacity, which may in turn contribute to the risk of cancer developing. Homologous recombination repair (HRR plays a critical role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and protecting against carcinogenic factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prostate cancer risk and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes involved in HRR, that is, RAD51 (rs1801320 and rs1801321, RAD51B (rs10483813 and rs3784099, XRCC2 (rs3218536, and XRCC3 (rs861539. Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in 101 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and 216 age- and sex-matched controls. A significant relationship was detected between the RAD51 gene rs1801320 polymorphism and increased prostate cancer risk. Our results indicate that the RAD51 gene rs1801320 polymorphism may contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility in Poland.

  19. Polymorphisms of Homologous Recombination RAD51, RAD51B, XRCC2, and XRCC3 Genes and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Zawisza, Maria; Wiśnik, Ewelina; Wasilewski, Andrzej; Skowrońska, Milena; Forma, Ewa; Bryś, Magdalena; Różański, Waldemar; Krajewska, Wanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may induce individual variations in DNA repair capacity, which may in turn contribute to the risk of cancer developing. Homologous recombination repair (HRR) plays a critical role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and protecting against carcinogenic factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prostate cancer risk and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in HRR, that is, RAD51 (rs1801320 and rs1801321), RAD51B (rs10483813 and rs3784099), XRCC2 (rs3218536), and XRCC3 (rs861539). Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in 101 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and 216 age- and sex-matched controls. A significant relationship was detected between the RAD51 gene rs1801320 polymorphism and increased prostate cancer risk. Our results indicate that the RAD51 gene rs1801320 polymorphism may contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility in Poland. PMID:26339569

  20. 基于 ABC-LS的传感器节点定位算法%SENSOR NODE LOCALISATION ALGORITHM BASED ON ABC-LS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丽玲

    2015-01-01

    为了减少无线传感器网络节点的定位误差,提出一种人工蜂群算法(ABC)修正最小二乘(LS)定位误差的传感器节点定位算法( ABC-LS). 首先估计未知传感器节点与信标节点间距离,然后采用LS算法初步确定未知传感器节点位置,最后采用ABC算法对LS算法的节点定位误差进行修正,并采用仿真实验测试ABC-LS与其他节点定位算法的优劣. 结果表明,ABC-LS提高了无线传感器节点的定位精度.%In order to reduce the localisation error of wireless sensor network node, we propose a sensor node localisation algorithm ( ABC-LS), in which the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is used to correct least squares (LS) algorithm.First, the distance between unknown sensor node and anchor node is estimated;then the location of unknown sensor node is initially determined by LS algorithm;finally, ABC algorithm is used to correct the node localisation error of LS algorithm.The pros and cons of ABC-LS algorithm and other node localisation algorithms are tested by simulation experiment, the experimental results show that ABC-LS improves the localisation accuracy of wireless sensor node.

  1. A 189 MHz, 2400 deg{sup 2} POLARIZATION SURVEY WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 32-ELEMENT PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, G.; Greenhill, L. J.; De Oliveira-Costa, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Garden Street 60, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mitchell, D. A. [The University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Ord, S. M.; Arcus, W.; Arora, B. S. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Gaensler, B. M.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Wayth, R. B.; Lenc, E.; Briggs, F. H. [CAASTRO, 44 Rosenhill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Shankar, N. Udaya [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Williams, C. L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Barnes, D. G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Bowman, J. D. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Bunton, J. D. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, NSW (Australia); Cappallo, R. J., E-mail: gbernardi@cfa.harvard.edu [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (United States); and others

    2013-07-10

    We present a Stokes I, Q and U survey at 189 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array 32 element prototype covering 2400 deg{sup 2}. The survey has a 15.6 arcmin angular resolution and achieves a noise level of 15 mJy beam{sup -1}. We demonstrate a novel interferometric data analysis that involves calibration of drift scan data, integration through the co-addition of warped snapshot images, and deconvolution of the point-spread function through forward modeling. We present a point source catalog down to a flux limit of 4 Jy. We detect polarization from only one of the sources, PMN J0351-2744, at a level of 1.8% {+-} 0.4%, whereas the remaining sources have a polarization fraction below 2%. Compared to a reported average value of 7% at 1.4 GHz, the polarization fraction of compact sources significantly decreases at low frequencies. We find a wealth of diffuse polarized emission across a large area of the survey with a maximum peak of {approx}13 K, primarily with positive rotation measure values smaller than +10 rad m{sup -2}. The small values observed indicate that the emission is likely to have a local origin (closer than a few hundred parsecs). There is a large sky area at {alpha} {>=} 2{sup h}30{sup m} where the diffuse polarized emission rms is fainter than 1 K. Within this area of low Galactic polarization we characterize the foreground properties in a cold sky patch at ({alpha}, {delta}) = (4{sup h}, -27. Degree-Sign 6) in terms of three-dimensional power spectra.

  2. Transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The ambiguous role of Rad26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is believed to be triggered by an RNA polymerase stalled at a lesion in the transcribed strand of actively transcribed genes. Rad26, a DNA-dependent ATPase in the family of SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling proteins, plays an important role in TC-NER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, Rad26 is not solely responsible for TC-NER and Rpb9, a nonessential subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), is largely responsible for Rad26-independent TC-NER. The Rad26-dependent and Rpb9-dependent TC-NER have different efficiencies in genes with different transcription levels and in different regions of a gene. Rad26 becomes entirely or partially dispensable for TC-NER in the absence of Rpb4, another nonessential subunit of RNAP II, or a number of transcription elongation factors (Spt4, Spt5 and the RNAP II associated factor complex). Rad26 may not be a true transcription-repair coupling factor that recruits the repair machinery to the damaged sites where RNAP II stalls. Rather, Rad26 may facilitate TC-NER indirectly, by antagonizing the action of TC-NER repressors that normally promote transcription elongation. The underlying mechanism of how Rad26 functions in TC-NER remains to be elucidated.

  3. Enhancement of the RAD51 Recombinase Activity by the Tumor Suppressor PALB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Etchin, Julia; Wiese, Claudia; Saro, Dorina; Williams, Gareth J.; Hammel, Michal; Yu, Xiong; Galkin, Vitold E.; Liu, Dongqing; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Sy, Shirley M-H.; Egelman, Edward; Chen, Junjie; Sung, Patrick; Schild, D.

    2010-08-24

    Homologous recombination mediated by the RAD51 recombinase helps eliminate chromosomal lesions, such as DNA double-stranded breaks induced by radiation or arising from injured DNA replication forks. The tumor suppressors BRCA2 and PALB2 act together to deliver RAD51 to chromosomal lesions to initiate repair. Here we document a new function of PALB2 in the enhancement of RAD51's ability to form the D-loop. We show that PALB2 binds DNA and physically interacts with RAD51. Importantly, while PALB2 alone stimulates D-loop formation, a cooperative effect is seen with RAD51AP1, an enhancer of RAD51. This stimulation stems from PALB2's ability to function with RAD51 and RAD51AP1 to assemble the synaptic complex. Our results help unveil a multi-faceted role of PALB2 in chromosome damage repair. Since PALB2 mutations can cause breast and other tumors or lead to Fanconi anemia, our findings are important for understanding the mechanism of tumor suppression in humans.

  4. Structural and functional conservation of two human homologs of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD6.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. Koken (Marcel); P. Reynolds (Paul); I. Jaspers-Dekker (Iris); L. Prakash; S. Prakash; D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) that is required for DNA repair, damage-induced mutagenesis, and sporulation. We have cloned the two human RAD6 homologs, designated HHR6A and HHR6B. The two 152-amino acid human proteins share 95% sequ

  5. OsRAD51C Is Essential for Double Strand Break Repair in Rice Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding eTang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RAD51C is one of the RAD51 paralogs that plays an important role in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination. Here, we identified and characterized OsRAD51C, the rice homolog of human RAD51C. The Osrad51c mutant plant is normal in vegetative growth but exhibits complete male and female sterility. Cytological investigation revealed that homologous pairing and synapsis were severely disrupted. Massive chromosome fragmentation occurred during metaphase I in Osrad51c meiocytes, and was fully suppressed by the CRC1 mutation. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that OsRAD51C localized onto the chromosomes from leptotene to early pachytene during prophase I, and that normal loading of OsRAD51C was dependent on OsREC8, PAIR2, and PAIR3. Additionally, ZEP1 did not localize properly in Osrad51c, indicating that OsRAD51C is required for synaptonemal complex assembly. Our study also provided evidence in support of a functional divergence in RAD51C among organisms.

  6. FBH1 helicase disrupts RAD51 filaments in vitro and modulates homologous recombination in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simandlova, Jitka; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Payne, Miranda J;

    2013-01-01

    filaments on DNA through its ssDNA translocase function. Consistent with this, a mutant mouse embryonic stem cell line with a deletion in the FBH1 helicase domain fails to limit RAD51 chromatin association and shows hyper-recombination. Our data are consistent with FBH1 restraining RAD51 DNA binding under...

  7. Rad52 forms DMA repair and recombination centers during S phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, M.; Rothstein, R.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2001-01-01

    fluorescent protein (GFP) is fully functional in DNA repair and recombination. After induction of DNA double-strand breaks by gamma -irradiation, meiosis, or the HO endonuclease, Rad52-GFP relocalizes from a diffuse nuclear distribution to distinct foci. Interestingly, Rad52 foci are formed almost exclusively...

  8. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predispositio...

  9. Requirement of Rad5 for DNA Polymerase ζ-Dependent Translesion Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Vincent; Bresson, Anne; Acharya, Narottam; Prakash, Satya; Fuchs, Robert P.; Prakash, Louise

    2008-01-01

    In yeast, Rad6–Rad18-dependent lesion bypass involves translesion synthesis (TLS) by DNA polymerases η or ζ or Rad5-dependent postreplication repair (PRR) in which error-free replication through the DNA lesion occurs by template switching. Rad5 functions in PRR via its two distinct activities—a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Mms2–Ubc13-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination of PCNA at its lysine 164 residue and a DNA helicase that is specialized for replication fork regression. Both these activities are important for Rad5's ability to function in PRR. Here we provide evidence for the requirement of Rad5 in TLS mediated by Polζ. Using duplex plasmids carrying different site-specific DNA lesions—an abasic site, a cis–syn TT dimer, a (6-4) TT photoproduct, or a G-AAF adduct—we show that Rad5 is needed for Polζ-dependent TLS. Rad5 action in this role is likely to be structural, since neither the inactivation of its ubiquitin ligase activity nor the inactivation of its helicase activity impairs its role in TLS. PMID:18757916

  10. The cohesin subunit RAD21L functions in meiotic synapsis and exhibits sexual dimorphism in fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Herrán; C. Gutierréz-Caballero; M. Sáanchez-Martin; T. Hernández; A. Viera; J.L. Barbero; E. de Álava; D.G. de Rooij; J. Ángel Suja; E. Llano; A.M. Pendas

    2011-01-01

    The cohesin complex is a ring-shaped proteinaceous structure that entraps the two sister chromatids after replication until the onset of anaphase when the ring is opened by proteolytic cleavage of its alpha-kleisin subunit (RAD21 at mitosis and REC8 at meiosis) by separase. RAD21L is a recently iden

  11. Meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis is catalysed by DMC1, with RAD51 playing a supporting role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Da Ines

    Full Text Available Recombination establishes the chiasmata that physically link pairs of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, ensuring their balanced segregation at the first meiotic division and generating genetic variation. The visible manifestation of genetic crossing-overs, chiasmata are the result of an intricate and tightly regulated process involving induction of DNA double-strand breaks and their repair through invasion of a homologous template DNA duplex, catalysed by RAD51 and DMC1 in most eukaryotes. We describe here a RAD51-GFP fusion protein that retains the ability to assemble at DNA breaks but has lost its DNA break repair capacity. This protein fully complements the meiotic chromosomal fragmentation and sterility of Arabidopsis rad51, but not rad51 dmc1 mutants. Even though DMC1 is the only active meiotic strand transfer protein in the absence of RAD51 catalytic activity, no effect on genetic map distance was observed in complemented rad51 plants. The presence of inactive RAD51 nucleofilaments is thus able to fully support meiotic DSB repair and normal levels of crossing-over by DMC1. Our data demonstrate that RAD51 plays a supporting role for DMC1 in meiotic recombination in the flowering plant, Arabidopsis.

  12. A novel Rad gene polymorphism combined with obesity increases risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 牛天华; 陈常忠; 李琼芳; 徐希平

    2004-01-01

    @@ The ras-associated diabetes (Rad) was initially identified by subtraction cloning from the skeletal muscle of humans with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).1 Rad mRNA expression is markedly increased in the skeletal muscle of type 2 DM patients compared with normal controls.

  13. Comparison of clastogen-induced gene expression profiles in wild-type and DNA repair-deficient Rad54/Rad54B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Benthem Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we found that Rad54/Rad54B cells are more sensitive towards mitomycin C (MMC as compared to wild-type (WT cells. This difference in sensitivity was absent upon exposure to other clastogens like bleomycin (BLM and γ-radiation. In order to get further insight into possible underlying mechanisms, gene expression changes in WT and Rad54/Rad54B MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts after exposure to the clastogens MMC and BLM were investigated. Exposures of these cells to mutagens (N-ac-AAF and ENU and vehicle were taken as controls. Results Most exposures resulted in an induction of DNA damage signaling and apoptosis genes and a reduced expression of cell division genes in cells of both genotypes. As expected, responses to N-ac-AAF were very similar in both genotypes. ENU exposure did not lead to significant gene expression changes in cells of both genotypes, presumably due to its short half-life. Gene expression responses to clastogens, however, showed a genotype-dependent effect for BLM and MMC. MMC treated Rad54/Rad54B MEFs showed no induction of p53-signaling, DNA damage response and apoptosis as seen for all the other treatments. Conclusion These data support our finding that different types of clastogens exist and that responses to these types depend on the DNA repair status of the cells.

  14. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, I; Morikawa, K; Ishino, Y

    1999-12-15

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purified. The in vitro analyses using the purified proteins also showed the interaction between DP1 and RadB. The deletion mutant analysis of DP1 revealed that a region important for binding with RadB is located in the central part of the sequence (amino acid residues 206-498). This region has an overlap to the C-terminal half (amino acids 334-613), which is highly conserved among euryarchaeal DP1s and is essential for the activity of PolD. Our results suggest that, although RadB does not noticeably affect the primer extension ability of PolD in vitro, PolD may utilize the RadB protein in DNA synthesis under certain conditions.

  15. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A;

    2002-01-01

    implicated in lipid movement and expressed in tissues with a role in sterol synthesis and absorption, might also be involved in sitosterol transport. Transport by the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp; Abcb1), the multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp1; Abcc1), the breast cancer resistance...... the absorption of sitosterol and related molecules in the intestine by pumping them back into the lumen. Although mutations altering ABCG5 and ABCG8 are found in affected patients, no functional demonstration of sitosterol transport has been achieved. In this study, we investigated whether other ABC transporters...

  16. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  17. ABA, AAB and ABC renewal in taste aversion learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia de que los cambios en los estímulos ambientales afectan activamente la ocurrencia de la respuesta condicionada (RC. La renovación contextual o la reaparición de una RC extinguida se observa cuando se continúa la extinción de dicha respuesta en un contexto diferente. Se diseñaron dos experimentos con el propósito de evaluar la renovación contextual en un procedimiento de condicionamiento de aversión al sabor. En el Experimento 1, se analizó la renovación contextual ABA y AAB, mientras que el Experimento 2 se evaluó la renovación ABA, AAB y ABC. Ambos experimentos constaron de tres fases: adquisición, extinción y prueba. En ambos experimentos, la fase de adquisición se condujo en el Contexto A para todos los grupos y en ella, se inyectó i.p. Cloruro de Litio (LiCl a los sujetos inmediatamente después de que ingirieron una solución de sacarosa. En la fase de extinción, se expuso a los sujetos únicamente a la solución de sacarosa, sin la inyección. Los grupos AAB y AAA recibieron esta fase en el Contexto A, mientras que los sujetos de los grupos ABA y ABC la recibieron en el Contexto B. En la fase de prueba, se continúo la extinción. Los grupos ABA y AAA recibieron esta fase en el Contexto A, el grupo AAB en el contexto B, mientras el grupo ABC la recibió en un tercer contexto. Los resultados mostraron renovación de la aversión condicionada al sabor en los grupos ABA, AAB y ABC. Se analiza la relación de estos hallazgos con el modelo de recuperación de información de Bouton (1994.

  18. Improved avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoretti, G; Berti, E; Schiró, R; D'Amato, L; Valeggio, C; Rilke, F

    1988-02-01

    A considerable intensification of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex staining system (ABC) was obtained by sequentially overlaying the sections to be immunostained with an avidin-rich and a biotin-rich complex. Each sequential addition contributed to the deposition of horseradish peroxidase on the immunostained site and allowed the subsequent binding of a complementary complex. With this technique a higher dilution of the antisera could be used and minute amounts of antigen masked by the fixative could be demonstrated on paraffin sections.

  19. Influence of SDZ RAD vs. MMF on gastric emptying in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Bart D; Evenepoel, Pieter; Kuypers, Dirk; Geypens, Benny; Ghoos, Yvo; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2003-06-01

    SDZ RAD and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are increasingly used in the prevention of renal allograft rejection. SDZ RAD, having a macrolide structure, and MMF, known with gastrointestinal side-effects, may have gastric motility modifying properties. Gastric emptying was examined 1 yr after renal transplantation in eight patients taking corticosteroids (CS), cyclosporin A (CsA) and SDZ RAD and six patients treated with CS, CsA and MMF. Comparing the two groups, no significant differences in gastric emptying of solids and liquids were noted. Compared with normal volunteers, solid gastric emptying was faster in the SDZ RAD group and similar in the MMF group. It is concluded that in stable renal transplant recipients treated with MMF, gastric emptying was normal. Because of the impact on drug absorption and gastrointestinal symptoms, further studies are indicated to corroborate the potential prokinetic properties of SDZ RAD.

  20. Comparison of Danish dichotomous and BI-RADS classifications of mammographic density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Rebecca; Hellmann, Sophie Sell; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2014-01-01

    dichotomous mammographic density classification system from 1991 to 2001 with the density BI-RADS classifications, in an attempt to validate the Danish classification system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 120 mammograms taken in Copenhagen in 1991-2001, which tested false positive......, and which were in 2012 re-assessed and classified according to the BI-RADS classification system. We calculated inter-rater agreement between the Danish dichotomous mammographic classification as fatty or mixed/dense and the four-level BI-RADS classification by the linear weighted Kappa statistic. RESULTS......: Of the 120 women, 32 (26.7%) were classified as having fatty and 88 (73.3%) as mixed/dense mammographic density, according to Danish dichotomous classification. According to BI-RADS density classification, 12 (10.0%) women were classified as having predominantly fatty (BI-RADS code 1), 46 (38.3%) as having...

  1. Rad54 and Mus81 cooperation promotes DNA damage repair and restrains chromosome missegregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghamrasni, S El; Cardoso, R; Li, L;

    2016-01-01

    Rad54 and Mus81 mammalian proteins physically interact and are important for the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway; however, their functional interactions in vivo are poorly defined. Here, we show that combinatorial loss of Rad54 and Mus81 results in hypersensitivity to DNA......-damaging agents, defects on both the homologous recombination and non-homologous DNA end joining repair pathways and reduced fertility. We also observed that while Mus81 deficiency diminished the cleavage of common fragile sites, very strikingly, Rad54 loss impaired this cleavage to even a greater extent....... The inefficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) cells was accompanied by elevated levels of chromosome missegregation and cell death. Perhaps as a consequence, tumor incidence in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) mice remained comparable to that in Mus81(-/-) mice. Our study highlights...

  2. The role of RAD51 in etoposide (VP16) resistance in small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg; Lundin, Cecilia; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    Etoposide (VP16) is a potent inducer of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is efficiently used in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) therapy. However, acquired VP16 resistance remains an important barrier to effective treatment. To understand the underlying mechanisms for VP16 resistance in SCLC, we...... investigated DSB repair and cellular VP16 sensitivity of SCLC cells. VP16 sensitivity and RAD51, DNA-PK(cs), topoisomerase IIalpha and P-glycoprotein protein levels were determined in 17 SCLC cell lines. In order to unravel the role of RAD51 in VP16 resistance, we cloned the human RAD51 gene, transfected SCLC...... cells with RAD51 sense or antisense constructs and measured the VP16 resistance. Finally, we measured VP16-induced DSBs in the 17 SCLC cell lines. Two cell lines exhibited a multidrug-resistant phenotype. In the other SCLC cell lines, the cellular VP16 resistance was positively correlated with the RAD51...

  3. Photoluminescence of a High Mobility 2DEG in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D.; Rudenkov, V. V.; Ashkinadze, B. M.; Cohen, E.; Christianen, P. C. M.; Maan, J. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    The magneto-PL spectra of modulation-doped, ultra-high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs single heterojunctions (HJs) were studied under a perpendicularly applied magnetic field up to 33 T and at temperatures of 0.3 and 1.2 K. The spectra show remarkable intensity redistribution between free (bulk) exciton and 2DEG-hole PL channels occurring at electron filling factors, ν = 2 and 1. At 0.3 K, significant 2DEG-hole PL spectral changes are observed near ν = 2/3 and 1/3. Several heterojunctions with 2DEG density in the range of n2D - (1 - 2.7) · 1011 cm-2 display similar features. These spectral peculiarities are attributed to the modification of the 2DEG energy spectrum caused by the e-e interaction, in particular, the recombination of valence hole with the composite (fractionally-charged) particles of the magnetized 2DEG. In HJs with lower n2D < 1011 cm-2, the observed PL evolution at ν < 1 is mainly determined by an intensity redistribution between the σ+ and σ- circularly-polarized free exciton PL components. In this case, the exciton energy is lower than the energy of the 2DEG-hole system, so that the free excitons do not dissociate near the magnetized 2DEG and thus, the 2DEG-hole PL is barely observed.

  4. Novel Inhibitors of Rad6 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme: Design, Synthesis, Identification, and Functional Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Balan, Vitaly; Morelli, Matteo; Kothayer, Hend; Westwell, Andrew D.; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.

    2013-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is important for cell signaling, DNA repair, and proteasomal degradation, and it is not surprising that alterations in ubiquitination occur frequently in cancer. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) mediate ubiquitination by selective interactions with ubiquitin-activating (E1) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes, and thus selective E2 small molecule inhibitor (SMI) will provide specificity unattainable with proteasome inhibitors. Here we describe synthesis and functional characterization of the first SMIs of human E2 Rad6B, a fundamental component of translesion synthesis DNA repair. A pharmacophore model for consensus E2 ubiquitin-binding sites was generated for virtual screening to identify E2 inhibitor candidates. Twelve triazine (TZ) analogs screened in silico by molecular docking to the Rad6B X-ray structure were verified by their effect on Rad6B ubiquitination of histone H2A. TZs #8 and 9 docked to the Rad6B catalytic site with highest complementarity. TZs #1, 2, 8, and 9 inhibited Rad6B-ubiquitin thioester formation and subsequent ubiquitin transfer to histone H2A. SMI #9 inhibition of Rad6 was selective as BCA2 ubiquitination by E2 UbcH5 was unaffected by SMI #9. SMI #9 more potently inhibited proliferation, colony formation, and migration than SMI #8, and induced MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell G2–M arrest and apoptosis. Ubiquitination assays using Rad6 immunoprecipitated from SMI #8- or 9-treated cells confirmed inhibition of endogenous Rad6 activity. Consistent with our previous data showing Rad6B-mediated polyubiquitination stabilizes β-catenin, MDAMB-231 treatment with SMIs #8 or 9 decreased β-catenin protein levels. Together these results describe identification of the first Rad6 SMIs. PMID:23339190

  5. Characterization of the interaction between Rfa1 and Rad24 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Piya

    Full Text Available Maintaining the integrity of the genome requires the high fidelity duplication of the genome and the ability of the cell to recognize and repair DNA lesions. The heterotrimeric single stranded DNA (ssDNA binding complex Replication Protein A (RPA is central to multiple DNA processes, which are coordinated by RPA through its ssDNA binding function and through multiple protein-protein interactions. Many RPA interacting proteins have been reported through large genetic and physical screens; however, the number of interactions that have been further characterized is limited. To gain a better understanding of how RPA functions in DNA replication, repair, and cell cycle regulation and to identify other potential functions of RPA, a yeast two hybrid screen was performed using the yeast 70 kDa subunit, Replication Factor A1 (Rfa1, as a bait protein. Analysis of 136 interaction candidates resulted in the identification of 37 potential interacting partners, including the cell cycle regulatory protein and DNA damage clamp loader Rad24. The Rfa1-Rad24 interaction is not dependent on ssDNA binding. However, this interaction appears affected by DNA damage. The regions of both Rfa1 and Rad24 important for this interaction were identified, and the region of Rad24 identified is distinct from the region reported to be important for its interaction with Rfc2 5. This suggests that Rad24-Rfc2-5 (Rad24-RFC recruitment to DNA damage substrates by RPA occurs, at least partially, through an interaction between the N terminus of Rfa1 and the C terminus of Rad24. The predicted structure and location of the Rad24 C-terminus is consistent with a model in which RPA interacts with a damage substrate, loads Rad24-RFC at the 5' junction, and then releases the Rad24-RFC complex to allow for proper loading and function of the DNA damage clamp.

  6. Giardia duodenalis Rad52 protein: biochemical characterization and response upon DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Miguel, Rosa María; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Bazán-Tejeda, María Luisa; Torres-Huerta, Ana Laura; Martínez-Reyes, Diego A; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María

    2017-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated binucleated protozoan that colonizes the small intestine in mammals, causing giardiasis, acute or chronic diarrhea. DNA double strand break either endogenously or exogenously generated is a major insult to DNA and its repair by homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for genomic stability. During HR, Rad52 plays key roles in the loading of the Rad51 recombinase, and the annealing of the second double-strand break end to the displaced strand of the D-loop structure. Among the functions found in vitro in yeast and human Rad52 protein are: ssDNA or dsDNA binding activity, ability to anneal bare or RPA coated-ssDNA, as well as multimeric ring formation. In this work, we searched for conserved domains in a putative Rad52 protein from G. duodenalis (GdRad52). Its coding sequence was cloned, expressed and purified to study its biochemical properties. rGdRad52 binds to dsDNA and ssDNA, with greater affinity for the latter. Likewise, rGdRad52 promotes annealing of DNA uncoated and coated with GdRPA1. rGdRad52 interacts with GdDMC1B and with GdRPA1 protein as shown in far western blotting assay. Additionally, rGdRad52 formed multimeric rings as observed by electronic microscopy. Finally, GdRad52 is over expressed in response upon DNA damage inflicted on trophozoites. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Accelerated transformation of brushite to octacalcium phosphate in new biomineralization media between 36.5 deg. C and 80 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temizel, Neslihan; Girisken, Giray; Tas, A. Cuneyt, E-mail: cuneyt-tas@ouhsc.edu

    2011-07-20

    This study investigated the hydrothermal transformation of brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD, CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) into octacalcium phosphate (OCP, Ca{sub 8}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O) in seven different newly developed biomineralization media, all inspired from the commercial DMEM solutions, over the temperature range of 36.5 deg. C to 90 deg. C with aging times varying between 1 h and 6 days. DCPD powders used in this study were synthesized in our laboratory by using a wet-chemical technique. DCPD was found to transform into OCP in the Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} containing aqueous biomineralization media in less than 72 h at 36.5 deg. C, without stirring. The same medium was able to convert DCPD into OCP in about 2 h at 75-80 deg. C, again without a need for stirring. Samples were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). - Research highlights: {yields} New biomineralization solutions developed to convert DCPD into OCP at 36.5 deg. C to 80 deg. C. {yields} DCPD powder was the starting material. {yields} OCP was synthesized under static conditions (no need for stirring). {yields} OCP was synthesized in sealed glass media bottles in solutions free of Hepes or Tris. {yields} OCP can be synthesized at 75-80 deg. C in only 2 hours in the above solutions without stirring.

  8. Temperature calibration of Pico-Rad detectors for radon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, H; Bem, E M; Chruścielewski, W; Skalski, H

    2000-01-01

    A simple mathematical equation linking the activity of adsorbed radon in the vials to the time and temperature of its exposure is discussed. The calibration coefficient--Ks, defined as activity measured in cpm after saturation time, corresponding to radon air concentration of 1 Bq m-3, was determined for four temperatures: 284, 291, 294 and 298 K. A linear relationship of ln Ks values versus T-1 was found. The relatively high difference in Ks values: 2.12 and 1.24 cpm/Bq m-3 for the temperatures of 284 and 298 K, respectively, was observed. It indicates that temperature fluctuations during Pico-Rad vial exposure may lead to erroneous results if the constant average temperature of exposure is introduced into a commonly used computer programme for calculating Rn concentration.

  9. Temperature calibration of PICO-RAD detectors for radon measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bem, H.; Bem, E.M.; Chruscielewski, W.; Skalski, H. [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland)

    1996-10-01

    A simple mathematical equation linking the activity of adsorbed radon in the vials to the time of its exposure has been discussed. The calibration coefficient K{sub s}, defined as a measured activity in cpm after a saturation time, corresponding to a radon air concentration of 1 Bq m{sup -3} has been determined for four temperatures: 284, 291, 294 and 298 K. A linear relationship of ln K{sub s} values versus T{sup -1} has been found. The relatively high difference in K{sub s} values: 2.12 and 1.24 cpm/Bq m{sup 3} for the temperatures of 284 and 298 K, respectively, was observed. It indicates that temperature fluctuations during Pico-Rad vial exposure may lead to erroneous results if the constant average temperature of exposure is introduced into a commonly used computer program for calculating Rn concentration. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs.

  10. Rad51与乳腺癌的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石静; 王雅杰; 王宁

    2010-01-01

    @@ Rad51基因位于染色体15q15.1上,由10个外显子和9个内含子组成,DNA分子大小约30kb,其编码蛋白含有339个氨基酸,是 DNA同源重组修复(homologous recombination repair,HRR)的主要关键酶之一,它协同其同系物在损伤的DNA末端形成"核蛋白丝",催化断裂的DNA双链与同源DNA姐妹链进行链间转移置换[1,2].

  11. Flexure fatigue testing of 90 deg graphite/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Ann Nancy W.

    1995-01-01

    3-point flexure tests of 90 deg graphite/epoxy specimens. Investigations will include the volume scale effect as well as frequency and span-to-thickness ratio effects. Prior to the start of the experimental study, an analytical study using finite element modeling will be performed to investigate the span-to-thickness effect. The ratio of transverse flexure stress to shear stress will be monitored and its values predicted by the FEM analysis compared with the value obtained using a 'strength of materials' based approach.

  12. AtDeg2 – a chloroplast protein with dual protease/chaperone activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Jagodzik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast protease AtDeg2 (an ATP-independent serine endopeptidase is cytosolically synthesized as a precursor, which is imported into the chloroplast stroma and deprived of its transit peptide. Then the mature protein undergoes routing to its functional location at the stromal side of thylakoid membrane. In its linear structure AtDeg2 molecule contains the protease domain with catalytic triad (HDS and two PDZ domains (PDZ1 and PDZ2. In vivo AtDeg2 most probably exists as a supposedly inactive haxamer, which may change its oligomeric stage to form active 12-mer, or 24-mer. AtDeg2 has recently been demonstrated to exhibit dual protease/chaperone function. This review is focused on the current awareness with regard to AtDeg2 structure and functional significance.

  13. Patologie sociali, resistenze e difese degli insegnanti nell’istituzione scolastica: Considerazioni cliniche e pedagogiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fratini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo prende in esame il tema di alcune resistenze e difese degli insegnanti all’interno dell’istituzione scolastica. Partendo dall’attuale condizione di emergenza della scuola italiana e rifacendosi al concetto di patologia sociale di Giuseppe Di Chiara, viene argomentato come tali resistenze coprano le angosce persecutorie degli insegnanti nel loro lavoro scolastico quotidiano nel rapporto con gli allievi. L’articolo, tra le varie forme di patologia istituzionale, affronta principalmente il tema di quelle che presiedono alle resistenze degli insegnanti al lavoro introspettivo con il proprio mondo interno, conseguenza e ulteriore cagione di sensi di colpa nel rapporto con gli allievi e di fenomeni di burnout lavorativo degli stessi insegnanti. Tali fenomeni vanno nella direzione del rinforzo sia di un atteggiamento di chiusura verso la collaborazione con professionisti esterni all’istituzione scolastica, sia di un atteggiamento di minore empatia e vicinanza emotiva con la realtà interna degli allievi.

  14. Comparativa entre ABC y TDABC, aplicaci??n pr??ctica real = Comparison between ABC and TDABC, actual practical application

    OpenAIRE

    R??o Blanco, Nuria del

    2015-01-01

    Con este trabajo se pretende realizar un estudio comparativo de los sistemas de costeo ABC (Activity Based Costing, Costeo Basado en las Actividades) y TDABC (Time- Driven Activity Based Costing, Costeo basado en el tiempo invertido por actividad). En el trabajo se determinan las bases te??ricas de ambos m??todos, realizando una aplicaci??n pr??ctica real, lo que permite una comparativa entre ellos. Las bases te??ricas se fundamentan en la teor??a de los propulsores de estos m??todos. Por su ...

  15. A STUDY ON THE ABC APPROACH IN COST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC, an alternative approach to traditional accounting, represents a costing methodology that identifies the main cost drivers, or the main activities in an organization, thus assigning the cost of the products and services according to the number of specific activities or transactions used in the development process of a product or service. This system is based on the measurement of all the activities performed within an organization and provides the companies with the opportunity to efficiently improve their activity or to reduce the costs with no quality loss for their customers. The primary aim of ABC method was to implement a logical system of additional allocation with a better information and improvement in the field of managerial policies, a real cost structure on the basis of which strategic managerial decisions could be further adopted. Under the terms of a continuous growth of fixed cost weighting, we will become more interested in the calculation system of process costing. This costs calculation method can bring on important benefits, especially for service provider companies, considering the high share of common- indirect costs (overhead, in their unit.

  16. Bicontinuous Porous Carbon Films Templated with ABC Triblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Kevin; Deng, Guodong; Vogt, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    Mesoporous carbons are useful for a range of applications such as separation and catalysis. A route to prepare porous materials is through cooperative self-assembly of a carbon precursor (e.g. phenolic resin) and a block copolymer, in which the precursor is selectively soluble, to drive mesophase formation. Typical soft templating uses AB or ABA block copolymers, which form classical morphologies, such as spheres, cylinders, and lamellae. Switching to an ABC type block copolymer provides greater flexibility in the design of the morphology potentially opening up larger processing windows for complex structures, such as bicontinuous morphologies. This presentation will discuss efforts to prepare bicontinuous porous carbon thin films using an ABC triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ethyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene via spin-coating and a series of thermal annealing steps. It will be shown that direct thermal annealing can produce high porosity (~60%) carbon fiber networks. In addition, adding a solvent annealing step prior to the thermal annealing steps is able to produce longer range order structures with a small window of an ordered bicontinuous morphology. These high porosity films with organized fibers are promising for energy and separation applications.

  17. THE IMPACT OF ACQUISITION ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF PT. ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novian Zen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the financial performance of the subsidiary company (PT ABC before and after acquired by the holding company (PT XYZ. The examined ratios of the financial performance were profitability and capital structure for the period of 2010-2014. This study utilized the t test tool. In the first and second year after the acquisition, the result shows that with the existence of business synergy, there was a change in financial performance although it was insignificant. Furthermore, in the third year, there was absolutely no change; however, in the fourth year, there was an insignifant change. The implications of this research indicates the motive or objective of the shareholders (K-State-owned Enterprises in assigning the holding company (XYZ to restructure the financial performance and improve capital structure of its subsidiary company (PT ABC by conducting a business synergy has not been reached.Keywords: acquisition, financial performance, improved capital structure, business synergy and financial reports

  18. Structure of a Type-1 Secretion System ABC Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Acheson, Justin F; Zimmer, Jochen

    2017-03-07

    Type-1 secretion systems (T1SSs) represent a widespread mode of protein secretion across the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria. The T1SS is composed of an inner-membrane ABC transporter, a periplasmic membrane-fusion protein, and an outer-membrane porin. These three components assemble into a complex spanning both membranes and providing a conduit for the translocation of unfolded polypeptides. We show that ATP hydrolysis and assembly of the entire T1SS complex is necessary for protein secretion. Furthermore, we present a 3.15-Å crystal structure of AaPrtD, the ABC transporter found in the Aquifex aeolicus T1SS. The structure suggests a substrate entry window just above the transporter's nucleotide binding domains. In addition, highly kinked transmembrane helices, which frame a narrow channel not observed in canonical peptide transporters, are likely involved in substrate translocation. Overall, the AaPrtD structure supports a polypeptide transport mechanism distinct from alternating access.

  19. Temperature dependent dynamics of DegP-trimer: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nivedita; Ramaswamy, Amutha

    2015-01-01

    DegP is a heat shock protein from high temperature requirement protease A family, which reacts to the environmental stress conditions in an ATP independent way. The objective of the present analysis emerged from the temperature dependent functional diversity of DegP between chaperonic and protease activities at temperatures below and above 28 °C, respectively. DegP is a multimeric protein and the minimal functional unit, DegP-trimer, is of great importance in understanding the DegP pathway. The structural aspects of DegP-trimer with respect to temperature variation have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations (for 100 ns) and principal component analysis to highlight the temperature dependent dynamics facilitating its functional diversity. The DegP-trimer revealed a pronounced dynamics at both 280 and 320 K, when compared to the dynamics observed at 300 K. The LA loop is identified as the highly flexible region during dynamics and at extreme temperatures, the residues 46-80 of LA loop express a flip towards right (at 280) and left ( at 320 K) with respect to the fixed β-sheet connecting the LA loop of protease for which Phe46 acts as one of the key residues. Such dynamics of LA loop facilitates inter-monomeric interaction with the PDZ1 domain of the neighbouring monomer and explains its active participation when DegP exists as trimer. Hence, the LA loop mediated dynamics of DegP-trimer is expected to provide further insight into the temperature dependent dynamics of DegP towards the understanding of its assembly and functional diversity in the presence of substrate.

  20. Temperature dependent dynamics of DegP-trimer: A molecular dynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DegP is a heat shock protein from high temperature requirement protease A family, which reacts to the environmental stress conditions in an ATP independent way. The objective of the present analysis emerged from the temperature dependent functional diversity of DegP between chaperonic and protease activities at temperatures below and above 28 °C, respectively. DegP is a multimeric protein and the minimal functional unit, DegP-trimer, is of great importance in understanding the DegP pathway. The structural aspects of DegP-trimer with respect to temperature variation have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations (for 100 ns and principal component analysis to highlight the temperature dependent dynamics facilitating its functional diversity. The DegP-trimer revealed a pronounced dynamics at both 280 and 320 K, when compared to the dynamics observed at 300 K. The LA loop is identified as the highly flexible region during dynamics and at extreme temperatures, the residues 46–80 of LA loop express a flip towards right (at 280 and left ( at 320 K with respect to the fixed β-sheet connecting the LA loop of protease for which Phe46 acts as one of the key residues. Such dynamics of LA loop facilitates inter-monomeric interaction with the PDZ1 domain of the neighbouring monomer and explains its active participation when DegP exists as trimer. Hence, the LA loop mediated dynamics of DegP-trimer is expected to provide further insight into the temperature dependent dynamics of DegP towards the understanding of its assembly and functional diversity in the presence of substrate.

  1. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Geesina; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by

  2. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  3. Transportomics: screening for substrates of ABC transporters in body fluids using vesicular transport assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumpochova, P; Sapthu, S.; Brouwers, J.F.H.M.; de Haas, M.; de Vos, R.; Borst, P.; van de Wetering, K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode the largest family of transmembrane proteins. ABC transporters translocate a wide variety of substrates across membranes, but their physiological function is often incompletely understood. We describe a new method to study the substrate spectrum o

  4. Parents' Perspectives on Braille Literacy: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents who were the primary caretakers of children in the Alphabetic and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study) revealed their perspectives about braille literacy. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was constructed by the ABC Braille research team, and researchers conducted telephone interviews with 31 parents who were the…

  5. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  6. Structural and mechanistic insights into ABC-type ECF transporters for vitamin uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosz-Majsnerowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift gaat over de relatie tussen de structuur en het mechanisme van ABC-type ECF transporters voor vitamines, uit de bacterie Lactococcus lactis. Energy-Coupling Factor (ECF) transporters vormen een subgroep van de ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters en zijn betrokken bij de opname v

  7. The Role of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in Educational Support Services: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edds, Daniel B.

    Many front-line managers who are assuming more financial responsibility for their organizations find traditional cost accounting inadequate for their needs and are turning to Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is not a financial reporting system to serve the needs of regulatory agencies, but a tool that tracks costs from the general ledger…

  8. ABC transporters in Arthropods: genomic comparison and role in insecticide transport and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, W.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority

  9. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  10. ABC transporters in Arthropods: genomic comparison and role in insecticide transport and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, W.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of the Behavioral Checklist of the Movement ABC Motor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Luis Miguel; Gomez, Marta; Graupera, Jose Luis; Gutierrez, Melchor; Linaza, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    The fifth section of the Henderson and Sugden's Movement ABC Checklist is part of the general Checklist that accompanies The Movement ABC Battery. The authors maintain that the analysis of this section must be mainly qualitative instead of quantitative. The main objective of this study was to employ a quantitative analysis of this behavioural…

  12. Structural and mechanistic insights into ABC-type ECF transporters for vitamin uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosz-Majsnerowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift gaat over de relatie tussen de structuur en het mechanisme van ABC-type ECF transporters voor vitamines, uit de bacterie Lactococcus lactis. Energy-Coupling Factor (ECF) transporters vormen een subgroep van de ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters en zijn betrokken bij de opname

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an archaeal ABC-ATPase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdon, Grégory; Albers, Sonja-V.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus glucose uptake is mediated by an ABC transport system. The ABC-ATPase of this transporter (GlcV) has been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of GlcV suitable for data collection were obtained in the absence of nucleotide by microseeding

  14. Creating an iPhone Application for Collecting Continuous ABC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Seth W.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data- collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to…

  15. The ABCs of highly effective presentations: a customer-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V B

    1999-01-01

    In the world of adult education where the learners have complex expectations, the educator must make an extra effort to meet the customers' (learners') needs. This article describes how an educator can make every presentation customer-centered by knowing the ABCs of highly effective presentations. The ABCs, when applied, can jump-start presentations and help the presenter meet or exceed learners' expectations.

  16. Rad51C deficiency destabilizes XRCC3, impairs recombination and radiosensitizes S/G2-phase cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lio, Yi-Ching; Schild, David; Brenneman, Mark A.; Redpath, J. Leslie; Chen, David J.

    2004-05-01

    The highly conserved Rad51 protein plays an essential role in repairing DNA damage through homologous recombination. In vertebrates, five Rad51 paralogs (Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) are expressed in mitotically growing cells, and are thought to play mediating roles in homologous recombination, though their precise functions remain unclear. Here we report the use of RNA interference to deplete expression of Rad51C protein in human HT1080 and HeLa cells. In HT1080 cells, depletion of Rad51C by small interfering RNA caused a significant reduction of frequency in homologous recombination. The level of XRCC3 protein was also sharply reduced in Rad51C-depleted HeLa cells, suggesting that XRCC3 is dependent for its stability upon heterodimerization with Rad51C. In addition, Rad51C-depleted HeLa cells showed hypersensitivity to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C, and moderately increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Importantly, the radiosensitivity of Rad51C-deficient HeLa cells was evident in S and G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle but not in G{sub 1} phase. Together, these results provide direct cellular evidence for the importance of human Rad51C in homologous recombinational repair.

  17. The Smc5-Smc6 complex and SUMO modification of Rad52 regulates recombinational repair at the ribosomal gene locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Sunjevaric, Ivana; De Piccoli, Giacomo;

    2007-01-01

    at an extranucleolar site. The nucleolar exclusion of Rad52 recombination foci entails Mre11 and Smc5-Smc6 complexes and depends on Rad52 SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) modification. Remarkably, mutations that abrogate these activities result in the formation of Rad52 foci within the nucleolus and cause r...

  18. Erythropoietic defect associated with reduced cell proliferation in mice lacking the 26S proteasome shuttling factor Rad23b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bergink (Steven); A.F. Theil (Arjan); W. Toussaint (Wendy); I.M. de Cuyper (Iris); D.I. Kulu (Divine); T. Clapes (Thomas); R. van der Linden (Reinier); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); E.P. Mul (Eric); F.P. van Alphen (Floris); J.A. Marteijn (Jurgen); T. van Gent (Teus); A. Maas (Alex); C. Robin (Catherine); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.R. Mitchell (James); L. Gutiérrez (Laura)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRad23a and Rad23b proteins are linked to nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) via association with the DNA damage recognition protein xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) are and known to be implicated in protein turnover by the 26S proteasome. Rad23b-null mice are NER proficient, likely

  19. Erythropoietic Defect Associated with Reduced Cell Proliferation in Mice Lacking the 26S Proteasome Shuttling Factor Rad23b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Steven; Theil, Arjan F.; Toussaint, Wendy; De Cuyper, Iris M.; Kulu, Divine I.; Clapes, Thomas; van der Linden, Reinier; Demmers, Jeroen A.; Mul, Eric P.; van Alphen, Floris P.; Marteijn, Jurgen A.; van Gent, Teus; Maas, Alex; Robin, Catherine; Philipsen, Sjaak; Vermeulen, Wim; Mitchell, James R.; Gutierrez, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Rad23a and Rad23b proteins are linked to nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) via association with the DNA damage recognition protein xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) are and known to be implicated in protein turnover by the 26S proteasome. Rad23b-null mice are NER proficient, likely due to the r

  20. Lysine residue 185 of Rad1 is a topological but not a functional counterpart of lysine residue 164 of PCNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek Wit

    Full Text Available Monoubiquitylation of the homotrimeric DNA sliding clamp PCNA at lysine residue 164 (PCNA(K164 is a highly conserved, DNA damage-inducible process that is mediated by the E2/E3 complex Rad6/Rad18. This ubiquitylation event recruits translesion synthesis (TLS polymerases capable of replicating across damaged DNA templates. Besides PCNA, the Rad6/Rad18 complex was recently shown in yeast to ubiquitylate also 9-1-1, a heterotrimeric DNA sliding clamp composed of Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 in a DNA damage-inducible manner. Based on the highly similar crystal structures of PCNA and 9-1-1, K185 of Rad1 (Rad1(K185 was identified as the only topological equivalent of PCNA(K164. To investigate a potential role of posttranslational modifications of Rad1(K185 in DNA damage management, we here generated a mouse model with a conditional deletable Rad1(K185R allele. The Rad1(K185 residue was found to be dispensable for Chk1 activation, DNA damage survival, and class switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes as well as recruitment of TLS polymerases during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our data indicate that Rad1(K185 is not a functional counterpart of PCNA(K164.

  1. RAD51C germline mutations in breast and ovarian cancer cases from high-risk families.

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    Jessica Clague

    Full Text Available BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most well-known breast cancer susceptibility genes. Additional genes involved in DNA repair have been identified as predisposing to breast cancer. One such gene, RAD51C, is essential for homologous recombination repair. Several likely pathogenic RAD51C mutations have been identified in BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast and ovarian cancer families. We performed complete sequencing of RAD51C in germline DNA of 286 female breast and/or ovarian cancer cases with a family history of breast and ovarian cancers, who had previously tested negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. We screened 133 breast cancer cases, 119 ovarian cancer cases, and 34 with both breast and ovarian cancers. Fifteen DNA sequence variants were identified; including four intronic, one 5' UTR, one promoter, three synonymous, and six non-synonymous variants. None were truncating. The in-silico SIFT and Polyphen programs were used to predict possible pathogenicity of the six non-synonomous variants based on sequence conservation. G153D and T287A were predicted to be likely pathogenic. Two additional variants, A126T and R214C alter amino acids in important domains of the protein such that they could be pathogenic. Two-hybrid screening and immunoblot analyses were performed to assess the functionality of these four non-synonomous variants in yeast. The RAD51C-G153D protein displayed no detectable interaction with either XRCC3 or RAD51B, and RAD51C-R214C displayed significantly decreased interaction with both XRCC3 and RAD51B (p<0.001. Immunoblots of RAD51C-Gal4 activation domain fusion peptides showed protein levels of RAD51C-G153D and RAD51C-R214C that were 50% and 60% of the wild-type, respectively. Based on these data, the RAD51C-G153D variant is likely to be pathogenic, while the RAD51C- R214C variant is hypomorphic of uncertain pathogenicity. These results provide further support that RAD51C is a rare breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene.

  2. Accuracy of the ABC/2 score for intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, CLEAR III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair JS; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized Reading Center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard CT-based planimetry (CTP). Methods In MISTIE-II, CLEAR-IVH and CLEAR-III trials, ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5ml and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. Results In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r2=0.93) than site-ABC (r2=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC=15.2cm3, CTP=12.7cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorised into mild, moderate and severe ICH (kappa 0.75, p<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6/8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5ml; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5ml; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥ 5ml change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic haemorrhage and homogeneous clots. Conclusions ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorise ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR III and MISTIE III studies, and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular or lobar clots. Clinical Trial Registration MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26243227

  3. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, M. F. I. [Science and Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan Nibong Tebal 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  4. Systematic Identification of Rice ABC1 Gene Family and Its Response to Abiotic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qing-song; ZHANG Dan; Xu Liang; XU Chen-wu

    2011-01-01

    Members of the activity of bc1 complex (ABC1) family are protein kinases that are widely found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Previous studies showed that several plant ABC1 genes participated in the abiotic stress response.Here,we present the systematic identification of rice and Arabidopsis ABC1 genes and the expression analysis of rice ABC1 genes.A total of 15 and 17 ABC1 genes from the rice and Arabidopsis genomes,respectively,were identified using a bioinformatics approach.Phylogenetic analyses of these proteins suggested that the divergence of this family had occurred and their main characteristics were established before the monocot-dicot split.Indeed,species-specific expansion contributed to the evolution of this family in rice and Arabidopsis after the monocot-dicot split.Intron/exon structure analysis indicated that most of the orthologous genes had similar exon sizes,but diverse intron sizes,and the rice genes contained larger introns,moreover,intron gain was an important event accompanying the recent evolution of the rice ABC1 family.Multiple sequence alignment revealed one conserved amino acid segment and four conserved amino acids in the ABC1 domain.Online subcellular localization predicted that nine rice ABC1 proteins were localized in chloroplasts.Real-time RT-PCR established that the rice ABC1 genes were primarily expressed in leaves and the expression could be modulated by a broad range of abiotic factors such as H2O2,abscisic acid,low temperature,drought,darkness and high salinity.These results reveal that the rice ABC1 gene family plays roles in the environmental stress response and specific biological processes of rice.

  5. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries.

  6. Ligand-Based Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening of RAD9 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal K. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human RAD9 is a key cell-cycle checkpoint protein that participates in DNA repair, activation of multiple cell cycle phase checkpoints, and apoptosis. Aberrant RAD9 expression has been linked to breast, lung, thyroid, skin, and prostate tumorigenesis. Overexpression of RAD9 interacts with BCL-2 proteins and blocks the binding sites of BCL-2 family proteins to interact with chemotherapeutic drugs and leads to drug resistance. Focusing on this interaction, the present study was designed to identify the interaction sites of RAD9 to bind BCL-2 protein and also to inhibit RAD9-BCL-2 interactions by designing novel small molecule inhibitors using pharmacophore modeling and to restore BCL-2 for interacting with anticancer drugs. The bioactive molecules of natural origin act as excellent leads for new drug development. Thus, in the present study, we used the compounds of natural origin like camptothecin, ascididemin, and Dolastatin and also compared them with synthetic molecule NSC15520. The results revealed that camptothecin can act as an effective inhibitor among all the ligands taken and can be used as an RAD9 inhibitor. The amino acids ARG45 and ALA134 of RAD9 protein are interacting commonly with the drugs and BCL-2 protein.

  7. Outcomes of US BI-RADS 4A, 4B, and 4C Lesions

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    Shin, Jae Wang; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kang, Seok Seon; Hahn, Soo Yeon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of sonographic (US) BIRADS category 4 lesions according to subcategories 4A, 4B, and 4C and palpability. We retrospectively reviewed the pathology results of 512 US BI-RADS category 4 lesions in 460 patients after ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy (n = 435) and surgical biopsy (n = 77). We analyzed the results according to subcategories 4A, 4B, 4C, and palpability, and compared outcomes of five breast radiologists. In BI-RADS 4A lesions (n = 302), biopsy results indicated 48 malignancies(15.9%). In BI-RADS 4B lesions (n = 113), biopsy revealed 69 malignancies (61.1%). Among BI-RADS 4C lesions (n = 97), 87 lesions were malignancies (89.7 %). Palpability had no correlation with the rate of malignancy in BI-RADS category 4 lesions, and the rate of malignancy for category 4A ranged widely from 8.1% - 26.4%. The outcomes of US BI-RADS category 4 lesions according to subcategories varied widely between radiologists, especially for 4A lesions. The US finding itself warrants a BI-RADS 4 subcategory. In category 4 lesions, the malignant rate was the same between palpable and nonpalpable lesions

  8. XRCC3 and RAD51 expression are associated with clinical factors in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    Full Text Available AIMS: XRCC3 and RAD51 are two important members in homologous recombination repair pathway. This study was performed to detect the expressions of these two molecules in breast cancer and explore their correlations with clinicopathological factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect protein expressions of XRCC3 and RAD51 in 248 cases of breast cancer tissue and 78 cases of adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Data showed that expressions for both XRCC3 and RAD51 were significantly increased in breast cancer. High XRCC3 expression was associated with large tumor size and positive PR and HER2 status, while high RAD51 expression was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis and positive PR and HER2 status. The result of multivariate analysis demonstrated that HER2, PR and RAD51 were significantly association with XRCC3. And besides XRCC3, axillary lymph node metastasis and PR were significantly correlated with RAD51. CONCLUSIONS: XRCC3 and RAD51 were significantly associated with clinicopathological factors and they might play important roles in the development and progress of breast cancer.

  9. Development of Small Molecules that Specifically Inhibit the D-loop Activity of RAD51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Budke, Brian; Pawlowski, Michal; Connell, Philip P; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-05-26

    RAD51 is the central protein in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and represents a therapeutic target in oncology. Herein we report a novel class of RAD51 inhibitors that were identified by high throughput screening. In contrast to many previously reported RAD51 inhibitors, our lead compound 1 is capable of blocking RAD51-mediated D-loop formation (IC50 21.3 ± 7.8 μM) at concentrations that do not influence RAD51 binding to ssDNA. In human cells, 1 inhibits HR (IC50 13.1 ± 1.6 μM) without blocking RAD51's ability to assemble into subnuclear foci at sites of DNA damage. We determined that the active constituent of 1 is actually an oxidized derivative (termed RI(dl)-1 or 8) of the original screening compound. Our SAR campaign also yielded RI(dl)-2 (hereafter termed 9h), which effectively blocks RAD51's D-loop activity in biochemical systems (IC50 11.1 ± 1.3 μM) and inhibits HR activity in human cells (IC50 3.0 ± 1.8 μM).

  10. Use of the Rad51 promoter for targeted anti-cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Christopher M.; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Rad51 protein, involved in homologous recombination, is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, and its expression is correlated with a poor prognosis. Here we propose to exploit the overexpression of Rad51 in cancer cells to design a Rad51 promoter-based anticancer therapy. On average, Rad51 mRNA and protein levels are increased in cancer cells four- and sixfold, respectively. Serendipitously, we discovered that when the Rad51 ORF is replaced with another ORF, the difference in promoter activity between normal and cancer cells increases to an average of 840-fold with a maximum difference of 12,500-fold. This dramatic difference in activity has high therapeutic potential. We demonstrate that the fusion of Rad51 promoter to diphtheria toxin A (DTA) gene kills a variety of cancer cell types, including breast cancer, fibrosarcoma, and cervical cancer cells, with minimal effect on normal breast epithelial cells and normal fibroblasts. Our results suggest that therapies based on the Rad51 promoter will be highly tumor specific and open new avenues for targeting a broad range of cancers. PMID:19106292

  11. Characterisation of the promoter region of the human DNA-repair gene Rad51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbach, L; Haase, S; Fischer, D; Kolberg, H C; Stürzbecher, H W

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory elements of the 5'-flanking region of the DNA-repair gene Rad51 were analysed to characterise pathological alterations of Rad51 mRNA expression during tumour development. Various fragments of the Rad51 promoter were cloned into the pGL3 reporter vector and the respective promoter activity was determined by luciferase assays in transfected U2-OS cells. Transcription factor binding was identified using Protein/DNA arrays. The region encompassing base pairs -204 to -58 was identified as crucial for Rad51 gene transcription. Down regulator sequences are present upstream (-305 to -204) and downstream (-48 and +204) of this core promoter element. Promoter activity is significantly enhanced by substituting G at the polymorphic positions +135 and +172 for C and T, respectively. Transcription factors Ets1/PEA3, E2F1, p53, EGR1, and Stat5 were identified as relevant for regulating expression of Rad51. We identified three separate cis-sequence elements within the Rad51 transcriptional promoter, one ensuring basal levels of expression and two elements limiting expression to relatively low levels. The characterisation of transcription factor binding might help to explain high-level expression of Rad51 in a variety of solid tumours. The polymorphic sites appear important for the increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  12. A Synthetic Interaction between CDC20 and RAD4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon UV Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Connors

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of DNA repair can be achieved through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of transiently induced proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad4 is involved in damage recognition during nucleotide excision repair (NER and, in conjunction with Rad23, recruits other proteins to the site of damage. We identified a synthetic interaction upon UV exposure between Rad4 and Cdc20, a protein that modulates the activity of the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C, a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. The moderately UV sensitive Δrad4 strain became highly sensitive when cdc20-1 was present, and was rescued by overexpression of CDC20. The double mutant is also deficient in elicting RNR3-lacZ transcription upon exposure to UV irradiation or 4-NQO compared with the Δrad4 single mutant. We demonstrate that the Δrad4/cdc20-1 double mutant is defective in double strand break repair by way of a plasmid end-joining assay, indicating that Rad4 acts to ensure that damaged DNA is repaired via a Cdc20-mediated mechanism. This study is the first to present evidence that Cdc20 may play a role in the degradation of proteins involved in nucleotide excision repair.

  13. MgAtr7, a new type of ABC transporter from Mycosphaerella graminicola involved in iron homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, L.H.; Roohparvar, R.; Waard, de M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ABC transporter-encoding gene MgAtr7 from the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola was cloned based upon its high homology to ABC transporters involved in azole-fungicide sensitivity. Genomic and cDNA sequences indicated that the N-terminus of this ABC transporter contains a motif character

  14. Heat induction of a novel Rad9 variant from a cryptic translation initiation site reduces mitotic commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Simon; Schmidt, Ulrike; Ashour Garrido, Karim; Ney, Nadja; Concilio, Susanna; Zekri, Mohamed; Caspari, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Exposure of human cells to heat switches the activating signal of the DNA damage checkpoint from genotoxic to temperature stress. This change reduces mitotic commitment at the expense of DNA break repair. The thermal alterations behind this switch remain elusive despite the successful use of heat to sensitise cancer cells to DNA breaks. Rad9 is a highly conserved subunit of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint-clamp that is loaded by Rad17 onto damaged chromatin. At the DNA, Rad9 activates the checkpoint kinases Rad3(ATR) and Chk1 to arrest cells in G2. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model eukaryote, we discovered a new variant of Rad9, Rad9-M50, whose expression is specifically induced by heat. High temperatures promote alternative translation from a cryptic initiation codon at methionine-50. This process is restricted to cycling cells and is independent of the temperature-sensing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. While full-length Rad9 delays mitosis in the presence of DNA lesions, Rad9-M50 functions in a remodelled checkpoint pathway to reduce mitotic commitment at elevated temperatures. This remodelled pathway still relies on Rad1 and Hus1, but acts independently of Rad17. Heat-induction of Rad9-M50 ensures that the kinase Chk1 remains in a hypo-phosphorylated state. Elevated temperatures specifically reverse the DNA-damage-induced modification of Chk1 in a manner dependent on Rad9-M50. Taken together, heat reprogrammes the DNA damage checkpoint at the level of Chk1 by inducing a Rad9 variant that can act outside of the canonical 9-1-1 complex.

  15. Loss of RAD-23 Protects Against Models of Motor Neuron Disease by Enhancing Mutant Protein Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Angela M; Lamitina, Todd; Liachko, Nicole F; Sabatella, Mariangela; Lu, Jiayin; Zhang, Lei; Ostrow, Lyle W; Gupta, Preetika; Wu, Chia-Yen; Doshi, Shachee; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Lans, Hannes; Wang, Jiou; Kraemer, Brian; Kalb, Robert G

    2015-10-21

    Misfolded proteins accumulate and aggregate in neurodegenerative disease. The existence of these deposits reflects a derangement in the protein homeostasis machinery. Using a candidate gene screen, we report that loss of RAD-23 protects against the toxicity of proteins known to aggregate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Loss of RAD-23 suppresses the locomotor deficit of Caenorhabditis elegans engineered to express mutTDP-43 or mutSOD1 and also protects against aging and proteotoxic insults. Knockdown of RAD-23 is further neuroprotective against the toxicity of SOD1 and TDP-43 expression in mammalian neurons. Biochemical investigation indicates that RAD-23 modifies mutTDP-43 and mutSOD1 abundance, solubility, and turnover in association with altering the ubiquitination status of these substrates. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord, we find that RAD-23 abundance is increased and RAD-23 is mislocalized within motor neurons. We propose a novel pathophysiological function for RAD-23 in the stabilization of mutated proteins that cause neurodegeneration. In this work, we identify RAD-23, a component of the protein homeostasis network and nucleotide excision repair pathway, as a modifier of the toxicity of two disease-causing, misfolding-prone proteins, SOD1 and TDP-43. Reducing the abundance of RAD-23 accelerates the degradation of mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 and reduces the cellular content of the toxic species. The existence of endogenous proteins that act as "anti-chaperones" uncovers new and general targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514286-21$15.00/0.

  16. Arabidopsis RAD51C gene is important for homologous recombination in meiosis and mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kiyomi; Osakabe, Keishi; Nakayama, Shigeki; Endo, Masaki; Tagiri, Akemi; Todoriki, Setsuko; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2005-10-01

    Rad51 is a homolog of the bacterial RecA recombinase, and a key factor in homologous recombination in eukaryotes. Rad51 paralogs have been identified from yeast to vertebrates. Rad51 paralogs are thought to play an important role in the assembly or stabilization of Rad51 that promotes homologous pairing and strand exchange reactions. We previously characterized two RAD51 paralogous genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) named AtRAD51C and AtXRCC3, which are homologs of human RAD51C and XRCC3, respectively, and described the interaction of their products in a yeast two-hybrid system. Recent studies showed the involvement of AtXrcc3 in DNA repair and functional role in meiosis. To determine the role of RAD51C in meiotic and mitotic recombination in higher plants, we characterized a T-DNA insertion mutant of AtRAD51C. Although the atrad51C mutant grew normally during vegetative developmental stage, the mutant produced aborted siliques, and their anthers did not contain mature pollen grains. Crossing of the mutant with wild-type plants showed defective male and female gametogeneses as evidenced by lack of seed production. Furthermore, meiosis was severely disturbed in the mutant. The atrad51C mutant also showed increased sensitivity to gamma-irradiation and cisplatin, which are known to induce double-strand DNA breaks. The efficiency of homologous recombination in somatic cells in the mutant was markedly reduced relative to that in wild-type plants.

  17. The replication origin of a repABC plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevallos Miguel A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background repABC operons are present on large, low copy-number plasmids and on some secondary chromosomes in at least 19 α-proteobacterial genera, and are responsible for the replication and segregation properties of these replicons. These operons consist, with some variations, of three genes: repA, repB, and repC. RepA and RepB are involved in plasmid partitioning and in the negative regulation of their own transcription, and RepC is the limiting factor for replication. An antisense RNA encoded between the repB-repC genes modulates repC expression. Results To identify the minimal region of the Rhizobium etli p42d plasmid that is capable of autonomous replication, we amplified different regions of the repABC operon using PCR and cloned the regions into a suicide vector. The resulting vectors were then introduced into R. etli strains that did or did not contain p42d. The minimal replicon consisted of a repC open reading frame under the control of a constitutive promoter with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence that we designed. A sequence analysis of repC revealed the presence of a large A+T-rich region but no iterons or DnaA boxes. Silent mutations that modified the A+T content of this region eliminated the replication capability of the plasmid. The minimal replicon could not be introduced into R. etli strain containing p42d, but similar constructs that carried repC from Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA or the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicated in the presence or absence of p42d, indicating that RepC is an incompatibility factor. A hybrid gene construct expressing a RepC protein with the first 362 amino acid residues from p42d RepC and the last 39 amino acid residues of RepC from SymA was able to replicate in the presence of p42d. Conclusions RepC is the only element encoded in the repABC operon of the R. etli p42d plasmid that is necessary and sufficient for plasmid replication and is probably the initiator protein. The ori

  18. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  19. Far-infrared and submillimeter survey of the galactic plane from l = 11.5 deg to l = 17.5 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. F.; Niles, D. W.; Silverberg, R. F.; Hauser, M. G.; Stier, M. T.; Kelsall, T.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Medium resolution (11 min) maps of the galactic plane are presented from l = 11.5 deg to l = 17.5 deg at wavelengths of 93 microns, 154 microns, and 190 microns. The maps are interpreted in terms of the temperature and spatial structure of diffuse far-infrared/submillimeter sources associated with evolved H II regions and a continuous ridge of galactic emission. The emission regions are found to be more extended at the longer wavelengths which implies that there must be a range of dust temperatures in the sources. The properties of the galactic ridge are similar to those of the sources.

  20. Secondary Somatic Mutations Restoring RAD51C and RAD51D Associated with Acquired Resistance to the PARP Inhibitor Rucaparib in High-Grade Ovarian Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashova, Olga; Nguyen, Minh; Shield-Artin, Kristy; Tinker, Anna V; Teng, Nelson N H; Harrell, Maria I; Kuiper, Michael J; Ho, Gwo-Yaw; Barker, Holly; Jasin, Maria; Prakash, Rohit; Kass, Elizabeth M; Sullivan, Meghan R; Brunette, Gregory J; Bernstein, Kara A; Coleman, Robert L; Floquet, Anne; Friedlander, Michael; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; O'Malley, David M; Oza, Amit; Sun, James; Robillard, Liliane; Maloney, Lara; Bowtell, David; Giordano, Heidi; Wakefield, Matthew J; Kaufmann, Scott H; Simmons, Andrew D; Harding, Thomas C; Raponi, Mitch; McNeish, Iain A; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Lin, Kevin K; Scott, Clare L

    2017-06-06

    High-grade epithelial ovarian carcinomas containing mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) homologous recombination (HR) genes are sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors (PARPi), while restoration of HR function due to secondary mutations in BRCA1/2 has been recognized as an important resistance mechanism. We sequenced core HR pathway genes in 12 pairs of pretreatment and postprogression tumor biopsy samples collected from patients in ARIEL2 Part 1, a phase II study of the PARPi rucaparib as treatment for platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian carcinoma. In 6 of 12 pretreatment biopsies, a truncation mutation in BRCA1, RAD51C, or RAD51D was identified. In five of six paired postprogression biopsies, one or more secondary mutations restored the open reading frame. Four distinct secondary mutations and spatial heterogeneity were observed for RAD51CIn vitro complementation assays and a patient-derived xenograft, as well as predictive molecular modeling, confirmed that resistance to rucaparib was associated with secondary mutations.SIGNIFICANCE: Analyses of primary and secondary mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D provide evidence for these primary mutations in conferring PARPi sensitivity and secondary mutations as a mechanism of acquired PARPi resistance. PARPi resistance due to secondary mutations underpins the need for early delivery of PARPi therapy and for combination strategies. Cancer Discov; 7(9); 1-15. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Rad52 multimerization is important for its nuclear localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plate, Iben; Albertsen, Line; Lisby, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rad52 is essential for all homologous recombination and DNA double strand break repair events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protein is multifunctional and contains several domains that allow it to interact with DNA as well as with different repair proteins. However, it has been unclear how Rad......52 enters the nucleus. In the present study, we have used a combination of mutagenesis and sequence analysis to show that Rad52 from S. cerevisiae contains a single functional pat7 type NLS essential for its nuclear localization. The region containing the NLS seems only to be involved in nuclear...

  2. Expressiveness of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System (BI-RADS).

    OpenAIRE

    Starren, J.; Johnson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System (BI-RADS) was developed by the American College of Radiology and is used by a number of computerized mammography tracking systems. The ability of BI-RADS to encode the data contained in 300 mammography reports at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center was examined. BI-RADS was able to encode normal reports and "special masses" (such as lymph nodes) without difficulty. However, none of the general masses and only 17% of the calcifications coul...

  3. Expressiveness of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System (BI-RADS).

    OpenAIRE

    Starren, J.; Johnson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System (BI-RADS) was developed by the American College of Radiology and is used by a number of computerized mammography tracking systems. The ability of BI-RADS to encode the data contained in 300 mammography reports at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center was examined. BI-RADS was able to encode normal reports and "special masses" (such as lymph nodes) without difficulty. However, none of the general masses and only 17% of the calcifications coul...

  4. A chemical compound that stimulates the human homologous recombination protein RAD51

    OpenAIRE

    Jayathilaka, Krishanthi; Sheridan, Sean D.; Bold, Tyler D.; Bochenska, Katarzyna; Logan, Hillary L.; Weichselbaum, Ralph. R.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Connell, Philip P.

    2008-01-01

    RAD51 and other members of the RecA family of strand exchange proteins assemble on ssDNA to form presynaptic filaments, which carry out the central steps of homologous recombination. A microplate-based assay was developed for high-throughput measurement of hRAD51 filament formation on ssDNA. With this method, a 10,000 compound library was screened, leading to the identification of a small molecule (RS-1) that enhances hRAD51 binding in a wide range of biochemical conditions. Salt titration ex...

  5. Germline RAD51B truncating mutation in a family with cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Aoude, Lauren G; Golmard, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Known melanoma predisposition genes only account for around 40% of high-density melanoma families. Other rare mutations are likely to play a role in melanoma predisposition. RAD51B plays an important role in DNA repair through homologous recombination, and inactivation of RAD51B has been implicated...... this case report is consistent with melanoma being part of the RAD51B cancer spectrum further population-based screening of large case-control sample series will be needed to definitively establish if this is the case....

  6. Quantification of metallic iodides in fucus vesiculosus and serratus heated at 80 deg, 550 deg and 1 000 deg; Quantification des iodures metalliques dans des cendres d'algues. Analyse de fucus vesiculosus et serratus chauffees a 80 degres, 550 degre et 1000 degre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aujollet, Y. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-02-01

    Metallic iodides in aqueous phase of Fucus ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. Before the measurements, different samples of Fucus were heated at 80 deg C (Fucus vesiculosus), 550 deg C (Fucus serratus) and 1 000 deg C (Fucus serratus). The first results gave 63% of iodide salts in Fucus vesiculosus heated at 80 deg C, 27% of iodide salts in Fucus serratus (550 deg C) and no result for ashes of Fucus serratus heated at 1 000 deg C, because there was not enough mass of product for a good analysis by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  7. Observation of an ABC effect in proton-proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dymov, S; Kacharava, A; Khoukaz, A; Komarov, V; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Kurbatov, V; Macharashvili, G; Merzliakov, S; Mielke, M; Mikirtychiants, S; Nekipelov, M; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Rathmann, F; Ströher, H; Tsirkov, D; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Wilkin, C; Yaschenko, S; Zalikhanov, B

    2009-01-01

    The cross section for inclusive multipion production in the pp->ppX reaction was measured at COSY-ANKE at four beam energies, 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, and 2.0 GeV, for low excitation energy in the final pp system, such that the diproton quasi-particle is in the 1S0 state. At the three higher energies the missing mass Mx spectra show a strong enhancement at low Mx, corresponding to an ABC effect that moves steadily to larger values as the energy is increased. Despite the missing-mass structure looking very different at 0.8 GeV, the variation with Mx and beam energy are consistent with two-pion production being mediated through the excitation of two Delta(1232) isobars, coupled to S-- and D-- states of the initial pp system.

  8. Analisis Incremental Kelayakan Penambahan Lini Perakitan Engine Motor Pt Abc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing motorcycle unit in Plant 1 of PT ABC requires engine supply from Plant 2. This has some burden on the operating cost of Plant 1 and the opportunity loss as well due to delay of motor engine delivery. Based on the problem, team proposes additional engine line in Plant 1 to cut engine supply from Plant 2. Therefore, team analyzes this proposal using incremental analysis to determine whether the proposal is feasible or not by comparing before and after condition with result NPV about IDR 967 Billion and Payback Period under 1 year. By this result, team determines that this proposal is recommended to be approved by management. 

  9. Supersymmetric Theory of Stochastic ABC Model: A Numerical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V; Ensslin, Torsten A; Wang, Kang L

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate numerically the stochastic ABC model, a toy model in the theory of astrophysical kinematic dynamos, within the recently proposed supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS). STS characterises stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by the spectrum of the stochastic evolution operator (SEO) on elements of the exterior algebra or differentials forms over the system's phase space, X. STS can thereby classify SDEs as chaotic or non-chaotic by identifying the phenomenon of stochastic chaos with the spontaneously broken topological supersymmetry that all SDEs possess. We demonstrate the following three properties of the SEO, deduced previously analytically and from physical arguments: the SEO spectra for zeroth and top degree forms never break topological supersymmetry, all SDEs possesses pseudo-time-reversal symmetry, and each de Rahm cohomology class provides one supersymmetric eigenstate. Our results also suggests that the SEO spectra for forms of complementary degrees, i.e., k and ...

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerzhakov, H V; Plumer, M L; Whitehead, J P

    2016-05-18

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerzhakov, H. V.; Plumer, M. L.; Whitehead, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  12. Counting Smooth Solutions to the Equation A+B=C

    CERN Document Server

    Lagarias, J C

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies integer solutions to the Diophantine equation A+B=C in which none of A, B, C have a large prime factor. We set H(A, B,C) = max(|A|, |B|, |C|), and consider primitive solutions (gcd}(A, B, C)=1) having no prime factor p larger than (log H(A, B,C))^K, for a given finite K. On the assumption that the Generalized Riemann hypothesis (GRH) holds, we show that for any K > 8 there are infinitely many such primitive solutions having no prime factor larger than (log H(A, B, C))^K. We obtain in this range an asymptotic formula for the number of such suitably weighted primitive solutions.

  13. A multidrug ABC transporter with a taste for salt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Velamakanni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LmrA is a multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter from Lactococcus lactis with no known physiological substrate, which can transport a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents and toxins from the cell. The protein can functionally replace the human homologue ABCB1 (also termed multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein MDR1 in lung fibroblast cells. Even though LmrA mediates ATP-dependent transport, it can use the proton-motive force to transport substrates, such as ethidium bromide, across the membrane by a reversible, H(+-dependent, secondary-active transport reaction. The mechanism and physiological context of this reaction are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined ion transport by LmrA in electrophysiological experiments and in transport studies using radioactive ions and fluorescent ion-selective probes. Here we show that LmrA itself can transport NaCl by a similar secondary-active mechanism as observed for ethidium bromide, by mediating apparent H(+-Na(+-Cl(- symport. Remarkably, LmrA activity significantly enhances survival of high-salt adapted lactococcal cells during ionic downshift. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observations on H(+-Na(+-Cl(- co-transport substantiate earlier suggestions of H(+-coupled transport by LmrA, and indicate a novel link between the activity of LmrA and salt stress. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of investigations into the bioenergetics of substrate translocation by ABC transporters for our understanding of fundamental mechanisms in this superfamily. This study represents the first use of electrophysiological techniques to analyze substrate transport by a purified multidrug transporter.

  14. Xe-bearing hydrocarbon ions: Observation of Xe.acetylene+rad and Xe.benzene+rad radical cations and calculations of their ground state structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhong-hua; Attah, Isaac K.; Platt, Sean P.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Kertesz, Miklos; El-Shall, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports evidence for novel types of Xe-bearing hydrocarbon radical cations. The Xe.acetylene+rad radical cation adduct is observed at nearly room temperature using the mass-selected drift cell technique. The irreversible addition of the Xe atom and the lack of back dissociation to HCCH+rad + Xe is consistent with the calculated binding energy of 0.85 eV to be contrasted with the metastable nature of the neutral Xe.acetylene adduct. The observed Xe.benzene+rad radical cation appears to be a weakly bound complex stabilized mainly by ion-induced dipole interaction consistent with a calculated binding energy in the range of 0.14-0.17 eV.

  15. Functional analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter gene family of Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broehan Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. Most are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad spectrum of substrates across lipid membranes. In insects, ABC transporters are of special interest because of their role in insecticide resistance. Results We have identified 73 ABC transporter genes in the genome of T. castaneum, which group into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H. This coleopteran ABC family is significantly larger than those reported for insects in other taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this increase is due to gene expansion within a single clade of subfamily ABCC. We performed an RNA interference (RNAi screen to study the function of ABC transporters during development. In ten cases, injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA into larvae caused developmental phenotypes, which included growth arrest and localized melanization, eye pigmentation defects, abnormal cuticle formation, egg-laying and egg-hatching defects, and mortality due to abortive molting and desiccation. Some of the ABC transporters we studied in closer detail to examine their role in lipid, ecdysteroid and eye pigment transport. Conclusions The results from our study provide new insights into the physiological function of ABC transporters in T. castaneum, and may help to establish new target sites for insect control.

  16. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dabiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activity Based Costing (ABC is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals.Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated.Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly.Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  17. ABC optimized RBF network for classification of EEG signal for epileptic seizure identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Satapathy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain signals usually generate certain electrical signals that can be recorded and analyzed for detection in several brain disorder diseases. These small signals are expressly called as Electroencephalogram (EEG signals. This research work analyzes the epileptic disorder in human brain through EEG signal analysis by integrating the best attributes of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC and radial basis function networks (RBFNNs. We have used Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT technique for extraction of potential features from the signal. In our study, for classification of these signals, in this paper, the RBFNNs have been trained by a modified version of ABC algorithm. In the modified ABC, the onlooker bees are selected based on binary tournament unlike roulette wheel selection of ABC. Additionally, kernels such as Gaussian, Multi-quadric, and Inverse-multi-quadric are used for measuring the effectiveness of the method in numerous mixtures of healthy segments, seizure-free segments, and seizure segments. Our experimental outcomes confirm that RBFNN with inverse-multi-quadric kernel trained with modified ABC is significantly better than RBFNNs with other kernels trained by ABC and modified ABC.

  18. 整合作业成本与经济附加值的ABC&EVA系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白明

    2006-01-01

    整合作业成本(activity-based costing,缩写ABC)与经济附加值(economic value added,缩写EVA)的产物是ABC&EVA系统.ABC&EVA系统不仅能够揭示成本对象所创造的经济价值,而且还能够将ABC从单纯的成本计算扩展到业绩评价.本文在分析ABC&EVA系统原理的基础上,结合案例对ABC&EVA系统运行步骤加以说明.

  19. The role of Candida albicans homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in DNA damage sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Theodore C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is frequently seen in immune suppressed patients, and resistance to one of the most widely used antifungals, fluconazole (FLC, can evolve rapidly. In recent years it has become clear that plasticity of the Candida albicans genome contributes to drug resistance through loss of heterozygosity (LOH at resistance genes and gross chromosomal rearrangements that amplify gene copy number of resistance associated genes. This study addresses the role of the homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in cell growth, DNA damage and FLC resistance in Candida albicans. Results The data presented here support a role for homologous recombination in cell growth and DNA damage sensitivity, as Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants were hypersensitive to MMS and menadione, and had an aberrant cell and nuclear morphology. The Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutant was defective in invasion of Spider agar, presumably due to the altered cellular morphology. In contrast, mutation of the related gene RDH54 did not contribute significantly to DNA damage resistance and cell growth, and deletion of either Candida albicans RAD54 or Candida albicans RDH54 did not alter FLC susceptibility. Conclusions Together, these results support a role for homologous recombination in genome stability under nondamaging conditions. The nuclear morphology defects in the rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants show that Rad54 performs an essential role during mitotic growth and that in its absence, cells arrest in G2. The viability of the single mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ and the inability to construct the double mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ rdh54Δ/rdh54Δ suggests that Rdh54 can partially compensate for Rad54 during mitotic growth.

  20. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Mona, E-mail: monelkhoury@gmail.com [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Mesurolle, Benoit [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de McGill, Cedar Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H3A1A1 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME.

  1. Diversity of ABC transporter genes across the plant kingdom and their potential utility in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Thomas S; Rempe, Caroline S; Davitt, Jack; Staton, Margaret E; Peng, Yanhui; Soltis, Douglas Edward; Melkonian, Michael; Deyholos, Michael; Leebens-Mack, James H; Chase, Mark; Rothfels, Carl J; Stevenson, Dennis; Graham, Sean W; Yu, Jun; Liu, Tao; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Yinlong; Zhu, Ying; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-05-31

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is ubiquitous among extant organisms and prominently represented in plants. ABC transporters act to transport compounds across cellular membranes and are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. Thus, the applicability to biotechnology is vast, including cancer resistance in humans, drug resistance among vertebrates, and herbicide and other xenobiotic resistance in plants. In addition, plants appear to harbor the highest diversity of ABC transporter genes compared with any other group of organisms. This study applied transcriptome analysis to survey the kingdom-wide ABC transporter diversity in plants and suggest biotechnology applications of this diversity. We utilized sequence similarity-based informatics techniques to infer the identity of ABC transporter gene candidates from 1295 phylogenetically-diverse plant transcriptomes. A total of 97,149 putative (approximately 25 % were full-length) ABC transporter gene members were identified; each RNA-Seq library (plant sample) had 88 ± 30 gene members. As expected, simpler organisms, such as algae, had fewer unique members than vascular land plants. Differences were also noted in the richness of certain ABC transporter subfamilies. Land plants had more unique ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter gene members on average (p plant groups (p plant groups. An increase in the number of gene family members present in the ABCB, ABCC, and ABCD transporter subfamilies may indicate an expansion of the ABC transporter superfamily among green land plants, which include all crop species. The striking difference between the number of ABCA subfamily transporter gene members between ferns and other plant taxa is surprising and merits further investigation. Discussed is the potential exploitation of ABC transporters in plant biotechnology, with an emphasis on crops.

  2. In situ observations of BrO over Antarctica - ER-2 aircraft results from 54 deg S to 72 deg S latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.; Chan, K. R.

    1989-01-01

    Bromine monoxide was observed in situ during nine flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft from Punta Arenas, Chile (54 deg S latitude), to 72 deg S latitude over the Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica. The first flight for the BrO detection system was on August 28. The distribution of BrO inside the chemically perturbed region defined by greatly elevated ClO abundances was different from that found just outside. Inside, the BrO mixing ratio was 6.1 + or - 1.1 pptv above the 440 K potential temperature surface, 4.7 + or - 2.0 pptv between the 400 and 440 K surfaces, and less than 4 pptv below the 400 K surface. At high latitudes outside the chemically perturbed region, the BrO mixing ratio was 5.4 + or - 1.4 pptv near the 450 K surface, but decreased to 2.9 + or - 1.2 pptv at the 420 K surface. The abundance of BrO showed no discernible temporal trend during the course of the nine flights. Away from the south polar region, at latitudes between 47 deg S and 37 deg N and potential temperatures between 435 and 500 K (18.5- to 20.7-km altitude), the BrO mixing ratio was 0.5-3.0 pptv.

  3. Bible and Philology: Gerhard von Rad regarding the Wisdom Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Haydeé Lase

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theology, through its history, has always been related to Philology, because its source is the Holy Scriptures. This reason has stimulated my further consideration of the exegeta Gerhard von Rad “Wisdom in Israel” a “symbol” of modern interest for the Wisdom books. Inserted in the philologic German trend of the history of tradition and history of editing and forms, it is opposed to positivists interpretation and installs a new comprehension of the OT traditions. Its hermeneutica, without deteriorating the historical criticism, gives first hand priority to the message that the scriptural brands patentize as a twist of an organization in constant growth. However, the love of live words, which is considered by the philologist, make him capable to have a wide effect of the methodological tools, and in this way; unravel the secrets of the world of wisdom. Now in the threshold of Christianism, Wisdom books prepare the adequate opening to receive the “new Wine” in “new containers”. Also, today, philology and wisdom summon us to go along with this moment of the History of Salvation with the necessary instruments and ancient breeding by old and modern wisemen.

  4. RadNet Map Interface for Near-Real-Time Radiation Monitoring Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples for analysis of radioactivity. The...

  5. Variations of dose rate observed by MSL/RAD in transit to Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jingnan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Posner, Arik; Heber, Bernd; Köhler, Jan; Rafkin, Scot; Ehresmann, Bent; Appel, Jan K; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Brinza, David E; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To predict the cruise radiation environment related to future human missions to Mars, the correlation between solar modulation potential and the dose rate measured by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) has been analyzed and empirical models have been employed to quantify this correlation. Methods: The instrument RAD, onboard Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures a broad spectrum of energetic particles along with the radiation dose rate during the 253-day cruise phase as well as on the surface of Mars. With these first ever measurements inside a spacecraft from Earth to Mars, RAD observed the impulsive enhancement of dose rate during solar particle events as well as a gradual evolution of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) induced radiation dose rate due to the modulation of the primary GCR flux by the solar magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activities and heliospheric rotation. Results: We analyzed the dependence of the dose rate measured by RAD on solar modulatio...

  6. Sol-Rad Net Flux (L 1.0, 1.5, 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  7. UPLC®-RAD the new standard in quality control of PET radiopharmaceutical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, B.; Zijlma, R.; Bannink, A.; Lub-De Hooge, M.; Elsinga, P.H.; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Boersma, H.H.; Luurtsema, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) compliant productions require validated, quality control procedures of the radiopharmaceutical. Quality control of the final product is conventionally performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV and radioactivity (RAD) detection. T

  8. RADS Version 4: An Efficient Way to Analyse the Multi-Mission Altimeter Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharroo, Remko; Leuliette, Eric; Naeije, Marc; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Pires, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    The Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) has grown to become a mature altimeter database. Over the last 18 years it is continuously being developed, first at Delft University of Technology, now also at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).RADS now serves as a fundamental Climate Data Record for sea level. Because of the multiple users involved in vetting the data and the regular updates to the database, RADS is one of the most accurate and complete databases of satellite altimeter data around.RADS version 4 is a major change from the previous version. While the database is compatible with both software versions, the new software provides new tools, allows easier expansion, and has a better and more standardised interface.

  9. Prostate MRI based on PI-RADS version 2: how we review and report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philipp Steiger; Harriet C Thoeny

    2016-01-01

    ... stratification in patients with suspected cancer in treatment naive prostate glands. It does not address detection of recurrence, progression during active surveillance and evaluation of other parts of the body. PI-RADS(TM...

  10. Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module (R-LAM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R-LAM (Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module), promises a new generation of both integrated navigation modules and stand-alone navigation subsystems including...

  11. Packaging Effects on RadFET Sensors for High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mekki, J; Glaser, M; Guatelli, S; Moll, M; Pia, M G; Ravotti, F

    2009-01-01

    RadFETs in customized chip carrier packages are installed in the LHC Experiments as radiation monitors. The package influence on the dose measurement in the complex LHC radiation environment is evaluated using Geant4 simulations and experimental data.

  12. Wide Temperature Rad-Hard ASIC for Process Control of a Fuel Cell System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group developed a top-level design of a rad-hard application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spacecraft power management that is functional over a...

  13. Rad10 exhibits lesion-dependent genetic requirements for recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Destaye M; Karlin, Justin; González-Barrera, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad1-Rad10 protein complex participates in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR). During HR, the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease cleaves 3' branches of DNA and aberrant 3' DNA ends that are refractory to other 3' processing enzymes. ...

  14. Simplified 2DEG carrier concentration model for composite barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Palash, E-mail: d.palash@gmail.com; Biswas, Dhrubes, E-mail: d.palash@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur - 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2014-04-24

    The self consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations is used along with the total charge depletion model and applied with a novel approach of composite AlGaN barrier based HEMT heterostructure. The solution leaded to a completely new analytical model for Fermi energy level vs. 2DEG carrier concentration. This was eventually used to demonstrate a new analytical model for the temperature dependent 2DEG carrier concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  15. Strumentazione multisensore selettiva per il monitoraggio in continuo degli odori nel settore ambientale

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    2010 - 2011 L’odore indotto dall’esercizio degli impianti di ingegneria sanitaria ambientale è ritenuto la causa principale di disturbo che la popolazione residente nelle vicinanze avverte. Sebbene alle emissioni odorigene sia solo raramente associato un reale rischio tossicologico-sanitario, sia per la natura raramente pericolosa degli odoranti che per le concentrazioni generalmente molto basse, nell’immaginario collettivo, ai cattivi odori si associano spesso condizioni di “non salubrità...

  16. Experimental measurement of the solubility of bismuth phases in water vapor from 220 deg. C to 300 deg. C: Implications for ore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszewski, Jason M. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3022 (United States); Wood, Scott A., E-mail: swood@uidaho.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3022 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Preliminary measurements were carried out of the solubility of the O{sub 2-}buffering assemblage bismuth + bismite (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in aqueous liquid-vapor and vapor-only systems at temperatures of 220, 250 and 300 deg. C. All experiments were carried out in Ti reaction vessels and were designed such that the Bi solids were contained in a silica tube that prevented contact with liquid water at any time during the experiment. Two blank (no Bi solids present) liquid-vapor experiments at 220 deg. C yielded Bi concentrations ({+-}1{sigma}) in the condensed liquid of 0.22 {+-} 0.02 mg/L, whereas the solubility measurements at this temperature yielded an average value of approximately 6 {+-} 9 mg/L, with replicate experiments ranging from 0.3 to 26 mg/L. Although the 6 mg/L value is associated with a considerable degree of uncertainty, the experiments do indicate transport of Bi through the vapor phase. Measured Bi concentrations in the condensed liquid at 250 deg. C were in the same range as those at 220 deg. C, whereas those at 300 deg. C were significantly lower (i.e., all below the blank value). Vapor-only experiments necessarily contained much smaller initial volumes of water, thereby making the results more susceptible to contamination. Single blank runs at 220 and 300 deg. C yielded Bi concentrations of 82 and 16 mg/L, respectively. Measured concentrations ({+-}1{sigma}) of Bi in the vapor-only solubility experiments at 220 deg. C were 235 {+-} 78 mg/L for an initial water volume of 0.5 mL, and at 300 deg. C were 56 {+-} 30 mg/L and 33 {+-} 21 for initial water volumes of 1 and 2 mL, respectively, suggesting strong preferential partitioning of Bi into the vapor. The results indicate a negative dependence of Bi solubility on temperature, but are inconclusive with respect to the dependence of Bi solubility on water density or fugacity. The experiments reported here suggest that significant Bi transport is possible in the vapor phase. Comparison of the liquid

  17. Ultrasonic features of BI-RADS 4 level breast lesions%超声诊断BI-RADS4级乳腺病灶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾卓; 王学梅; 耿晶; 张义侠; 李银燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of ultrasound in diagnosis of BI-RADS 4 level breast lesions. Methods Three hundred thirty-eight patients with 405 breast lesions underwent ultrasound examination! And the lesions were diagnosed as Bl-RADS 4 level. The results were compared with surgery and pathological findings. Results The diagnostic specificity of "spiculation", "posterior echo attenuation" and "RI≥0. 7" to BI-RADS 4 level breast cancer was 98. 36% (299/ 304), 90.12% (274/304) and 86. 24% (262/304), respectively. Conclusion The findings of "spiculaiton", "posterior echo attenuation" and "RI≥0. 7" are the most specific ultrasonic signs of BI-RADS 4 level breast lesions that indicating the grading of BI-RADS 4 level to 4C.%目的 探讨恶性超声征象诊断BI-RADS 4级乳腺病变的价值.方法 回顾性分析术前应用超声诊断为BI-RADS 4级的乳腺病变患者338例(405个病灶),将超声所见与手术病理结果进行对照.结果 “毛刺征”、“后方回声衰减”及“RI值≥0.7”为诊断特异度较高的超声征象,对乳腺癌的诊断特异度分别为98.36%(299/304)、90.12%(274/304)和86.24%(262/304).结论 “毛刺征”、“后方回声衰减”及“RI值≥0.7”为特异度较高的超声征象,当出现这3个征象时,BI-RADS 4级评分倾向于4C级.

  18. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, I; Morikawa, K; ISHINO, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purifie...

  19. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    OpenAIRE

    I. Hayashi; Morikawa, K.; Ishino, Y

    1999-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purifie...

  20. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  1. Evaluation of myocardial SPECT imaging reconstructed from 270deg projection data. A study using a cardiac phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikura, Kenichi [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Akita (Japan). Akita Lab.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kashikura, Akemi

    1997-01-01

    SPECT reconstruction is commonly performed using 360deg or 180deg projection data. However, it is also possible to reconstruct SPECT images using other projection data arcs. The purpose of this study was to characterize images obtained by limiting the projection data to 270deg by discarding the projection views with severe attenuation. A series of phantom studies was performed with and without plastic chambers simulating perfusion defects using {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc. Images using 270deg, 360deg, and 180deg projection arcs were identically reconstructed from the same data. In the absence of plastic chambers, intraslice uniformity in a given slice was assessed by computing the coefficient of variation (CV) of average counts in 8 ROIs within the slice. Interslice uniformity was assessed by computing the CV of average counts in five short axial slices. With plastic chambers in place, the variability in defect contrasts was assessed by computing the CV of defect contrasts in 4 chambers, located on the anterior, lateral, inferoposterior, and septal walls. The intraslice uniformity of the 270deg images were considerably inferior to those of the 360deg and 180deg images. The interslice uniformity was highest in the 360deg images, and lowest in the 180deg images. The variation in defect contrasts in the 270deg image was higher than those of the other two images. The 270deg images showed a high defect contrast in the septum and high counts in the anterior and anteroseptal wall. Because a large variation in defect contrasts within a segment might result in false positive or negative in diagnosis, 270deg imaging is not recommended over 360deg or 180deg imaging. (author)

  2. The ABC Catering Services Ltd.ABC食品供应服务公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄权初

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction ABC Catering Services Ltd. has long recognized its needs to compete effectively in its key markets in the Pacific Rim. With ABC' s historical focus on delivering almost faultless service, comparatively little attention has been given to the supply chain cost of that delivery. However, the new kitchen at Seoul, was open in 1997, added more workload to the company. Things have not been working well since then.The ABC Corporation realizes that it is necessary to reduce supply chain costs and to improve its operation efficiency in order to retain and expand customer base.

  3. A Design of ABC95 Array Computer Multi-function Interconnection Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ABC95 array computer is a multi-function network computer based on FPGA technology. A notable feature of ABC95 array computer is the support of complex interconnection, which determines that the computer must have enough I/O band and flexible communications between Pes. The authors designed the interconnecting network chips of ABC95 and realized a form of multi-function interconnection. The multi-function interconnecting network supports conflict-free access from processors to memory matrix and the MESH network of enhanced processors to processor communications. The design scheme has been proved feasible by experiment.

  4. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, David C.; Vergani, Paola; Csanády, László

    2006-03-01

    CFTR chloride channels are encoded by the gene mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. These channels belong to the superfamily of ABC transporter ATPases. ATP-driven conformational changes, which in other ABC proteins fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes, in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. New structural and biochemical information from prokaryotic ABC proteins and functional information from CFTR channels has led to a unifying mechanism explaining those ATP-driven conformational changes.

  5. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, David C; Vergani, Paola; Csanády, László

    2006-03-23

    CFTR chloride channels are encoded by the gene mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. These channels belong to the superfamily of ABC transporter ATPases. ATP-driven conformational changes, which in other ABC proteins fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes, in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. New structural and biochemical information from prokaryotic ABC proteins and functional information from CFTR channels has led to a unifying mechanism explaining those ATP-driven conformational changes.

  6. RAD tag sequencing as a source of SNP markers in Cynara cardunculus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Scaglione Davide; Acquadro Alberto; Portis Ezio; Tirone Matteo; Knapp Steven J; Lanteri Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) genome is relatively poorly explored, especially compared to those of the other major Asteraceae crops sunflower and lettuce. No SNP markers are in the public domain. We have combined the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) approach with the Illumina DNA sequencing platform to effect the rapid and mass discovery of SNP markers for C. cardunculus. Results RAD tags were sequenced from the genomic ...

  7. Functional Analysis of the Bacteriophage T4 Rad50 Homolog (gp46) Coiled-coil Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfoot, Tasida; Herdendorf, Timothy J; Behning, Bryanna R; Stohr, Bradley A; Gao, Yang; Kreuzer, Kenneth N; Nelson, Scott W

    2015-09-25

    Rad50 and Mre11 form a complex involved in the detection and processing of DNA double strand breaks. Rad50 contains an anti-parallel coiled-coil with two absolutely conserved cysteine residues at its apex. These cysteine residues serve as a dimerization domain and bind a Zn(2+) cation in a tetrathiolate coordination complex known as the zinc-hook. Mutation of the zinc-hook in bacteriophage T4 is lethal, indicating the ability to bind Zn(2+) is critical for the functioning of the MR complex. In vitro, we found that complex formation between Rad50 and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of Mre11 enhances the ATPase activity of Rad50, supporting the hypothesis that the coiled-coil is a major conduit for communication between Mre11 and Rad50. We constructed mutations to perturb this domain in the bacteriophage T4 Rad50 homolog. Deletion of the Rad50 coiled-coil and zinc-hook eliminates Mre11 binding and ATPase activation but does not affect its basal activity. Mutation of the zinc-hook or disruption of the coiled-coil does not affect Mre11 or DNA binding, but their activation of Rad50 ATPase activity is abolished. Although these mutants excise a single nucleotide at a normal rate, they lack processivity and have reduced repetitive exonuclease rates. Restricting the mobility of the coiled-coil eliminates ATPase activation and repetitive exonuclease activity, but the ability to support single nucleotide excision is retained. These results suggest that the coiled-coiled domain adopts at least two conformations throughout the ATPase/nuclease cycle, with one conformation supporting enhanced ATPase activity and processivity and the other supporting nucleotide excision.

  8. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS in 2014 (copyright 2013, which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  9. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyon Lee

    2016-01-01

    The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in 2014 (copyright 2013), which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  10. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyon Lee

    2017-01-01

    The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in 2014 (copyright 2013), which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  11. Positive Predictive Value of BI-RADS Categorization in an Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yah-Yuen Tan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS categorization of mammograms is useful in estimating the risk of malignancy, thereby guiding management decisions. However, in Asian women, in whom breast density is increased, the sensitivity of mammography is correspondingly lower. We sought to determine the positive predictive value of BI-RADS categorization for malignancy in our Asian population and, hence, its value in helping us to choose between the various modalities for breast biopsy. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occult breast lesions detected on mammography or ultrasound who underwent needle-localization open breast biopsy (NLOB in our institution over a 6-year period. There were 470 biopsies in 427 patients; 16% of lesions were malignant. The positive predictive value of BI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions for cancer was 0.27 and 0.84, respectively. While most BI-RADS 5 mass lesions were invasive cancers, the majority of calcifications in this category were in situ carcinomas. We conclude that BI-RADS remains useful in aiding decision-making for biopsy in our Asian population. Based on positive predictive values, we recommend percutaneous breast biopsy for initial evaluation of lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4 or less. For BI-RADS 5 lesions with microcalcifications, open surgical biopsy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure may be more appropriate. In the case of a BI-RADS 5 lesion associated with a mass, initial percutaneous biopsy may be useful for diagnosis, followed by a planned single-stage surgical procedure as necessary.

  12. The checkpoint Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad9 protein contains a tandem tudor domain that recognizes DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancelot, Nathalie; Charier, Gaëlle; Couprie, Joël; Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Quémeneur, Eric; Ma, Emilie; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Ropars, Virginie; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Miron, Simona; Craescu, Constantin,; Callebaut, Isabelle; Gilquin, Bernard; Zinn-Justin, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; DNA damage checkpoints are signal transduction pathways that are activated after genotoxic insults to protect genomic integrity. At the site of DNA damage, 'mediator' proteins are in charge of recruiting 'signal transducers' to molecules 'sensing' the damage. Budding yeast Rad9, fission yeast Crb2 and metazoan 53BP1 are presented as mediators involved in the activation of checkpoint kinases. Here we show that, despite low sequence conservation, Rad9 exhibits a tandem t...

  13. Characterization methodology for Difficult To Measure nuclides in the Type B rad waste from the ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Youngyong; Hong, Kwonpyo; Oh, Wanho; Kang, Munja; Na, Byungchan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In general, it is not possible to directly detect beta rays from the rad waste in the field measurement due to their extremely low penetration through the materials. Only lab-scale measurements with proper shield and detecting system are available for the nondestructive assay. However, the disposal sites in many countries require the determination of inventories of the difficult to-measure (DTM) nuclides in the waste before their acceptance for disposal. Many sites that generate rad wastes thus are adapting the indirect method to characterize the DTM nuclides in the rad waste to be disposed. The rad waste from the operation of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) will be sent to the hot cell building (HCB) after packing it to the basket and they are then treated into the disposal form as well as characterized through the nondestructive assay. The rad waste properties from the ITER are that high density material such as a steel, a copper, and a tungsten accounts for the main substance and many nuclides due to the neutron irradiation including the DTM nuclides exists in that waste. Therefore, the ITER is also facing with the problem for the characterization of DTM nuclides. The scaling factor for the radiological relationship between the gamma and the beta nuclides is one of the indirect measurements to characterize the DTM nuclides in the waste. The methodology of the scaling factor to apply this method to the characterization the Type B rad waste from the ITER are presented in this paper. There are several types of the in-vessel components (IVCs) in a Tokamak which will be activated by neutron and they will be divided into different types of the rad waste such as the divertor cassette, blanket module, and port plugs. In this paper, the characterization of DTM nuclides will be focused on the rad waste from a blanket module out of IVCs.

  14. Characterization of Rad51 from apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii: an implication for inefficient gene targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achanta, Sita Swati; Varunan, Shalu M; Bhattacharyya, Sunanda; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Repairing double strand breaks (DSBs) is absolutely essential for the survival of obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, DSB repair mechanisms could be excellent targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. Recent genetic and bioinformatics analyses confirm the presence of both homologous recombination (HR) as well as non homologous end joining (NHEJ) proteins in this lower eukaryote. In order to get mechanistic insights into the HR mediated DSB repair pathway in this parasite, we have characterized the key protein involved in homologous recombination, namely TgRad51, at the biochemical and genetic levels. We have purified recombinant TgRad51 protein to 99% homogeneity and have characterized it biochemically. The ATP hydrolysis activity of TgRad51 shows a higher K(M) and much lower k(cat) compared to bacterial RecA or Rad51 from other related protozoan parasites. Taking yeast as a surrogate model system we have shown that TgRad51 is less efficient in gene conversion mechanism. Further, we have found that TgRad51 mediated gene integration is more prone towards random genetic loci rather than targeted locus. We hypothesize that compromised ATPase activity of TgRad51 is responsible for inefficient gene targeting and poor gene conversion efficiency in this protozoan parasite. With increase in homologous flanking regions almost three fold increments in targeted gene integration is observed, which is similar to the trend found with ScRad51. Our findings not only help us in understanding the reason behind inefficient gene targeting in T. gondii but also could be exploited to facilitate high throughput knockout as well as epitope tagging of Toxoplasma genes.

  15. Characterization of Rad51 from apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii: an implication for inefficient gene targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Swati Achanta

    Full Text Available Repairing double strand breaks (DSBs is absolutely essential for the survival of obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, DSB repair mechanisms could be excellent targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. Recent genetic and bioinformatics analyses confirm the presence of both homologous recombination (HR as well as non homologous end joining (NHEJ proteins in this lower eukaryote. In order to get mechanistic insights into the HR mediated DSB repair pathway in this parasite, we have characterized the key protein involved in homologous recombination, namely TgRad51, at the biochemical and genetic levels. We have purified recombinant TgRad51 protein to 99% homogeneity and have characterized it biochemically. The ATP hydrolysis activity of TgRad51 shows a higher K(M and much lower k(cat compared to bacterial RecA or Rad51 from other related protozoan parasites. Taking yeast as a surrogate model system we have shown that TgRad51 is less efficient in gene conversion mechanism. Further, we have found that TgRad51 mediated gene integration is more prone towards random genetic loci rather than targeted locus. We hypothesize that compromised ATPase activity of TgRad51 is responsible for inefficient gene targeting and poor gene conversion efficiency in this protozoan parasite. With increase in homologous flanking regions almost three fold increments in targeted gene integration is observed, which is similar to the trend found with ScRad51. Our findings not only help us in understanding the reason behind inefficient gene targeting in T. gondii but also could be exploited to facilitate high throughput knockout as well as epitope tagging of Toxoplasma genes.

  16. Practical and illustrated summary of updated BI-RADS for ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Yon [Dept. of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Cancer Institute, Breast Imaging Center, New York (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The American College of Radiology released the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in 2014 (copyright 2013), which includes the expanded second edition of the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. This review provides a practical summary of the updated lexicon, including selective illustrations with original clinical images, a discussion of overarching concepts, and examples of current clinical applications.

  17. Formation of the productive ATP-Mg2+-bound dimer of GlcV, an ABC-ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdon, G; Albers, SV; van Oosterwijk, N; Dijkstra, BW; Driessen, AJM; Thunnissen, AMWH; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2003-01-01

    The ABC-ATPase GlcV from Sulfolobus solfataricus energizes an ABC transporter mediating glucose uptake. In ABC transporters, two ABC-ATPases are believed to form a head-to-tail dimer, with both monomers contributing conserved residues to each of the two productive active sites. In contrast, isolated

  18. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD7 and RAD16 genes are required for inducible excision of endonuclease III sensitive-sites, yet are not needed for the repair of these lesions following a single UV dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A D; Waters, R

    1997-01-31

    The RAD7 and RAD16 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have roles in the repair of UV induced CPDs in nontranscribed genes [1], and in the repair of CPDs in the nontranscribed strand of transcribed genes [2]. Previously, we identified an inducible component to nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is absent in a rad16 delta strain [3]. We have examined the repair of UV induced endonuclease III sensitive-sites (EIIISS), and have shown repair of these lesions to proceed by NER but their removal from nontranscribed regions is independent of RAD7 and RAD16. Furthermore, EIIISS are repaired with equal efficiency from both transcribed and nontranscribed genes [4]. In order to dissect the roles of RAD7 and RAD16 in the above processes we examined the repair of EIIISS in the MAT alpha and HML alpha loci, which are, respectively, transcriptionally active and inactive in alpha haploid cells. These loci have elevated levels of these lesions after UV (in genomic DNA EIIISS constitute about 10% of total lesions, whereas CPDs are about 70% of total lesions). We have shown that excision of UV induced EIIISS is enhanced following a prior UV irradiation. No enhancement of repair was detected in either the rad7 delta or the rad16 delta mutant. The fact that RAD7 and RAD16 are not required for the repair of EIIISS per se yet are required for the enhanced excision of these lesions from MAT alpha and HML alpha suggests two possibilities. These genes have two roles in NER, namely in the repair of CPDs from nontranscribed sequences, and in enhancing NER itself regardless of whether these genes' products are required for the excision of the specific lesion being repaired. In the latter case, the induction of RAD7 and RAD16 may increase the turnover of complexes stalled in nontranscribed DNA so as to increase the availability of NER proteins for the repair of CPDs and EIIISS in all regions of the genome.

  19. Overexpressed of RAD51 suppresses recombination defects: a possible mechanism to reverse genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2009-10-15

    RAD51, a key protein in the homologous recombinational DNA repair (HRR) pathway, is the major strand-transferase required for mitotic recombination. An important early step in HRR is the formation of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) coated by RPA (a ss-DNA binding protein). Displacement of RPA by RAD51 is highly regulated and facilitated by a number of different proteins known as the 'recombination mediators'. To assist these recombination mediators, a second group of proteins also is required and we are defining these proteins here as 'recombination co-mediators'. Defects in either recombination mediators or comediators, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, lead to impaired HRR that can genetically be complemented for (i.e. suppressed) by overexpression of RAD51. Defects in HRR have long been known to contribute to genomic instability leading to tumor development. Since genomic instability also slows cell growth, precancerous cells presumably require genomic restabilization to gain a growth advantage. RAD51 is overexpressed in many tumors, and therefore, we hypothesize that the complementing ability of elevated levels of RAD51 in tumors with initial HRR defects limits genomic instability during carcinogenic progression. Of particular interest, this model may also help explain the high frequency of TP53 mutations in human cancers, since wild-type p53 represses RAD51.

  20. Bloom syndrome helicase stimulates RAD51 DNA strand exchange activity through a novel mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazina, Olga M; Mazin, Alexander V

    2009-09-25

    Loss or inactivation of BLM, a helicase of the RecQ family, causes Bloom syndrome, a genetic disorder with a strong predisposition to cancer. Although the precise function of BLM remains unknown, genetic data has implicated BLM in the process of genetic recombination and DNA repair. Previously, we demonstrated that BLM can disrupt the RAD51-single-stranded DNA filament that promotes the initial steps of homologous recombination. However, this disruption occurs only if RAD51 is present in an inactive ADP-bound form. Here, we investigate interactions of BLM with the active ATP-bound form of the RAD51-single-stranded DNA filament. Surprisingly, we found that BLM stimulates DNA strand exchange activity of RAD51. In contrast to the helicase activity of BLM, this stimulation does not require ATP hydrolysis. These data suggest a novel BLM function that is stimulation of the RAD51 DNA pairing. Our results demonstrate the important role of the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament conformation in stimulation of DNA pairing by BLM.