WorldWideScience

Sample records for deg inclination orbit

  1. The orbital inclination of Cygnus XR-1 measured polarimetrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray binary Cyg XR-1/HDE 226868 was observed polarimetrically over one orbit at three different optical wavelengths. The standard theory of Brown, et al. (1978) is used to derive an orbital inclination i = 62 deg (+5 deg, -37 deg), where the error is the 90-percent-confidence interval derived by the method of Simmons, et al. (1980). The value of the orbital inclination is significantly lower than values based on polarimetric observations. The difference is a result of the observational protocols used. A bias toward larger values of the inclination caused by the tidal distortion of the primary is still found in the present result. The inclination derived corresponds to a mass of the compact component of 6.3 solar masses, above the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole. 37 refs

  2. The orbital inclination of A0620 - 00 measured polarimetrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.

    1989-01-01

    The mass of the degenerate primary in A0620 - 00 is inferred from its spectroscopic mass function to be not less than 3.2 solar masses, making it an excellent candidate for a black hole. The exact value of the mass depends on the orbital inclination. The inclination of a binary system can be determined from the shape of its Stokes parameter light curves if the linear polarization of the system varies as a function of orbital phase. A0620 - 00 over one 8-hour binary period was observed with the 4.5-m equivalent MMT. Its polarization in the visible is variable with orbital phase. The standard theory of Brown et al. (1978) was used to derive an orbital inclination of i = 57 deg (+20 deg, -50 deg), where the error is the 90-percent confidence interval. An inclination of i = 57 deg corresponds to a mass of the compact primary of 6.6 solar masses, but the large uncertainty in the measured value of the inclination allows the derived mass of A0620 - 00 to be as low as 3.8 solar masses. If this is taken to be the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole, then the mass of A0620 - 00 is still not well enough determined to conclude that it must be a black hole. 21 refs

  3. 47 CFR 25.280 - Inclined orbit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclined orbit operations. 25.280 Section 25.280 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.280 Inclined orbit operations. (a) Satellite operators may commence...

  4. Geosynchronous inclined orbits for high-latitude communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Flores, R. M.; Di Carlo, M.; Di Salvo, A.; Cabot, E.

    2017-11-01

    We present and discuss a solution to the growing demand for satellite telecommunication coverage in the high-latitude geographical regions (beyond 55°N), where the signal from geostationary satellites is limited or unavailable. We focus on the dynamical issues associated to the design, the coverage, the maintenance and the disposal of a set of orbits selected for the purpose. Specifically, we identify a group of highly inclined, moderately eccentric geosynchronous orbits derived from the Tundra orbit (geosynchronous, eccentric and critically inclined). Continuous coverage can be guaranteed by a constellation of three satellites in equally spaced planes and suitably phased. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the relevant environmental perturbations, we study the evolution of these orbits. The effects of the different perturbations on the ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) are isolated and analyzed. The physical model and the numerical setup are optimized with respect to computing time and accuracy. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the key parameters are the orbital period and the argument of perigee. Furthermore, corrections to the right ascension of the ascending node are needed in order to preserve the relative orientation of the orbital planes. A station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption is then devised, and comparisons are made between the cost of a solution based on impulsive maneuvers and one with continuous thrust. Finally, the issue of end-of-life disposal is discussed.

  5. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  6. Mean Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit - II - Orbital inclination, longitude of ascending node, mean longitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The osculating orbital elements include the mean, secular, long period, and short period terms. The iterative algorithm used for conversion of osculating orbital elements to mean orbital elements is described. The mean orbital elements of Wc, Ws, and L are obtained.

  7. The Carter constant for inclined orbits about a massive Kerr black hole: I. Circular orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorowski, P G; Valluri, S R; Houde, M, E-mail: pkomorow@uwo.c, E-mail: valluri@uwo.c, E-mail: mhoude2@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-11-21

    In an extreme binary black hole system, an orbit will increase its angle of inclination ({iota}) as it evolves in Kerr spacetime. We focus our attention on the behaviour of the Carter constant (Q) for near-polar orbits, and develop an analysis that is independent of and complements radiation-reaction models. For a Schwarzschild black hole, the polar orbits represent the abutment between the prograde and retrograde orbits at which Q is at its maximum value for given values of the latus rectum ({tilde l}) and the eccentricity (e). The introduction of spin ({tilde S}={vert_bar}J{vert_bar}/M{sup 2}) to the massive black hole causes this boundary, or abutment, to be moved towards greater orbital inclination; thus, it no longer cleanly separates prograde and retrograde orbits. To characterize the abutment of a Kerr black hole (KBH), we first investigated the last stable orbit (LSO) of a test-particle about a KBH, and then extended this work to general orbits. To develop a better understanding of the evolution of Q we developed analytical formulae for Q in terms of {tilde l}, e and {tilde S} to describe elliptical orbits at the abutment, polar orbits and LSOs. By knowing the analytical form of {partial_derivative}Q/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} at the abutment, we were able to test a 2PN flux equation for Q. We also used these formulae to numerically calculate the {partial_derivative}{iota}/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} of hypothetical circular orbits that evolve along the abutment. From these values we have determined that {partial_derivative}{iota}/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} = -(122.7{tilde S} - 36{tilde S}{sup 3}){tilde l}{sup -11/2} - (63/2 {tilde S} + 35/4 {tilde S}{sup 3}){tilde l}{sup -9/2} - 15/2 {tilde S}{tilde l}{sup -7/2} - 9/2 {tilde S}{tilde l}{sup -5/2}. By taking the limit of this equation for {tilde l} {yields} {infinity}, and comparing it with the published result for the weak-field radiation reaction, we found the upper limit on

  8. LONG-LIVED CHAOTIC ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF EXOPLANETS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES WITH MUTUAL INCLINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 86716 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Lead Team (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits.

  9. LONG-LIVED CHAOTIC ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF EXOPLANETS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES WITH MUTUAL INCLINATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R.; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N.

    2015-01-01

    We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits

  10. Planet Formation in Disks with Inclined Binary Companions: Can Primordial Spin-Orbit Misalignment be Produced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.

  11. PLANETESIMAL ACCRETION IN BINARY SYSTEMS: ROLE OF THE COMPANION'S ORBITAL INCLINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations show that planets can reside in close binary systems with stellar separation of only ∼20 AU. However, planet formation in such close binary systems is a challenge to current theory. One of the major theoretical problems occurs in the intermediate stage-planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos-during which the companion's perturbations can stir up the relative velocities (utriV) of planetesimals and thus slow down or even cease their growth. Recent studies have shown that conditions could be even worse for accretion if the gas-disk evolution was included. However, all previous studies assumed a two-dimensional disk and a coplanar binary orbit. Extending previous studies by including a three-dimensional gas disk and an inclined binary orbit with small relative inclination of i B = 0. 0 1-5 0 , we numerically investigate the conditions for planetesimal accretion at 1-2 AU, an extension of the habitable zone (∼1-1.3 AU), around α Centauri A in this paper. Inclusion of the binary inclination leads to the following: (1) differential orbital phasing is realized in the three-dimensional space, and thus different-sized bodies are separated from each other, (2) total impact rate is lower, and impacts mainly occur between similar-sized bodies, (3) accretion is more favored, but the balance between accretion and erosion remains uncertain, and the 'possible accretion region' extends up to 2 AU when assuming an optimistic Q* (critical specific energy that leads to catastrophic fragmentation), and (4) impact velocities (utriV) are significantly reduced but still much larger than their escape velocities, which infers that planetesimals grow by means of type II runaway mode. As a conclusion, the inclusion of a small binary inclination is a promising mechanism that favors accretion, opening a possibility that planet formation in close binary systems can go through the difficult stage of planetesimals accretion into planetary embryos.

  12. ERS orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Mats

    1991-12-01

    The European remote sensing mission orbit control is addressed. For the commissioning phase, the orbit is defined by the following requirements: Sun synchronous, local time of descending node 10:30; three days repeat cycle with 43 orbital revolutions; overhead Venice tower (12.508206 deg east, 45.314222 deg north). The launch, maneuvers for the initial acquisition of the operational orbit, orbit maintenance maneuvers, evaluation of the orbit control, and the drift of the inclination are summarized.

  13. The Effects of Moon’s Uneven Mass Distribution on the Critical Inclinations of a Lunar Orbiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid A. Rahoma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The uneven mass distribution of the Moon highly perturbs the lunar spacecrafts. This uneven mass distribution leads to peculiar dynamical features of the lunar orbiters. The critical inclination is the value of inclination which keeps the deviation of the argument of pericentre from the initial values to be zero. Considerable investigations have been performed for critical inclination when the gravity field is assumed to be symmetric around the equator, namely for oblate gravity field to which Earth’s satellites are most likely to be subjected. But in the case of a lunar orbiter, the gravity field of mass distribution is rather asymmetric, that is, sectorial, and tesseral, harmonic coefficients are big enough so they can’t be neglected. In the present work, the effects of the first sectorial and tesseral harmonic coefficients in addition to the first zonal harmonic coefficients on the critical inclination of a lunar artificial satellite are investigated. The study is carried out using the Hamiltonian framework. The Hamiltonian of the problem is cconstructed and the short periodic terms are eliminated using Delaunay canonical variables. Considering the above perturbations, numerical simulations for a hypothetical lunar orbiter are presented. Finally, this study reveals that the critical inclination is quite different from the critical inclination of traditional sense and/or even has multiple solutions. Consequently, different families of critical inclination are obtained and analyzed.

  14. Control by damping Injection of Electrodynamic Tether System in an Inclined Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    dynamical system. Based on this model, a nonlinear controller is designed that will make the system asymptotically stable around its open-loop equilibrium. The control scheme handles the time-varying nature of the system in a suitable manner resulting in a large operational region. The performance...... of the closed loop system is treated using Floquet theory, investigating the closed loop properties for their dependency of the controller gain and orbit inclination.......Control of a satellite system with an electrodynamic tether as actuator is a time-periodic and underactuated control problem. This paper considers the tethered satellite in a Hamiltonian framework and determines a port-controlled Hamiltonian formulation that adequately describes the nonlinear...

  15. Charge transport in 2DEG/s-wave superconductor junction with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We study spin-dependent charge transport in superconducting junctions. We consider ballistic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)/s-wave superconductor junctions with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling (DSOC). We calculate the conductance normalized by that in the normal state of superconductor in order to study the effect of DSOC in 2DEG on conductance, changing the height of insulating barrier. We find the DSOC suppresses the conductance for low insulating barrier, while it can slightly enhance the conductance for high insulating barrier. It has a reentrant dependence on DSOC for middle strength insulating barrier. The effect of DSOC is weaken as the insulating barrier becomes high

  16. THE GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANETS ON INCLINED ORBITS AND PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AS THE ORIGIN OF PRIMORDIAL SPIN–ORBIT MISALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Many of the observed spin–orbit alignment properties of exoplanets can be explained in the context of the primordial disk misalignment model, in which an initially aligned protoplanetary disk is torqued by a distant stellar companion on a misaligned orbit, resulting in a precessional motion that can lead to large-amplitude oscillations of the spin–orbit angle. We consider a variant of this model in which the companion is a giant planet with an orbital radius of a few astronomical units. Guided by the results of published numerical simulations, we model the dynamical evolution of this system by dividing the disk into inner and outer parts—separated at the location of the planet—that behave as distinct, rigid disks. We show that the planet misaligns the inner disk even as the orientation of the outer disk remains unchanged. In addition to the oscillations induced by the precessional motion, whose amplitude is larger the smaller the initial inner-disk-to-planet mass ratio, the spin–orbit angle also exhibits a secular growth in this case—driven by ongoing mass depletion from the disk—that becomes significant when the inner disk’s angular momentum drops below that of the planet. Altogether, these two effects can produce significant misalignment angles for the inner disk, including retrograde configurations. We discuss these results within the framework of the Stranded Hot Jupiter scenario and consider their implications, including the interpretation of the alignment properties of debris disks.

  17. Optimization of high-inclination orbits using planetary flybys for a zodiacal light-imaging mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gabriel; Lloyd, James; Savransky, Dmitry; Grogan, Keith; Sinha, Amlan

    2017-09-01

    The zodiacal light caused by interplanetary dust grains is the second-most luminous source in the solar system. The dust grains coalesce into structures reminiscent of early solar system formation; their composition has been predicted through simulations and some edge-on observations but better data is required to validate them. Scattered light from these dust grains presents challenges to exoplanet imaging missions: resolution of their stellar environment is hindered by exozodiacal emissions and therefore sets the size and scope of these imaging missions. Understanding the composition of this interplanetary dust in our solar system requires an imaging mission from a vantage point above the ecliptic plane. The high surface brightness of the zodiacal light requires only a small aperture with moderate sensitivity; therefore a 3cm camera is enough to meet the science goals of the mission at an orbital height of 0.1AU above the ecliptic. A 6U CubeSat is the target mass for this mission which will be a secondary payload detaching from an existing interplanetary mission. Planetary flybys are utilized to produce most of the plane change Δv deep space corrective maneuvers are implemented to optimize each planetary flyby. We developed an algorithm which determines the minimum Δv required to place the CubeSat on a transfer orbit to a planet's sphere of influence and maximizes the resultant orbital height with respect to the ecliptic plane. The satellite could reach an orbital height of 0.22 AU with an Earth gravity assist in late 2024 by boarding the Europa Clipper mission.

  18. Spin-orbit coupling in InGaSb/InAlSb and InGaAs/InP 2DEGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; Schaepers, Thomas; Estevez, Sergio; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Akabori, Masashi; Sato, Taku; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu; Yamada, Syoji

    2008-01-01

    Spin-orbit interaction in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed in high indium content InGaAs-based and InGaSb-based quantum wells was studied. Magnetotransort measurements were performed at low temperatures in a wide range of magnetic field. Characteristic beating pattern in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations as well as the enhancement of magnetoconductance at B=0 T due to weak antilocalization (WAL) effect were observed. A comparison of the values of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling parameters estimated from analysis of the beatings with the ones obtained from the fit of the WAL curves showed a good agreement. A control over the strength of the Rashba coupling parameter in the InGaAs 2DEG was achieved by applying a gate voltage. We found that in particular range of the negative gate voltages no beatings can be observed anymore, whereas the weak antilocalization becomes more pronounced. Under such conditions analysis of the WAL is a reliable method to determine the strength of the spin-orbit interaction in 2DEGs

  19. Orbit and geometry constraints on the design and operation of a long-life SIRTF mission. [Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    For a long-life SIRTF mission, the ability of the telescope to observe targets everywhere in the sky is an important requirement. For low-inclination orbits, a telescope aperture shade must be designed for Sun and Earth Limb avoidance angles of 50 deg to 60 deg to prevent unwanted radiation from entering the telescope. The minimum orbit inclination depends on the Earth Limb avoidance angle. About 30 percent of the sky will be prohibited for observations during any day in orbit, with about 100 days in orbit required to observe the entire sky.

  20. Determination of the orientation of the white dwarf's magnetic axis from X-ray orbital light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, I.L.

    1986-01-01

    The directional pattern of soft X-ray radiation produced in a ''polar cap'' on the white dwarf's surface is calculated taking into account the absorption in the axially symmetrical accretion column, homogeneous along its height. An algorithm for the determination of orientation of the magnetic axis of a compact star from orbital curves of soft X-ray flux, is suggested. The values of the orbital inclination i (51 deg <=i<64 deg) and the angle between the rotational and magnetic axes σ (30 deg <=σ<=34 deg) were calculated for the polar AM Herculis for different values of model parameters

  1. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. 170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. 135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i ≤ 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  2. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  3. Project Freebird: An orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneses, Carlos A.; Blanchette, Ryan L.; Brann, David M.; Campos, Mario J.; Cohen, Lisa E.; Corcoran, Daniel J., III; Cox, James F.; Curtis, Trevor J.; Douglass, Deborah A.; Downard, Catherine L.

    1994-08-01

    Freebird is a space-based orbital transfer vehicle designed to repair and deorbit orbital assets. Freebird is based at International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) at an inclination of 51.6 deg and is capable of three types of missions: crewed and teleoperated LEO missions, and extended robotic missions. In a crewed local configuration, the vehicle can visit inclinations between 30.8 deg and 72.4 deg at altitudes close to 390 km. Adding extra fuel tanks extends this range of inclination up to 84.9 deg and down to 18.3 deg. Furthermore, removing the crew module, using the vehicle in a teleoperated manner, and operating with extra fuel tanks allows missions to polar and geosynchronous orbits. To allow for mission flexibility, the vehicle was designed in a semimodular configuration. The major system components include a crew module, a 'smart box' (which contains command, communications, guidance, and navigation equipment), a propulsion pack, extra fuel tanks, and a vehicle storage facility (VSF) for storage purposes. To minimize risk as well as development time and cost, the vehicle was designed using only proven technology or technology which is expected to be flight-qualified in time for the intended launch date of 2002. And, because Freebird carries crew and operates near the space station, it must meet or exceed the NASA reliability standard of 0.994, as well as other standard requirements for such vehicles. The Freebird program was conceived and designed as a way to provide important and currently unavailable satellite repair and replacement services of a value equal to or exceeding operational costs.

  4. Orbital

    OpenAIRE

    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA

  5. Processing of A New Digital Orthoimage Map of The Martian Western Hemisphere Using Data Obtained From The Mars Orbiter Camera At A Resolution of 256 Pixel/deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wählisch, M.; Niedermaier, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Scholten, F.; Wewel, F.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Jaumann, R.

    We present a new digital orthoimage map of Mars using data obtained from the CCD line scanner Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) of the Mars Global Surveyor Mis- sion (MGS) [1,2]. The map covers the Mars surface from 0 to 180 West and from 60 South to 60 North with the MDIM2 resolution of 256 pixel/degree and size. Image data processing has been performed using multiple programs, developed by DLR, Technical University of Berlin [3], JPL, and the USGS. 4,339 Context and 183 Geodesy images [2] were included. After radiometric corrections, the images were Mars referenced [4], geometrically corrected [5] and orthoprojected using a global Martian Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with a resolution of 64 pixel/degree, developed at DLR and based on MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [6]. To elim- inate major differences in brightness between the individual images of the mosaics, high- and low-pass filter processing techniques were applied for each image. After filtering, the images were mosaicked without registering or using block adjustment techniques in order to improve the geometric quality. It turns out that the accuracy of the navigation data has such a good quality that the orthoimages fit very well to each other. When merging the MOC mosaic with the MOLA data using IHS- trans- formation, we recognized very good correspondence between these two datasets. We create a topographic image map of the Coprates region (MC­18) adding contour lines derived from the global DTM to the mosaic. These maps are used for geological and morphological interpretations in order to review and improve our current Viking-based knowledge about the Martian surface. References: [1] www.mssss.com, [2] Caplinger, M. and M. Malin, "The Mars Or- biter Camera Geodesy Campaign, JGR, in press, [3] Scholten, F., Vol XXXI, Part B2, Wien 1996, p.351-356, [4] naïf.jpl.nasa.gov, [5] R.L.Kirk. et al. (2001), "Geometric Calibration of the Mars Orbiter Cameras and Coalignment with Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

  6. PLANET FORMATION IN HIGHLY INCLINED BINARY SYSTEMS. I. PLANETESIMALS JUMP INWARD AND PILE UP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin; Payne, Matthew J.; Ge Jian; Thebault, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Most detected planet-bearing binaries are in wide orbits, for which a high inclination, i B , between the binary orbital plane and the plane of the planetary disk around the primary is likely to be common. In this paper, we investigate the intermediate stages-from planetesimals to planetary embryos/cores-of planet formation in such highly inclined cases. Our focus is on the effects of gas drag on the planetesimals' orbital evolution, in particular on the evolution of the planetesimals' semimajor axis distribution and their mutual relative velocities. We first demonstrate that a non-evolving axisymmetric disk model is a good approximation for studying the effects of gas drag on a planetesimal in the highly inclined case (30 deg. B B . For both regimes, a robust outcome over a wide range of parameters is that planetesimals migrate/jump inward and pile up, leading to a severely truncated and dense planetesimal disk around the primary. In this compact and dense disk, collision rates are high but relative velocities are low, providing conditions that are favorable for planetesimal growth and potentially allow for the subsequent formation of planets.

  7. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  8. On the inclination and habitability of the HD 10180 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Gelino, Dawn M., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    There are numerous multi-planet systems that have now been detected via a variety of techniques. These systems exhibit a range of both planetary properties and orbital configurations. For those systems without detected planetary transits, a significant unknown factor is the orbital inclination. This produces an uncertainty in the mass of the planets and their related properties, such as atmospheric scale height. Here we investigate the HD 10180 system, which was discovered using the radial velocity technique. We provide a new orbital solution for the system which allows for eccentric orbits for all planets. We show how the inclination of the system affects the mass/radius properties of the planets and how the detection of phase signatures may resolve the inclination ambiguity. We finally evaluate the Habitable Zone properties of the system and show that the g planet spends 100% of an eccentric orbit within the Habitable Zone.

  9. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  10. Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  11. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  12. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  13. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  14. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  15. Non-destructive automated express method for determining the inclination of chromium-nickel steels IGC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.A.; Kamenev, Yu.B.; Kuusk, L.V.; Kormin, E.G.; Vasil'ev, A.N.; Sumbaeva, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed and a corresponding automated testing complex (ATS) is created. 08Kh18N10T steel samples had two variants of thermal treatment: 1) 1200 deg (5 h), 600 deg (50 h); 2) 1200 deg (5 h). Methods of non-destructive automated control of 18-10-type steel inclination to IGC are developed on the basis of potentiodynamic reactivation (PR) principle. Automated testing complex is developed, which has undergone experimental running and demonstrated a high confidence of results, reliability and easy operation

  16. Secular Orbit and Spin Variations of Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, B. G.; Park, R. S.; Scott, B.

    2016-12-01

    The obliquity, or angular separation between spin and orbit poles, of asteroid (16) Psyche is currently 95 degrees. We are interested in knowing how much that angular separation varies, on time scales of 104 to 106 years. To answer that question, we have done several related analyses. On short time scales, the orbital element variations of Psyche are dominated by perturbations from Jupiter. Jupiter's dominance has two basic causes: first is the large mass and relatively close position of Jupiter, and second is a 19:8 mean motion resonance. Jupiter completes 8 orbits in 94.9009 years, while Psyche takes 94.9107 years to complete 19 orbits. As a result of this, all of the orbital elements of Psyche exhibit significant periodic variations, with a 94.9 year period dominating. There are also significant variations at the synodic period, which is 8.628 years, or 1/11 of the resonant period. Over a 1000 year time span, centered on the present, the eccentricity varies from 0.133 to 0.140, and the inclination varies from 2.961 to 3.229 degrees. On longer time scales, the orbital elements of Psyche vary considerably more than that, due to secular perturbations from the planets. The secular variations are modeled as the response of interacting mass rings, rather than point masses. Again, Jupiter is the main perturbing influence on Psyche. The eccentricity and inclination both oscillate, with dominant periods of 18.667 kyr. The range of values seen over a million year time span, is 0.057 to 0.147 for eccentricity, and 0.384 to 4.777 degrees for inclination. Using a recent shape model, and assumption of uniform density, to constrain relevant moments of inertia, we estimate the spin pole precession rate parameter to be 8.53 arcsec/year. The current spin pole is at ecliptic {lon, lat} = { 32, -7} deg, whereas the orbit pole is at {lon, lat} = {60.47, 86.91} deg. The current obliquity is thus 94.3 degree. Using nominal values of the input parameters, the recovered spin pole

  17. Ingegneria degli acquiferi

    CERN Document Server

    Molfetta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Il testo fornisce le conoscenze necessarie per affrontare, con un approccio quantitativo, i molteplici aspetti connessi al flusso delle risorse idriche sotterranee (acque di falda) e alla propagazione e bonifica di contaminanti nei sistemi acquiferi. Vengono illustrate le proprietà fondamentali che definiscono la capacità di immagazzinamento, trasporto e rilascio dell’acqua negli acquiferi, e successivamente, descritte le metodiche per la determinazione di tali parametri tramite l’esecuzione e l’interpretazione di prove di falda, di pozzo e di laboratorio. A partire dalla classificazione chimico fisica-tossicologica dei contaminanti vengono, quindi, analizzati i meccanismi di propagazione e illustrate le soluzioni analitiche dell’equazione del trasporto di massa nei mezzi porosi. L’ultima parte del testo è dedicata alla caratterizzazione e bonifica degli acquiferi contaminati. Il testo è rivolto sia agli studenti universitari, sia ai professionisti che debbano affrontare con un approccio quantit...

  18. Verifying black hole orbits with gravitational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drasco, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves from test masses bound to geodesic orbits of rotating black holes are simulated, using Teukolsky's black hole perturbation formalism, for about ten thousand generic orbital configurations. Each binary radiates power exclusively in modes with frequencies that are integer-linear combinations of the orbit's three fundamental frequencies. General spectral properties are found with a survey of orbits about a black hole taken to be rotating at 80% of the maximal spin. The orbital eccentricity is varied from 0.1 to 0.9. Inclination ranges from 20 deg. to 160 deg. and comes to within 20 deg. of polar. Semilatus rectum is varied from 1.2 to 3 times the value at the innermost stable circular orbits. The following general spectral properties are found: (i) 99% of the radiated power is typically carried by a few hundred modes, and at most by about a thousand modes, (ii) the dominant frequencies can be grouped into a small number of families defined by fixing two of the three integer frequency multipliers, and (iii) the specifics of these trends can be qualitatively inferred from the geometry of the orbit under consideration. Detections using triperiodic analytic templates modeled on these general properties would constitute a verification of radiation from an adiabatic sequence of black hole orbits and would recover the evolution of the fundamental orbital frequencies. In an analogy with ordinary spectroscopy, this would compare to observing the Bohr model's atomic hydrogen spectrum without being able to rule out alternative atomic theories or nuclei. The suitability of such a detection technique is demonstrated using snapshots computed at 12-hour intervals throughout the last three years before merger of a kludged inspiral. The system chosen is typical of those thought to occur in galactic nuclei and to be observable with space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Because of circularization, the number of excited modes decreases as the binary

  19. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  20. Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.

  1. AN ORBIT FIT FOR THE GRILLMAIR DIONATOS COLD STELLAR STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, Benjamin A.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Zhang Haotong; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    We use velocity and metallicity information from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration stellar spectroscopy to fit an orbit to the narrow 63 deg. stellar stream of Grillmair and Dionatos. The stars in the stream have a retrograde orbit with eccentricity e = 0.33 (perigalacticon of 14.4 kpc and apogalacticon of 28.7 kpc) and inclination approximately i ∼ 35 deg. In the region of the orbit which is detected, it has a distance of about 7-11 kpc from the Sun. Assuming a standard disk plus bulge and logarithmic halo potential for the Milky Way stars plus dark matter, the stream stars are moving with a large space velocity of approximately 276 km s -1 at perigalacticon. Using this stream alone, we are unable to determine if the dark matter halo is oblate or prolate. The metallicity of the stream is [Fe/H] = -2.1 ± 0.1. Observed proper motions for individual stream members above the main sequence turnoff are consistent with the derived orbit. None of the known globular clusters in the Milky Way have positions, radial velocities, and metallicities that are consistent with being the progenitor of the GD-1 stream.

  2. Studies on the position of canines, premolars and molars by 450 .deg. oblique lateral cephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    This study was done using the 45 .deg. oblique lateral cephalograms of 20 year old, 18 male and 27 female, with normal occlusion, on canines, premolars, premolars and molars on upper and lower jaws. Axial inclination to nasal floor, occlusal plane and mandibular plane, and inter-axial inclination were examined. In addition the position of each tooth was examined in height and depth in upper and lower jaws. The results were obtained as follows; 1. The inclination of long axis of upper lst premolar was most nearly perpendicular, upper canine was tilted mesially, and 2nd premolar and molars were tilted distally. 2. The inclination of long axis of lower molars were tilted mesially. 3. There were no severe variation on the inter-axial inclination of canine to 2nd molar.

  3. Studies on the position of canines, premolars and molars by 450 .deg. oblique lateral cephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1976-01-01

    This study was done using the 45 .deg. oblique lateral cephalograms of 20 year old, 18 male and 27 female, with normal occlusion, on canines, premolars, premolars and molars on upper and lower jaws. Axial inclination to nasal floor, occlusal plane and mandibular plane, and inter-axial inclination were examined. In addition the position of each tooth was examined in height and depth in upper and lower jaws. The results were obtained as follows; 1. The inclination of long axis of upper lst premolar was most nearly perpendicular, upper canine was tilted mesially, and 2nd premolar and molars were tilted distally. 2. The inclination of long axis of lower molars were tilted mesially. 3. There were no severe variation on the inter-axial inclination of canine to 2nd molar.

  4. Main magnetic field of Jupiter and its implications for future orbiter missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    A very strong planetary magnetic field and an enormous magnetosphere with extremely intense radiation belts exist at Jupiter. Pioneer 10 and 11 fly-bys confirmed and extended the earlier ground based estimates of many of these characteristics but left unanswered or added to the list of several important and poorly understood features: the source mechanism and location of decametric emissions, and the absorption effects by the natural satellites Amalthea, Io, Europa and Ganymede. High inclination orbits (exceeding 60 deg) with low periapses (less than 2 Jupiter radii) are required to map the radiation belts and main magnetic field of Jupiter accurately so as to permit full investigation of these and associated phenomena.

  5. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  6. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to Earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant

  7. Evolution of the Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit of Communications Satellite, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available For a geostationary satellite north-south station keeping maneuver must control the inclination elements. The effects on the orbit plane of maneuvers and natural perturbations may be represented by a plane plot of Wc versus Ws, since these inclination elements represent the projection of the unit orbit normal onto the equatorial plane. The evolution of the semi-major axis and the inclination elements are obtained.

  8. The Orbit of X Persei and Its Neutron Star Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martí, Hugo; Levine, Alan M.; Pfahl, Eric; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2001-01-01

    We have observed the Be/X-ray pulsar binary system X Per/4U 0352+30 on 61 occasions spanning an interval of 600 days with the PCA instrument on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Pulse timing analyses of the 837 s pulsations yield strong evidence for the presence of orbital Doppler delays. We confirm the Doppler delays by using measurements made with the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We infer that the orbit is characterized by a period Porb=250 days, a projected semimajor axis of the neutron star axsini=454 lt-s, a mass function f(M)=1.61 Msolar, and a modest eccentricity e=0.11. The measured orbital parameters, together with the known properties of the classical Be star X Per, imply a semimajor axis a=1.8-2.2 AU and an orbital inclination i~26deg-33deg. We discuss the formation of the system in the context of the standard evolutionary scenario for Be/X-ray binaries. We find that the system most likely formed from a pair of massive progenitor stars and probably involved a quasi-stable and nearly conservative transfer of mass from the primary to the secondary. We find that the He star remnant of the primary most likely had a mass probability of a system like that of X Per forming with an orbital eccentricity e<~0.11. We speculate that there may be a substantial population of neutron stars formed with little or no kick. Finally, we discuss the connected topics of the wide orbit and accretion by the neutron star from a stellar wind.

  9. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  10. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  11. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-26

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value--a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system.

  12. Loners, Groupies, and Long-term Eccentricity (and Inclination) Behavior: Insights from Secular Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2015-05-01

    Considering the secular dynamics of multi-planet systems provides substantial insight into the interactions between planets in those systems. Secular interactions are those that don't involve knowing where a planet is along its orbit, and they dominate when planets are not involved in mean motion resonances. These interactions exchange angular momentum among the planets, evolving their eccentricities and inclinations. To second order in the planets' eccentricities and inclinations, the eccentricity and inclination perturbations are decoupled. Given the right variable choice, the relevant differential equations are linear and thus the eccentricity and inclination behaviors can be described as a sum of eigenmodes. Since the underlying structure of the secular eigenmodes can be calculated using only the planets' masses and semi-major axes, one can elucidate the eccentricity and inclination behavior of planets in exoplanet systems even without knowing the planets' current eccentricities and inclinations. I have calculated both the eccentricity and inclination secular eigenmodes for the population of known multi-planet systems whose planets have well determined masses and periods. Using this catalog of secular character, I will discuss the prevalence of dynamically grouped planets ('groupies') versus dynamically uncoupled planets ('loners') and how this relates to the exoplanets' long-term eccentricity and inclination behavior. I will also touch on the distribution of the secular eigenfreqiencies.

  13. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yuji [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.

  14. The O/OREOS Mission - Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit. [Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small- Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72 deg), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cu cm) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA0s scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  15. Particle transport in inclined annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtzhals, Erik

    1993-12-31

    A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)

  16. Particle transport in inclined annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtzhals, Erik

    1994-12-31

    A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)

  17. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  18. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  19. CTD data from the northeast Atlantic Ocean 22 deg N - 33 deg N, 19 deg W - 24 deg W, July 1983 during RRS DISCOVERY Cruises 138, 139

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.; Manning, A.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents lists and graphs of CTD data obtained aboard RRS Discovery during July 1983. A series of approximately 27 stations were made in the vicinity of 32 deg 30' N 20 deg W, 150 miles West of Madeira, in support of an experiment to investigate the benthic boundary layer on the lower continental rise (in water depths approximately 4000 to 5000 m). South of this location stations were occupied along longitude 24 deg W culminating in a series on the lower continental rise near 23 deg N. All CTD data were reconciled with reversing thermometer observations and with measurements of salinity and dissolved oxygen derived from samples. (author)

  20. Excavating wide inclines in weak strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N N [Ukrspetsstroiproekt (USSR)

    1990-09-01

    Discusses schemes for excavation of transport inclines in surface mines under conditions of weak, unstable rocks characterized by a high water content. The schemes are aimed at maximum reduction of excavation operations without infringing the safety of personnel. Use of walking draglines (the EhSh-20/90, EhSh-100/100 and EhSh-10/70) is evaluated. Optimum schemes for incline excavation and determining optimum slope inclination are described on the example of the Berezovsk brown coal surface mine in the USSR. Efficiency of optimum schemes is analyzed: range of excavation, safety degree, landslide hazards, water influx rate, accident rate, etc.

  1. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental confirmation of the fluorescence intensity behaviour with the inclination of the propagation plane (α angle) was carried out. A special angular sample-holder was developed and set up on our X-ray spectrometer. This sample-holder allows different positions of irradiation of the sample modifying the α angle until the maximum angle (α Μ ) is reached in the limit situation. In this work, this maximum angle was 86 deg and the incidence and take off angles were both 45 deg. The sample-holder and the collimation system were carefully lined up. The fluorescent spectra of three National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard samples were taken for sixteen different α angle positions. The theoretical scheme for both enhanced fluorescent lines and nonenhanced fluorescent lines was confirmed, i.e. the invariance of the primary intensity with the α angle and the decline of the enhanced fluorescence intensities under the same conditions. This experimental confirmation agrees with theoretical prediction: the vanishing of the secondary fluorescence in the extreme case α = π/2. (Author) [es

  2. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  3. Fisica degli atomi e dei nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Carlo

    1965-01-01

    Evidenza della struttura atomica della materia ; le proprietà degli atomi e la meccanica atomica ; gli atomi e le radiazioni elettromagnetiche ; struttura microscopica dello stato gassoso ; struttura microscopica dello stato liquido ; struttura microscopica della stato solido ; proprietà elettriche e magnetiche delle sostanze ; proprietà dei nuclei degli atomi ; le particelle elementari.

  4. Ground Target Overflight and Orbital Maneuvering via Atmospheric Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Total deceleration m ∙ s−2 Gravitational acceleration m ∙ s−2 ℎ Altitude m Inclination angle rad Vehicle mass kg Geocentric ...total atmospheric inclination change approached the limit of approximately 36.2° as the number of atmospheric passes increased. This inclination...determine the longitude. By expanding and simplifying Eqs. (3.1) and (3.5) for a circular orbit, the position can be written in the Geocentric Equatorial

  5. Families Among High-Inclination Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Cellino, A.; Knezevic, Z.

    2012-05-01

    We review briefly the most important results of the classification of high-inclination asteroids into families performed by Novakovic et al.(Icarus, 2011,216) and present some new results about a very interesting (5438) Lorre cluster.

  6. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  7. Experimental study of critical heat flux in inclined rectangular gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.J.; Kim, Y.H.; Noh, S.W.; Suh, K.Y.; Rempe, J.L.; Cheung, F.B.; Kim, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel was overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later found out in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, a great deal of investigations was performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of in-vessel retention (IVR). As part of a joint Korean-U.S. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project, Tests were conducted to examine the critical heat flux (CHF) on the one-dimensional downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap by changing the orientation of the copper test heater assembly in a pool of saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The test parameters include both the gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward-facing position (180deg) to the vertical position (90deg), respectively. It was observed that the CHF generally decreases as the surface inclination angle increases and as the gap size decreases. However, in downward-facing position (180deg), somewhat differing results were detected relative to previous reports. For a certain gap size having a similar dimension with vapor layer thickness, more efficient heat transfer was detected and this may be interpreted by characteristic property such as the vapor layer thickness of water. In consistency with several studies reported in the literature, it was found that there exists a transition angle above that the CHF changes with a rapid slope. (author)

  8. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  10. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.

    2003-09-01

    A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)

  11. Aesthetic evaluation of profile incisor inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Nathalie; Bouserhal, Joseph; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the impact of maxillary incisor inclination on the aesthetics of the profile view of a smile, (2) to determine the most aesthetic inclination in the profile view of a smile and correlate it with facial features, and (3) to determine if dentists, orthodontists, and laypeople appreciate differently incisor inclination in smile aesthetics. A smiling profile photograph of a female subject (22 years of age) who fulfilled the criteria of soft tissue normative values and a balanced smile was obtained. The photograph was manipulated to simulate six lingual and labial inclinations at 5 degree increments to a maximum of 15 degrees. The seven photographs were randomly distributed in a binder to three groups of raters (30 dentists, 30 orthodontists, and 30 laypeople) who scored the attractiveness of the photographic variations using a visual analogue scale. Comparison of the mean scores was carried out by repeated analysis of variance, univariate tests, and multiple Bonferroni comparisons. The results showed a statistically significant interaction between the rater's profession and the aesthetic preference of incisor inclination (P = 0.013). The profile smile corresponding to an increase of 5 degrees in a labial direction had the highest score among all professions and among male and female raters. Orthodontists preferred labial crown torque; dentists and laypeople did not appreciate excessive incisor inclination in either the lingual or the labial directions. The most preferred smile matched with a maxillary incisor inclined 93 degrees to the horizontal line and +7 degrees to the lower facial third.

  12. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  13. Ring formation on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robert; Du, Xiyu

    2015-11-01

    A drop dried on a solid surface will typically leave a narrow band of solute deposited along the contact line. We examined variations of this deposit due to the inclination of the substrate using numerical simulations of a two-dimensional drop, equivalent to a strip-like drop. An asymptotic analysis of the contact line region predicts that the upslope deposit will grow faster at early times, but the growth of this deposit ends sooner because the upper contact line depins first. From our simulations we find that the deposit can be larger at either the upper or lower contact line depending on the initial drop volume and substrate inclination. For larger drops and steeper inclinations, the early lead in deposited mass at the upper contact line is wiped out by the earlier depinning of the upper contact line and subsequent continued growth at the lower contact line. Conversely, for smaller drops and shallower inclinations, the early lead of the upper contact line is insurmountable despite its earlier termination in growth. Our results show that it is difficult to reconstruct a postiorithe inclination of the substrate based solely on the shape of the deposit. The authors thank the James S. McDonnell Foundation for support through a 21st Century Science Initiative in Studying Complex Systems Research Award, and the National Science Foundation for support under Grant No. 0932600.

  14. Flow Boiling on a Downward-Facing Inclined Plane Wall of Core Catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tak; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Suh, Jung Soo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate boiling behavior on downward-facing inclined heated wall prior to the CHF condition, an experiment was carried out with 1.2 m long rectangular channel, inclined by 10 .deg. from the horizontal plane. High speed video images showed that the bubbles were sliding along the heated wall, continuing to grow and combining with the bubbles growing at their nucleation sites in the downstream. These large bubbles continued to slide along the heated wall and formed elongated slug bubbles. Under this slug bubble thin liquid film layer on the heated wall was observed and this liquid film prevents the wall from dryout. The length, velocity and frequency of slug bubbles sliding on the heated wall were measured as a function of wall heat flux and these parameters were used to develop wall boiling model for inclined, downward-facing heated wall. One approach to achieve coolable state of molten core in a PWR-like reactor cavity during a severe accident is to retain the core melt on a so-called core catcher residing on the reactor cavity floor after its relocation from the reactor pressure vessel. The core melt retained in the core catcher is cooled by water coolant flowing in an inclined cooling channel underneath as well as the water pool overlaid on the melt layer. Two-phase flow boiling with downward-facing heated wall such as this core catcher cooling channel has drawn a special attention because this orientation of heated wall may reach boiling crisis at lower heat flux than that of a vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Nishikawa and Fujita, Howard and Mudawar, Qiu and Dhir have conducted experiments to study the effect of heater orientation on boiling heat transfer and CHF. SULTAN experiment was conducted to study inclined large-scale structure coolability by water in boiling natural convection. In this paper, high-speed visualization of boiling behavior on downward-facing heated wall inclined by 10 .deg. is presented and wall boiling model for the

  15. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  16. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  17. Influence of angle of inclination on power of solar module; Taiyo denchi module no keisha kakudo to shutsuryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Dai Ichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Experiment/study were conducted on the influence of angle of inclination on output of solar modules. In the experiment, changing the angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module installed on the top of school building to 0, 30, 60 and 90 degC, the global radiation on an inclined surface was measured by pyranometer equipped with the module, and at the same time output characteristics were measured by I-V curve tracer. In the I-V curve tracer, voltage, current, and output capability diagram are illustrated automatically changing bias voltage to get the maximum output. The global radiation on an inclined surface and the maximum output indicated an almost proportional relation and were expressed in a recursion method. Moreover, measurement of the global radiation is usually conducted using the amount of global radiation on a horizontal surface, and the global radiation on an inclined surface is calculated as a sum of the direct solar radiation amount and the sky solar radiation amount after determining a penetration rate by the relational equation. By calculating the global radiation on an inclined surface, it becomes possible to calculate the maximum output of photovoltaic modules by this recursion method. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Visualization of two-phase gas-liquid flow regimes in horizontal and slightly-inclined circular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Livia Alves [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: livia@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr; Su, Jian [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program], Emails: cunhafilho@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio [Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a flow visualization study was performed for two-phase gas-liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined tubes. The test section consists of a 2.54 cm inner diameter stainless steel circular tube, followed by a transparent acrylic tube with the same inner diameter. The working fluids were air and water, with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0:11 to 3:28 m/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0:27 to 5:48 m/s. Flow visualization was executed for upward flow at 5 deg and 10 deg and downward flow at 2:5 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg, as well as for horizontal flow. The visualization technique consists of a high-speed digital camera that records images at rates of 125 and 250 frames per second of a concurrent air-water mixture through a transparent part of the tube. From the obtained images, the flow regimes were identified (except for annular flow), observing the effect of inclination angles on flow regime transition boundaries. Finally, the experimental results were compared with empirical and theoretical flow pattern maps available in literature. (author)

  19. Changing inclination of earth satellites using the gravity of the moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla de Souza Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the problem of the orbital control of an Earth's satellite using the gravity of the Moon. The main objective is to study a technique to decrease the fuel consumption of a plane change maneuver to be performed in a satellite that is in orbit around the Earth. The main idea of this approach is to send the satellite to the Moon using a single-impulsive maneuver, use the gravity field of the Moon to make the desired plane change of the trajectory, and then return the satellite to its nominal semimajor axis and eccentricity using a bi-impulsive Hohmann-type maneuver. The satellite is assumed to start in a Keplerian orbit in the plane of the lunar orbit around the Earth and the goal is to put it in a similar orbit that differs from the initial orbit only by the inclination. A description of the close-approach maneuver is made in the three-dimensional space. Analytical equations based on the patched conics approach are used to calculate the variation in velocity, angular momentum, energy, and inclination of the satellite. Then, several simulations are made to evaluate the savings involved. The time required by those transfers is also calculated and shown.

  20. Rolling and slipping down Galileo close-quote s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    In ''Two New Sciences'' (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance d in time t down an incline of height H and length L. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality P: d 1 /d 2 =(t 2 1 /t 2 2 )(H/L) 1 /(H/L) 2 . (P) From TNS it is clear that what we call P is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with H/L=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations H/L 1 while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed v 1 into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance X 2 traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface

  1. Cloning and sequencing the degS-degU operon from an alkalophilic Bacillus-brevis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available of Microbiology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa al. 1989). Similarities were found between DegS and the histidine protein kinase family and between DegU and the response... and evaluate its effect on extracellular enzyme production. Materials and methods Strains and plasmids Transformation The polyethylene-glycol-induced protoplast transformation pro- cedure of Chang and Cohen (1979) was used...

  2. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  3. Constraining the Relative Inclinations of the Planets B and C of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Note that the ratios γB,C of the masses of B and C to M were measured from ... To this aim, we will exploit the third Kepler's law whose use is justified in detail .... noted that for face-on (i → 0 deg) geometries the orbital planes tend to be ...

  4. Determination of the optimal conditions for inclination maneuvers using a Swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, O.; Celestino, C. C.; Prado, A. F. B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The search for methods to reduce the fuel consumption in orbital transfers is something relevant and always current in astrodynamics. Therefore, the maneuvers assisted by the gravity, also called Swing-by maneuvers, can be an advantageous option to save fuel. The proposal of the present research is to explore the influence of some parameters in a Swing-by of an artificial satellite orbiting a planet with one of the moons of this mother planet, with the goal of changing the inclination of the artificial satellite around the main body of the system. The fuel consumption of this maneuver is compared with the required consumption to perform the same change of inclination using the classical approach of impulsive maneuvers.

  5. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  6. Internally cooled V-shape inclined monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), 8-11 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100716 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/4134/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : inclined monochromator * heat load * internal cooling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2008

  7. An experimental study of the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets impinging on an inclined flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Bae; Lee, Jun Hee; Woo, Sun Hoon; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2002-01-01

    The impinging supersonic jets have been applied for rocket launching system, thrust control, gas turbine blade cooling, etc. Recently the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets are being extensively used in many diverse fields of industrial processes since they lead to more improved performance, compared with the conventional supersonic jets impinging on an object. In the present study, experimentation is carried out to investigate the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets impinging on an inclined flat plate. A convergent-divergent nozzle with a design Mach number of 2.0 and annular sonic nozzle are used to make the dual, coaxial jet flows. The angle of the impinging flat plate is varied from 30 .deg. to 60 .deg. and the distance between the dual coaxial nozzle and flat plate is also varied. Detailed pressures on the impinging plate are measured to analyze the flow fields, which are also visualized using Schlieren optical method

  8. Giant magnetic quadrupole resonance studied with 180 deg. electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann-Cosel, P V

    1999-01-01

    The nuclei sup 4 sup 8 Ca and sup 9 sup 0 Zr were investigated in 180 deg. high-resolution inelastic electron scattering for momentum transfers q approx =0.35-0.8 fm sup - sup 1. Complete M2 strength distributions could be extracted in both nuclei up to excitation energies of about 15 MeV utilizing a fluctuation analysis technique. Second-RPA calculations successfully describe the experimentally observed strong fragmentation of the M2 mode. The quenching of the spin part is found to be comparable to the M1 case, contrary to previous claims suggesting a stronger reduction. A quantitative reproduction of the data requires the presence of appreciable orbital strength which can be interpreted as a torsional elastic vibration (the so-called twist mode).

  9. Active Thrust on an Inclined Retaining Wall with Inclined Cohesionless Backfill due to Surcharge Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaikar, D. M.; Pandey, S. R.; Dixit, Jagabandhu

    2012-01-01

    A method based on the application of Kötter’s equation is proposed for the complete analysis of active thrust on an inclined wall with inclined cohesionless backfill under surcharge effect. Coulomb’s failure mechanism is considered in the analysis. The point of application of active thrust is determined from the condition of moment equilibrium. The coefficient of active pressure and the point of application of the active thrust are computed and presented in nondimensional form. One distinguis...

  10. Compensated-power differential calorimeter -196 deg. C/400 deg. C; Calorimetre differentiel a puissance compensee -196 deg. C/400 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonjour, E; Pierre, J; Agagliate, S; Bertrand, P; Faivre, J; Lagnier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Section physico-chimie et basses temperatures

    1967-06-01

    A differential calorimetric device of original design is described. Its allows direct measurements of thermal effects (adsorption or release) during a linear rise of temperature. The self compensated power method which is applied by means of a very sensitive control system, gives a direct value of the different heat capacity between the sample and a dummy of it. The detection threshold is about {+-} 100 micro-watts to {+-} 250 micro-watts. Applications: - Generally measurements of enthalpy changes of massive or powdered samples. - Measurement of Wigner energy after low temperature irradiation (77 deg. K). - Measurements of energy release in low temperature (77 deg. K) cold worked metals. (authors) [French] On decrit un dispositif de calorimetrie differentielle, de conception originale, qui permet de mesurer directement des effets thermiques en absorption ou en degagement de chaleur, au cours d'une montee en temperature lineaire. La methode de compensation automatique de puissance qui est mise en oeuvre au moyen de cha es d'asservissement tres sensibles, conduit a une determination directe de la capacite calorifique differencielle entre l'echantillon et sa reference. Le seuil de detection est de l'ordre de {+-} 100 a {+-} 250 microwatts. Applications: - D'une facon generale, mesure des variations enthalpiques, sur echantillons massifs ou en poudre. - Mesure de l'energie Wigner apres irradiation a basse temperature (77 deg. K). - Mesure de l'energie restauree apres deformation des metaux a basse temperature (77 deg. K). (auteurs)

  11. Testimonianze di vittime degli anni di piombo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    Testimonianze di vittime degli anni di piombo In un articolo pubblicato nel 2008 sulla webzine Nazione indiana Christian Raimo criticava quello che poi Giovanni De Luna qualche anno dopo nel suo libro La Repubblica del dolore (2011) ha chiamato “paradigma vittimario”; cioè la presenza predominante...

  12. Performance Evaluation of Orbit Determination System during Initial Phase of INSAT-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B.; Vighnesam, N. V.

    INSAT-3C is the second in the third generation of ISRO's INSAT series of satellites that was launched by ARIANE-SPACE on 23 January 2002 at 23 h 46 m 57 s (lift off time in U.T). The ARIANE-4 Flight Nr.147 took off from Kourou in French Guyana and injected the 2750-kg communications satellite in a geostationary transfer orbit of (571 X 35935) km with an inclination of 4.007 deg at 00 h 07 m 48 s U.T on 24 January 2002 (1252 s after lift off). The satellite was successfully guided into its intended geostationary position of 74 deg E longitude by 09 February 2002 after a series of four firings of its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and four station acquisition (STAQ) maneuvers. Six distinct phases of the mission were categorized based on the orbit characteristics of the INSAT- 3C mission, namely, the pre-launch phase, the launch phase, transfer orbit phase, intermediate orbit phase, drift orbit phase and synchronous orbit phase. The orbit with a perigee height of 571 km at injection of the satellite, was gradually raised to higher orbits with perigee height increasing to 9346 km after Apogee Motor Firing #1 (AMF #1), 18335 km after AMF #2, 32448 km after AMF #3 and 35493 km after AMF #4. The North and South solar panels and the reflectors were deployed at this stage of the mission and the attitude of the satellite with respect to the three axes was stabilized. The Orbit Determination System (ODS) that was used in the initial phase of the mission played a crucial role in realizing the objectives of the mission. This system which consisted of Tracking Data Pre-Processing (TDPP) software, Ephemeris Generation (EPHGEN) software and the Orbit Determination (OD) software, performed rigorously and its results were used for planning the AMF and STAQ strategies with a greater degree of accuracy. This paper reports the results of evaluation of the performance of the apogee-motor firings employed to place the satellite in its intended position where it is collocated with INSAT-1D

  13. Reliability of stellar inclination estimated from asteroseismology: analytical criteria, mock simulations and Kepler data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiaka, Shoya; Benomar, Othman; Suto, Yasushi

    2018-05-01

    Advances in asteroseismology of solar-like stars, now provide a unique method to estimate the stellar inclination i⋆. This enables to evaluate the spin-orbit angle of transiting planetary systems, in a complementary fashion to the Rossiter-McLaughlineffect, a well-established method to estimate the projected spin-orbit angle λ. Although the asteroseismic method has been broadly applied to the Kepler data, its reliability has yet to be assessed intensively. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of i⋆ from asteroseismology of solar-like stars using 3000 simulated power spectra. We find that the low signal-to-noise ratio of the power spectra induces a systematic under-estimate (over-estimate) bias for stars with high (low) inclinations. We derive analytical criteria for the reliable asteroseismic estimate, which indicates that reliable measurements are possible in the range of 20° ≲ i⋆ ≲ 80° only for stars with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also analyse and measure the stellar inclination of 94 Kepler main-sequence solar-like stars, among which 33 are planetary hosts. According to our reliability criteria, a third of them (9 with planets, 22 without) have accurate stellar inclination. Comparison of our asteroseismic estimate of vsin i⋆ against spectroscopic measurements indicates that the latter suffers from a large uncertainty possibly due to the modeling of macro-turbulence, especially for stars with projected rotation speed vsin i⋆ ≲ 5km/s. This reinforces earlier claims, and the stellar inclination estimated from the combination of measurements from spectroscopy and photometric variation for slowly rotating stars needs to be interpreted with caution.

  14. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  15. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  16. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  17. Radio-loudness in black hole transients: evidence for an inclination effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, S. E.; Casella, P.; Fender, R.

    2018-06-01

    Accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to populate two branches in a radio:X-ray luminosity plane. We have investigated the X-ray variability properties of a large number of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries, with the aim of unveiling the physical reasons underlying the radio-loud/radio-quiet nature of these sources, in the context of the known accretion-ejection connection. A reconsideration of the available radio and X-ray data from a sample of black hole X-ray binaries confirms that being radio-quiet is the more normal mode of behaviour for black hole binaries. In the light of this we chose to test, once more, the hypothesis that radio loudness could be a consequence of the inclination of the X-ray binary. We compared the slope of the `hard-line' (an approximately linear correlation between X-ray count rate and rms variability, visible in the hard states of active black holes), the orbital inclination, and the radio-nature of the sources of our sample. We found that high-inclination objects show steeper hard-lines than low-inclination objects, and tend to display a radio-quiet nature (with the only exception of V404 Cyg), as opposed to low-inclination objects, which appear to be radio-loud(er). While in need of further confirmation, our results suggest that - contrary to what has been believed for years - the radio-loud/quiet nature of black-hole low mass X-ray binaries might be an inclination effect, rather than an intrinsic source property. This would solve an important issue in the context of the inflow-outflow connection, thus providing significant constraints to the models for the launch of hard-state compact jets.

  18. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  20. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    with no or low quality heat flow data. This analysis requires knowledge oflithosphere age globally.A compilation of tectono-thermal ages of lithospheric terranes on a 1 deg 1 deg grid forms the basis forthe statistical analysis. It shows that, statistically, lithospheric thermal thickness z (in km) depends......This presentation reports a 1 deg 1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The modelis digitally available from the author’s web-site: www.lithosphere.info.Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliabledata...... on borehole heat flow measurements (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001), checked with the original publicationsfor data quality, and corrected for paleo-temperature effects where needed. These data are supplemented bycratonic geotherms based on xenolith data.Since heat flow measurements cover not more than half...

  1. Effect of Boundary-Layer Bleed Hole Inclination Angle and Scaling on Flow Coefficient Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorn, Michael B.; Barnhart, Paul J.; Davis, David O.; Vyas, Manan A.; Slater, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Phase II data results of the Fundamental Inlet Bleed Experiments study at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented which include flow coefficient behavior for 21 bleed hole configurations. The bleed configurations are all round holes with hole diameters ranging from 0.795 to 6.35 mm, hole inclination angles from 20deg to 90deg, and thickness-to-diameter ratios from 0.25 to 2.0. All configurations were tested at a unit Reynolds number of 2.46 10(exp 7)/m and at discrete local Mach numbers of 1.33, 1.62, 1.98, 2.46, and 2.92. Interactions between the design parameters of hole diameter, hole inclination angle, and thickness-to-diameter as well as the interactions between the flow parameters of pressure ratio and Mach number upon the flow coefficient are examined, and a preliminary statistical model is proposed. An existing correlation is also examined with respect to this data.

  2. Comparison of temperature standards. 800 deg C to 1500 deg C (radiation pyrometers). Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Rebagliati, M.; Hildebrand, E.; Tischler, M.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison between implementations of the temperature scale (IPTS-68) between 800 deg C to 1500 deg C was made at the Department of Physics and Metrology at INTI, using pyrometric lamps with a tungsten filament which were calibrated at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The purpose of this analysis was the detection of possible systematic errors as well as the evaluation of the uncertainty limit. (Author) [es

  3. Possible relation between pulsar rotation and evolution of magnetic inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun

    2018-05-01

    The pulsar timing is observed to be different from predicted by a simple magnetic dipole radiation. We choose eight pulsars whose braking index was reliably determined. Assuming the smaller values of braking index are dominated by the secular evolution of the magnetic inclination, we calculate the increasing rate of the magnetic inclination for each pulsar. We find a possible relation between the rotation frequency of each pulsar and the inferred evolution of the magnetic inclination. Due to the model-dependent fit of the magnetic inclination and other effects, more observational indicators for the change rate of magnetic inclination are needed to test the relation.

  4. On the lunar node resonance of the orbital plane evolution of the Earth's satellite orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effects of lunar node resonance on the circular medium Earth orbits (MEO). The dynamical model is established in classical Hamiltonian systems with the application of Lie transform to remove the non-resonant terms. Resonant condition, stability and phase structures are studied. The lunar node resonance occurs when the secular changing rates of the orbital node (with respect to the equator) and the lunar node (with respect to the ecliptic) form a simple integer ratio. The resonant conditions are satisfied for both inclined and equatorial orbits. The orbital plane would have long period (with typical timescales of several centuries) fluctuation due to the resonance.

  5. PRECISE TULLY-FISHER RELATIONS WITHOUT GALAXY INCLINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreschkow, D.; Meyer, M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2013-11-10

    Power-law relations between tracers of baryonic mass and rotational velocities of disk galaxies, so-called Tully-Fisher relations (TFRs), offer a wealth of applications in galaxy evolution and cosmology. However, measurements of rotational velocities require galaxy inclinations, which are difficult to measure, thus limiting the range of TFR studies. This work introduces a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for recovering the TFR in galaxy samples with limited or no information on inclinations. The robustness and accuracy of this method is demonstrated using virtual and real galaxy samples. Intriguingly, the MLE reliably recovers the TFR of all test samples, even without using any inclination measurements—that is, assuming a random sin i-distribution for galaxy inclinations. Explicitly, this 'inclination-free MLE' recovers the three TFR parameters (zero-point, slope, scatter) with statistical errors only about 1.5 times larger than the best estimates based on perfectly known galaxy inclinations with zero uncertainty. Thus, given realistic uncertainties, the inclination-free MLE is highly competitive. If inclination measurements have mean errors larger than 10°, it is better not to use any inclinations than to consider the inclination measurements to be exact. The inclination-free MLE opens interesting perspectives for future H I surveys by the Square Kilometer Array and its pathfinders.

  6. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  7. An interstellar origin for Jupiter's retrograde co-orbital asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.

    2018-06-01

    Asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 was discovered recently in Jupiter's co-orbital region with a retrograde motion around the Sun. The known chaotic dynamics of the outer Solar system have so far precluded the identification of its origin. Here, we perform a high-resolution statistical search for stable orbits and show that asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 has been in its current orbital state since the formation of the Solar system. This result indicates that (514107) 2015 BZ509 was captured from the interstellar medium 4.5 billion years in the past as planet formation models cannot produce such a primordial large-inclination orbit with the planets on nearly coplanar orbits interacting with a coplanar debris disc that must produce the low-inclination small-body reservoirs of the Solar system such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts. This result also implies that more extrasolar asteroids are currently present in the Solar system on nearly polar orbits.

  8. Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Orbit functions on the Euclidean space E_n are symmetrized exponential functions. The symmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions will be described. An orbit function is the contribution to an irreducible character of a compact semisimple Lie group G of rank n from one of its Weyl group orbits. It is shown that values of orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain F of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space E_n. Orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in E_n, satisfying the Neumann condition on the boundary of F. Orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform and a transform on a finite set of points.

  9. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  10. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. THEORY OF SECULAR CHAOS AND MERCURY'S ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu Yanqin

    2011-01-01

    We study the chaotic orbital evolution of planetary systems, focusing on secular (i.e., orbit-averaged) interactions, which dominate on long timescales. We first focus on the evolution of a test particle that is forced by multiple planets. To linear order in eccentricity and inclination, its orbit precesses with constant frequencies. But nonlinearities modify the frequencies, and can shift them into and out of resonance with either the planets' eigenfrequencies (forming eccentricity or inclination secular resonances), or with linear combinations of those frequencies (forming mixed high-order secular resonances). The overlap of these nonlinear secular resonances drives secular chaos. We calculate the locations and widths of nonlinear secular resonances, display them together on a newly developed map (the 'map of the mean momenta'), and find good agreement between analytical and numerical results. This map also graphically demonstrates how chaos emerges from overlapping secular resonances. We then apply this newfound understanding to Mercury to elucidate the origin of its orbital chaos. We find that since Mercury's two free precession frequencies (in eccentricity and inclination) lie within ∼25% of two other eigenfrequencies in the solar system (those of the Jupiter-dominated eccentricity mode and the Venus-dominated inclination mode), secular resonances involving these four modes overlap and cause Mercury's chaos. We confirm this with N-body integrations by showing that a slew of these resonant angles alternately librate and circulate. Our new analytical understanding allows us to calculate the criterion for Mercury to become chaotic: Jupiter and Venus must have eccentricity and inclination of a few percent. The timescale for Mercury's chaotic diffusion depends sensitively on the forcing. As it is, Mercury appears to be perched on the threshold for chaos, with an instability timescale comparable to the lifetime of the solar system.

  12. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity......S phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp) and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala) mutants of DegS. In a number...

  13. Compensated-power differential calorimeter -196 deg. C/400 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonjour, E.; Pierre, J.; Agagliate, S.; Bertrand, P.; Faivre, J.; Lagnier, R.

    1967-06-01

    A differential calorimetric device of original design is described. Its allows direct measurements of thermal effects (adsorption or release) during a linear rise of temperature. The self compensated power method which is applied by means of a very sensitive control system, gives a direct value of the different heat capacity between the sample and a dummy of it. The detection threshold is about ± 100 micro-watts to ± 250 micro-watts. Applications: - Generally measurements of enthalpy changes of massive or powdered samples. - Measurement of Wigner energy after low temperature irradiation (77 deg. K). - Measurements of energy release in low temperature (77 deg. K) cold worked metals. (authors) [fr

  14. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  15. A Dynamical Systems Approach to the Design of the Science Orbit Around Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gerard; Lara, Martin; Russell, Ryan P.

    2006-01-01

    The science orbit for a future mission to Europa requires low eccentricity, low altitude, and high inclination. However, high inclination orbits around planetary satellites are unstable due to third-body perturbations. Without control, the orbiter impacts Europa after few weeks. To minimize control, a tour over the stable-unstable, averaged manifolds of unstable frozen orbits has been suggested. We proceed with the unaveraged equations and study the manifolds of unstable orbits that are periodic in a rotating frame attached to Europa. Massive numerical computation helps in understanding the unstable dynamics close to Europa, and, thus, in selecting long lifetime high inclination orbits. A final test of a selected set of initial conditions on a high fidelity, ephemeris model, validate the results.

  16. [Orbital inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Coffin-Pichonnet, S; Robert, P-Y; Abad, S; Martin-Silva, N

    2014-12-01

    Orbital inflammation is a generic term encompassing inflammatory pathologies affecting all structures within the orbit : anterior (involvement up to the posterior aspect of the globe), diffuse (involvement of intra- and/or extraconal fat), apical (involvement of the posterior orbit), myositis (involvement of only the extraocular muscles), dacryoadenitis (involvement of the lacrimal gland). We distinguish between specific inflammation and non-specific inflammation, commonly referred to as idiopathic inflammation. Specific orbital inflammation corresponds to a secondary localization of a "generalized" disease (systemic or auto-immune). Idiopathic orbital inflammation corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without generalized disease, and thus an unknown etiology. At the top of the differential diagnosis for specific or idiopathic orbital inflammation are malignant tumors, represented most commonly in the adult by lympho-proliferative syndromes and metastases. Treatment of specific orbital inflammation begins with treatment of the underlying disease. For idiopathic orbital inflammation, treatment (most often corticosteroids) is indicated above all in cases of visual loss due to optic neuropathy, in the presence of pain or oculomotor palsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of families among highly inclined asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    2006-07-01

    A dataset of 3652 high-inclination numbered asteroids was analyzed to search for dynamical families. A fully automated multivariate data analysis technique was applied to identify the groupings. Thirteen dynamical families and twenty-two clumps were found. When taxonomic information is available, the families show cosmochemical consistency and support an interpretation based on a common origin from a single parent body. Four families and three clumps found in this work show a size distribution which is compatible with a formation due to a cratering event on the largest member of the family, and also three families have B- or related taxonomic types members, which represents a 14% of the B-types classified by Bus and Binzel [2002. Icarus 158, 146-177].

  18. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  19. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  20. From orbital debris capture systems through internal combustion engines on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and conceptualization of an orbital debris collector was the primary area of design. In addition, an alternate structural design for Space Station Freedom and systems supporting resource utilization at Mars and the moon were studied. Hardware for production of oxygen from simulate Mars atmosphere was modified to permit more reliable operation at low pressures (down to 10 mb). An internal combustion engine was altered to study how Mars atmosphere could be used as a diluent to control combustion temperatures and avoid excess Mars propellant production requirements that would result from either methane-rich or oxygen-rich, methane-oxygen combustion. An elastic loop traction system that could be used for lunar construction vehicles was refined to permit testing. A parabolic heat rejection radiator system was designed and built to determine whether it was capable of increasing heat rejection rates during lunar daytime operation. In addition, an alternate space station truss design, utilizing a pre-integrated concept, was studied and found to reduce estimate extravehicular activity (EVA) time and increase the structural integrity when compared to the original Warren truss concept. An orbital-debris-capturing spacecraft design which could be mated with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle was studied. The design identified Soviet C-1B boosters as the best targets of opportunity in Earth orbits between an altitude of 900 km and 1100 km and at an inclination of 82.9 deg. A dual robot pallet, which could be spun to match the tumbling rate of the C-1B booster, was developed as the conceptual design.

  1. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  2. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barani Ganth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship history. Analysis of the data revealed that males showed higher level of romantic inclination than females. Those who had current/past involvement in a romantic relationship (Lovers showed higher levels of romantic inclination than those who had never involved in a romantic relationship (Non-lovers. Parents’ type of marriage (Love/arranged, close fiends’ involvement in romantic relationship too had a discriminatory role in romantic inclination. Romantic inclination was significantly related to personality factors, attachment style, media and peer influences on romantic relationships and interpersonal attraction. Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, media influence, peer influence, secure attachment and physical attraction emerged as significant predictors of romantic inclination in a regression model. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM indicated that personality, attachment style and interpersonal attraction had a significant influence on romantic inclination mediated by both media and peer influences. Romantic inclination in turn significantly predicted romantic relationship status.

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide column content measurements made from an aircraft between 5 deg and 82 deg N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, W A

    1984-01-01

    In the first two weeks of May 1981, the research jet of the German Aerospace Research Estlablishment (DFVLR) was charted to fly a meridional section between 5 deg and 82 deg N. A scanning filter photometer, developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie to measure column content values of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, using ultraviolet and visible absorption techniques, constituted part of the experimental payload for this campaign that was called SIMOC. The vertical NO2 column content above the aircraft, flying at approximately 10 km, was found to decrease rapidly from 6.9 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm to 2.5 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm around 50 deg N and then to increase again north of 75 deg N. A sharp rise in the NO2 content was observed south of the subtropical jet but this could possibly be due to the increased depth of the troposphere above the aircraft in these regions. 8 references.

  5. An experimental study of gravity-driven countercurrent two-phase flow in horizontal and inclined channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillibridge, K.H.; Ghiaasiaan, S.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    Countercurrent two-phase flow in horizontal and inclined channels, connecting a sealed liquid-filled reservoir to the atmosphere, is experimentally studied. This type of gravity-driven countercurrent two-phase flow can occur during the operation of passive safety coolant injection systems of advanced reactors. It can also occur in the pressurizer surge line of pressurized water reactors during severe accidents when the hot leg becomes voided. Four distinct flow regimes are identified: (a) stratified countercurrent, which mainly occurs when the channel is horizontal; (b) intermittent stratified-slug; (c) oscillating, which occurs when the angle of inclination is ≥30 deg; and (d) annular countercurrent. The characteristics of each regime and their sensitivity to important geometric parameters are examined. The superficial velocities in the stratified countercurrent and oscillating regimes are empirically correlated

  6. The formation of retrograde planetary orbits by close stellar encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford E. B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the growing number of observations of the RossiterMcLaughlin effect in transiting planets, which seem to suggest that ~30% of transiting planets are in highly inclined or retrograde orbits. We consider the dense cluster environment in which stars are born and investigate whether perturbations from passing stars can drive planetary systems into retrograde configurations. We find that fly-bys can result in significantly more inclination excitation than might naively be expected from impulse approximations, leading to several percent of stellar systems possessing planets in retrograde orbits.

  7. Allostery Is an Intrinsic Property of the Protease Domain of DegS Implications for Enzyme Function and Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T. (MIT)

    2010-12-02

    DegS is a periplasmic Escherichia coli protease, which functions as a trimer to catalyze the initial rate-limiting step in a proteolytic cascade that ultimately activates transcription of stress response genes in the cytoplasm. Each DegS subunit consists of a protease domain and a PDZ domain. During protein folding stress, DegS is allosterically activated by peptides exposed in misfolded outer membrane porins, which bind to the PDZ domain and stabilize the active protease. It is not known whether allostery is conferred by the PDZ domains or is an intrinsic feature of the trimeric protease domain. Here, we demonstrate that free DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} equilibrates between active and inactive trimers with the latter species predominating. Substrate binding stabilizes active DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} in a positively cooperative fashion. Mutations can also stabilize active DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} and produce an enzyme that displays hyperbolic kinetics and degrades substrate with a maximal velocity within error of that for fully activated, intact DegS. Crystal structures of multiple DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} variants, in functional and non-functional conformations, support a two-state model in which allosteric switching is mediated by changes in specific elements of tertiary structure in the context of an invariant trimeric base. Overall, our results indicate that protein substrates must bind sufficiently tightly and specifically to the functional conformation of DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} to assist their own degradation. Thus, substrate binding alone may have regulated the activities of ancestral DegS trimers with subsequent fusion of the protease domain to a PDZ domain, resulting in ligand-mediated regulation.

  8. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  9. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This presentation reports a 1 deg ×1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The model is digitally available from the author's web-site: www.lithosphere.info. Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliable data on borehole heat flow measurements (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001), checked with the original publications for data quality, and corrected for paleo-temperature effects where needed. These data are supplemented by cratonic geotherms based on xenolith data. Since heat flow measurements cover not more than half of the continents, the remaining areas (ca. 60% of the continents) are filled by the statistical numbers derived from the thermal model constrained by borehole data. Continental geotherms are statistically analyzed as a function of age and are used to estimate lithospheric temperatures in continental regions with no or low quality heat flow data. This analysis requires knowledge of lithosphere age globally. A compilation of tectono-thermal ages of lithospheric terranes on a 1 deg × 1 deg grid forms the basis for the statistical analysis. It shows that, statistically, lithospheric thermal thickness z (in km) depends on tectono-thermal age t (in Ma) as: z=0.04t+93.6. This relationship formed the basis for a global thermal model of the continental lithosphere (TC1). Statistical analysis of continental geotherms also reveals that this relationship holds for the Archean cratons in general, but not in detail. Particularly, thick (more than 250 km) lithosphere is restricted solely to young Archean terranes (3.0-2.6 Ga), while in old Archean cratons (3.6-3.0 Ga) lithospheric roots do not extend deeper than 200-220 km. The TC1 model is presented by a set of maps, which show significant thermal heterogeneity within continental upper mantle. The strongest lateral temperature variations (as large as 800 deg C) are typical of the shallow mantle (depth less than 100 km). A map of the

  10. Educazione linguistica e bisogni degli alunni (stranieri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Chini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} L’articolo focalizza l’attenzione sui bisogni linguistici e comunicativi specifici degli allievi nativi e immigrati, al fine di evidenziare alcuni suggerimenti che è possibile trarne sul piano dell’educazione linguistica, intesa nel senso dell’insegnamento rivolto allo sviluppo e al potenziamento delle abilità linguistico-comunicative, ma anche metalinguistiche, svolto trasversalmente dai docenti di discipline linguistiche e non.  Tenendo conto di principi e suggerimenti emersi dalla riflessione glottodidattica e linguistica degli ultimi decenni si forniscono criteri in base ai quali i docenti possono rilevare i bisogni linguistici dei loro allievi, bisogni che si correlano a valenze di carattere comunicativo, pragmatico, espressivo e culturale-matetico, ma che sono anche di natura sociale, relazionale e affettiva, identitaria e psicologica oltre che cognitiva.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The article focuses on the specific linguistic and communicative needs of native and immigrant pupils, in order to draw attention to inspiration  that can be gained for general linguistic education, seen as teaching that aims to develop and strengthen linguistic-communicative abilities but also meta-linguistic ones – teaching that is carried

  11. Il movimento degli scioperi nel XX secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Theresa Schorer Petrone

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Cella, Gian Primo (organizador. Il movimento degli scioperi nel XX secolo. Bologna, Società Editrice Mulino, 1979. (primeiro parágrado do texto "O movimento das greves no século XX" constitui o resultado de laboriosa pesquisa realizada por um grupo de sociólogos— Guido 13oglioni, Lorenzo Bordogna, Gian Primo Cella, Pietro Kemeny, Giancarlo Provasi, Guido Romagnoli e Gian Enrico Rusconi — ligados às universidades de Turim, Parma, Trento e Cagliari.  Analisando com técnicas de quantificação, os mais variados aspectos das greves ocorridas desde o início deste século até 1970 na Grã Bretanha, Alemanha, Itália, França e nos Estados Unidos, e considerando esses niovimentos' os indicadores mais significativos da ação operária enquanto Manifestação sindical e reinvindicativa, acreditavam que poderiam de-teCtar as relações entre ação operária e as 'mudanças sociais.  O livro em questão é o resultado da primeira fase desta pesquisa em que se procurou reconstruir os movimentos grevistas e suas formas, chegando-se a construir modelos explicativos .

  12. UNBIASED INCLINATION DISTRIBUTIONS FOR OBJECTS IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES), we investigate the inclination distributions of objects in the Kuiper Belt. We present a derivation for observational bias removal and use this procedure to generate unbiased inclination distributions for Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) of different DES dynamical classes, with respect to the Kuiper Belt plane. Consistent with previous results, we find that the inclination distribution for all DES KBOs is well fit by the sum of two Gaussians, or a Gaussian plus a generalized Lorentzian, multiplied by sin i. Approximately 80% of KBOs are in the high-inclination grouping. We find that Classical object inclinations are well fit by sin i multiplied by the sum of two Gaussians, with roughly even distribution between Gaussians of widths 2.0 +0.6 -0.5 0 and 8.1 +2.6 -2.1 0 . Objects in different resonances exhibit different inclination distributions. The inclinations of Scattered objects are best matched by sin i multiplied by a single Gaussian that is centered at 19.1 +3.9 -3.6 0 with a width of 6.9 +4.1 -2.7 0 . Centaur inclinations peak just below 20 0 , with one exceptionally high-inclination object near 80 0 . The currently observed inclination distribution of the Centaurs is not dissimilar to that of the Scattered Extended KBOs and Jupiter-family comets, but is significantly different from the Classical and Resonant KBOs. While the sample sizes of some dynamical classes are still small, these results should begin to serve as a critical diagnostic for models of solar system evolution.

  13. Radiography method mprising determination of corrected absorption values for members of sets of mutually inclined beam paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeMay, C.A.G.

    1978-01-01

    An x-ray apparatus is described for examining a body including a source of a fan of radiation and detectors of the radiation along beams in the fan are transversed in a plane to provide data for a number of sets of parallel beams in the plane. An orbital motion is provided to give data for further sets at different inclinations in the plane. The data can be processed by arrangements using such parallel sets. The orbital motion is continuous but the extent of angular change in one lateral scan is kept small so that lack of parallelism in the parallel sets does not give excessive errors

  14. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  15. Movements of a Sphere Moving Over Smooth and Rough Inclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    1992-01-01

    The steady movements of a sphere over a rough incline in air, and over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid were studied theoretically and experimentally. The principle of energy conservation was used to analyze the translation velocities, rolling resistances, and drag coefficients of a sphere moving over the inclines. The rolling resistance to the movement of a sphere from the rough incline was presumed to be caused by collisions and frictional slidings. A varnished wooden board was placed on the bottom of an experimental tilting flume to form a smooth incline and a layer of spheres identical to the sphere moving over them was placed on the smooth wooden board to form a rough incline. Spheres used in the experiments were glass spheres, steel spheres, and golf balls. Experiments show that a sphere moving over a rough incline with negligible fluid drag in air can reach a constant translation velocity. This constant velocity was found to be proportional to the bed inclination (between 11 ^circ and 21^circ) and the square root of the sphere's diameter, but seemingly independent of the sphere's specific gravity. Two empirical coefficients in the theoretical expression of the sphere's translation velocity were determined by experiments. The collision and friction parts of the shear stress exerted on the interface between the moving sphere and rough incline were determined. The ratio of collision to friction parts appears to increase with increase in the bed inclination. These two parts seem to be of the same order of magnitude. The rolling resistances and the relations between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for a sphere moving over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid, such as water or salad oil, were determined by a regression analysis based on experimental data. It was found that the drag coefficient for a sphere over the rough incline is larger than that for a sphere over the smooth incline, and both of which are much larger than that for a sphere in free

  16. Stable low-altitude orbits around Ganymede considering a disturbing body in a circular orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, J.; Carvalho, J. P. S.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2014-10-01

    Some missions are being planned to visit Ganymede like the Europa Jupiter System Mission that is a cooperation between NASA and ESA to insert the spacecraft JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Ganymedes orbit. This comprehension of the dynamics of these orbits around this planetary satellite is essential for the success of this type of mission. Thus, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around Ganymede. An emphasis is given in polar orbits and it can be useful in the planning of space missions to be conducted around, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of artificial satellites around Ganymede under the influence of the third-body (Jupiter's gravitational attraction) and the polygenic perturbations like those due to non-uniform distribution of mass (J_2 and J_3) of the main body. A simplified dynamic model for these perturbations is used. The Lagrange planetary equations are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite. The equations of motion are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. The results show the argument of pericenter circulating. However, low-altitude (100 and 150 km) polar orbits are stable. Another orbital elements behaved variating with small amplitudes. Thus, such orbits are convenient to be applied to future space missions to Ganymede. Acknowledgments: FAPESP (processes n° 2011/05671-5, 2012/12539-9 and 2012/21023-6).

  17. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  18. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0, and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable linear

  20. Neutron damage of silicon detectors at 20 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, R.; Gorfine, G.; Guy, L.; Moorhead, G.; Taylor, G.; Tovey, S.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution reports new data on the damage of silicon detectors by low energy (1 MeV) neutrons. The data were taken at the end of 1991. Three exposures of UA2 Inner Silicon detectors were made: at +20 deg C, -15 deg C and -95 deg C. A high neutron flux enabled the required fluences to be achieved in relatively short times. This increases the sensitivity of the experiment to damage types with shorter self-annealing time constants. This note discusses the new data taken at +20 deg C. Analysis of the low temperature exposures is in progress. 5 refs., 15 figs

  1. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  2. Exterior Companions to Hot Jupiters Orbiting Cool Stars Are Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Adams, Fred C.; Khain, Tali; Bryan, Marta

    2017-12-01

    The existence of hot Jupiters has challenged theories of planetary formation since the first extrasolar planets were detected. Giant planets are generally believed to form far from their host stars, where volatile materials like water exist in their solid phase, making it easier for giant planet cores to accumulate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how giant planets can migrate inward from their birth sites to short-period orbits. One such mechanism, called Kozai-Lidov migration, requires the presence of distant companions in orbits inclined by more than ˜40° with respect to the plane of the hot Jupiter’s orbit. The high occurrence rate of wide companions in hot-Jupiter systems lends support to this theory for migration. However, the exact orbital inclinations of these detected planetary and stellar companions is not known, so it is not clear whether the mutual inclination of these companions is large enough for the Kozai-Lidov process to operate. This paper shows that in systems orbiting cool stars with convective outer layers, the orbits of most wide planetary companions to hot Jupiters must be well aligned with the orbits of the hot Jupiters and the spins of the host stars. For a variety of possible distributions for the inclination of the companion, the width of the distribution must be less than ˜20° to recreate the observations with good fidelity. As a result, the companion orbits are likely well aligned with those of the hot Jupiters, and the Kozai-Lidov mechanism does not enforce migration in these systems.

  3. Improved efficiency of lifting freight on inclined mine shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molchanov, A A

    1980-01-01

    Design and operating principles are described for a self-propelled inclined lifter with hinged-lever mechanism of forced compression of the drive wheels to the rails. Limit values are defined for the main parameters of the traction device.

  4. Brilliance and flux reduction in imperfect inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Blasdell, R.C.; Fernandez, P.B.; Macrander, A.T.; Mills, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The inclined crystal geometry has been suggested as a method of reducing the surface absorbed power density of high-heat-load monochromators for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Computer simulations have shown that if the crystals are perfectly aligned and have no strains then the diffraction properties of a pair of inclined crystals are very similar to a pair of conventional flat crystals with only subtle effects differentiating the two configurations. However, if the crystals are strained, these subtle differences in the behavior of inclined crystals can result in large beam divergences causing brilliance and flux losses. This manuscript elaborates on these issues and estimates potential brilliance and flux losses from strained inclined crystals at the APS

  5. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field

  6. Psychosocial Determinants of Romantic Inclination Among Indian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    D. Barani Ganth; S. Kadhiravan

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the psychosocial determinants of romantic inclination among youth in India. We involved 779 student participants from a large central university in south India in the age range of 18-24 years. The participants filled measures on romantic inclination, personality, attachment style, interpersonal attraction, and social influence on romantic relationship in addition to a questionnaire on demographic information and relationship histor...

  7. Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirout, J.

    1981-02-01

    An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck.

  8. Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirout, J.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck. (orig.)

  9. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  10. Spin Hall effect in a 2DEG in the presence of magnetic couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, C; Schwab, P; Dzierzawa, M; Raimondi, R; Milletari, M

    2009-01-01

    It is now well established that the peculiar linear-in-momentum dependence of the Rashba (and of the Dresselhaus) spin-orbit coupling leads to the vanishing of the spin Hall conductivity in the bulk of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this paper we discuss how generic magnetic couplings change this behaviour providing then a potential handle on the spin Hall effect. In particular we examine the influence of magnetic impurities and an in-plane magnetic field. We find that in both cases there is a finite spin Hall effect and we provide explicit expressions for the spin Hall conductivity. The results can be obtained by means of the quasiclassical Green function approach, that we have recently extended to spin-orbit coupled electron systems.

  11. Influence of presence of inclined centered baffle and corrugation frequency on natural convection heat transfer flow of air inside a square enclosure with corrugated side walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Salam Hadi; Jabbar, Mohammed Yousif; Mohamad, Ahmad Saddy [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Babylon University, Babylon Province (Iraq)

    2011-09-15

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of presence of insulated inclined centered baffle and corrugation frequency on the steady natural convection in a sinusoidal corrugated enclosure. The present study is based on such a configuration where the two vertical sinusoidal walls are maintained at constant low temperature whereas a constant heat flux source whose length is 80% of the width of the enclosure is discretely embedded in the bottom wall. The remaining parts of the bottom wall and the top wall are adiabatic. The finite volume method has been used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes and the energy conservation equations of the fluid medium in the enclosure in order to investigate the effects of baffle inclination angles, corrugation frequencies and Grashof numbers on the fluid flow and heat transfer in the enclosure. The values of the governing parameters are the Grashof number Gr (10{sup 3}-10{sup 6}), the corrugation frequencies CF (1, 2 and 3), baffle inclination angles (0 deg. {<=} {phi} {<=} 150 deg.) and Prandtl number Pr (0.71). Results are presented in the form of streamline and isotherm plots. The results of this investigation are illustrated that the average Nusselt number increases with increase in both the Grashof number and corrugation frequency for different baffle inclination angles and the presence of inclined baffle and increasing the corrugation frequency have significant effects on the average Nusselt numbers, streamlines and isotherms inside the enclosure. The obtained numerical results have been compared with literature ones, and it gives a reliable agreement. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Stratified flow model for convective condensation in an inclined tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Stéphane; Meyer, Josua P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Convective condensation in an inclined tube is modelled. ► The heat transfer coefficient is the highest for about 20° below the horizontal. ► Capillary forces have a strong effect on the liquid–vapour interface shape. ► A good agreement between the model and the experimental results was observed. - Abstract: Experimental data are reported for condensation of R134a in an 8.38 mm inner diameter smooth tube in inclined orientations with a mass flux of 200 kg/m 2 s. Under these conditions, the flow is stratified and there is an optimum inclination angle, which leads to the highest heat transfer coefficient. There is a need for a model to better understand and predict the flow behaviour. In this paper, the state of the art of existing models of stratified two-phase flows in inclined tubes is presented, whereafter a new mechanistic model is proposed. The liquid–vapour distribution in the tube is determined by taking into account the gravitational and the capillary forces. The comparison between the experimental data and the model prediction showed a good agreement in terms of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. The effect of the interface curvature on the heat transfer coefficient has been quantified and has been found to be significant. The optimum inclination angle is due to a balance between an increase of the void fraction and an increase in the falling liquid film thickness when the tube is inclined downwards. The effect of the mass flux and the vapour quality on the optimum inclination angle has also been studied.

  14. The TWA 3 Young Triple System: Orbits, Disks, Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Prato, L.; Avilez, I.; Wasserman, L. H.; Levine, S. E.; Bosh, A. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ruíz-Rodríguez, D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Guenther, E. W. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Neuhäuser, R. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, FSU Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Hinz, Phil; Males, Jared R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have characterized the spectroscopic orbit of the TWA 3A binary and provide preliminary families of probable solutions for the TWA 3A visual orbit, as well as for the wide TWA 3A–B orbit. TWA 3 is a hierarchical triple located at 34 pc in the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya association. The wide component separation is 1.″55; the close pair was first identified as a possible binary almost 20 years ago. We initially identified the 35-day period orbital solution using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy that angularly resolved the A and B components. We then refined the preliminary orbit by combining the infrared data with a reanalysis of our high-resolution optical spectroscopy. The orbital period from the combined spectroscopic solution is ∼35 days, the eccentricity is ∼0.63, and the mass ratio is ∼0.84; although this high mass ratio would suggest that optical spectroscopy alone should be sufficient to identify the orbital solution, the presence of the tertiary B component likely introduced confusion in the blended optical spectra. Using millimeter imaging from the literature, we also estimate the inclinations of the stellar orbital planes with respect to the TWA 3A circumbinary disk inclination and find that all three planes are likely misaligned by at least ∼30°. The TWA 3A spectroscopic binary components have spectral types of M4.0 and M4.5; TWA 3B is an M3. We speculate that the system formed as a triple, is bound, and that its properties were shaped by dynamical interactions between the inclined orbits and disk.

  15. Thermal convection of liquid sodium in inclined cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilov, Ruslan; Kolesnichenko, Ilya; Pavlinov, Alexander; Mamykin, Andrey; Shestakov, Alexander; Frick, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The effect of inclination on the low Prandtl number turbulent convection in a cylinder of unit aspect ratio was studied experimentally. The working fluid was sodium (Prandtl number Pr =0.0094 ), the measurements were performed for a fixed Rayleigh number Ra =(1.47 ±0.03 ) ×107 , and the inclination angle varied from β =0∘ (the Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the temperature gradient is vertical) up to β =90∘ (the applied temperature gradient is horizontal) with a step Δ β =10∘ . The effective axial heat flux characterized by the Nusselt number is minimal at β =0∘ and demonstrates a smooth growth with the increase of the cylinder inclination, reaching a maximum at angle β ≈70∘ and decreasing with a further increase of β . The maximal value of the normalized Nusselt number Nu (β )/Nu (0 ) was 1.21. In general, the dependence of Nu (β ) in a cylinder with unit aspect ratio is similar to what was observed in sodium convection in inclined long cylinders but is much weaker. The structure of the flow undergoes a significant transformation with inclination. Under moderate inclination (β ≲30∘ ), the fluctuations are strong and are provided by regular oscillations of large-scale circulation (LSC) and by turbulence. Under large inclination (β >60∘ ), the LSC is regular and the turbulence is weak, while in transient regimes (30∘border of transient and large inclinations. We find the first evidence of strong LSC fluctuations in low Prandtl number convective flow under moderate inclination. The rms azimuthal fluctuations of LSC, about 27∘ at β =0∘ , decrease almost linearly up to β =30∘ , where they are about 9∘. The angular fluctuations in the vicinity of the end faces are much stronger (about 37∘ at β =0∘ ) and weakly decrease up to β =20∘ . The strong anticorrelation of the fluctuations in two halves of the cylinder indicates the torsional character of LSC fluctuations. At β =30∘ , the intensity of the oscillations at the

  16. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Influence of shear plane inclination and location as well as buffer properties on the damage caused to the canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Hernelind, Jan [5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg

  17. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Influence of shear plane inclination and location as well as buffer properties on the damage caused to the canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2006-10-01

    The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg

  18. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  19. Orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators

  20. Brane orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We complete the classification of half-supersymmetric branes in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory in terms of representations of the T-duality group. As a by-product we derive a last wrapping rule for the space-filling branes. We find examples of T-duality representations of branes in lower dimensions, suggested by supergravity, of which none of the component branes follow from the reduction of any brane in ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory. We discuss the constraints on the charges of half-supersymmetric branes, determining the corresponding T-duality and U-duality orbits.

  1. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  2. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  3. Loading factor and inclination parameter of diagonal type MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Motoo

    1979-01-01

    Regarding diagonal type MHD generators is studied the relation between the loading factor and inclination parameter which is required for attaining the maximum power density with a given electrical efficiency on the assumption of infinitely segmented electrodes. The average current density on electrodes is calculated against the Hall parameter, loading factor, and inclination parameter. The diagonal type generator is compared with Faraday type generator regarding the average current density. Decreasing the loading factor from inlet to outlet is appropriate to small size generators but increasing to large size generators. The inclination parameter had better decrease in both generators, being smaller for small generators than for large ones. The average current density on electrodes of diagonal type generators varies less with the loading factor than the Faraday type. In large size generators its value can become smaller compared with that of the Faraday type. (author)

  4. Interplay between geometry and temperature for inclined Casimir plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect. We investigate the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between an inclined semi-infinite plate above an infinite plate in D dimensions using the worldline formalism. Whereas the high-temperature behavior is always found to be linear in T in accordance with dimensional-reduction arguments, different power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. Unlike the case of infinite parallel plates, which shows the well-known T D behavior of the force, we find a T D-1 behavior for inclined plates, and a ∼T D-0.3 behavior for the edge effect in the limit where the plates become parallel. The strongest temperature dependence ∼T D-2 occurs for the Casimir torque of inclined plates. Numerical as well as analytical worldline results are presented.

  5. Flow of Dense Granular Suspensions on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoit, C.; Lanuza, J.; Lindner, A.; Clément, E.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the flow behavior of dense granular suspensions, by the use of an inclined plane. The suspensions are prepared at high packing fractions and consist of spherical non-Brownian particles density matched with the suspending fluid. On the inclined plane, we perform a systematic study of the surface velocity as a function of the layer thickness for various flow rates and tilt angles. We perform measurements on a classical rheometer (parallel-plate rheometer) that is shown to be in good agreement with existing models, up to a volume fraction of 50%. Comparing these results, we show that the flow on an inclined plane can, up to a volume fraction of 50%, indeed be described by a purely viscous model in agreement with the results from classical rheometry.

  6. Metrics in Keplerian orbits quotient spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, Danila V.

    2018-03-01

    Quotient spaces of Keplerian orbits are important instruments for the modelling of orbit samples of celestial bodies on a large time span. We suppose that variations of the orbital eccentricities, inclinations and semi-major axes remain sufficiently small, while arbitrary perturbations are allowed for the arguments of pericentres or longitudes of the nodes, or both. The distance between orbits or their images in quotient spaces serves as a numerical criterion for such problems of Celestial Mechanics as search for common origin of meteoroid streams, comets, and asteroids, asteroid families identification, and others. In this paper, we consider quotient sets of the non-rectilinear Keplerian orbits space H. Their elements are identified irrespective of the values of pericentre arguments or node longitudes. We prove that distance functions on the quotient sets, introduced in Kholshevnikov et al. (Mon Not R Astron Soc 462:2275-2283, 2016), satisfy metric space axioms and discuss theoretical and practical importance of this result. Isometric embeddings of the quotient spaces into R^n, and a space of compact subsets of H with Hausdorff metric are constructed. The Euclidean representations of the orbits spaces find its applications in a problem of orbit averaging and computational algorithms specific to Euclidean space. We also explore completions of H and its quotient spaces with respect to corresponding metrics and establish a relation between elements of the extended spaces and rectilinear trajectories. Distance between an orbit and subsets of elliptic and hyperbolic orbits is calculated. This quantity provides an upper bound for the metric value in a problem of close orbits identification. Finally the invariance of the equivalence relations in H under coordinates change is discussed.

  7. Local pool boiling heat transfer on a 3 Degree inclined tube surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied for a long time. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for the purpose of acquiring inherent safety functions in case of no power supply. To design more efficient heat exchangers, effects of several parameters on heat transfer must be studied in detail. One of the major issues is variation in local heat transfer coefficients on a tube. Lance and Myers reported that the type of boiling liquid can change the trend of local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery. Lance and Myers said that as the liquid is methanol the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom while the maximum was at the tube sides as the boiling liquid was n hexane. Corn well and Einarsson reported that the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom, as the boiling liquid was R113. Corn well and Houston explained the reason of the difference in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube circumference with introducing effects of sliding bubbles on heat transfer. According to Gu pta et al., the maximum and the minimum local heat transfer coefficients were observed at the bottom and top regions of the tube circumference, respectively, using a tube bundle and water. Kang also reported the similar results using a single horizontal tube and water. However, the maximum heat transfer coefficient was observed at the angle of 45 deg. Sateesh et al. investigated variations in local heat transfer coefficients along a tube periphery as the inclination angle was changed. Summarizing the published results, some parts are still remaining to be investigated in detail. Although pool boiling analysis on a nearly horizontal tube is necessary for the design of the advanced power reactor plus, no previous results are published yet. Therefore, the present study is aimed to study variations in local pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for a 3 degree inclined

  8. Effect of the Aligned Flow Obstacles on Downward-Facing CHF in an Inclined Rectangular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ui ju; Son, Hong Hyun; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The cooling channel consists of the inclined (10 .deg. ) portion of the downward facing heating channel and vertical portion of the heating channel. Features unique to flow boiling with the downward-facing heater surface in the inclined cooling channel where the studs are installed have drawn a considerable attention. That's because prior studies on boiling crisis indicate the orientation of the heated wall can exert substantial influence on CHF. Especially, the concentration of the vapor near the downward facing heater surface makes this region susceptible to premature boiling crisis when compared to vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Also, the installed studs could cause a partial flow blockage, and distort the flow streamline. Due to the distortion, stagnation points may occur in the cooling channel, promoting the concentration of the vapor near the heated wall. Then, the locally degraded heat transfer around the points may result in the formation of vapor pocket. The primary objective of this study is to make available experimental data on the CHF values varying the shape of studs and to improve understanding of the mechanism of flow boiling crisis associated with the aligned flow obstructions by means of visual experimental study. This study presents experimental data for subcooled flow boiling of water at atmospheric pressure and low mass flux conditions. The major outcomes from this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) The CHF value from bare test section is -320kW/m{sup 2} , significantly lower than the values from the existing correlations even considering the uncertainty in the experiments. (2) The CHF value is remarkably decreased as columnar structures are installed in the channel. It is confirmed that formation and extinction of local dryout occurs repeatedly just behind the first stud at heat flux of -160 kW/m{sup 2}.

  9. Momentum distributions and binding energies for the valence orbitals of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchinton, A.; Brion, C.E.; Weigold, E.

    1981-06-01

    Methanol has been studied by binary (e,2e) coincidence spectroscopy at 1200 eV using symmetric non-coplanar geometry. The binding energy spectrum has been determined in the energy range up to 46eV at azimuthal angles of 0 deg. and 7 deg. Momentum distributions measured for the valence orbitals are compared with calculations using the wave functions (essentially double-zeta quality) reported by Snyder and Basch. Agreement is generally quite good except for the outermost orbitals and the 5a' orbital which all show somewhat larger low momentum components than predicted by the calculations. This is indicative of a more spatially extended orbital than is predicted

  10. Experimental alteration of R7T7 glass in salt brines at 90 deg C and 150 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.; Gin, S.; Beaufort, D.; Thomassin, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Static experiments have been developed to investigate the R7T7 glass corrosion in four natural salt brines (brines 1 and 3: pure halite, brines 2 and 4: high Mg, K fluid inclusions rich halite), at 90 deg C and 150 deg C with 0.7 cm -1 S/V ratio and at 11 different running times. Analysis of brines after alteration (pHmeter and ICP) added to a detailed study of the crystalline phases developed at the interface glass-brine (XRD,SEM and Microprobe), showed that the influence of the compositional difference is more important on the nature of the secondary phases formed than on the corrosion rate of the glass. After 91 days of alteration at 150 deg C stady states to be reached (after 40 days at 90 deg C). A long term experiment (1 year) is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Fluorescence intensity dependence on the propagation plane inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.E.; Rubio, Marcelo; Sanchez, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the primary and secondary X-ray fluorescent emission from an homogeneous and infinite thickness sample, irradiated under different inclination of the propagation plane, is carried out. An agreement with the predictions based on Sherman equations depending on the inclination angle α was found. The invariance of the primary fluorescence with respect to α and the decrease until evanescence of the secondary fluorescence for a α → π/2 are confirmed. A discussion about the physical basis of this dependence is carried out. Similar results are expected for tertiary fluorescence. (Author) [es

  12. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  13. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  14. Toxicokinetics of diethylene glycol (DEG) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmair, R; Lenk, W; Löhr, D

    1993-01-01

    Oral doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg 14C-diethylene glycol (DEG) given to rats were rapidly and almost completely absorbed, the invasion constants being 2.95 h-1 and 4.24 h-1. The kinetics of invasion were determined with the method of residuals (Rowland and Tozer 1989) and by reconstruction of the invasion curves according to Kübler (1970). 14C-DEG was rapidly distributed from the blood into the organs and tissues in the order kidneys > brain > spleen > liver > muscle > fat, i.e. the same order as the blood flow. The relative volume of distribution, app. VD, was determined at 298 ml, indicating distribution over the whole body. After oral doses of 1, 5, and 10 ml 14C-DEG/kg 64, 87, and 91% of 14C activity in rat blood disappeared in 12-16 h with a half-life of 3.4 h and the remaining 9, 5, and 4% with half-lives of 39 h, 45 h, and 49 h. A total of 73-96% of 14C activity in blood was excreted with the urine and 0.7-2.2% with the faeces. From the cumulative urinary excretion kinetics half-lives of 6 h were determined for doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg and 10 h for the dose of 10 ml/kg. After doses of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg 14C-DEG semi-logarithmic plots of elimination rate versus time were constant for 5 and 9 h, respectively, indicating that DEG accelerated its renal elimination by inducing osmotic diuresis. Thereafter urinary excretion followed first order kinetics with elimination half-lives of 3.6 h. After oral doses of 5 ml/kg 14C-DEG given to rats of 336 g body weight with an app. VD of 297 ml, the total clearance of 14C activity was determined at 63 ml/h, and the renal clearance of unmetabolized DEG was 66 ml/h. The ratio of ClDEG to Cl(inulin) = 0.64 indicated that DEG and its metabolite 2-hydroxyethoxyacetate (2-HEAA) were reabsorbed from the tubuli into the blood capillaries. DEG produced metabolic acidosis, which was completely balanced after doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg, but doses greater than 10 ml/kg produced non-compensated metabolic acidosis, hydropic degeneration of the

  15. Microcalorimetric studies on lithium thionyl chloride cells: temperature effects between 25deg C and -40deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, I.R.; Sibbald, A.M.; Donepudi, V.S.; Adams, W.A. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Electrochemical Science and Technology Centre); Donaldson, G.J. (Dept. of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1992-06-01

    Microcalorimetry studies were performed on commercial lithium/thionyl chloride cells to investigate whether there was a change in reaction mechanisms in the temperature range between 25deg C and -40deg C. The entropy change associated with cell discharge was calculated from the calorimetry data and was also determined from the temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential. The entropy changes determined by the two methods are compared and discussed in terms of the electrolyte composition variable. (orig.).

  16. Free tropospheric measurements of CS2 over a 45 deg N to 45 deg S latitude range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. J.; Maroulis, P. J.; Bandy, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The mean value obtained from 52 free tropospheric measurements of CS2 over the 45 deg N-45 deg S latitude range was 5.7 pptv, with standard deviation and standard error of 1.9 and 0.3 pptv, respectively. Large fluctuations in the CS2 concentration are observed which reflect the apparent short atmospheric residence time and inhomogeneities in the surface sources of CS2. The amounts of CS2 in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are statistically equal.

  17. Improving wellbore position accuracy of horizontal wells by using a continuous inclination measurement from a near bit inclination MWD sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, P. E.; Sele, R. [Baker Hughes INTEQ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Wellbore position calculations are typically performed by measuring azimuth and inclination at 10 to 30 meter intervals and using interpolation techniques to determine the borehole position between survey stations. The input parameters are measured depth (MD), azimuth and inclination, where the two parameters are measured with an MWD tool. Output parameters are the geometric coordinates; true value depth (TVD), north and east. By improving the accuracy of the inclination measurement reduces the uncertainty of the calculated TVD value, resulting in increased confidence in wellbore position. Significant improvements in quality control can be achieved by using multiple sensors. This paper describes a set of quality control parameters that can be used to verify individual sensor performance and a method for calculating TVD uncertainty in horizontal wells, using a single sensor or a combination of sensors. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  18. MEASUREMENTS OF DUST EXTINCTION IN HIGHLY INCLINED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RA; KNAPEN, JH; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF; HES, R

    1994-01-01

    We study the extinction properties of dust in the well-defined dust lanes of four highly inclined galaxies, using U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band CCD and J- and K'-band near-infrared array images. For three of these galaxies, we could use the symmetry of the underlying light profile to obtain absolute

  19. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    comparing the data obtained from vertical bridge pier and well-known relationships, a relationship ... pier nose, horseshoe vortex, surface vortex wake vortex. ..... After passing several hours and discharging of ..... It is recommended to use this ... Energy. 109–119. [4] Bozkus Z and Yaldiz O 2004 Effects of inclination of bridge.

  20. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  1. Motion on an Inclined Plane and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Ekström, Peter; Hansson, Lena; Mars, Patrik; Ouattara, Lassana; Ryan, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life. All children are familiar with playground slides, which may thus be a good starting point for investigating friction. Motion on an inclined plane is a standard physics example. This paper presents an investigation of friction by a group of 11-year olds. How did they plan their investigations?…

  2. Non-spherical granular flows down inclined chutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, R.C.; Rubio-Largo, S.M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine the steady-state granular flow of 3D non-spherical particles down an inclined plane. We use a hybrid CPU/GPU implementation of the discrete element method of nonspherical elongated particles. Thus, a systematic study of the system response is performed varying

  3. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  4. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  5. Nitrogen implantation into silicon at 700-1100 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Tyschenko, I.E.; Popov, V.P.; Tijs, S.A.; Plotnikov, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen ions 130-140 kW potential accelerated were implanted in silicon heated up to Ti=700-1100 deg C. Densities of ion current were 1-5 mcA/cm 2 , doses did not exceed 5x10 17 cm -2 . Initial stages of nitride formation in buried layers are investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering, layer-by-layer Augerspctroscopy and electron microscopy. It is determind, that Ti growth from 700 up to 900 deg C is accompanied by essential reduction of defectiveness of silicon near-the-surface layer at nitrogen retention within the limits of the calculation profile of ion ranges. At Ti=900 deg C nitrogen is rather mobile and at ∼5x10 16 cm -2 dose it is drown to α-Si 3 N 4 crystalling extraction in R p range. Beginning from Ti ≅1000 deg C nitrogen is not retained in the furied layer and diffuses to the surface. No essenstial losses of nitrogen due to evaporation or inside diffusion are observed. It is noted, that critical Ti, when nitrogen is accumulated in the buried layer, correspond to critical temperatures, when light ions introduce essential structure distortions. Conclusion is made, that irradition-introduced distortions of structure represent centres of initiation and growth of nitride phase. At 1150 deg C additional annaling during 3 hs nitrogen, occurring outside the stable extraction, is redistributed between th surface and furied layers, sintering in narrow concentration peaks

  6. Stability of hierarchical triples - I. Dependence on inner eccentricity and inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, A.; Valtonen, M.; Pasechnik, A.; Mikkola, S.

    2018-05-01

    In simulations it is often important to decide if a given hierarchical triple star system is stable over an extended period of time. We introduce a stability criterion, modified from earlier work, where we use the closest approach ratio Q of the third star to the inner binary centre of mass in their initial osculating orbits. We study by numerical integration the orbits of over 1000 000 triple systems of the fixed masses and outer eccentricities eout, but varying inner eccentricities ein and inclinations i. 12 primary combinations of masses have been tried, representing the range encountered in stellar systems. The definition of the instability is either the escape of one of the bodies, or the exchange of the members between the inner and outer systems. An analytical approximation is derived using the energy change in a single close encounter between the inner and outer systems, assuming that the orbital phases in subsequent encounters occur randomly. The theory provides a fairly good description of the typical Qst, the smallest Q value that allows the system to be stable over N = 10 000 revolutions of the initial outer orbit. The final stability limit formula is Qst = 101/3A[( f g)2/(1 - eout)]1/6, where the coefficient A ˜ 1 should be used in N-body experiments, and A = 2.4 when the absolute long-term stability is required. The functions f (ein, cos i) and g(m1, m2, m3) are derived in the paper. At the limit of ein = i = m3 = 0, f g = 1.

  7. Resonant Orbital Dynamics in LEO Region: Space Debris in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of objects orbiting the earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection, and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, objects in resonant orbital motions are studied in low earth orbits. Using the two-line elements (TLE of the NORAD, resonant angles and resonant periods associated with real motions are described, providing more accurate information to develop an analytical model that describes a certain resonance. The time behaviors of the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.

  8. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1993-07-01

    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D0.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  9. Orbital Dynamics and Habitability of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, Russell J.

    With the discoveries of thousands of extra-solar planets, a handful of which are terrestrial in size and located within the "habitable zone" of their host stars, the discovery of another instance of life in the universe seems increasingly within our grasp. Yet, a number of difficulties remain--with current and developing technologies, the full characterization of a terrestrial atmosphere and, hence, the detection of biosignatures will be extraordinarily difficult and expensive. Furthermore, observations will be ambiguous, as recent developments have shown that there is no "smoking gun" for the presence of life. Ultimately, the interpretation of observations will depend heavily upon our understanding of life's fundamental properties and the physical context of a planet's observed properties. This thesis is devoted to a development of the latter quantity, physical context, focusing on a topic oft-neglected in theoretical works of habitability: orbital dynamics. I show a number of ways in which orbital dynamics can affect the habitability of exoplanets. This work highlights the crucial role of stability, mutual inclinations, and resonances, demonstrating how these properties influence atmospheric states. Studies of exoplanetary systems tend to assume that the planets are coplanar, however, the large mutual inclination of the planets orbiting upsilon Andromedae suggests that coplanarity is not always a valid assumption. In my study of this system, I show that the large inclination between planets c and d and their large eccentricities lead to dramatic orbital variations. Though there is almost certainly no habitable planet orbiting upsilon And, the existence of this system demonstrates that we should expect other such dynamically "hot" planetary systems, some of which may contain potentially habitable planets. Minute variations in a planet's orbit can lead to changes in the global temperature, and indeed, these variations seem to be intimately connected to Earth

  10. Detecting a Subsurface Ocean From Periodic Orbits at Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, S.; Padovan, S.; Russell, R. P.; Lara, M.

    2008-12-01

    Enceladus is a small icy satellite of Saturn which has been observed by the Cassini orbiter to eject plumes mainly consisting of water vapor from the "tiger stripes" located near its South pole. While tidal heating has been ruled out as an inadequate energy source to drive these eruptions, tidally induced shear stress both along and across the stripes appears to be sufficiently powerful. The internal constitution of Enceladus that fits this model is likely to entail a thin crust and a subcrustal water layer above an undifferentiated interior. Apart from the lack of a core/mantle boundary, the situation is similar to the current hypothetical models of Europa's interior. The determination of the existence of a subsurface fluid layer can therefore be pursued with similar methods, including the study of the gravitational perturbations of tidal origin on an Enceladus orbiter, and the use of altimeter measurements to the tidally deformed surface. The dynamical environment of an Enceladus orbiter is made very unstable by the overwhelming presence of nearby Saturn. The Enceladus sphere of influence is roughly twice its radius. This makes it considerably more difficult to orbit than Europa, whose sphere of influence is ~six times its radius. While low-altitude, near-polar Enceladus orbits suffer extreme instability, recent works have extended the inclination envelope for long-term stable orbits at Enceladus. Several independent methods suggest that ~65 degrees inclination is the maximum attainable for stable, perturbed Keplerian motion. These orbits are non-circular and exist with altitude variations from ~200 to ~300 km. We propose a nominal reference orbit that enjoys long term stability and is favorable for long-term mapping and other scientific experiments. A brief excursion to a lower altitude, slightly higher inclined, yet highly unstable orbit is proposed to improve gravity signatures and enable high resolution, nadir-pointing experiments on the geysers emanating

  11. FROM ORDER TO CHAOS IN EARTH SATELLITE ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gkolias, Ioannis; Gachet, Fabien [Department of Mathematics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Daquin, Jérôme [IMCCE/Observatoire de Paris, Université Lille1, F-59000 Lille (France); Rosengren, Aaron J., E-mail: gkolias@mat.uniroma2.it [IFAC-CNR, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    We consider Earth satellite orbits in the range of semimajor axes where the perturbing effects of Earth’s oblateness and lunisolar gravity are of comparable order. This range covers the medium-Earth orbits (MEO) of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and the geosynchronous orbits (GEO) of the communication satellites. We recall a secular and quadrupolar model, based on the Milankovitch vector formulation of perturbation theory, which governs the long-term orbital evolution subject to the predominant gravitational interactions. We study the global dynamics of this two-and-a-half degrees-of-freedom Hamiltonian system by means of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI), used in a statistical sense. Specifically, we characterize the degree of chaoticity of the action space using angle-averaged normalized FLI maps, thereby overcoming the angle dependencies of the conventional stability maps. Emphasis is placed upon the phase-space structures near secular resonances, which are of primary importance to the space debris community. We confirm and quantify the transition from order to chaos in MEO, stemming from the critical inclinations and find that highly inclined GEO orbits are particularly unstable. Despite their reputed normality, Earth satellite orbits can possess an extraordinarily rich spectrum of dynamical behaviors and, from a mathematical perspective, have all the complications that make them very interesting candidates for testing the modern tools of chaos theory.

  12. Magnetic inclination from Brazilian bricks and application to Archeomagnetic dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, G. S.; Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.

    2013-05-01

    The Earth's magnetic field (EMF) is recorded in archeological baked materials carrying a stable remanent magnetization. This magnetic record can be used for indirectly date the archeological material by comparison with "reference curves" of the EMF. In this work we present magnetic inclination data from two different sites in southeastern Brazil, an ancient and a modern one: (a) a sampling at the ancient sugarcane mill Engenho Central de Piracicaba (ECP, 1881-1974 AD), and (b) a controlled survey at the modern brickyard Olaria Schiavolin (OS). Both of them are located in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Magnetic measurements included stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and low-field magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature. In OS, we collected 40 oriented bricks from 5 sampling points inside the brickyard oven in order to test the stability and reliability of their remanent magnetizations by comparing them with the local field (measured directly with a fluxgate magnetometer). We observed differences of +/- 3° between the local field and the IGRF. When magnetic inclinations are reported relative to the flat planes of the brick (the situation we face for real ancient bricks), the differences due to inclination of the burning plane and magnetic anomalies inside the oven never exceed 6°. These differences are averaged out by using a minimum of 6 bricks (~24 specimens) per sampling point to compute the inclination. In the ancient site ECP we collected 140 non-oriented bricks from 14 different walls; three of them were previously dated using historical records. Inclinations were defined using at least 6 bricks per wall, showing consistent average values within the same walls. When compared to the IGRF and GUFM1 models, the inclinations obtained for the dated walls agreed within the experimental error. We have then applied the same procedure to estimate the age of the remaining walls. Using

  13. Low Temperature (320 deg C and 340 deg C) Creep Crack Growth in Low Alloy Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Wu; Sandstroem, Rolf; Seitisleam, Facredin

    2004-02-01

    Uni-axial creep and creep crack growth (CCG) tests at 320 deg C and 340 deg C as well as post test metallography have been carried out in a low alloy reactor pressure vessel steel (ASTM A508 class 2) having simulated coarse grained heat affected zone microstructure. The CCG behaviour is studied in terms of steady crack growth rate, creep fracture parameter C*, stress intensity factor and reference stress at given testing conditions. It has been found that CCG does occur at both tested temperatures. The lifetimes for the CCG tests are considerably shorter than those for the uni-axial creep tests. This is more pronounced at longer lifetimes or lower stresses. Increasing temperature from 320 deg C to 340 deg C causes a reduction of lifetime by approximately a factor of five and a corresponding increase of steady crack growth rate. For the CCG tests, there are three regions when the crack length is plotted against time. After incubation, the crack grows steadily until it accelerates when rupture is approached. Notable crack growth takes place at later stage of the tests. No creep cavitation is observed and transgranular fracture is dominant for the uni-axial creep specimens. In the CT specimens the cracks propagate intergranularly, independent of temperature and time. Some relations between time to failure, reference stress and steady crack growth rate are found for the CCG tests. A linear extrapolation based on the stress-time results indicates that the reference stress causing failure due to CCG at a given lifetime of 350,000 hours at 320 deg C is clearly lower than both yield and tensile strengths, on which the design stress may have based. Therefore, caution must be taken to prevent premature failure due to low temperature CCG. Both uni-axial and CCG tests on real welded joint at 320 deg C, study of creep damage zone at crack tip as well as numerical simulation are recommended for future work

  14. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Reaction π-p→X deg n, X deg → 2γ at momenta 15 and 40 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, W.D.; Bertolucci, E; Donskov, S.V.

    1974-01-01

    The cross sections for reaction π - p→X deg n with X deg → 2γ decay have been measured at momenta 15 and 40 GeV/c. About 500 events have been detected. A hodoscope spectrometer with the computer on-line was used to detect photon pairs. t-dependence of differential cross section has been obtained similar to that of reaction π - p→eta deg n. From the ratio of differential cross section for X deg and eta deg production at t=0 an angle of the singlet-octet mixing of pseudoscalar mesons has been found to be equal to β=-19 deg

  16. La valutazione degli investimenti finanziati tramite equity crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Zanetti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Evoluzione e dimensione del crowdfunding, La valutazione e strutturazione dell’investimento tramite equity crowdfunding, Valutazioni implicite nelle raccolte fondi in equity crowdfunding, Peculiarità specifiche dell’equity crowdfunding, Un confronto con la bolla valutativa delle aziende internet degli anni 2000

  17. Keeping warming within the 2 deg. C limit after Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The object of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 was to reach an agreement on a new international legal architecture for addressing anthropogenic climate change post-2012. It failed in this endeavour, producing a political agreement in the form of the Copenhagen Accord. The Accord sets an ambitious goal of holding the increase in the global average surface temperature to below 2 deg. C. This paper describes 45 CO 2 -only mitigation scenarios that provide an indication of what would need to be done to stay within the 2 deg. C limit if the international climate negotiations stay on their current path. The results suggest that if developed countries adopt a combined target for 2020 of ≤20% below 1990 levels, global CO 2 emissions would probably have to be reduced by ≥5%/yr, and possibly ≥10%/yr, post-2030 (after a decade transitional period) in order to keep warming to 2 deg. C. If aggressive abatement commitments for 2020 are not forthcoming from all the major emitting countries, the likelihood of warming being kept within the 2 deg. C limit is diminutive.

  18. A retrograde object near Jupiter's orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M.; Wiegert, P.

    2018-02-01

    Asteroid 2007 VW266 is among the rare objects with a heliocentric retrograde orbit, and its semimajor axis is within a Hill sphere radius of that of Jupiter. This raised the interesting possibility that it could be in co-orbital retrograde resonance with Jupiter, a second "counter-orbital" object in addition to recently discovered 2015 BZ509. We find instead that the object is in 13/14 retrograde mean motion resonance (also referred to as 13/-14). The object is shown to have entered its present orbit about 1700 years ago, and it will leave it in about 8000 years, both through close approach to Jupiter. Entry and exit states both avoid 1:1 retrograde resonance, but the retrograde nature is preserved. The temporary stable state is due to an elliptic orbit with high inclination keeping nodal passages far from the associated planet. We discuss the motion of this unusual object based on modeling and theory, and its observational prospects.

  19. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  20. Graphs and matroids weighted in a bounded incline algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-Xia; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Firstly, for a graph weighted in a bounded incline algebra (or called a dioid), a longest path problem (LPP, for short) is presented, which can be considered the uniform approach to the famous shortest path problem, the widest path problem, and the most reliable path problem. The solutions for LPP and related algorithms are given. Secondly, for a matroid weighted in a linear matroid, the maximum independent set problem is studied.

  1. Composition sensitivity of the Auger observatory through inclined showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ave, M.; Watson, A.A.; Hinton, J.A.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We report a calculation of the expected rate of inclined air showers induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays to be obtained by the Auger Southern Observatory assuming different mass compositions. We describe some features that can be used to distinguish photons at energies as high as 10 20 eV. The discrimination of photons at such energies will help to test some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

  2. Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  3. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  4. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  5. Inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career

    OpenAIRE

    Apturkar, D. K.; Dandekar, Usha K.; Dandkar, Kundankumar Narayan; Jorwekar, Golul Jayant; Baviskar, Padmakar Kashinath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergra...

  6. Characterization and improvement of highly inclined optical sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolini, T.; Curcio, V.; Gardini, L.; Capitanio, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2018-02-01

    Highly Inclined and Laminated Optical sheet (HILO) microscopy is an optical technique that employs a highly inclined laser beam to illuminate the sample with a thin sheet of light that can be scanned through the sample volume1 . HILO is an efficient illumination technique when applied to fluorescence imaging of thick samples owing to the confined illumination volume that allows high contrast imaging while retaining deep scanning capability in a wide-field configuration. The restricted illumination volume is crucial to limit background fluorescence originating from portions of the sample far from the focal plane, especially in applications such as single molecule localization and super-resolution imaging2-4. Despite its widespread use, current literature lacks comprehensive reports of the actual advantages of HILO in these kinds of microscopies. Here, we thoroughly characterize the propagation of a highly inclined beam through fluorescently labeled samples and implement appropriate beam shaping for optimal application to single molecule and super-resolution imaging. We demonstrate that, by reducing the beam size along the refracted axis only, the excitation volume is consequently reduced while maintaining a field of view suitable for single cell imaging. We quantify the enhancement in signal-tobackground ratio with respect to the standard HILO technique and apply our illumination method to dSTORM superresolution imaging of the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton. We define the conditions to achieve localization precisions comparable to state-of-the-art reports, obtain a significant improvement in the image contrast, and enhanced plane selectivity within the sample volume due to the further confinement of the inclined beam.

  7. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  8. The influence of incline walking on joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Mason; Dickin, D Clark; Popp, Jennifer; Wang, Henry

    2014-04-01

    Walking is a popular form of exercise and is associated with many health benefits; however, frontal-plane knee joint loading brought about by a large internal knee-abduction moment and cyclic loading could lead to cartilage degeneration over time. Therefore, knee joint mechanics during an alternative walking exercise needs to be analyzed. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes during incline walking. Fifteen healthy males walked on a treadmill at five gradients (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) at 1.34m/s, and lower-extremity joint mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes were quantified. The peak internal knee-abduction moment significantly decreased from the level walking condition at all gradients except 5%. Also, a negative relationship between the internal knee-abduction moment and the treadmill gradient was found to exist in 10% increments (0-10%, 5-15%, and 10-20%). The decrease in the internal knee-abduction moment during incline walking could have positive effects on knee joint health such as potentially reducing cartilage degeneration of the knee joint, reducing pain, and decreasing the rate of development of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. This would be beneficial for a knee surgery patient, obese persons, and older adults who are using incline walking for rehabilitation and exercise protocols. Findings from the current study can provide guidance for the development of rehabilitation and exercise prescriptions incorporating incline walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  10. High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

  11. The BANANA Survey: Spin-Orbit Alignment in Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, J. N.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Torres, G.; Setiawan, J.

    2012-04-01

    Binaries are not always neatly aligned. Previous observations of the DI Herculis system showed that the spin axes of both stars are highly inclined with respect to one another and the orbital axis. Here, we report on our ongoing survey to measure relative orientations of spin-axes in a number of eclipsing binary systems. These observations will hopefully lead to new insights into star and planet formation, as different formation scenarios predict different degrees of alignment and different dependencies on the system parameters. Measurements of spin-orbit angles in close binary systems will also create a basis for comparison for similar measurements involving close-in planets.

  12. SEE in-flight measurement on the MIR orbital station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falguere, D.; Duzellier, S.; Ecoffet, R.

    1994-01-01

    SEE spaceflight measurements are presented on HM65756 SRAM from Matra-MHS, Seeq 28C256 and Motorola MC68020 microprocessor (bulk version) in the MIR station orbit (350 km altitude, 51.6 degree inclination). Accelerator testing (heavy ion and proton) of flight spares permits the prediction of the event rates using standard model such as CREME and SPACERAD as well as characterizations of the flight components allowing the comparison of in-orbit observations. Event rate prediction and ground-testing data are compared

  13. Ageing temperature effect on inclination of martensite high strength steels EhP699, EhP678, EhP679 to corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfel'd, I.L.; Spiridonov, V.B.; Konradi, M.V.; Krasnorutskaya, I.B.; Fridman, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Stated are the data permitting to judge of the role of ageing temperature in the total number of factors, determining the inclination to corrosion cracking of high strength maraging steels, which contain chromium as a main alloying element. The inclination of the EhP699, EhP678, EhP679 steels to corrosion cracking was estimated on smooth stressed specimens in 3 % NaCl solution with the use of electrochemical polarization. The tensile stress resulted from deflection; anode and cathode current density was 10 mA/cm 2 . It is shown, that resistance to corrosion cracking depends on the ageing temperature: maximum sensitivity to corrosion cracking the steels manifest at the ageing temperatures, providing for maximum strength (470-500 deg). At the ageing temperatures by 20-30 deg over the temperature of this maximum the sensitivity to corrosion cracking disappears, which may result from the loss of coherence of strengthening phase in a matrix, from particle coagulation and stress relaxation in the crack peak

  14. Tirocinio e videomentoring: il punto di vista degli studenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maltinti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo analizza i commenti espressi dagli studenti del Corso di Studi in Scienze della Formazione Primaria dell’Università di Firenze dopo aver partecipato al primo anno di un nuovo percorso di tirocinio integrato da videomentoring.I feedback forniti dai tirocinanti sono stati esaminati con un duplice scopo: (i acquisire i giudizi, le percezioni, le emozioni degli studenti in rapporto all’esperienza effettuata; (ii ricavarne indicazioni per migliorare la proposta formativa.I dati raccolti, analizzati attraverso una content analysis, toccano aspetti fondamentali della formazione iniziale degli insegnanti, quali il modellamento, l’importanza del rapporto con il tutor, la riflessività, l’imbarazzo dei tirocinanti nel vedersi in azione.

  15. Cryogenic implications of orbit selection of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Brooke, W.F.; Maa, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) which completed the first all sky survey in the infrared demonstrated the tremendous advantage of space-based infrared astronomy. The ability to cool the telescope optics and focal plane to liquid helium temperatures and the absence of atmospheric disturbances which cause ''seeing'' effects resulted in the discovery of 250,000 IR sources and many interesting phenomena including dust clouds around Vega and the infrared ''cirrus'' at 100 μm. To realize the true benefit of space infrared astronomy, NASA is now studying the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a long-life space-based observatory, to follow up on the survey results of IRAS. The choice of orbits is a critical program decision. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of an all superfluid helium SIRTF system in the two possible orbit inclinations, polar orbit (99 0 ) and the low inclination orbit (28.5 0 )

  16. CONGENITAL ORBITAL TERATOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was done without contrast and 3mm/5mm/10mm slices were obtained to cover the orbit, skull base and brain. The findings included a soft tissue mass arising from the orbit. The left eye ball was extra orbital. There was no defect .... love's Short Practice of Surgery. 7 Edition,. Levis London, 1997; 45-64. 2. Orbital tumor Part 1, ...

  17. Radiovolumetry of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, S.

    1983-01-01

    The authors present a method called ''Radiovolumetry of the orbit'' that permits the evaluation of the orbital volume from anteroposterior skull X-Rays (CALDWELL 30 0 position). The research was based in the determination of the orbital volume with lead spheres, in 1010 orbits of 505 dry skulls of Anatomy Museums. After the dry skulls was X-rayed six frontal orbital diameters were made, with care to correct the radiographic amplification. PEARSON correlation coeficient test was applied between the mean orbital diameter and the orbital volume. The result was r = 0,8 with P [pt

  18. Book review. La forma degli animali. Adolf Portmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1931 il biologo Adolf Portmann era già talmente noto a livello internazionale per le sue ricerche da guadagnarsi la cattedra in zoologia nell'università della sua città natale, Basilea, all'età di appena 34 anni. All'attività di docente universitario ha sempre affiancato un'originale riflessione sul significato delle scienze della vita, imponendosi come una delle figure chiave nel dibattito tra biologia teoretica, estetica e antropologia filosofica. La forma degli animali, la sua opera più celebre, si pone al confine tra varie discipline e conserva un grande interesse ancora oggi che il dialogo tra estetica e biologia si è fatto nuovamente intenso. Pubblicata nel 1948 e in forma ampliata nel 1960 (da cui deriva questa prima edizione italiana a cura di Pietro Conte l'opera rappresenta il frutto più maturo delle sue ricerche "interdisciplinari".Un saggio che nasce dall'insoddisfazione nei confronti dei paradigmi scientifici consolidati e che ripropone l'idea morfologica in biologia sulla scorta del pensiero di J. W. Goethe il quale affermava che "tutto ciò che è deve anche dar cenno di sé e mostrarsi". Adolf Portmann è un convinto sostenitore che dalla forma si possano dedurne le complessive caratteristiche interne ed esterne degli animali. Secondo questa prospettiva la peculiare fisionomia dell'organismo dipende dalla congiunzione delle sue parti e dalle loro reciproche funzioni. Tuttavia l'autore non vede nello studio della forma l'alternativa al funzionalismo quanto, piuttosto, il suo necessario bilanciamento come dichiara nell'introduzione: "… per giungere alla conoscenza della vita animale di strade ce ne sono molte, e tutte possono contribuire ad arricchire la nostra esperienza. Questo lavoro si occupa della forma degli animali e si propone di mettere in luce la peculiare natura dell'aspetto visibile. Ci sono persone che si dedicano allo studio degli animali, conoscono moltissime specie, hanno imparato centinaia di nomi e

  19. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  20. The hydrolysis of iron(III) and iron(ll) ions between 25 deg C and 375 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Derek

    1971-11-15

    Some data on the stabilities of the known iron (III) and iron (II) ions are presented, that have been obtained in a theoretical study of the iron-water system at temperatures up to the critical temperature. In this study, estimates of the stability constants of the various ions in dilute solution have been made by a method based on the equations of classical thermodynamics and empirical equations for the change with temperature of ionic heat capacity. The data indicate that hydrolysis increases so rapidly with temperature that the Fe+3 - ion is practically non-existent above about 150 deg C and, except in very acid solutions, the Fe+2 - ion is a relatively minor constituent above about 250 deg C. The most stable of the ions over a wide range of conditions are probably Fe(OH){sub 2}+ , Fe(OH)+ and HFeO{sub 2}-

  1. On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.

    2016-11-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, I.e. they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.

  2. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  3. Sensitivity determination of CR-39 from Normal and inclined incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, A.A.; El-Kheir, A.A.; Daas, A.F.; Awwad, Z.; Reda, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study have been carried out on alpha- particle track opening (Major and minor axes) using alpha-particles of different energies incident with different angels in addition to the normal incidence. The sensitivity of CR-39 in present work is determined for each of normal and inclined incidence. The results indicated a difference in the sensitivity according to angle of incidence. The variation of alpha- particle tracks (major and minor axes) are calculated and compared with our measured values. Also, it is found that the sensitivity of CR-39 detector is change due to the storage time at room temperature

  4. Inclined indentation of smooth wedge in rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyshev, AI; Podyminogin, GM; Lukyashko, OA

    2018-03-01

    The article focuses on the inclined rigid wedge indentation into a rigid-plastic half-plane of rocks with the Mohr–Coulomb-Mohr plasticity. The limiting loads on different sides of the wedge are determined versus the internal friction angle, cohesion and wedge angle. It is shown that when the force is applied along the symmetry axis of the wedge, the zone of plasticity is formed only on one wedge side. In order to form the plasticity zone on both sides of the wedge, it is necessary to apply the force asymmetrically relative to the wedge symmetry axis. An engineering solution for the asymmetrical case implementation is suggested.

  5. Inclinations of Egyptian pyramids and finding of the divine essence

    OpenAIRE

    GRIGORIEV STANISLAV ARKADIEVICH

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is discovery of astronomical reasons in orientation of slopes of Egyptian pyramids used as tombs for pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. The article contains results of statistical analysis of change in inclination of slopes of the pyramids (3rd 2nd millennia BC) depending on time of their building. The first year of the corresponding pharaoh’s reign has been accepted, as usually it is considered that building of pyramids ones started during either the first or second year of ...

  6. Effects of trapped proton flux anisotropy on dose rates in low Earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Kushin, V.V.; Akatov, Yu A.; Myltseva, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) have a rather narrow pitch angle distribution and exhibit east-west anisotropy. In low Earth orbits, the E-W effect results in different amounts of radiation dose received by different sections of the spacecraft. This effect is best studied on missions in which the spacecraft flies in a fixed orientation. The magnitude of the effect depends on the particle energy and altitude through the SAA. In this paper, we describe a clear example of this effect from measurements of radiation dose rates and linear energy transfer spectra made on Space Shuttle flight STS-94 (28.5 deg. inclination x 296 km altitude). The ratio of dose rates from the two directions at this location in the mid-deck was 2.7. As expected from model calculations, the spectra from the two directions are different, that is the ratio is energy dependent. The data can be used to distinguish the anisotropy models. The flight carried an active tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and passive thermoluminscent detectors (TLDs), and two types of nuclear emulsions. Using nuclear emulsions, charged particles and secondary neutron energy spectra were measured. The combined galactic cosmic radiation+trapped charged particle lineal energy spectra measured by the TEPC and the linear energy transfer spectrum measured by nuclear emulsions are in good agreement. The charged particle absorbed dose rates varied from 112 to 175 μGy/day, and dose equivalent rates from 264.3 to 413 μSv/day. Neutrons in the 1-10 MeV contributed a dose rate of 3.7 μGy/day and dose equivalent rate of 30.8 μSv/day, respectively

  7. Orbital alignment of circumbinary planets that form in misaligned circumbinary discs: the case of Kepler-413b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierens, A.; Nelson, R. P.

    2018-06-01

    Although most of the circumbinary planets detected by the Kepler spacecraft are on orbits that are closely aligned with the binary orbital plane, the systems Kepler-413 and Kepler-453 exhibit small misalignments of ˜2.5°. One possibility is that these planets formed in a circumbinary disc whose midplane was inclined relative to the binary orbital plane. Such a configuration is expected to lead to a warped and twisted disc, and our aim is to examine the inclination evolution of planets embedded in these discs. We employed 3D hydrodynamical simulations that examine the disc response to the presence of a modestly inclined binary with parameters that match the Kepler-413 system, as a function of disc parameters and binary inclinations. The discs all develop slowly varying warps, and generally display very small amounts of twist. Very slow solid body precession occurs because a large outer disc radius is adopted. Simulations of planets embedded in these discs resulted in the planet aligning with the binary orbit plane for disc masses close to the minimum mass solar nebular, such that nodal precession of the planet was controlled by the binary. For higher disc masses, the planet maintains near coplanarity with the local disc midplane. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets born in tilted circumbinary discs should align with the binary orbit plane as the disc ages and loses mass, even if the circumbinary disc remains misaligned from the binary orbit. This result has important implications for understanding the origins of the known circumbinary planets.

  8. Precipitate evolution in underaged Al-Mg-Si alloy during thermal cycling between 25 deg. C and 65 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uan, J.-Y.; Cho, C.-Y.; Chen, Z.-M.; Lin, J.-K.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of metastable precipitates and the aging response in underaged Al-Mg-Si alloy during environmental temperature cycling was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. After the alloy underwent thermal cycling between 25 deg. C and 65 deg. C, the hardness tests revealed that hardness decreased slightly, rather than following a concave downward curve, with the cycle times. Needle-shaped G.P. zones transformed during the environmental thermal cycling. The fraction of the zones declined sharply from almost 100% to only approximately 10% after 90 cycles, accompanied by an increase in the fraction of lath-shaped precipitates and the formation of β'' precipitates in the matrix. The precipitate developed with the 25-65 deg. C cycling time as follows: needle-shaped G.P. zones → lath-shaped ppt + β'' ppt + needle-shaped G.P. zones → lath-shaped ppt + β'' ppt + rod-shaped ppt + needle-shaped G.P. zones. Therefore, three or four precipitates coexisted in the underaged alloy following prolonged cycling. The formation of a limited number of β'' precipitates and the presence of a rod-shaped phase in the alloy during environmental temperature cycling reduced the hardness as the cycle time increases

  9. Analysis of the influence of orbital disturbances applied to an artificial lunar satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, L D; Rocco, E M; De Moraes, R V

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of the orbital disturbance forces in the trajectory of lunar satellites. The following gravitational and non-gravitational orbital disturbances are considered: the non-homogeneity of the lunar gravitational field; the gravitational attraction due to the third body, considering the Earth and the Sun; the lunar albedo; the solar radiation pressure. Numerical models were developed and implemented in an orbital trajectory simulator aiming to understand the dynamics of the orbital motion of an artificial satellite in lunar orbit when considering the simultaneous effect of all disturbances. Different orbits were simulated in order to characterize the major and the minor influence of each disturbing force as function of the inclination and the right ascension of the ascending node. This study can be very useful in the space mission analysis and in the selection of orbits less affected by environmental disturbances. (paper)

  10. Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction

    2005-07-01

    Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)

  11. Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2009-01-01

    Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.

  12. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  13. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  14. The Codice digitale degli archivi veronesi. A research instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brugnoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Codice digitale degli archivi veronesi (Verona’s archives digital code ‹http://cdavr.dtesis.univr.it› makes available online the digital reproductions of the documents produced by corporate bodies and family of Verona between the eighth and twelfth century. The framework of the site reflects the current organisation of the archives. A brief description of the circumstances around the creation of each archive, the corporate body or individual responsible for it and its structure is provided. Each archival unit is identified by its key elements: chronological date, name and qualification of the notary, original/copy, main editions.

  15. Deformation behaviour of type 316 steel at 400 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.; Williamson, K.

    A variety of type 316 steel deformation tests at 400 deg. C involving a study of strain rate, stress increment, stress cycling and strain cycling effects are reported. It is concluded that very small ratchet strains may occur, but these are unlikely to be of engineering significance. It is also shown that in the absence of reversed plasticity the upper stress bound is represented by the monotonic stress-strain curve. Under reversed plasticity, significant cyclic hardening can occur and in this case the upper bound may be represented by the cyclic stress-strain curve

  16. Islam, rappresentanza degli interessi religiosi e diritto comune europeo *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Macrì

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributo destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti del Convegno: Europa e Islam. Ridiscutere i fondamenti per la disciplina delle libertà religiose, svoltosi a Salerno il 3 dicembre 2007. SOMMARIO: Premessa - 1. La società «reticolare» europea: sistema di governance e valori unificanti - 2. Europa e fenomeno religioso - 3. La sostanza del Trattato di Lisbona e il ruolo delle organizzazioni religiose - 4. Il dibattito interno all’Islam europeo - 5. La Carta dei musulmani d’Europa - 6. La rappresentanza degli interessi religiosi dell’Islam in Europa - Conclusioni.

  17. Co-current descending two-phase flows in inclined packed beds : experiments versus simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atta, A.; Nigam, K.D.P.; Roy, S. [Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Schubert, M.; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-10-15

    This paper presented a numerical simulation for an inclined packed bed configuration for two-phase co-current downward flow. A two-phase Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour. Two different modelling strategies were compared, notably a straight tube with an artificially inclined gravity, and an inclined geometry with straight gravity. The effect of inclination angle of a packed bed on its gas-liquid flow segregation and liquid saturation spatial distribution was measured for varying inclinations and fluid velocities. The CFD model was adapted from a trickle-bed vertical configuration and based on the porous media concept. The predicted pressure drops for the inclined gravity were found to be insensitive to inclination. Therefore, simulations to study the parameters that influence the reduced liquid saturation were performed only with the inclined geometry case. Experimental data obtained using electrical capacitance tomography was used to validate the model predictions. The study showed that a trickle bed CFD model for vertically straight reactors can be effectively implemented in inclined reactor geometries. However, additional research is needed to formulate appropriate drag force closures which should be incorporated in the CFD model for improved quantitative estimation of inclined bed hydrodynamics. 22 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Performance of MHD coatings in flowing Li at 700 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pint, B.; Pawel, S.J.; Howell, M.; Moser, J.L.; Garner, G.W.; Santella, M.L.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Di Stefano, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A thermal convection loop was constructed from V-4Cr-4Ti tubing and operated in vacuum at a maximum Li temperature of 700 deg. C for ∼1000 h.. Due to slow Li flow (∼1 cm/s) in the loop, the temperature gradient was ∼340 deg. C. Specimens in the hot and cold legs of the loop included V-4Cr-4Ti spacers, tensile specimens (SS-3 type) and coupons coated by physical vapor deposition with yttria and over coated with unalloyed vanadium. Based on prior work, the multi-layer electrically-insulating coatings were developed to reduce the magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) force expected in the first wall of a lithium cooled blanket in a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. Characterization of the specimens after exposure will include: (1) mass change and chemistry change as a function of location in the temperature gradient, (2) the effect of Li exposure on the tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti and (3) characterization of the properties and microstructure of the coatings after exposure. Of particular interest will be the coating resistivity after exposure and any degradation of the thin (∼10 μm) vanadium overlayer. Chemistry of the Li before and after the experiment will be compared in order to assess any mass transfer effects. (authors)

  19. The 480 deg. C and 405 deg. C isothermal sections of the phase diagram of Fe-Zn-Si ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianhua [Institute of Materials Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)]. E-mail: super_wang111@hotmail.com; Su Xuping [Institute of Materials Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Yin Fucheng [Institute of Materials Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Li Zhi [Institute of Materials Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhao Manxiu [Institute of Materials Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2005-08-16

    The 480 deg. C and 405 deg. C isothermal sections of the Fe-Zn-Si ternary phase diagram have been determined experimentally using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry. The research of the work has concentrated on the Zn-rich corner, which is relevant to general galvanizing. The present studies have confirmed the existence of equilibrium state between the liquid, the {zeta} phase and the FeSi phase at the 480 deg. C isothermal section. There exist some changes in the phase relationships compared with the isothermal section at 450 deg. C. Experimental results indicate that Si solubility in all four Zn-Fe compounds is also limited at 480 deg. C and 405 deg. C.

  20. A DegU-P and DegQ-Dependent Regulatory Pathway for the K-state in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Miras

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The K-state in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis is associated with transformability (competence as well as with growth arrest and tolerance for antibiotics. Entry into the K-state is determined by the stochastic activation of the transcription factor ComK and occurs in about ~15% of the population in domesticated strains. Although the upstream mechanisms that regulate the K-state have been intensively studied and are well understood, it has remained unexplained why undomesticated isolates of B. subtilis are poorly transformable compared to their domesticated counterparts. We show here that this is because fewer cells enter the K-state, suggesting that a regulatory pathway limiting entry to the K-state is missing in domesticated strains. We find that loss of this limitation is largely due to an inactivating point mutation in the promoter of degQ. The resulting low level of DegQ decreases the concentration of phosphorylated DegU, which leads to the de-repression of the srfA operon and ultimately to the stabilization of ComK. As a result, more cells reach the threshold concentration of ComK needed to activate the auto-regulatory loop at the comK promoter. In addition, we demonstrate that the activation of srfA transcription in undomesticated strains is transient, turning off abruptly as cells enter the stationary phase. Thus, the K-state and transformability are more transient and less frequently expressed in the undomesticated strains. This limitation is more extreme than appreciated from studies of domesticated strains. Selection has apparently limited both the frequency and the duration of the bistably expressed K-state in wild strains, likely because of the high cost of growth arrest associated with the K-state. Future modeling of K-state regulation and of the fitness advantages and costs of the K-state must take these features into account.

  1. Traumatic orbital CSF leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borumandi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) leak through the nose and ear, the orbital CSF leak is a rare and underreported condition following head trauma. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with oedematous eyelid swelling and ecchymosis after a seemingly trivial fall onto the right orbit. Apart from the above, she was clinically unremarkable. The CT scan revealed a minimally displaced fracture of the orbital roof with no emphysema or intracranial bleeding. The fractured orbital roof in combination with the oedematous eyelid swelling raised the suspicion for orbital CSF leak. The MRI of the neurocranium demonstrated a small-sized CSF fistula extending from the anterior cranial fossa to the right orbit. The patient was treated conservatively and the lid swelling resolved completely after 5 days. Although rare, orbital CSF leak needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital swelling following orbital trauma. PMID:24323381

  2. Improvement in greenhouse solar drying using inclined north wall reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India); Arora, Sadhna [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India)

    2009-09-15

    A conventional greenhouse solar dryer of 6 m{sup 2} x 4 m{sup 2} floor area (east-west orientation) was improved for faster drying using inclined north wall reflection (INWR) under natural as well as forced convection mode. To increase the solar radiation availability onto the product (to be dried) during extreme summer months, a temporary inclined wall covered with aluminized reflector sheet (of 50 {mu}m thickness and reflectance 0.93) was raised inside the greenhouse just in front of the vertical transparent north wall. By doing so, product fully received the reflected beam radiation (which otherwise leaves through the north wall) in addition to the direct total solar radiation available on the horizontal surface during different hours of drying. The increment in total solar radiation input enhanced the drying rate of the product by increasing the inside air and crop temperature of the dryer. Inclination angle of the reflective north wall with vertical ({beta}) was optimized for various selective widths of the tray W (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m) and for different realistic heights of existing vertical north wall (h) at 25 N, 30 N and 35 N latitudes (hot climatic zones). Experimental performance of the improved dryer was tested during the month of May 2008 at Ludhiana (30.56 N) climatic conditions, India by drying bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) slices. Results showed that by using INWR under natural convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-6.7 C and 1-4 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 13.13% of the total drying time. By using INWR under forced convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-4.5 C and 1-3 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 16.67% of the total drying time. (author)

  3. The Effects of Various Running Inclines on Three-Segment Foot Mechanics and Plantar Fascia Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There has yet to be a combined analysis of three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in running gait at various degrees of inclination. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the above during treadmill running at different inclines (0°, 5°, 10° and 15°. Methods. Twelve male participants ran at 4.0 m · s-1 in the four different inclinations. Three-dimensional kinematics of the foot segments and plantar fascia strain were quantified for each incline and contrasted using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results and conclusions. The results showed that plantar fascia strain increased significantly as a function of running incline. Given the projected association between plantar fascia strain and the aetiology of injury, inclined running may be associated with a greater incidence of injury to the plantar fascia.

  4. Strength Calculation of Inclined Sections of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Transverse Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    The authors propose a design model to determine the strength of inclined sections of bent reinforced concrete elements without shear reinforcement for the action of transverse force taking into account the aggregate interlock forces in the inclined crack. The calculated dependences to find out the components of forces acting in an inclined section are presented. The calculated dependences are obtained from the consideration of equilibrium conditions of the block over the inclined crack. A comparative analysis of the experimental values of the failure loads of the inclined section and the theoretical values obtained for the proposed dependencies and normative calculation methods is performed. It is shown that the proposed design model makes it possible to take into account the effect the longitudinal reinforcement percentage has on the inclined section strength, the element cross section height without the introduction of empirical coefficients which contributes to an increase in the structural safety of design solutions including the safety of high-strength concrete elements.

  5. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  6. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  7. Convective flows of colloidal suspension in an inclined closed cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorodin, Boris; Ishutov, Sergey [Department of Physics of Phase Transitions, Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cherepanov, Ivan, E-mail: bsmorodin@yandex.ru [Department of Radio Electronics and Information Security, Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of convective flows is numerically investigated in the case of colloidal suspension filling an inclined closed cell heated from below. The bifurcation diagram (the dependency of the Nusselt number on the Rayleigh number) is obtained. The characteristics of the wave and steady patterns are investigated depending on heat intensity. The travelling wave changing travel direction and the non-regular oscillatory flow are found to be stable solutions within a certain interval of the Rayleigh number. Temporal Fourier decomposition is used together with other diagnostic tools to analyse the complex bifurcation and spatiotemporal properties caused by the interplay of the gravity-induced gradient of concentration and convective mixing of the fluid. It is shown that a more complex flow structure exists at a lower heating intensity (Rayleigh number). (paper)

  8. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2017-11-01

    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  9. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  10. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  11. Stability of orbits around planetary satellites considering a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit: Applications to Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    Europa and Ganymede are two of the four Jupiter’s moons which compose the Galilean satellite. These ones are planetary satellites of greater interest at the present moment among the scientific community. There are some missions being planned to visit them and and the Jovian system. One of them is the cooperation between NASA and ESA for the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). In this mission are planned the insertion of the spacecrafts JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Europa and Ganymede’s orbit. Thus, there is a great necessity for having a better comprehension of the dynamics of the orbits around this planetary satellite. This comprehension is essential for the success of this type of mission. In this context, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around these planetary satellites. An emphasis is given in polar orbits. These orbits can be useful in the planning of aerospace activities to be conducted around this planetary satellite, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of an artificial satellite around Europa and Ganymede under the influence of the third-body perturbation (the gravitational attraction of Jupiter) and the polygenic perturbations. These last ones occur due to forces such as the non-uniform distribution of mass (J2 and J3) of the main (central) body. A simplified dynamic model for polygenic perturbations is used. A new model for the third-body disturbance is presented considering it in an elliptical orbit. The Lagrange planetary equations, which compose a system of nonlinear differential equations, are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite around Ganymede. The equations showed here are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in inclination and eccentricity.

  12. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the West Greenland (68 deg.-72 deg. N) coastal zone, 2nd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, D.; Johansen, Kasper L.; Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Wegeberg, S.

    2012-12-15

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68 deg. N and 72 deg. N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. (Author)

  13. Coordinating bracket torque and incisor inclination : Part 3: Validity of bracket torque values in achieving norm inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Sino, Hiba

    2018-03-19

    To analyze common values of bracket torque (Andrews, Roth, MBT, Ricketts) for their validity in achieving incisor inclinations that are considered normal by different cephalometric standards. Using the equations developed in part 1 (eU1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (U1) - TCA (U1) + α 1 - α 2 and eL1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (L1) - TCA (L1) + β 1 - β 2 ) (abbreviations see part 1) and the mean values (± SD) obtained as statistical measures in parts 1 and 2 of the study (α 1 and β 1 [1.7° ± 0.7°], α 2 [3.6° ± 0.3°], β 2 [3.2° ± 0.4°], TCA (U1) [24.6° ± 3.6°] and TCA (L1) [22.9° ± 4.3°]) expected (= theoretically anticipated) values were calculated for upper and lower incisors (U1 and L1) and compared to targeted (= cephalometric norm) values. For U1, there was no overlapping between the ranges of expected and targeted values, as the lowest targeted value of (58.3°; Ricketts) was higher than the highest expected value (56.5°; Andrews) relative to the bisected occlusal plane (BOP). Thus all of these torque systems will aim for flatter inclinations than prescribed by any of the norm values. Depending on target values, the various bracket systems fell short by 1.8-5.5° (Andrews), 6.8-10.5° (Roth), 11.8-15.5° (MBT), or 16.8-20.5° (Ricketts). For L1, there was good agreement of the MBT system with the Ricketts and Björk target values (Δ0.1° and Δ-0.8°, respectively), and both the Roth and Ricketts systems came close to the Bergen target value (both Δ2.3°). Depending on target values, the ranges of deviation for L1 were 6.3-13.2° for Andrews (Class II prescription), 2.3°-9.2° for Roth, -3.7 to -3.2° for MBT, and 2.3-9.2° for Ricketts. Common values of upper incisor bracket torque do not have acceptable validity in achieving normal incisor inclinations. A careful selection of lower bracket torque may provide satisfactory matching with some of the targeted norm values.

  14. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  15. Nontraumatic orbital roof encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Amber; Maugans, Todd; Ngo, Thang; Ikeda, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Intraorbital meningoencephaloceles occur most commonly as a complication of traumatic orbital roof fractures. Nontraumatic congenital orbital meningoncephaloceles are very rare, with most secondary to destructive processes affecting the orbit and primary skull defects. Treatment for intraorbital meningoencephaloceles is surgical repair, involving the excision of herniated brain parenchyma and meninges and reconstruction of the osseous defect. Most congenital lesions present in infancy with obvious globe and orbital deformities; we report an orbital meningoencephalocele in a 3-year-old girl who presented with ptosis. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-Term Prediction of Satellite Orbit Using Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Cheol Yoon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term prediction algorithm of geostationary orbit was developed using the analytical method. The perturbation force models include geopotential upto fifth order and degree and luni-solar gravitation, and solar radiation pressure. All of the perturbation effects were analyzed by secular variations, short-period variations, and long-period variations for equinoctial elements such as the semi-major axis, eccentricity vector, inclination vector, and mean longitude of the satellite. Result of the analytical orbit propagator was compared with that of the cowell orbit propagator for the KOREASAT. The comparison indicated that the analytical solution could predict the semi-major axis with an accuarcy of better than ~35meters over a period of 3 month.

  17. Proper Motion and Secular Variations of Keplerian Orbital Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey G. Butkevich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High-precision observations require accurate modeling of secular changes in the orbital elements in order to extrapolate measurements over long time intervals, and to detect deviation from pure Keplerian motion caused, for example, by other bodies or relativistic effects. We consider the evolution of the Keplerian elements resulting from the gradual change of the apparent orbit orientation due to proper motion. We present rigorous formulae for the transformation of the orbit inclination, longitude of the ascending node and argument of the pericenter from one epoch to another, assuming uniform stellar motion and taking radial velocity into account. An approximate treatment, accurate to the second-order terms in time, is also given. The proper motion effects may be significant for long-period transiting planets. These theoretical results are applicable to the modeling of planetary transits and precise Doppler measurements as well as analysis of pulsar and eclipsing binary timing observations.

  18. Application of Semi-analytical Satellite Theory orbit propagator to orbit determination for space object catalog maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Srinivas J.; Cefola, Paul J.; Montenbruck, Oliver; Fiedler, Hauke

    2016-05-01

    Catalog maintenance for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) demands an accurate and computationally lean orbit propagation and orbit determination technique to cope with the ever increasing number of observed space objects. As an alternative to established numerical and analytical methods, we investigate the accuracy and computational load of the Draper Semi-analytical Satellite Theory (DSST). The standalone version of the DSST was enhanced with additional perturbation models to improve its recovery of short periodic motion. The accuracy of DSST is, for the first time, compared to a numerical propagator with fidelity force models for a comprehensive grid of low, medium, and high altitude orbits with varying eccentricity and different inclinations. Furthermore, the run-time of both propagators is compared as a function of propagation arc, output step size and gravity field order to assess its performance for a full range of relevant use cases. For use in orbit determination, a robust performance of DSST is demonstrated even in the case of sparse observations, which is most sensitive to mismodeled short periodic perturbations. Overall, DSST is shown to exhibit adequate accuracy at favorable computational speed for the full set of orbits that need to be considered in space surveillance. Along with the inherent benefits of a semi-analytical orbit representation, DSST provides an attractive alternative to the more common numerical orbit propagation techniques.

  19. Evaluation of cartilage surface injuries using 3D-double echo steady state (3D-DESS): Effect of changing flip angle from 40 deg to 90 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Susumu; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Mitsunori; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Okudaira, Shuzo; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2011-01-01

    Background. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3D-double-echo steady-state (3D-DESS) sequences, the cartilage-synovial fluid contrast is reported to be better with a flip angle of 90 deg than with the conventional flip angle of 40 deg, and the detection rate of knee cartilage injury may be improved. Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance and certainty of diagnosis with 3D-DESS images made using two flip angle settings, 40 deg and 90 deg, for knee cartilage surface lesions of Grade 2 or above confirmed by arthroscopy. Material and Methods. Images were obtained with 3D-DESS flip angles of 40 deg and 90 deg at 1.0T in 13 consecutive patients (2 men, 11 women, age range 18-68 years) evaluated for superficial cartilage injury by arthroscopy. Two radiologists classified the presence or absence of cartilage damage of ≥Grade 2 as 'positive (p)' or 'negative (n)', respectively. The rate of agreement with arthroscopic diagnosis was then examined, and the diagnostic performance compared. Diagnostic confidence was assessed scoring the presence or absence of cartilage damage into three categories: 3 = can diagnose with absolute confidence; 2 = can diagnose with a level of certainty as probably present or probably absent; and 1 = cannot make a diagnosis. Results. In a comparison of the rate of agreement between diagnosis by 3D-DESS images and arthroscopy, the rate of agreement was significantly higher and diagnostic performance was better in 90 deg images for the medial femoral condyle only. Diagnostic confidence was significantly better with 90 deg flip angle images than with 40 deg flip angle images for all six cartilage surfaces. Conclusion. In evaluating knee cartilage surface lesions with 3D-DESS sequences, a flip angle setting of 90 deg is more effective than the conventional setting of 40 deg

  20. Evaluation of cartilage surface injuries using 3D-double echo steady state (3D-DESS): Effect of changing flip angle from 40 deg to 90 deg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Susumu; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Mitsunori (Ishikawa Clinic, Kyoto (Japan)), email: smoyari@yahoo.co.jp; Miki, Yukio (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)); Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)); Okudaira, Shuzo (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Kyoto Police Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)); Nakamura, Shinichiro (Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    2011-12-15

    Background. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3D-double-echo steady-state (3D-DESS) sequences, the cartilage-synovial fluid contrast is reported to be better with a flip angle of 90 deg than with the conventional flip angle of 40 deg, and the detection rate of knee cartilage injury may be improved. Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance and certainty of diagnosis with 3D-DESS images made using two flip angle settings, 40 deg and 90 deg, for knee cartilage surface lesions of Grade 2 or above confirmed by arthroscopy. Material and Methods. Images were obtained with 3D-DESS flip angles of 40 deg and 90 deg at 1.0T in 13 consecutive patients (2 men, 11 women, age range 18-68 years) evaluated for superficial cartilage injury by arthroscopy. Two radiologists classified the presence or absence of cartilage damage of >=Grade 2 as 'positive (p)' or 'negative (n)', respectively. The rate of agreement with arthroscopic diagnosis was then examined, and the diagnostic performance compared. Diagnostic confidence was assessed scoring the presence or absence of cartilage damage into three categories: 3 = can diagnose with absolute confidence; 2 = can diagnose with a level of certainty as probably present or probably absent; and 1 = cannot make a diagnosis. Results. In a comparison of the rate of agreement between diagnosis by 3D-DESS images and arthroscopy, the rate of agreement was significantly higher and diagnostic performance was better in 90 deg images for the medial femoral condyle only. Diagnostic confidence was significantly better with 90 deg flip angle images than with 40 deg flip angle images for all six cartilage surfaces. Conclusion. In evaluating knee cartilage surface lesions with 3D-DESS sequences, a flip angle setting of 90 deg is more effective than the conventional setting of 40 deg

  1. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  2. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  3. Lissajous orbit acquisition and interpretation in relation to vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In resent years, it has become common practice to install dual non-contacting eddy current probes on critical high-speed turbo-machinery to avoid false shutdowns in the events that one of the probes should fail. The pickups are mounted radially in each bearing with the axis of the pickups separated by 90 deg. Some are mounted in the horizontal or vertical directions; others are mounted on an axis 45 deg. from the horizontal '10:30' and '1:30' clock positions. These same non contacting pickups can be hooked into an oscilloscope to provide Lissajous orbit patterns of the shaft's motion in the bearing. This text will deal with proper setup of the transducers and instrumentation required to produce Lissajous orbits. Some examples Lissajous are given and their the diagnosis of common machine problems is provided. The interpretation of JS plots will be the highlight of this text. (author)

  4. Genealogy and stability of periodic orbit families around uniformly rotating asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiyun; Xin, Xiaosheng; Feng, Jinglang

    2018-03-01

    Resonance orbits around a uniformly rotating asteroid are studied from the approach of periodic orbits in this work. Three periodic families (denoted as I, II, and III in the paper) are fundamental in organizing the resonance families. For the planar case: (1) Genealogy and stability of Families I, II and the prograde resonance families are studied. For extremely irregular asteroids, family genealogy close to the asteroid is greatly distorted from that of the two body-problem (2BP), indicating that it is inappropriate to treat the orbital motions as perturbed Keplerian orbits. (2) Genealogy and stability of Family III are also studied. Stability of this family may be destroyed by the secular resonance between the orbital ascending node's precession and the asteroid's rotation. For the spatial case: (1) Genealogy of the near circular three-dimensional periodic families are studied. The genealogy may be broken apart by families of eccentric frozen orbits whose argument of perigee is ;frozen; in space. (2) The joint effects between the secular resonance and the orbital resonances may cause instability to three-dimensional orbital motion with orbit inclinations close to the critical values. Applying the general methodology to a case study - the asteroid Eros and also considering higher order non-spherical terms, some extraordinary orbits are found, such as the ones with orbital plane co-rotating with the asteroid, and the stable frozen orbits with argument of perigee librating around values different from 0°, 90°, 180°, 270°.

  5. Hall effects and related phenomena in disordered Rashba 2DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Kato, Takashi; Bauer, Gerrit E W; Molenkamp, Laurens W

    2009-01-01

    We review our recent work on the spin and anomalous Hall effects and other related phenomena caused by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. We focus our attention on disorder effects on these transport properties by adopting a model of a two-dimensional electron gas with a Rashba-type spin–orbit interaction. A spin-polarized model is adopted to calculate the anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance. It is shown that the spin Hall conductivity in the ballistic transport regime is cancelled by the so-called vertex corrections for the disorder scattering, and that the anomalous Hall conductivity and anisotropic magnetoresistance vanish unless the lifetime is spin dependent. We further present results on spin accumulation under an electric field

  6. Frozen orbit realization using LQR analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, N.; Rayan, H. Reno

    In the case of remote sensing orbits, the Frozen Orbit concept minimizes altitude variations over a given region using passive means. This is achieved by establishing the mean eccentricity vector at the orbital poles i.e., by fixing the mean argument of perigee at 90 deg with an appropriate eccentricity to balance the perturbations due to zonal harmonics J2 and J3 of the Earth's potential. Eccentricity vector is a vector whose magnitude is the eccentricity and direction is the argument of perigee. The launcher dispersions result in an eccentricity vector which is away from the frozen orbit values. The objective is then to formulate an orbit maneuver strategy to optimize the fuel required to achieve the frozen orbit in the presence of visibility and impulse constraints. It is shown that the motion of the eccentricity vector around the frozen perigee can be approximated as a circle. Combining the circular motion of the eccentricity vector around the frozen point and the maneuver equation, the following discrete equation is obtained. X(k+1) = AX(k) + Bu(k), where X is the state (i.e. eccentricity vector components), A the state transition matrix, u the scalar control force (i.e. dV in this case) and B the control matrix which transforms dV into eccentricity vector change. Based on this, it is shown that the problem of optimizing the fuel can be treated as a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem in which the maneuver can be solved by using control system design tools like MATLAB by deriving an analogy LQR design.

  7. On-Orbit Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Star Tracker Warm Pixel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felikson, Denis; Ekinci, Matthew; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Vess, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of identification and analysis of warm pixels in two autonomous star trackers on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. A brief description of the mission orbit and attitude regimes is discussed and pertinent star tracker hardware specifications are given. Warm pixels are defined and the Quality Index parameter is introduced, which can be explained qualitatively as a manifestation of a possible warm pixel event. A description of the algorithm used to identify warm pixel candidates is given. Finally, analysis of dumps of on-orbit star tracker charge coupled devices (CCD) images is presented and an operational plan going forward is discussed. SDO, launched on February 11, 2010, is operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SDO is in a geosynchronous orbit with a 28.5 inclination. The nominal mission attitude points the spacecraft X-axis at the Sun, with the spacecraft Z-axis roughly aligned with the Solar North Pole. The spacecraft Y-axis completes the triad. In attitude, SDO moves approximately 0.04 per hour, mostly about the spacecraft Z-axis. The SDO star trackers, manufactured by Galileo Avionica, project the images of stars in their 16.4deg x 16.4deg fields-of-view onto CCD detectors consisting of 512 x 512 pixels. The trackers autonomously identify the star patterns and provide an attitude estimate. Each unit is able to track up to 9 stars. Additionally, each tracker calculates a parameter called the Quality Index, which is a measure of the quality of the attitude solution. Each pixel in the CCD measures the intensity of light and a warns pixel is defined as having a measurement consistently and significantly higher than the mean background intensity level. A warns pixel should also have lower intensity than a pixel containing a star image and will not move across the field of view as the attitude changes (as would a dim star image). It should be noted that the maximum error introduced in the star tracker

  8. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter provides atmospheric data during Aerobraking into its final orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; Bruinsma, Sean; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; ExoMars 2016 Team

    2017-10-01

    After the arrival of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) at Mars on 19 October 2016 a number of initial orbit change manoeuvres were executed and the spacecraft was put in an orbit with a 24 hour period and 74 degrees inclination. The spacecraft and its four instruments were thoroughly checked out after arrival and a few measurements and images were taken in November 2016 and in Feb-March 2017. The solar occultation observations have however not yet been possible due to lack of the proper geometry.On 15 March a long period of aerobraking to reach the final 400km semi-circular frozen orbit (370x430km, with a fixed pericentre latitude). This orbit is optimised for the payload observations and for the communication relay with the ExoMars Rover, due to arrive in 2021.The aerobraking is proceeding well and the final orbit is expected to be reached in April 2018. A large data set is being acquired for the upper atmosphere of Mars, from the limit of the sensitivity of the accelerometer, down to lowest altitude of the aerobraking at about 105km. Initial analysis has shown a highly variable atmosphere with a slightly lower density then predicted by existing models. Until the time of the abstract writing no dust storms have been observed.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the Proton launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission, consisting of a Rover and a Surface platform also launched by a Proton rocket, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and Surface Platform through its (NASA provided) UHF communication system.

  9. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  10. Variation of the Friction Coefficient for a Cylinder Rolling down an Inclined Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zixiang; Xia, Heming; Lan, Yueheng; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    A cylinder rolling down an inclined board is a commonly seen and interesting object to study and it is also easy to experiment with and model. Following what has become a popular practice, we use smartphones to measure the angular acceleration of a cylinder rolling down a plane of different inclining angles. The friction force deviates from the…

  11. Inclination and anteversion of Collum femoris in hip dysplasia and coxarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, J. S.; Svalastoga, E. [Kongelige Veterinaer- og Landbohoejskole, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1994-07-01

    Femoral neck angles were measured radiographically in 41 dogs examined for hip dysplasia. Steep femoral neck inclination was found to be a phenomenon of hip dysplasia and coxofemoral joint laxity. The altered biomechanics of a steep femoral neck inclination may be a factor in the pathogenesis of hip dysplasia and secondary osteoarthritis.

  12. An analytic solution of the static problem of inclined risers conveying fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We use the method of matched asymptotic expansion to develop an analytic solution to the static problem of clamped–clamped inclined risers conveying fluid. The inclined riser is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam taking into account its self

  13. Cognitive self-affirmation inclination : An individual difference in dealing with self-threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    The current research shows that people differ in their inclination to use positive self-images when their self is threatened (i.e., cognitive self-affirmation inclination, CSAI). Just as self-affirmation manipulations do, the use of positive self-images induces open mindedness towards threatening

  14. LA FORMAZIONE DEGLI INSEGNANTI PER UNA EDUCAZIONE PLURILINGUE E INTERCULTURALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Lugarini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalla la Guida per lo sviluppo e l’attuazione di curricoli per una educazione plurilingue e interculturale del Consiglio d’Europa è possibile trarre una serie di indicazioni per disegnare un profilo professionale e, di conseguenza, una serie di indicazioni per la formazione iniziale e in servizio dell’insegnate di lingua (L1, L2, LS. In questo intervento si suggeriscono, senza alcuna pretesa di esaustività, degli indicatori relativi alle competenze professionali che l’insegnante dovrebbe possedere per poter svolgere la sua attività nella scuola italiana di oggi in considerazione dei bisogni linguistici delle nuove generazioni e degli obiettivi linguistici proposti dal Consiglio d’Europa nell’ambito delle politiche educative orientate a favorire la mobilità, una più efficace comunicazione internazionale, il rispetto dell’identità e della diversità delle culture, a sviluppare l’educazione alla cittadinanza democratica ed europea. Dalle riflessioni condotte emerge la necessità di una formazione disciplinare e didattica articolata e complessa che renda l’insegnante “professionista riflessivo” e “ricercatore sperimentale”TRAINING TEACHERS FOR MULTILINGUISTIC, INTERCULTURAL EDUCATIONFrom the Council of Europe’s Guide for the development and implementation of curricula for multilingual and intercultural education, it is possible to draw a series of explicit or implicit characteristics for teachers, and consequently, a series of indications for initial and in-service language (L1, L2, FL teacher training. This paper offers a brief view of the professional competences teachers should possess in order to carry out their roles in Italian schools considering the linguistic needs of the young generations and the language objectives set out by the Council of Europe regarding education policies that promote mobility, more effective International communication and respect for cultural identity and diversity, in an effort to

  15. Experimental study on flow pattern transitions for inclined two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Nam Yee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, experimental data on flow pattern transition of inclination angles from 0-90 are presented. A test section is constructed 2 mm long and I.D 1inch using transparent material. The test section is supported by aluminum frame that can be placed with any arbitrary inclined angles. The air-water two-phase flow is observed at room temperature and atmospheric condition using both high speed camera and void impedance meter. The signal is sampled with sampling rate 1kHz and is analyzed under fully-developed condition. Based on experimental data, flow pattern maps are made for various inclination angles. As increasing the inclination angels from 0 to 90, the flow pattern transitions on the plane jg-jf are changed, such as stratified flow to plug flow or slug flow or plug flow to bubbly flow. The transition lines between pattern regimes are moved or sometimes disappeared due to its inclined angle.

  16. Efficient light trapping in silicon inclined nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Can; Tan, Xinyu; Jiang, Lihua; Tu, Yiteng; Ye, Mao; Yi, Yasha

    2018-01-01

    Structural design with high light absorption is the key challenge for thin film solar cells because of its poor absorption. In this paper, the light-trapping performance of silicon inclined nanohole arrays is systematically studied. The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the optical absorption of different inclination angles in different periods and diameters. The results indicate that the inclined nanoholes with inclination angles between 5° and 45° demonstrate greater light-trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanoholes, and they also show that by choosing the optimal parameters for the inclined nanoholes, a 31.2 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density could be achieved, which is 10.25% higher than the best vertical nanohole system and 105.26% higher than bare silicon with a thickness of 2330 nm. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline for choosing reasonable parameters in the application of solar cells.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.

  18. Congenital orbital teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aiyub, Shereen; Chan, Weng Onn; Szetu, John; Sullivan, Laurence J; Pater, John; Cooper, Peter; Selva, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The p...

  19. Pictorial essay: Orbital tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Mahender K; Chaudhary, Vikas; Baruah, Dhiraj; Kathuria, Manoj; Anand, Rama

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the orbit is rare, even in places where tuberculosis is endemic. The disease may involve soft tissue, the lacrimal gland, or the periosteum or bones of the orbital wall. Intracranial extension, in the form of extradural abscess, and infratemporal fossa extension has been described. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging findings of nine histopathologically confirmed cases of orbital tuberculosis. All these patients responded to antituberculous treatment

  20. Radiology of orbital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.K.; Lazo, A.; Metes, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography has become the gold standard against which to measure orbital imaging modalities. The simultaneous display of bone, soft tissues, paranasal sinuses, and intracranial structures is a unique advantage. Radiation dose and cost have been cited as disadvantages. These would suggest that CT be reserved for the patient with significant orbital injury or difficult diagnostic problems. Magnetic resonance is limited in the investigation of orbital trauma

  1. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  2. Bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders with inclined external cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifi, Rahman; Babalhavaeji, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Autofrettaging a pressure vessel improves its pressure capacity. This is reliable if there isn’t any crack or other type of flaws. In this paper, the effects of external surface cracks on bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders are studied. It is observed that bursting pressure decreases considerably (up to 30%) due to external cracks in the cylinders without autofrettage. This reduction increases for high levels of the applied autofrettage. External axial cracks have more effects than inclined cracks. Comparing experimental and numerical results show that the numerical methods can acceptably predict the bursting pressure of the autofrettaged cracked cylinders. These predictions are valid when the fracture parameter (J-Integral) is calculated from the modified equation that takes into account the effects of residual stresses. - Highlights: ► Modified J-Integral can be used for study of autofrettaged cracked cylinders. ► External axial cracks reduce considerably the pressure capacity of cylinders. ► External circumferential cracks have not considerable effects on bursting pressure. ► Autofrettage has contrary effects on external crack in compared with internal crack.

  3. Bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders with inclined external cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifi, Rahman, E-mail: rseifi@basu.ac.ir [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babalhavaeji, Majid [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Autofrettaging a pressure vessel improves its pressure capacity. This is reliable if there isn't any crack or other type of flaws. In this paper, the effects of external surface cracks on bursting pressure of autofrettaged cylinders are studied. It is observed that bursting pressure decreases considerably (up to 30%) due to external cracks in the cylinders without autofrettage. This reduction increases for high levels of the applied autofrettage. External axial cracks have more effects than inclined cracks. Comparing experimental and numerical results show that the numerical methods can acceptably predict the bursting pressure of the autofrettaged cracked cylinders. These predictions are valid when the fracture parameter (J-Integral) is calculated from the modified equation that takes into account the effects of residual stresses. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified J-Integral can be used for study of autofrettaged cracked cylinders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer External axial cracks reduce considerably the pressure capacity of cylinders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer External circumferential cracks have not considerable effects on bursting pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autofrettage has contrary effects on external crack in compared with internal crack.

  4. Stability of film boiling on inclined plates and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursand, Eskil; Hammer, Morten; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard; Ytrehus, Tor

    2017-11-01

    In film boiling, a continuous sub-millimeter vapor film forms between a liquid and a heated surface, insulating the two from each other. While quite accurate steady state solutions are readily obtained, the intermediate Reynolds numbers can make transient analysis challenging. The present work is a theoretical study of film boiling instabilities. We study the formation of travelling waves that are a combination of Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In particular, we study how the nature of this process depends on the Reynolds number, the Bond number, and the inclination of the submerged heated plate. In addition we extend the analysis to the case of a submerged heated sphere. Modelling of the transient dynamics of such films is important for answering practical questions such as how instabilities affect the overall heat transfer, and whether they can lead to complete film boiling collapse (Leidenfrost point). This work has been financed under the MAROFF program. We acknowledge the Research Council of Norway (244076/O80) and The Gas Technology Centre NTNU-SINTEF (GTS) for support.

  5. Changing predictions, stable recognition: Children's representations of downward incline motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael; Howe, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Various studies to-date have demonstrated children hold ill-conceived expressed beliefs about the physical world such as that one ball will fall faster than another because it is heavier. At the same time, they also demonstrate accurate recognition of dynamic events. How these representations relate is still unresolved. This study examined 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 130) predictions and recognition of motion down inclines. Predictions were typically in error, matching previous work, but children largely recognized correct events as correct and rejected incorrect ones. The results also demonstrate while predictions change with increasing age, recognition shows signs of stability. The findings provide further support for a hybrid model of object representations and argue in favour of stable core cognition existing alongside developmental changes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's predictions of physical events show limitations in accuracy Their recognition of such events suggests children may use different knowledge sources in their reasoning What the present study adds? Predictions fluctuate more strongly than recognition, suggesting stable core cognition But recognition also shows some fluctuation, arguing for a hybrid model of knowledge representation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Orbital glass in HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1992-10-01

    The physical reasons why the orbital glass may exist in granular high-temperature superconductors and the existing experimental data appeared recently are discussed. The orbital glass is characterized by the coexistence of the orbital paramagnetic state with the superconducting state and occurs at small magnetic fields H c0 c1 . The transition in orbital glass arises at the critical field H c0 which is inversely proportional to the surface cross-area S of an average grain. In connection with theoretical predictions the possible experiments are proposed. (author). 10 refs

  7. Bulk Shielding Calculation for 90 .deg. Bending Section of RISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J. H.; Jung, N. S.; Lee, H. S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Oranj, L. Mokhtari [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Ko, S. K. [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The charge state of {sup 238}U beams with maximum intensity was 79+ among multi-charge states of 70+ to 89+, which were estimated by using LISE++ code. The bending section consists of twenty four quadrupoles, two dipoles, two two-cell type superconducting RF cavities and eleven slits. The complicated radiation environment is caused by the beam losses occurred normally during the stripping process and when the produced {sup 238}U beams are transported along the beam line. Secondary radiations generated by {sup 238}U beams irradiation are very important for predicting the prompt and residual doses and the radiation damage at the component. The production characteristics of neutron and photon from thin carbon and thick iron were studied to set up the shielding strategy. The dose estimation was done to the pre-designed the tunnel structure. In these calculations, major Monte Carlo codes, PHITS and FLUKA, were used. The present study provided information of shielding analysis for the 90 .deg. bending section of RISP facility. The source term was evaluated to determine fundamental parameter of the shielding analysis using PHITS and FLUKA codes. And the distribution of the dose rate at the outside of thick shielding wall was presented.

  8. Long-term evaluation of orbital dynamics in the Sun-planet system considering axial-tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Majid; Daneshjou, Kamran

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the axial-tilt (obliquity) effect of planets on the motion of planets’ orbiter in prolonged space missions has been investigated in the presence of the Sun gravity. The proposed model is based on non-simplified perturbed dynamic equations of planetary orbiter motion. From a new point of view, in this work, the dynamic equations regarding a disturbing body in elliptic inclined three-dimensional orbit are derived. The accuracy of this non-simplified method is validated with dual-averaged method employed on a generalized Earth-Moon system. It is shown that the neglected short-time oscillations in dual-averaged technique can accumulate and propel to remarkable errors in the prolonged evolution. After validation, the effects of the planet’s axial-tilt on eccentricity, inclination and right ascension of the ascending node of the orbiter are investigated. Moreover, a generalized model is provided to study the effects of third-body inclination and eccentricity on orbit characteristics. It is shown that the planet’s axial-tilt is the key to facilitating some significant changes in orbital elements in long-term mission and short-time oscillations must be considered in accurate prolonged evaluation.

  9. X-ray properties of the Be/X-ray systems 2S0114+650 LSI+65 deg 010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigsberger, G.; Swank, J.H.; Szymkowiak, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    Results are presented from experiments on the Einstein Observatory, HEAO-1 and OSO-8 on the temporal and spectral properties of 2S0114+650. In a 12 hour Einstein MPC and SSS observation two episodes of flaring occurred by an order of magnitude over about 1 hour. Variability on shorter time scales showed a preferred period of 14.9 minutes, but periodic pulsations were not seen in the HEAO-1 and OSO-8 data. There is some evidence that the spectrum is steeper when the source is quiescent at low luminosity, but no large spectral changes attended the flares. Absorption column densities were consistent with interstellar reddening of the proposed companion, the Be star LSI+65 deg 010. In the minute and hour variability and in the spectral character, 2S0114+650 is similar to other Be star-neutron star binary X-ray sources. Variations over several days in the OSO-8 data suggest orbital effects

  10. Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F.

    2003-07-01

    The irregular moons of the Jovian planets are a puzzling part of the solar system inventory. Unlike regular satellites, the irregular moons revolve around planets at large distances in tilted and eccentric orbits. Their origin, which is intimately linked with the origin of the planets themselves, is yet to be explained. Here we report a study of the orbital and collisional evolution of the irregular satellites from times after their formation to the present epoch. The purpose of this study is to find out the features of the observed irregular moons that can be attributed to this evolution and separate them from signatures of the formation process. We numerically integrated ~60,000 test satellite orbits to map orbital locations that are stable on long time intervals. We found that the orbits highly inclined to the ecliptic are unstable due to the effect of the Kozai resonance, which radially stretches them so that satellites either escape from the Hill sphere, collide with massive inner moons, or impact the parent planet. We also found that prograde satellite orbits with large semimajor axes are unstable due to the effect of the evection resonance, which locks the orbit's apocenter to the apparent motion of the Sun around the parent planet. In such a resonance, the effect of solar tides on a resonant moon accumulates at each apocenter passage of the moon, which causes a radially outward drift of its orbital apocenter; once close to the Hill sphere, the moon escapes. By contrast, retrograde moons with large orbital semimajor axes are long-lived. We have developed an analytic model of the distant satellite orbits and used it to explain the results of our numerical experiments. In particular, we analytically studied the effect of the Kozai resonance. We numerically integrated the orbits of the 50 irregular moons (known by 2002 August 16) for 108 yr. All orbits were stable on this time interval and did not show any macroscopic variations that would indicate

  11. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  12. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Orbital and adnexal sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C.; Saeed, Perooz; Esmaeli, Bita; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Mcnab, Alan; Davis, Garry; Valenzuela, Alejandra; Leibovitch, Igal; Kesler, Anat; Sivak-Callcott, Jennifer; Hoyama, Erika; Selva, Dinesh

    2007-01-01

    To present the clinical features and management in a series of patients with orbital and adnexal sarcoidosis. This multicenter retrospective study included patients with biopsy-proven noncaseating granuloma involving the orbit or adnexa and evidence of systemic sarcoidosis. Clinical records were

  14. Update on orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-08-01

    Orbital trauma is common and frequently complicated by ocular injuries. The recent literature on orbital fracture is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiological data assessment, surgical timing, method of approach and reconstruction materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scan has become a routine evaluation tool for orbital trauma, and mobile CT can be applied intraoperatively if necessary. Concomitant serious ocular injury should be carefully evaluated preoperatively. Patients presenting with nonresolving oculocardiac reflex, 'white-eyed' blowout fracture, or diplopia with a positive forced duction test and CT evidence of orbital tissue entrapment require early surgical repair. Otherwise, enophthalmos can be corrected by late surgery with a similar outcome to early surgery. The use of an endoscope-assisted approach for orbital reconstruction continues to grow, offering an alternative method. Advances in alloplastic materials have improved surgical outcome and shortened operating time. In this review of modern orbital reconstruction, several controversial issues such as surgical indication, surgical timing, method of approach and choice of reconstruction material are discussed. Preoperative fine-cut CT image and thorough ophthalmologic examination are key elements to determine surgical indications. The choice of surgical approach and reconstruction materials much depends on the surgeon's experience and the reconstruction area. Prefabricated alloplastic implants together with image software and stereolithographic models are significant advances that help to more accurately reconstruct the traumatized orbit. The recent evolution of orbit reconstruction improves functional and aesthetic results and minimizes surgical complications.

  15. Orbital wall fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Toshitaka; Ishio, Ken-ichirou; Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Kuriyama, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Yoshiharu.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 59 cases of mild facial fractures (simple orbital wall fractures, 34 cases, other facial fractures, 25 cases) with the clinical suspects of orbital wall fractures were evaluated both by conventional views (Waters' and Caldwell views) and coronal CT scans. Conventional views were obtained, as an average, after 4 days and CT after 7 days of injuries. Both the medial wall and the floor were evaluated at two sites, i.e., anterior and posterior. The ethmoid-maxillary plate was also included in the study. The degree of fractures was classified as, no fractures, fractures of discontinuity, dislocation and fragmentation. The coronal CT images in bone window condition was used as reference and the findings were compared between conventional views and CT. The correct diagnosis was obtained as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 78%, posterior, 73%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 72%, posterior, 72%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (64%). The false positive diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior only, 13%), medial orbital wall (anterior only, 7%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (11%). The false negative diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 9%, posterior, 10%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 21%, posterior, 28%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (21%). The results were compared with those of others in the past. (author)

  16. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  17. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  18. Evaluation of buccolingual inclination of posterior teeth in different facial patterns using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomo Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Buccolingual inclination of teeth is an essential factor in establishing good occlusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual inclination of molar teeth in different vertical skeletal patterns by using computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: Coronal section of the jaws obtained from computed tomograms were used to measure the buccolingual inclination of the long axis of the molars relative to their skeletal base. Forty male adult individuals with class I dental occlusion were selected. They were classified as short (Group 1, average (Group II, and long faced (Group III as per their skeletal patterns measured by GoGn-SN, FH-MP, Y-axis and facial height index in cephalograms. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were applied to calculate if there were any significant differences in the mean molar inclination between the groups. Pearson′s coefficients of correlation were calculated between the facial parameters and tooth inclination. Results: The differences in the mean molar inclination between the short, average, and long faced groups is significant for mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars and maxillary 2 nd molars. Conclusion: Variations in mean molar inclination values are observed between short, average, and long faced groups.

  19. Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.

  20. Revealing strong bias in common measures of galaxy properties using new inclination-independent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.

  1. Phosphorylation of DegU is essential for activation of amyE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gel filtration chromatography of DegU on Sephacryl. S100 (Methods). The native molecular weight of DegU was determined on a pre-calibrated Sephacryl S-100 ... Transferrin (80kDa), Alcohol Dehydrogenase (150 kDa). All the above markers were loaded individually. Purified DegU. (~1 mg), in a total volume of 1 mL was ...

  2. Development of an Architecture of Sun-Synchronous Orbital Slots to Minimize Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, B.

    Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) satellites serve many important functions, primarily in the areas of Earth reconnaissance and weather. The orbital parameters of altitude, inclination and right ascension which allow for the unique utility of Sun-sync orbit limit these satellites to a very specific region of space. The popularity of these satellite missions combined with the use of similar engineering solutions has resulted in the majority of current Sun-sync satellites within this region having very similar inclinations and altitudes while also spaced around the Equator in right ascension, creating the opportunity for conjunctions at the polar crossing points and a serious safety issue that could endanger long-term sustainability of SSO. This paper outlines the development of a new architecture of SSO zoning to create specific slots separating SSO satellites in altitude, right ascension and time at all orbital intersections while minimizing the limitations on utility. A methodical approach for the development of the system is presented along with the work-to-date and a software tool for calculating repeating ground track orbits. The slot system is intended to allow for continued utility of and safe operation within SSO while greatly decreasing the chance of collisions at orbital intersections. This architecture is put forward as one possible element of a new Space Traffic Management (STM) system with the overall goal of maintaining the safe and continued used of space by all actors.

  3. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...

  4. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Reference Information Center shall send a copy of this Report and... ground, ESAAs shall not be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5[deg] measured from the plane..., in the plane of the geostationary satellite orbit (GSO) as it appears at the particular earth station...

  5. Topology of tokamak orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-09-01

    Guiding center orbits in noncircular axisymmetric tokamak plasmas are studied in the constants of motion (COM) space of (v, zeta, psi/sub m/). Here, v is the particle speed, zeta is the pitch angle with respect to the parallel equilibrium current, J/sub parallels/, and psi/sub m/ is the maximum value of the poloidal flux function (increasing from the magnetic axis) along the guiding center orbit. Two D-shaped equilibria in a flux-conserving tokamak having β's of 1.3% and 7.7% are used as examples. In this space, each confined orbit corresponds to one and only one point and different types of orbits (e.g., circulating, trapped, stagnation and pinch orbits) are represented by separate regions or surfaces in the space. It is also shown that the existence of an absolute minimum B in the higher β (7.7%) equilibrium results in a dramatically different orbit topology from that of the lower β case. The differences indicate the confinement of additional high energy (v → c, within the guiding center approximation) trapped, co- and countercirculating particles whose orbit psi/sub m/ falls within the absolute B well

  6. Inclination shallowing in the Eocene Linzizong sediments from Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, W.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P.C.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Hallot, E.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic

  7. L’esperienza poetica nell’Argentina degli anni Sessanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lafuente

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENJuan Gelman, Leónidas Lamborghini, Francisco Urondo, César Ferández Moreno, among the most famous of the poetic generation in Argentina during the Sixties, take up the concept of critical verbal art that the Hispanic-American vanguard had proposed as a priority. They finished the work of their predecessors, especially that of the late Huidobro, who, after Altazor left the more external aspects of the play behind, and of César Vallejo, creating a poetic area where emotion and subjectivity coexist with linguistic experimentation, where the pleasure of construction and the subtleties of linguistic deformations are inexorably tied to sentiment.In obliterating the distance between I and You, their poetry abandons the passage between different textual practices and gives space to an inter-subjectivity that leads the reader to forget his passivity and become active in sensory production.Keywords: avant-garde, Argentine poetry, the Sixties, linguistic experimentationITJuan Gelman, Leónidas Lamborghini, Francisco Urondo, César Ferández Moreno, fra i nomi più noti della generazione poetica argentina degli anni Sessanta, riprendono la concezione di un’arte verbale critica che l’avanguardia ispanoamericana aveva proposto come prioritaria. Completano il lavoro dei suoi predecessori, soprattutto dell’ultimo Huidobro, che dopo Altazor abbandona gli aspetti più esterni del gioco, e di César Vallejo, creando uno spazio poetico dove l’emozione, la soggettività, coesistono con la sperimentazione del linguaggio, dove il piacere della costruzione, delle sottigliezze delle deformazioni linguistiche sono indissolubilmente legate al sentimento.La loro poesia, nell’abolire la distanza fra Io e Tu, lascia aperto il passaggio fra le pratiche testuali differenti e dà spazio a un’intersoggettività che induce il lettore ad abbandonare la sua passività e a diventare attivo nella produzione del senso.Parole chiave: avanguardia, poesia argentina

  8. Orbital parameters of extrasolar planets derived from polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluri, D. M.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2010-03-01

    Context. Polarimetry of extrasolar planets becomes a new tool for their investigation, which requires the development of diagnostic techniques and parameter case studies. Aims: Our goal is to develop a theoretical model which can be applied to interpret polarimetric observations of extrasolar planets. Here we present a theoretical parameter study that shows the influence of the various involved parameters on the polarization curves. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the fitting procedure. We focus on the diagnostics of orbital parameters and the estimation of the scattering radius of the planet. Methods: We employ the physics of Rayleigh scattering to obtain polarization curves of an unresolved extrasolar planet. Calculations are made for two cases: (i) assuming an angular distribution for the intensity of the scattered light as from a Lambert sphere and for polarization as from a Rayleigh-type scatterer; and (ii) assuming that both the intensity and polarization of the scattered light are distributed according to the Rayleigh law. We show that the difference between these two cases is negligible for the shapes of the polarization curves. In addition, we take the size of the host star into account, which is relevant for hot Jupiters orbiting giant stars. Results: We discuss the influence of the inclination of the planetary orbit, the position angle of the ascending node, and the eccentricity on the linearly polarized light curves both in Stokes Q/I and U/I. We also analyze errors that arise from the assumption of a point-like star in numerical modeling of polarization as compared to consistent calculations accounting for the finite size of the host star. We find that errors due to the point-like star approximation are reduced with the size of the orbit, but still amount to about 5% for known hot Jupiters. Recovering orbital parameters from simulated data is shown to be very robust even for very noisy data because the polarization curves react

  9. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  10. Thrombosis of orbital varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Oyhenart, J.; Tenyi, A.; Boschi Pau, J.

    2002-01-01

    Orbital varices are venous malformations produced by an abnormal dilatation of one or more orbital veins, probably associated with congenital weakness of the vascular wall. They are rare lesions, usually occurring in young patients, that produce intermittent proptosis related to the increase in the systemic venous pressure. The presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis is associated with rapid development of proptosis, pain and decreased ocular motility. We report the cases of two adult patients with orbital varices complicated by thrombosis in whom the diagnosis was based on computed tomography. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings are also discussed. (Author) 16 refs

  11. High supersonic stability and control characteristics of a 0.015-scale (remotely controlled elevon) model 44-0 space shuttle orbiter tested in the NASA/LaRC 4-foot UPWT (LEG 2) (LA75), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests are reported on a 0.015-scale SSV orbiter model with remote independently operated left and right elevon surfaces. Special attention was directed to definition of nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics by taking data at small increments. Six component aerodynamic force and moment and elevon position data were recorded for the space shuttle orbiter with various elevon, aileron rudder and speed brake deflection combinations over an angle of attack range from -4 deg to 32 deg at angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 3 deg. Additional tests were made over an angle of sideslip range from -6 deg to 8 deg at selected angles of attack. Test Mach numbers were 2.86, 2.90, 3.90 and 4.60 with Reynolds numbers held at a constant 2.0 x 1 million per foot.

  12. Beam Shear Design According to Eurocode 2 - Limitations for the Concrete Strut Inclinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Hestbech, Lars; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    and are presented. These beams are all designed to fail in shear and the shear reinforcement is designed for different values of the concrete strut inclinations (cot θ varies from 1.5 to 3.4). These tests indicate a clear connection between the values of the concrete strut inclinations and crack width in the SLS......The beam shear design method adopted in Eurocode 2 is based on a lower bound plastic solution. This method is combined with limitations on the concrete strut inclination, θ. These limitations are introduced to ensure acceptable crack width in the SLS. 7 full scale beams have been tested....... In cases where larger crack widths (w > 0.4 mm) can be accepted, larger values of the concrete strut inclinations can be chosen. This will lead to less shear reinforcements. The results are also compared with analytical analysis based on energy methods. At the SLS the beams are expected to be cracked...

  13. Natural circulation of integrated-type marine reactor at inclined attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyori, Isao; Aya, Izuo; Murata, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Nariai, Hideki

    1987-01-01

    A steady-state single-phase natural circulation test was performed to clarify the effect of inclination by using a model of an integrated-type marine reactor. It was found that several types of flow pattern occur in the natural circulation loop corresponding to the range of inclination angle. Stable flow rates are sustained up to near 90 0 because of the occurrence of a driving force arising from those sections of the facility which were horizontal before the inclination. It was found that the temperature distribution in the steam generator at inclined attitude depends essentially only on the elevation z. The applicability of a one-dimensional analytical model was examined. It was clarified that employment of detailed U-turn flow paths, their correlation, and temperature-distribution function of core is essential for improvement. (orig.)

  14. Experimental research of inclined-micro-fin flat tube on single phase convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Wang Meng

    2011-01-01

    The experimental research of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in four inclined-micro-fin flat tubes with different physical dimensions was conducted. At the same time,suitable criteria were selected to evaluate the efficiency of inclined-micro-fin flat tubes within the experimental scope and the optimal working region was determined. The results indicate that inclined-micro-fin flat tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow and the maximum heat transfer coefficient attains to 5.9 times of that in smooth tube. The quantities of heat transfer for inclined-micro-fin flat tubes are three times higher than that of smooth tube with the same of heat exchange area and pump power. (authors)

  15. The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Lower bound calculations based on the finite element method is used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to an inclined, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges and with friction angles 25, 30 and 35°. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following...... the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The results are reported as graphs showing the bearing capacity as a function of the friction angle, the eccentricity, inclination and the surcharge. The results have been compared with the Eurocode 7 and for smaller eccentricities, except in the case of no surcharge......, the lower bound values are the greater, the discrepancy increasing with growing surcharge. Positive load inclinations has a negative effect for smaller eccentricities but may have a beneficial effect on the bearing capacity for greater eccentricities. Negative load inclinations have the opposite effect...

  16. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Atwell, W.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heinrich, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250x10 4 Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 μGy day -1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0±0.5 deg. W, and 1.6±0.5 deg. N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources

  17. Congenital orbital teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyub, Shereen; Chan, Wengonn; Szetu, John; Sullivan, Laurence J; Pater, John; Cooper, Peter; Selva, Dinesh

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  18. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  19. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  20. Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with strong inclined anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu. A.; Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a strong single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a spatially inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization depends substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.

  1. Relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections in the critical inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoma, W. A.; Khattab, E. H.; Abd El-Salam, F. A.

    2014-05-01

    The problem of the critical inclination is treated in the Hamiltonian framework taking into consideration post-Newtonian corrections as well as the main correction term of sectorial harmonics for an earth-like planet. The Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of Delaunay canonical variables. A canonical transformation is applied to eliminate short period terms. A modified critical inclination is obtained due to relativistic and the first sectorial harmonics corrections.

  2. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  3. Transonic control effectiveness for full and partial span elevon configurations on a 0.0165 scale model space shuttle orbiter tested in the LaRC 8-foot transonic wind tunnel (LA48)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A transonic pressure tunnel test is reported on an early version of the space shuttle orbiter (designated 089B-139) 0.0165 scale model to systematically determine both longitudinal and lateral control effectiveness associated with various combinations of inboard, outboard, and full span wing trailing edge controls. The test was conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.08 at angles of attack from -2 deg to 23 deg at 0 deg sideslip.

  4. Characterization of Toxoplasma DegP, a rhoptry serine protease crucial for lethal infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Lentini

    Full Text Available During the infection process, Apicomplexa discharge their secretory organelles called micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules to sustain host cell invasion, intracellular replication and to modulate host cell pathways and immune responses. Herein, we describe the Toxoplasma gondii Deg-like serine protein (TgDegP, a rhoptry protein homologous to High temperature requirement A (HtrA or Deg-like family of serine proteases. TgDegP undergoes processing in both types I and II strains as most of the rhoptries proteins. We show that genetic disruption of the degP gene does not impact the parasite lytic cycle in vitro but affects virulence in mice. While in a type I strain DegPI appears dispensable for the establishment of an infection, removal of DegPII in a type II strain dramatically impairs the virulence. Finally, we show that KO-DegPII parasites kill immunodeficient mice as efficiently as the wild-type strain indicating that the protease might be involved in the complex crosstalk that the parasite engaged with the host immune response. Thus, this study unravels a novel rhoptry protein in T. gondii important for the establishment of lethal infection.

  5. Proteolytic activity of recombinant DegP from Chromohalobacter salexigens BKL5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Fitriani

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Recombinant DegP from C. salexigens BKL5 showed proteolytic activity when β-casein was used as a substrate. In silico analysis indicated that recombinant DegP had characteristics similar to those of halophilic proteins depending on its amino acid composition.

  6. Molecular transformers in the cell: lessons learned from the DegP protease-chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Justyna; Heuck, Alexander; Ehrmann, Michael; Clausen, Tim

    2010-04-01

    Structure-function analysis of DegP revealed a novel mechanism for protease and chaperone regulation. Binding of unfolded proteins induces the oligomer reassembly from the resting hexamer (DegP6) into the functional protease-chaperone DegP12/24. The newly formed cage exhibits the characteristics of a proteolytic folding chamber, shredding those proteins that are severely misfolded while stabilizing and protecting proteins present in their native state. Isolation of native DegP complexes with folded outer membrane proteins (OMPs) highlights the importance of DegP in OMP biogenesis. The encapsulated OMP beta-barrel is significantly stabilized in the hydrophobic chamber of DegP12/24 and thus DegP seems to employ a reciprocal mechanism to those chaperones assisting the folding of water soluble proteins via polar interactions. In addition, we discuss in this review similarities to other complex proteolytic machines that, like DegP, are under control of a substrate-induced or stress-induced oligomer conversion.

  7. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  8. Local orbit feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Critically aligned experiments are sensitive to small changes in the electron beam orbit. At the NSLS storage rings, the electron beam and photon beam motions have been monitored over the past several years. In the survey conducted in 1986 by the NSLS Users Executive Committee, experimenters requested the vertical beam position variation and the vertical angle variation, within a given fill, remain within 10 μm and 10 μr, respectively. This requires improvement in the beam stability by about one order of magnitude. At the NSLS and SSRL storage rings, the beam that is originally centered on the position monitor by a dc orbit correction is observed to have two kinds of motion: a dc drift over a storage period of several hours and a beam bounce about its nominal position. These motions are a result of the equilibrium orbit not being held perfectly stable due to time-varying errors introduced into the magnetic guide field by power supplies, mechanical vibration of the magnets, cooling water temperature variations, etc. The approach to orbit stabilization includes (1) identifying and suppressing as many noise sources on the machine as possible, (2) correcting the beam position globally (see Section 6) by controlling a number of correctors around the circumference of the machine, and (3) correcting the beam position and angle at a given source location by position feedback using local detectors and local orbit bumps. The third approach, called Local Orbit Feedback will be discussed in this section

  9. Performance evaluation of a continuous flow inclined solar still desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.; El-Samadony, Y.A.F.; Kabeel, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model was presented to analyze the performance of inclined still. • The effect of air speed, water masses, film thickness and velocity was studied. • Productivity for the Model 3 was higher than conventional still by 57.2%. • The performance was strongly affected by water film thickness and velocity. • Model 3 gave the highest performance while Model 1 gave the lowest performance. - Abstract: In the present work, theoretical study of the performance evaluation of a continuous water flow inclined solar still desalination system is performed. Three models are studied for inclined solar still desalination system with and without water close loop. The effects of the water mass, water film thickness, water film velocity and air wind velocity on the performance of the three models are studied. The results show that the inclined solar still with a makeup water is superior in productivity (57.2% improvement) compared with a conventional basin-type solar still. Also, the application of inclined solar still with open water loop is recommended when combined with other still desalination system due to high water temperature output. The inclined solar still with a makeup (Model 3) gives the highest performance while Model 1 gives the lowest performance. Finally, the water film thickness, and velocity as well as wind velocity plays important roles in improving the still productivity and efficiency

  10. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  11. Proposal of a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with inclined vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Li, Yangmei; Jin, Zhenxing

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with specially inclined slow-wave-structure (SWS) vanes to decrease its total dimension and weight. The dispersion characteristics of the inclined SWS are investigated in detail and made comparisons with that of the traditional straight SWS. The results show that the inclined SWS is more advantageous in operating on a steady frequency in a wide voltage range and has a better asymmetric mode segregation and a relatively large band-gap between the TM00 and TM01 modes which are in favor of avoiding the asymmetric and transverse mode competition. Besides, the transverse dimension of the proposed novel inclined SWS with the same operation frequency is decreased by about 50%, and correspondingly the device volume shrinks remarkably to its 0.35 times. In particle-in-cell simulation, the electron bunching spokes are obviously formed in the inclined SWS, and a P-band high-power microwave with a power of 5.8 GW, frequency of 645 MHz, and efficiency of 17.2% is generated by the proposed device, which indicates the feasibility of the compact design with the inclined vanes at the P-band.

  12. Experimental study on two-phase flow parameters of subcooled boiling in inclined annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Park, Goon Cherl

    1999-01-01

    Local two-phase flow parameters of subcooled flow boiling in inclined annulus were measured to investigate the effect of inclination on the internal flow structure. Two-conductivity probe technique was applied to measured local gas phasic parameters, including void by fraction, vapor bubble frequency, chord length, vapor bubble velocity and interfacial area concentration. Local liquid velocity was measured by Pitot tube. Experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination: 0 o (vertical), 30 o , 60 o . The system pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure. The range of average void fraction was up to 10 percent and the average liquid superficial velocities were less than 1.3 m/sec. The results of experiments showed that the distributions of two-phase flow parameters were influenced by the angle of channel inclination. Especially, the void fraction and chord length distributions were strongly affected by the increase of inclination angle, and flow pattern transition to slug flow was observed depending on the flow conditions. The profiles of vapor velocity, liquid velocity and interfacial area concentration were found to be affected by the non-symmetric bubble size distribution in inclined channel. Using the measured distributions of local phasic parameters, an analysis for predicting average void fraction was performed based on the drift flux model and flowing volumetric concentration. And it was demonstrated that the average void fraction can be more appropriately presented in terms of flowing volumetric concentration. (Author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  13. Joint torques and joint reaction forces during squatting with a forward or backward inclined Smith machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2013-02-01

    We developed a biomechanical model to determine the joint torques and loadings during squatting with a backward/forward-inclined Smith machine. The Smith squat allows a large variety of body positioning (trunk tilt, foot placement, combinations of joint angles) and easy control of weight distribution between forefoot and heel. These distinctive aspects of the exercise can be managed concurrently with the equipment inclination selected to unload specific joint structures while activating specific muscle groups. A backward (forward) equipment inclination decreases (increases) knee torque, and compressive tibiofemoral and patellofemoral forces, while enhances (depresses) hip and lumbosacral torques. For small knee flexion angles, the strain-force on the posterior cruciate ligament increases (decreases) with a backward (forward) equipment inclination, whereas for large knee flexion angles, this behavior is reversed. In the 0 to 60 degree range of knee flexion angles, loads on both cruciate ligaments may be simultaneously suppressed by a 30 degree backward equipment inclination and selecting, for each value of the knee angle, specific pairs of ankle and hip angles. The anterior cruciate ligament is safely maintained unloaded by squatting with backward equipment inclination and uniform/forward foot weight distribution. The conditions for the development of anterior cruciate ligament strain forces are clearly explained.

  14. Constraining the inclination of the Low-Mass X-ray Binary Cen X-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Erica K.; Cackett, Edward M.; Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of ellipsoidal light curve modeling of the low mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 in order to constrain the inclination of the system and mass of the neutron star. Near-IR photometric monitoring was performed in May 2008 over a period of three nights at Magellan using PANIC. We obtain J, H and K lightcurves of Cen X-4 using differential photometry. An ellipsoidal modeling code was used to fit the phase folded light curves. The lightcurve fit which makes the least assumptions about the properties of the binary system yields an inclination of 34.9^{+4.9}_{-3.6} degrees (1σ), which is consistent with previous determinations of the system's inclination but with improved statistical uncertainties. When combined with the mass function and mass ratio, this inclination yields a neutron star mass of 1.51^{+0.40}_{-0.55} M⊙. This model allows accretion disk parameters to be free in the fitting process. Fits that do not allow for an accretion disk component in the near-IR flux gives a systematically lower inclination between approximately 33 and 34 degrees, leading to a higher mass neutron star between approximately 1.7 M⊙ and 1.8 M⊙. We discuss the implications of other assumptions made during the modeling process as well as numerous free parameters and their effects on the resulting inclination.

  15. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  16. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  17. Effect of clear aligner therapy on the buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Gaalaas, Sara; Hamdan, Hani; Larson, Brent E

    2016-01-01

    To compare the changes in buccolinugal inclination of mandibular canines and intercanine distance in patients treated with clear aligners to those treated with preadjusted edgewise appliances. The buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance were measured on pre- and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomograms of 30 patients who had been treated with clear aligners and 30 patients who had been treated with fixed preadjusted edgewise appliances. Differences between the aligner and fixed appliance groups and between pre- and posttreatment measurements were tested for statistical significance. In both groups, most of the mandibular canines had positive buccolingual inclinations (ie, their crowns were positioned lateral to their roots) both before and after treatment. While there was no difference between the groups pretreatment, the posttreatment buccolingual inclination was significantly greater in the aligner group. In the fixed appliance group, the canines became more upright with treatment, while the buccolingual inclination did not change significantly in the clear aligner group. The intercanine distance did not differ between the groups either before or after treatment. However, it increased significantly over the course of treatment in the aligner group, whereas it did not change significantly in the fixed appliance group. Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners tends to increase the mandibular intercanine distance with little change in inclination in contrast to treatment with fixed appliances, which leaves the intercanine distance unchanged but leads to more upright mandibular canines.

  18. Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Rungsiyakull, Pimdeun; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To provide a preliminary understanding of the biomechanics with respect to the effect of cusp inclination and occlusal loading on the mandibular bone remodeling. Three different cusp inclinations (0, 10, and 30 degrees) of a ceramic crown and different occlusal loading locations (central fossa and 1- and 2-mm offsets horizontally) were taken into account to explore the stresses and strains transferred from the crown to the surrounding dental bone through the implant. A strain energy density obtained from two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analysis was used as the mechanical stimulus to drive cancellous and cortical bone remodeling in a buccolingual mandibular section. Different ceramic cusp inclinations had a significant effect on bone remodeling responses in terms of the change in the average peri-implant bone density and overall stability. The remodeling rate was relatively high in the first few months of loading and gradually decreased until reaching its equilibrium. A larger cusp inclination and horizontal offset (eg, 30 degrees and 2-mm offset) led to a higher bone remodeling rate and greater interfacial stress. The dental implant superstructure design (in terms of cusp inclination and loading location) determines the load transmission pattern and thus largely affects bone remodeling activities. Although the design with a lower cusp inclination recommended in previous studies may reduce damage and fracture failure, it could, to a certain extent, compromise bone engagement and long-term stability.

  19. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.

  20. Low earth orbit radiation dose distribution in a phantom head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konradi, A.; Badhwar, G.D.; Cash, B.L.; Hardy, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to compare analytical methods with data obtained during exposure to space radiation, a phantom head instrumented with a large number of radiation detectors was flown on the Space Shuttle on three occasions: 8 August 1989 (STS-28), 28 February 1990 (STS-36), and 24 April 1990 (STS-31). The objective of this experiment was to obtain a measurement of the inhomogeneity in the dose distribution within a phantom head volume. The orbits of these missions were complementary-STS-28 and STS-36 had high inclination and low altitude, while STS-31 had a low inclination and high altitude. In the cases of STS-28 and STS-36, the main contribution to the radiation dose comes from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with a minor to negligible part supplied by the inner belt through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), and for STS-28 an even smaller one from a proton enhancement during a solar flare-associated proton event. For STS-31, the inner belt protons dominate and the GCR contribution is almost negligible. The internal dose distribution is consistent with the mass distribution of the orbiter and the self-shielding and physical location of the phantom head. (author)

  1. The spectroscopic orbit of Capella revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Capella is among the few binary stars with two evolved giant components. The hotter component is a chromospherically active star within the Hertzsprung gap, while the cooler star is possibly helium-core burning. Aims: The known inclination of the orbital plane from astrometry in combination with precise radial velocities will allow very accurate masses to be determined for the individual Capella stars. This will constrain their evolutionary stage and possibly the role of the active star's magnetic field on the dynamical evolution of the binary system. Methods: We obtained a total of 438 high-resolution échelle spectra during the years 2007-2010 and used the measured velocities to recompute the orbital elements. Our double-lined orbital solution yields average residuals of 64 m s-1 for the cool component and 297 m s-1 for the more rapidly rotating hotter component. Results: The semi-amplitude of the cool component is smaller by 0.045 km s-1 than the orbit determination of Torres et al. from data taken during 1996-1999 but more precise by a factor of 5.5, while for the hotter component it is larger by 0.580 km s-1 and more precise by a factor of 3.6. This corresponds to masses of 2.573 ± 0.009 M⊙ and 2.488 ± 0.008 M⊙ for the cool and hot component, respectively. Their relative errors of 0.34% and 0.30% are about half of the values given in Torres et al. for a combined literature-data solution but with absolute values different by 4% and 2% for the two components, respectively. The mass ratio of the system is therefore q = MA/MB = 0.9673 ± 0.0020. Conclusions: Our orbit is the most precise and also likely to be the most accurate ever obtained for Capella. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A89

  2. Patologie sociali, resistenze e difese degli insegnanti nell’istituzione scolastica: Considerazioni cliniche e pedagogiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fratini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo prende in esame il tema di alcune resistenze e difese degli insegnanti all’interno dell’istituzione scolastica. Partendo dall’attuale condizione di emergenza della scuola italiana e rifacendosi al concetto di patologia sociale di Giuseppe Di Chiara, viene argomentato come tali resistenze coprano le angosce persecutorie degli insegnanti nel loro lavoro scolastico quotidiano nel rapporto con gli allievi. L’articolo, tra le varie forme di patologia istituzionale, affronta principalmente il tema di quelle che presiedono alle resistenze degli insegnanti al lavoro introspettivo con il proprio mondo interno, conseguenza e ulteriore cagione di sensi di colpa nel rapporto con gli allievi e di fenomeni di burnout lavorativo degli stessi insegnanti. Tali fenomeni vanno nella direzione del rinforzo sia di un atteggiamento di chiusura verso la collaborazione con professionisti esterni all’istituzione scolastica, sia di un atteggiamento di minore empatia e vicinanza emotiva con la realtà interna degli allievi.

  3. Temperature dependent dynamics of DegP-trimer: A molecular dynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DegP is a heat shock protein from high temperature requirement protease A family, which reacts to the environmental stress conditions in an ATP independent way. The objective of the present analysis emerged from the temperature dependent functional diversity of DegP between chaperonic and protease activities at temperatures below and above 28 °C, respectively. DegP is a multimeric protein and the minimal functional unit, DegP-trimer, is of great importance in understanding the DegP pathway. The structural aspects of DegP-trimer with respect to temperature variation have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations (for 100 ns and principal component analysis to highlight the temperature dependent dynamics facilitating its functional diversity. The DegP-trimer revealed a pronounced dynamics at both 280 and 320 K, when compared to the dynamics observed at 300 K. The LA loop is identified as the highly flexible region during dynamics and at extreme temperatures, the residues 46–80 of LA loop express a flip towards right (at 280 and left ( at 320 K with respect to the fixed β-sheet connecting the LA loop of protease for which Phe46 acts as one of the key residues. Such dynamics of LA loop facilitates inter-monomeric interaction with the PDZ1 domain of the neighbouring monomer and explains its active participation when DegP exists as trimer. Hence, the LA loop mediated dynamics of DegP-trimer is expected to provide further insight into the temperature dependent dynamics of DegP towards the understanding of its assembly and functional diversity in the presence of substrate.

  4. Two impulse trajectory optimization for the RAE-B orbit trim problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, M. H.; Pines, S.; Horsewood, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of work on an appropriate approach to the solution of the optimum two-impulse transfer problem between orbits of specified inclination. The task included a literature search to identify the current state of the art and a definition of the suggested approach for the specific application of a lunar orbit trim. The applications of the results to the problem are included. The formulation for a computer program developed under this task following a more conventional approach is also included.

  5. Satellite orbits perturbed by direct solar radiation pressure: general expansion of the disturbing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.

    1977-01-01

    An expression is derived for the solar radiation pressure disturbing function on an Earth satellite orbit which takes into account the variation of the solar radiation flux with distance from the Sun's centre and the absorption of radiation by the satellite. This expression is then expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the satellite and solar orbits using Kaula's method (Astr. J.; 67:300 (1962)). The Kaula inclination functions are replaced by an equivalent set of modified Allan (Proc. R. Soc. A.; 288:60 (1965)) inclination functions. The resulting expression reduces to the form commonly used in solar radiation pressure perturbation studies (e.g. Aksnes, Cel. Mech.; 13:89 (1976)), when certain terms are neglected. If, as happens quite often in practice, a satellite's orbit is in near-resonance with certain of these neglected terms, these near-resonant terms can cause changes in the satellite's orbital elements comparable to those produced by the largest term in Aksnes's expression. A new expression for the solar radiation pressure disturbing function expansion is suggested for use in future studies of satellite orbits perturbed by solar radiation pressure. (author)

  6. Oxidation of Alloy 82 in nominal PWR primary water at 340 deg. C and in hydrogenated steam at 400 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumun, Elizabeth; Guerre Catherine; Duhamel, Cecilie; Sennour, Mohamed; Curieres, Ian-de

    2012-09-01

    Nickel-base weld metals are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary water. As tests in laboratory need to last, in some cases, at least several thousand hours to get stress corrosion crack initiation or propagation in simulated primary water, pure hydrogenated steam at 400 deg. C was used to perform accelerated tests. To confirm that these conditions are still representative of primary water conditions, results of oxidation tests of coupons in hydrogenated steam at 400 deg. C and in primary water at 340 deg. C have been compared. Surface oxide layers have been characterized in order to discuss the influence of the temperature and of the media (water or steam). (authors)

  7. On the choice of orbits for an altimetric satellite to study ocean circulation and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Michael E.; Stewart, Robert H.; Farless, David L.; Cartwright, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The choice of an orbit for satellite altimetric studies of the ocean's circulation and tides requires an understanding of the orbital characteristics that influence the accuracy of the satellite's measurements of sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of the measurements. The orbital characteristics that influence accurate calculations of the satellite's position as a function of time are examined, and the pattern of ground tracks laid down on the ocean's surface as a function of the satellite's altitude and inclination is studied. The results are used to examine the aliases in the measurements of surface geostrophic currents and tides. Finally, these considerations are used to specify possible orbits that may be useful for the upcoming Topex/Poseidon mission.

  8. On the observed excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of orbital inclinations of the observed long-period comets is analysed. An excess of retrograde orbits is found which increases with the perihelion distance, except for the range 1.1 10 3 A U) has the same behaviour as the total sample. It is thus suggested that the excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets is related to an already existent excess among the incoming new comets (i.e. comets driven into the planetary region by stellar perturbations). Using theoretical considerations and a numerical model it is proposed that an important fraction of the so-called new comets are actually repeating passages through the planetary region. Nearly a half of the new comets with q > 2 A U may be repeating passages. An important consequence of the presence of comets repeating passages among the new ones is the production of an excess of retrograde orbits in the whole sample. (author)

  9. E-Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and further develop the theory of $E$-orbit functions. They are functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ obtained from the multivariate exponential function by symmetrization by means of an even part $W_{e}$ of a Weyl group $W$, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. They are closely related to symmetric and antisymmetric orbit functions which are received from exponential functions by symmetrization and antisymmetrization procedure by means of a Weyl group $W$. The $E$-orbit functions, determined by integral parameters, are invariant withrespect to even part $W^{aff}_{e}$ of the affine Weyl group corresponding to $W$. The $E$-orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform, where these functions serve as a kernel of the transform. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of the fundamental domain $F^{e}$ of the group $W^{aff}_{e}$ (the discrete $E$-orbit function transform.

  10. Thermal conductivity of fully dense unirradiated UO2: A new formulation from experimental results between 100 deg. C and 2500 deg. C, and associated fundamental properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delette, G.; Charles, M.

    1997-01-01

    The various contributions to the thermal conductivity of UO 2 are first reviewed: contribution from phonons is preponderant up to 1600 deg. C; radiative contribution is negligible in the case of a polycrystalline sample, and is unable to account for the increase in conductivity observed above 1600 deg. C; electronic contribution, which seems patently to be responsible for this increase, is efficient from 1400 deg. C (electron-hole pairs treated as small polarons). Given the lack of decisive arguments on their actual efficiency, it was decided that, for temperatures above 2400 deg. C, neither a possible decrease in the electronic contribution due to vacancies, nor an additional possible contribution from Frenkel pairs would be described. We do not go therefore beyond the above-mentioned electronic contribution. In the light of these considerations, the law established by CEA for the thermal conductivity of unirradiated UO 2 , on the basis of a homogeneous set of measurements between 100 deg. C and 2500 deg. C, has been revised. A least-square method applied to the above measurements was used to derive simultaneously the four adjustable constants of the law which is henceforth proposed: λ = 1/A + BT+C/T 2 exp(-W/kT). The values of A, B, C, and W obtained, have the advantage of giving a better account of the high temperature results compared to the Martin recommendations (which has, by the way, the same physical form as above). Furthermore, this new law allows an extrapolation towards the melting point which is better founded than the earlier CEA law, while still respecting the value of the integrated thermal conductivity up to melting. Finally, various burnup effects (impurities, stoichiometry, etc.) can be formulated in physical terms. Moreover, the values of various fundamental properties connected with the derived constants have been determined: Debye temperature, Grueneisen parameter, Mott-Hubbard energy, electrical conductivity. These values are discussed and

  11. Study of elementary mechanisms of creep in uranium as a function of temperature (150 deg. to 760 deg. C) by activation energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, P.

    1966-06-01

    Creep tests were carried out on single crystals and polycrystalline specimens of uranium in both the α and β phases over the temperature range 150 - 760 deg. C. The determination of the activation energy for creep and the study of its variation with temperature made it possible to distinguish various temperature ranges in which one or more elementary mechanisms govern deformation. Micrographic observations after creep and the study of the variation of creep-rate with load support the conclusions. The creep behavior of single crystals is identical with that of polycrystalline material below 325 deg. C. From 325 deg. C to one upper limiting temperature whose value depends on the purity and previous history of the metal, the creep deformation of uranium is controlled by cross-slip. From this limiting temperature up to 520 deg. C, the creep of uranium involves two independent mechanisms operating simultaneously, the movement of screw dislocation by cross-slip and the climbing of edge dislocations out of their slip plane. Between 520 deg. C and the α - β transformation temperature creep in polycrystals is governed by the climb of edge dislocations out of their slip planes, by a pile up mechanism in the case of primary creep and by dipole annihilation in the case of secondary creep. In single crystals creep is dependent on the climb of edge dislocations into pre-existent sub-boundaries and their subsequent rearrangement within these boundaries. In the β phase the creep of polycrystals is governed by the diffusional climb of edge dislocations. Between 450 and 630 deg. C small alloy additions of molybdenum modify the creep characteristics of uranium although the deformation mechanisms involved are analogous to those in the pure metal. (author) [fr

  12. The quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D; Maher, Tammy

    2012-03-01

    Although evaluation of biochemical analytes in blood is common in veterinary practice, studies assessing the global quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory testing have not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of biochemical testing in veterinary laboratories using results obtained from analyses of 3 levels of assayed quality control materials over 5 days. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index to determine factors contributing to poor performance, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory mean results. The suitability of in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Reference laboratories were able to achieve desirable quality requirements more frequently than in-clinic laboratories. Across all 3 materials, > 50% of in-clinic analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 2 analytes, whereas > 50% of reference laboratory analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 6 analytes. Expanded uncertainty of measurement and ± total allowable error resulted in the highest mean percentages of analytes demonstrating agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratories. Owing to marked variation in bias and coefficient of variation between analyzers of the same and different types, the percentages of analytes suitable for statistical quality control varied widely. These findings reflect the current state-of-the-art with regard to in-clinic and reference laboratory analyzer performance and provide a baseline for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. EXTINCTION IN STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXIES FROM INCLINATION-DEPENDENT COMPOSITE SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alex S.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Budavari, Tamas; Dobos, Laszlo; Csabai, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    Extinction in galaxies affects their observed properties. In scenarios describing the distribution of dust and stars in individual disk galaxies, the amplitude of the extinction can be modulated by the inclination of the galaxies. In this work, we investigate the inclination dependency in composite spectra of star-forming disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. In a volume-limited sample within a redshift range 0.065-0.075 and a r-band Petrosian absolute magnitude range -19.5 to -22 mag which exhibits a flat distribution of inclination, the inclined relative to face-on extinction in the stellar continuum is found empirically to increase with inclination in the g, r, and i bands. Within the central 0.5 intrinsic half-light radius of the galaxies, the g-band relative extinction in the stellar continuum for the highly inclined objects (axis ratio b/a = 0.1) is 1.2 mag, agreeing with previous studies. The extinction curve of the disk galaxies is given in the rest-frame wavelengths 3700-8000 A, identified with major optical emission and absorption lines in diagnostics. The Balmer decrement, Hα/Hβ, remains constant with inclination, suggesting a different kind of dust configuration and/or reddening mechanism in the H II region from that in the stellar continuum. One factor is shown to be the presence of spatially non-uniform interstellar extinction, presumably caused by clumped dust in the vicinity of the H II region.

  14. Computational stability appraisal of rectangular natural circulation loop: Effect of loop inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, Mayur; Basu, Dipankar N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational model developed for single-phase rectangular natural circulation loop. • Role of loop inclination to vertical on thermalhydraulic stability is explored. • Inclination has strong stabilizing effect due to lower effective gravitation force. • Increase in tilt angle reduces settling time and highest amplitude of oscillation. • An angle of 15° is suggested for the selected loop geometry. - Abstract: Controlling stability behavior of single-phase natural circulation loops, without significantly affecting its steady-state characteristics, is a topic of wide research interest. Present study explores the role of loop inclination on a particular loop geometry. Accordingly a 3D computational model of a rectangular loop is developed and transient conservation equations are solved to obtain the temporal variation in flow parameters. Starting from the quiescent state, simulations are performed for selected sets of operating conditions and also with a few selected inclination angles. System experiences instability at higher heater powers and also with higher sink temperatures. Inclination is found to have a strong stabilizing influence owing to the reduction in the effective gravitational acceleration and subsequent decline in local buoyancy effects. The settling time and highest amplitude of oscillations substantially reduces for a stable system with a small inclination. Typically-unstable systems can also suppress the oscillations, when subjected to tilting, within a reasonable period of time. It is possible to stabilize the loop within shorter time span by increasing the tilt angle, but at the expense of reduction in steady-state flow rate. Overall a tilt angle of 15° is suggested for the selected geometry. Results from the 3D model is compared with the predictions from an indigenous 1D code. While similar qualitative influence of inclination is observed, the 1D model predicts early appearance of the stability threshold and hence hints

  15. Breast compression and radiation dose in two different mammographic oblique projections: 45 and 60 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnic, Zoran; Hebrang, Andrija

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Standard mammography includes two views, craniocaudal and medio-lateral oblique. Depending on patient's body constitution, central beam angle in mediolateral oblique projection may vary, with 45 deg. being suitable for the majority of patients in routine daily practice. With continuous improvement in X-ray technology and radiographers' training, the risk of radiation induced cancerogenesis is considerably reduced and acceptable when compared to benefit. However, the risk still exists, being cumulative and directly related to absorbed glandular dose. There is no minimal dose of radiation which is absolutely harmless, and every effort to reduce the dose is welcome. In this retrospective study two different angles (45 vs. 60 deg.) of mediolateral oblique view were compared according to radiation dose and efficacy of breast compression. Patients and methods: In 52 women, additional 60 deg. oblique films were done after craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique 45 deg.-films, with the same kVp and positioning technique. Breast thickness, time-current products (mA s) and absorbed doses were compared between 45 deg. - and 60 deg.-films. Subgroups of women with large, small, prominent and pendulous breasts were analyzed separately, following the same methodology as for the whole group. Results: mA s were 11.5% lower and compression 7% better with an angle of 60 deg. than with 45 deg. In the subgroup of women with small breasts, mA s values were 13% lower and compression 9% better with 60 deg. than with 45 deg., while in the subgroup with large breasts, mA s were 9% lower and compression 5% better. In the subgroup of patients with pendulous breasts, mA s values were 12% lower and compression 10% better with 60 deg. than with 45 deg., while in the subgroup with prominent breasts, mA s values were 4% lower and compression 3% better. Absorbed glandular dose was estimated to be approximately 20% lower when an oblique mammogram was done with 60 deg. instead of 45 deg

  16. Rotary balance data for a single-engine agricultural airplane configuration for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcay, W. J.; Chu, J.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a helical flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/10 scale single engine agricultural airplane model. The configurations tested include the basic airplane, various wing leading edge and wing tip devices, elevator, aileron, and rudder control settings, and other modifications. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering a spin coefficient range from 0 to .9.

  17. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  18. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. An Orbit Fit for the Grillmair Dionatos Cold Stellar Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, Benjamin A.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Zhang, Haotong; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    We use velocity and metallicity information from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration stellar spectroscopy to fit an orbit to the narrow 63{sup o} stellar stream of Grillmair and Dionatos. The stars in the stream have a retrograde orbit with eccentricity e = 0.33 (perigalacticon of 14.4 kpc and apogalacticon of 28.7 kpc) and inclination approximately i {approx} 35{sup o}. In the region of the orbit which is detected, it has a distance of about 7-11 kpc from the Sun. Assuming a standard disk plus bulge and logarithmic halo potential for the Milky Way stars plus dark matter, the stream stars are moving with a large space velocity of approximately 276 km s{sup -1} at perigalacticon. Using this stream alone, we are unable to determine if the dark matter halo is oblate or prolate. The metallicity of the stream is [Fe/H] = -2.1 {+-} 0.1. Observed proper motions for individual stream members above the main sequence turnoff are consistent with the derived orbit. None of the known globular clusters in the Milky Way have positions, radial velocities, and metallicities that are consistent with being the progenitor of the GD-1 stream.

  1. Effects of treadmill inclination on electromyographic activity and hind limb kinematics in healthy hounds at a walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Susanne K; Hillman, Robert B; Li, Li; Hosgood, Giselle L

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of treadmill incline on muscle activity and joint range of motion (ROM) in hind limbs of dogs. 8 purpose-bred healthy adult hounds. Activities of the hamstring (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles), gluteal (superficial, middle, and deep gluteal muscles), and quadriceps (femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscles) muscle groups and hip and stifle joint ROM were measured with surface electrogoniometric and myographic sensors in hounds walking on a treadmill at 0.54 m/s at inclines of 5%, 0%, and -5% in random order. Mean electromyographic activities and mean ROMs at each inclination were compared for swing and stance phases. Treadmill inclination did not affect duration of the stance and swing phases or the whole stride. When treadmill inclination was increased from -5% to 5%, hip joint ROM increased and the degree of stifle joint extension decreased significantly. In the beginning of the stance phase, activity of the hamstring muscle group was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus a 5% decline. In the end of the stance phase, that activity was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus at a 5% decline or on a flat surface. Activity of the gluteal and quadriceps muscle groups was not affected when treadmill inclination changed. Treadmill inclination affected joint kinematics only slightly. Walking on a treadmill at a 5% incline had more potential to strengthen the hamstring muscle group than walking on a treadmill with a flat or declined surface.

  2. Frictional property of glass-like carbon heat-treated at 1000-3000 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazumasa; Sano, Takanori; Shindo, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Frictional coefficient 'f' was measured in the air and in water at glass-like carbon (GLC) surfaces heat-treated between 1000 and 3000 deg. C. GLCs heat-treated at higher temperature had smoother and more hydrophobic faces, and lower f. The f was smaller than 0.10 for GLCs heat-treated at and above 2000 deg. C, which indicates their applicability as a solid lubricant or a self-lubricating material. The f = 0.06 observed for GLC heat-treated at 3000 deg. C was nearly the same as that of pyrolytic graphite (PG). Slightly lower f's were obtained in water than in the air

  3. Strain ageing of the 15Kh2MFA steel at 500 and 550 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovich, G.G.; Azbukin, V.G.; Krylova, R.P.; Tretyak, I.Yu.; Bardachevskaya, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ageing at high temperatures and under high stresses on strength and plasticity of the 15Kh2MFA steel has been studied. The steel was kept at 500 and at 550 deg C for 100, 1000 and 2500 hours without stress and under stress of 0.5 and 0.9 of the long-term strength limit (sigmasub(ls)). Ageing at 500 deg C without stress and under 0.5 sigmasub(ls) changed neither strength nor plasticity of the steel; under 0.9 sigmasub(ls) the strength somewhat decreased. Ageing at 550 deg C for 1000 hours resulted in an appreciable stress drop

  4. Orbital welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, W.

    2003-01-01

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [de

  5. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR ON THE POWER OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of the inclined belt bucket elevators is their drive. To determine the drive power, it is necessary to carry out calculations according to standard methods, which are described in the modern literature. The basic design parameters are the productivity, lifting height, type and properties of the transported material, the angle of inclination. It is necessary to build a parametric dependence of the driving power of the elevator on its design parameters, which takes into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Methodology. Using the methodology of traction calculation of inclined belt bucket elevator there were built parametric dependences of efforts in specific points of the route of the elevator, as well as the parametric dependences of the drive power of high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on their design parameters and characteristics. Findings. On the basis of constructed parametric dependencies, it was found that the function of changing the value of the elevator’s power from design capacity (at fixed lifting height, type of cargo, belt speed is piecewise constant and monotonically increasing. It was built a graphical representation of elevator drive power on the angle of its inclination within acceptable limits of change. The resulting relationship is non-linear and monotonically decreasing. In general terms the intervals of project performance values, which provide a constant value of drive power of inclined elevator were defined. As an example of the obtained results it was observed the process of dependence construction of the drive power on design capacity and inclination angle of the elevator for transporting the fine coal. Originality. For the first time there were constructed the parametric dependences of drive power of inclined bucket elevator on its design parameters that take into account the standard sizes and types of buckets and belts. Practical value. Using

  6. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Maruti Doodamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female of age 18-30 years, with Angle′s class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton′s analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton′s ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.

  7. On motions of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, Grigory; Bilchenko, Grigory; Bilchenko, Nataly

    2018-05-01

    A mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively to the carrier according to a predetermined motion law. The carrier can move translationally along a rectilinear trajectory on a rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of the rectilinear channel, along which the load moves, is located in a vertical plane passing through the trajectory of the carrier. The Coulomb dry friction model is applied for simulation the forces of resistance to the motion of the carrier from the side of the underlying inclined plane. The extreme value of plane inclination angle at which the carrier is at rest, when the load is stationary, is obtained by taking into account the frictional forces of sliding at rest. Differential equations of motion of a carrier with a load moving with respect to the carrier are obtained taking into account the requirement of motion of the carrier along an inclined plane without detachment. The determining relationships are given which made it possible to classify the types of carrier motion when the channel setting angle and the plane inclination angle are related by a certain inequality. The results of computational experiments are presented.

  8. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  9. Study on natural circulation characteristics of an IPWR under inclined and rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lihui [College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China); Wang, Bing [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Xia, Genglei, E-mail: xiagenglei@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Peng, Minjun [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on RELAP5 codes. • The inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core. • The system parameters asymmetry increases with the increasing inclination angle. • Flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. • The off-center roll axis location can break the symmetry and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate. - Abstract: An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic system analysis code was developed based on RELAP5/MOD3 code by adding additional force model of ocean condition and control volume coordinate solver model. The natural circulation operation characteristics of integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) under ocean conditions were studied and the effects of inclination and rolling motions were analyzed. The results conclude that, the inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core and lead to inconsistent coolant flow rates of the left and right loops, furthermore, it affects the heat transfer of once-through steam generators (OTSGs). In the case of rolling motion, the additional pressure drop of the loop is dominated by tangential force, and flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. The off-center roll axis location, the combination of the inclination and rolling motion, both can break the thermal-hydraulic symmetry among different loops and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate.

  10. Investigation of Oriented Magnetic Field Effects on Entropy Generation in an Inclined Channel Filled with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgiz Baskaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in nonmagnetic carrier fluids, known as ferrofluids, offers the advantages of tunable thermo-physical properties and eliminate the need for moving parts to induce flow. This study investigates ferrofluid flow characteristics in an inclined channel under inclined magnetic field and constant pressure gradient. The ferrofluid considered in this work is comprised of Cu particles as the nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. The governing differential equations including viscous dissipation are non-dimensionalised and discretized with Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. The resulting algebraic set of equations are solved via Newton-Raphson Method. The work done here contributes to the literature by searching the effects of magnetic field angle and channel inclination separately on the entropy generation of the ferrofluid filled inclined channel system in order to achieve best design parameter values so called entropy generation minimization is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field, inclination angle of the channel and volume fraction of nanoparticles on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and represented by figures to give a thorough understanding of the system behavior.

  11. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  12. Vibration characteristics of an inclined flip-flow screen panel in banana flip-flow screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoyan; Niu, Linkai; Gu, Chengxiang; Wang, Yinhua

    2017-12-01

    A banana flip-flow screen is an effective solution for the screening of high-viscosity, high-water and fine materials. As one of the key components, the vibration characteristics of the inclined flip-flow screen panel largely affects the screen performance and the processing capacity. In this paper, a mathematical model for the vibration characteristic of the inclined flip-flow screen panel is proposed based on Catenary theory. The reasonability of Catenary theory in analyzing the vibration characteristic of flip-flow screen panels is verified by a published experiment. Moreover, the effects of the rotation speed of exciters, the incline angle, the slack length and the characteristics of the screen on the vertical deflection, the vertical velocity and the vertical acceleration of the screen panel are investigated parametrically. The results show that the rotation speed of exciters, the incline angle, the slack length and the characteristics of the screen have significant effects on the vibrations of an inclined flip-flow screen panel, and these parameters should be optimized.

  13. Experimental studies on the flow characteristics in an inclined bend-free OWC device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnil Ravinesh Ram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bend-free rectangular cross-section OWC device was designed and constructed for studying the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics inside the device. The inclination is meant to reduce reflection of waves and induce higher velocities in the turbine section. Experimental measurements were made in a wave channel where the OWC device was tested. An S-type Pitot tube was used to measure dynamic pressure of air in the turbine section at several inclinations. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was also done to study the flow of both air and water in the OWC device. In order to focus solely on primary energy capture, no turbine was installed in the OWC device. The dynamic pressure readings were analysed for suction and compression stages. Water volume fluctuations inside the capture chamber were also recorded and compared for different inclinations. The result was an increase in the velocity of air flowing in the capture chamber and hence a rise in the kinetic energy available to the turbine. It was found from experimental studies that as the angle of inclination reduced, the velocity of air in the turbine section increased. The lower angles also caused higher run-up and larger volume of water into the capture chamber.

  14. Wind Tunnel Measurements of Shuttle Orbiter Global Heating with Comparisons to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Blanchard, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic database of global heating images was acquired of the Shuttle Orbiter in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. These results were obtained for comparison to the global infrared images of the Orbiter in flight from the infrared sensing aeroheating flight experiment (ISAFE). The most recent ISAFE results from STS-103, consisted of port side images, at hypersonic conditions, of the surface features that result from the strake vortex scrubbing along the side of the vehicle. The wind tunnel results were obtained with the phosphor thermography system, which also provides global information and thus is ideally suited for comparison to the global flight results. The aerothermodynamic database includes both windward and port side heating images of the Orbiter for a range of angles of attack (20 to 40 deg), freestream unit Reynolds number (1 x 10(exp 6))/ft to 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft, body flap deflections (0, 5, and 10 deg), speed brake deflections (0 and 45 deg), as well as with boundary layer trips for forced transition to turbulence heating results. Sample global wind tunnel heat transfer images were extrapolated to flight conditions for comparison to Orbiter flight data. A windward laminar case for an angle of attack of 40 deg was extrapolated to Mach 11.6 flight conditions for comparison to STS-2 flight thermocouple results. A portside wind tunnel image for an angle of attack of 25 deg was extrapolated for Mach 5 flight conditions for comparison to STS-103 global surface temperatures. The comparisons showed excellent qualitative agreement, however the extrapolated wind tunnel results over-predicted the flight surface temperatures on the order of 5% on the windward surface and slightly higher on the portside.

  15. Astrometric detectability of systems with unseen companions: effects of the Earth orbital motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Alexey G.

    2018-06-01

    The astrometric detection of an unseen companion is based on an analysis of the apparent motion of its host star around the system's barycentre. Systems with an orbital period close to 1 yr may escape detection if the orbital motion of their host stars is observationally indistinguishable from the effects of parallax. Additionally, an astrometric solution may produce a biased parallax estimation for such systems. We examine the effects of the orbital motion of the Earth on astrometric detectability in terms of a correlation between the Earth's orbital position and the position of the star relative to its system barycentre. The χ2 statistic for parallax estimation is calculated analytically, leading to expressions that relate the decrease in detectability and accompanying parallax bias to the position correlation function. The impact of the Earth's motion critically depends on the exoplanet's orbital period, diminishing rapidly as the period deviates from 1 yr. Selection effects against 1-yr-period systems is, therefore, expected. Statistical estimation shows that the corresponding loss of sensitivity results in a typical 10 per cent increase in the detection threshold. Consideration of eccentric orbits shows that the Earth's motion has no effect on detectability for e≳ 0.5. The dependence of the detectability on other parameters, such as orbital phases and inclination of the orbital plane to the ecliptic, are smooth and monotonic because they are described by simple trigonometric functions.

  16. The LCF behaviour of SS AISI 304 in the temperature range between 450 deg. C and 850 deg. C in connection with life time predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Petersen, C.; Schmitt, R.

    The lifetime in high amplitude strain cycling with tensional hold periods is analysed presuming that creep failure damage is life determining. The life fraction rule (LFR) is used to calculate the lifetime consumpted during the dwell period in strain controlled tests as well as during tensional hold time stress cycles. It follows from the present investigation that stress relaxation occurring during the strain hold periods has a dominant influence upon the lifetime. The damage in stress relaxation is calculated by means of the LFR and the results are compared to experiments conducted on Zircaloy-4 (T=600 deg. C) and the austenitic stainless steel Type AISI 304 (T=650 deg. C). From the very good agreement between both it is concluded that under the loading conditions considered, creep failure damage is the main life determining damage contribution. To investigate the contributions of creep and fatigue to failure damage stress controlled experiments were conducted on AISI 304 at 550 deg. C and 850 deg. C. Whereas at the lower temperature (T 0.6 Tsub(s)) the lifetime increased with decreasing R. Therefrom it is concluded that in the case considered for T>0.6 Tsub(s) fatigue damage is not lifetime determining. (author)

  17. Bohr orbit theory revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcourt, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Bohr orbit theory is used to calculate energies for the 1S, 2P, 3D, 4F and 5G states of the helium muonic atom, when the muon is excited. These energies are close to those which have been calculated variationally by Huang (1977, Phys. Rev. A 15 1832-8). (author)

  18. Meteoroid Orbits from Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Millions of orbits of meteoroids have been measured over the last few decades, and they comprise the largest sample of orbits of solar system bodies which exists. The orbits of these objects can shed light on the distribution and evolution of comets and asteroids in near-Earth space (e.g. Neslusan et al. 2016). If orbits can be measured at sufficiently high resolution, individual meteoroids can be traced back to their parent bodies and, in principle, even to their ejection time (Rudawska et al. 2012). Orbits can be measured with multi-station optical observations or with radar observations.The most fundamental measured quantities are the speed of the meteor and the two angles of the radiant, or point in the sky from which the meteor appears to come. There are many methods used to determine these from observations, but not all produce the most accurate results (Egal et al. 2017). These three measured quantities, along with the time and location of the observation, are sufficient to obtain an orbit (see, e.g., Clark & Wiegert 2011), but the measurements must be corrected for the deceleration of the meteoroid in the atmosphere before it was detected, the rotation of the Earth, and the gravitational attraction of the Earth (including higher order moments if great precision is necessary).Once meteor orbits have been determined, studies of the age and origin of meteor showers (Bruzzone et al., 2015), the parent bodies of sporadic sources (Pokorny et al. 2014), and the dynamics of the meteoroid complex as a whole can be constrained.Bruzzone, J. S., Brown, P., Weryk, R., Campbell-Brown, M., 2015. MNRAS 446, 1625.Clark, D., Wiegert, P., 2011. M&PS 46, 1217.Egal, A., Gural, P., Vaubaillon, J., Colas, F., Thuillot, W., 2017. Icarus 294, 43.Neslusan, L., Vaubaillon, J., Hajdukova, M., 2016. A&A 589, id.A100.Pokorny, P., Vokrouhlicky, D., Nesvorny, D., Campbell-Brown, M., Brown, P., 2014. ApJ 789, id.25.Rudawska, R., Vaubaillon, J., Atreya, P., 2012. A&A 541, id.A2

  19. Distance and total column density to the periodic radio star LSI + 61 deg 303

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frail, D.A.; Hjellming, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    New observations toward the periodic radio star LSI + 61 deg 303 in the lines of H I at 21 cm and CO-18 at 2.7 mm are reported. Using the kinematic method, H I observations are interpreted in terms of the two-armed spiral shock model of Roberts (1972) to derive a distance to LSI + 61 deg 303 of 2.0 + or - 0.2 kpc. The results clearly show the presence of the Perseus arm shock and locate LSI + 61 deg 303 between this shock and the more distant postshock gas. In addition, by using the H I and CO-18 data, the total neutral and molecular gas column density is derived along the line of sight toward LSI + 61 deg 303. 32 refs

  20. Quantum mechanical analysis of the equilateral triangle billiard: Periodic orbit theory and wave packet revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncheski, M.A.; Robinett, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Using the fact that the energy eigenstates of the equilateral triangle infinite well (or billiard) are available in closed form, we examine the connections between the energy eigenvalue spectrum and the classical closed paths in this geometry, using both periodic orbit theory and the short-term semi-classical behavior of wave packets. We also discuss wave packet revivals and show that there are exact revivals, for all wave packets, at times given by T rev =9μa 2 /4(h/2π) where a and μ are the length of one side and the mass of the point particle, respectively. We find additional cases of exact revivals with shorter revival times for zero-momentum wave packets initially located at special symmetry points inside the billiard. Finally, we discuss simple variations on the equilateral (60 deg. -60 deg. -60 deg. ) triangle, such as the half equilateral (30 deg. -60 deg. -90 deg.) triangle and other 'foldings', which have related energy spectra and revival structures

  1. Insight into DEG/ENaC channel gating from genetics and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Amy L; Goodman, Miriam B

    2012-10-01

    The founding members of the superfamily of DEG/ENaC ion channel proteins are C. elegans proteins that form mechanosensitive channels in touch and pain receptors. For more than a decade, the research community has used mutagenesis to identify motifs that regulate gating. This review integrates insight derived from unbiased in vivo mutagenesis screens with recent crystal structures to develop new models for activation of mechanically gated DEGs.

  2. Radiolysis of cesium iodide solutions at 35 and 85 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1981-09-01

    An aqueous solution of cesium iodide was irradiated by the gamma rays from a cobalt 60 source with a dose rate of 0.4 Mrad/hr. At 35 deg C the iodide I - is oxidized in molecular iodine I 2 but at 85 deg C the iodate IO 3 - is obtained. The aim of this work is the study of aerosols behaviour released in accidental situation of a PWR in presence of steam [fr

  3. Simplified 2DEG carrier concentration model for composite barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Palash; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2014-01-01

    The self consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations is used along with the total charge depletion model and applied with a novel approach of composite AlGaN barrier based HEMT heterostructure. The solution leaded to a completely new analytical model for Fermi energy level vs. 2DEG carrier concentration. This was eventually used to demonstrate a new analytical model for the temperature dependent 2DEG carrier concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMT

  4. Distribution of local magnetic field of vortex lattice near anisotropic superconductor surface in inclined external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremova, S.A.; Tsarevskij, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic field distribution in a unit cell of the Abrikosov vortex lattice near the surface of monoaxial anisotropic type-ii superconductors in inclined external magnetic field has been found in the framework of London model for the cases when the symmetry axis is perpendicular and parallel to the superconductor surface interface. Distribution of local magnetic field as a function of the distance from the superconductor interface surface and external field inclination angle has been obtained. Using high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O by way of examples, it has been shown that the study of local magnetic field distribution function, depending on external magnetic field inclination angle towards the superconductor symmetry axis and towards the superconductor surface, can provide important data on anisotropic properties of the superconductor [ru

  5. Performance of an inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anburaj, P.; Kalidasa, Murugavel K.; Samuel Hansen, R.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the experimental performance of a new type inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges in absorber plate. The still was fabricated and tested for various inclination angles of 25, 30 and 35 facing south with absorber plate. Performances of the still were compared with different wick materials (Black cotton cloth, Jute cloth, and Waste cotton pieces) on the absorber plate. The effect of placing porous material (Clay pot) and energy storing material (Mild steel pieces) in the grooves were studied. The results demonstrate that 30 inclination is optimum which yielded 3.77 L/day production. Compared to different wick materials, black cotton cloth helps to achieve maximum productivity of 4.21 L/day. The addition of permeable materials and energy absorbing materials also enhances the distillate output to 4.27 L/day. (authors)

  6. Motion of a carrier with a mobile load along a rough inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical system consisting of a carrier and a load is considered. The load can move respectively the carrier according to the preset given motion law. The carrier motion from rest caused the load motion is investigated. The carrier can move translationally along rectilinear trajectory along rough inclined plane. The trajectory is the line of the greatest descent. The axis of rectilinear channel along which the load moves is situated in vertical plane containing the carrier trajectory. The Coulomb model is taken to describe the friction forces on sloped plane. Differential equations of motion of carrier with load are obtained. The sufficient condition of the carrier motion without detachment from inclined plane is given. For two special cases of the channel installation angle and the plane inclination angle combination the motion types are described. The computation experiments results are presented: the carrier motions in the special cases are illustrated, the phase portraits for some types of motions are constructed.

  7. Effects of the inclined femto laser incidence at the phase mask on FBG carving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Shengli; Zhang, Jintao; Ren, Wenyi

    2015-12-01

    The inclined incidence of the femto laser on the phase mask in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) carving has a significant effect on the quality of FBG fabrication. Based on that the infrared femto laser has highly spatial coherence and the order walk-off will happen behind the phase mask, the interferogram generated at the fiber core by the inclined femto laser beam has been analyzed using the multi-beam interference principle. The influence of beam inclination on the coherence of the 0th and ± 1st orders diffraction with different exposure distance, the visibility of interferogram and the frequency component of the transverse interferogram intensity has also been analyzed. It is meaningful for the FBG fabricating with the femto laser.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)

  9. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  10. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  11. Characteristic of local parameter of bubbly flow in rectangular channel under inclined and rolling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changqi; Jin Guangyuan; Sun Licheng; Wang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of local parameters of bubbly flow were investigated in rectangular channel (40 mm × 3 mm) under inclined and rolling conditions. Under vertical condition, the distribution type 'wall peak' and 'core peak' are observed, and 'core peak' exists when the liquid superficial velocity is low and the gas superficial velocity is high. Under inclined condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened at the top of the channel, and weakened at the bottom. Under rolling condition, the peaks of two distribution types get strengthened compared with the same angle under inclined condition when the angle is getting larger. The influence from rolling motion gets stronger on the peak of two distribution types when the rolling movement is more violent. (authors)

  12. Influence of Stern Shaft Inclination on the Cooling Performance of Water-Lubricated Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water film model of the marine water-lubricated stern bearing was established by FLUENT. The influence law of water flow rate on the cooling performance of water-lubricated bearing was studied in consideration of the stern shaft inclination. It will be helpful to improve the performance of marine water-lubricated stern bearing and both security and reliability of propulsion system. The simulation results show that the increase of cooling water flow rate in a certain range can effectively reduce bearing temperature. The bearing temperature rises sharply with thinning of water film thickness which is caused by the increase of inclination angle. Larger inclination angle can deteriorate the operating reliability of bearing.

  13. Novel operation mode for eliminating influence of inclination angle and friction in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yueyu; Zhou, Faquan; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of topography imaging in contact force mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) depends on the one-to-one corresponding relationship between the cantilever deflection and the tip-sample distance, whereas such a relationship cannot be always achieved in the presence of friction and incline angle of sample surface. Recently, we have developed a novel operation mode in which we keep the van der Waals force as constant instead of the applied normal force, to eliminate the effect of inclination angle and friction on topography imaging in the contact force mode. We have improved our AFM to enable the new operation mode for validation. Comparative experiments have been performed and the results have shown that the effect of friction and inclination angle on topography imaging in contact mode of AFM can be eliminated or at least decreased effectively by working in the new operation mode we present.

  14. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined

  15. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer optimization in a 3D inclined solar distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghachem Kaouther

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the 3-D double-diffusive natural convection in an inclined solar distiller was established. The flow is considered laminar and caused by the interaction of thermal energy and the chemical species diffusions. The governing equations of the problem, are formulated using vector potential-vorticity formalism in its 3-D form, then solved by the finite volumes method. The Rayleigh number is fixed at Ra = 105 and effects of the buoyancy ratio and inclination are studied for opposed temperature and concentration gradients. The main purpose of the study is to find the optimum inclination angle of the distiller which promotes the maximum mass and heat transfer.

  16. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a channel with the backward-facing inclined step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the experimental investigation of turbulent flow in a closed channel with the backward-facing inclined step. Experiments were carried by means of the PIV optical measuring method in the channel of the rectangular cross-section in the inlet part and with inclined steps of the constant height H mm and various inclination angles for a wide range of the Reynolds number. The attention was paid especially to the separation region behind the step and to the relaxation of the shear layer after the reattachment in the outlet part of the channel. The dependence of the length of the separation region on the Reynolds number was obtained for various step angles. Optical measurements were completed by the measurement of static pressure distribution in the inlet and outlet part of the channel to estimate energy losses.

  17. Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior

  18. Behavior of ferritic/martensitic steels after n-irradiation at 200 and 300 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasevic, M.; Lucon, E.; Almazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    High chromium ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are considered as the most promising structural materials for accelerator driven systems (ADS). One drawback that needs to be quantified is the significant hardening and embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation at low temperatures with production of spallation elements. In this paper irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of F/M steels have been studied and comparisons are provided between two ferritic/martensitic steels, namely T91 and EUROFER97. Both materials have been irradiated in the BR2 reactor of SCK-CEN/Mol at 300 deg. C up to doses ranging from 0.06 to 1.5 dpa. Tensile tests results obtained between -160 deg. C and 300 deg. C clearly show irradiation hardening (increase of yield and ultimate tensile strengths), as well as reduction of uniform and total elongation. Irradiation effects for EUROFER97 starting from 0.6 dpa are more pronounced compared to T91, showing a significant decrease in work hardening. The results are compared to our latest data that were obtained within a previous program (SPIRE), where T91 had also been irradiated in BR2 at 200 deg. C (up to 2.6 dpa), and tested between -170 deg. C and 300 deg. C. Irradiation effects at lower irradiation temperatures are more significant

  19. Ce2O3-SO3-H2O system at 150 and 200 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokoskov, V.I.; Trofimov, G.V.; Govorukhina, O.A.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility, solid phase composition and crystal characteristics in the Ce 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system have been studied in a broad range of sulfuric acid concentrations (25 to 80% SO 3 ) at temperatures from 150 to 200 deg C. It has been established that in the system the equilibrium had been reached after 15 to 20 days. At 150 deg C, Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 x2H 2 O, Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 xH 2 O sulfates and Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 x3H 2 SO 4 acid salt crystallize in the system. At 200 deg C, the same sulfates crystallize in the system, except that the bisaturation points of the system are shifted, with respect to 150 deg C, into the region of higher SO 3 concentration and correspond to solutions with a SO 3 concentration of 57.8 and 65%. The solubility of cerium(3) at 150 deg C is about 0.5% Ce 2 O 3 . An increase in temperature up to 200 deg C leads to a slightly higher solubility of cerium sulfates

  20. Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Zago, Myrka

    2014-01-01

    It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions) and slope (30°, 45° or 60°). In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1). However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2) or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3), they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.

  1. Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara La Scaleia

    Full Text Available It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions and slope (30°, 45° or 60°. In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1. However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2 or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3, they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.

  2. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  3. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed Boudiaf, M' sila, 28000 (Algeria); Mekias, Hocine [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria); Guechi, Fairouz [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-11-23

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number {alpha} and for various values of the inclination angle {beta} between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall.

  4. Transonic stability and control characteristics of a 0.015 scale model 69-0 of the space shuttle orbiter with forebody RSI modification in the NASA/LaRC 8 foot TPT (LA72)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. W.; Edwards, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA/LaRC 8 foot transonic wind tunnel from March 26 through 31, 1976. The model was a 0.015 scale SSV Orbiter with forebody modifications to simulate slight reductions in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thickness. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 20 deg at sideslip angles of 0 deg and 5 deg.

  5. Model and experimental vizualisation of a bubble interacting with an inclined wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, Berengere; Khoja, Suleman; Attinger, Daniel; Moraga, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    We describe the motion of an air bubble rising through water as it interacts with a wall of variable inclination. The bubble diameter varies about O(1) mm. We use lubrication theory to determine the modification of the bubble interface and compute the hydrodynamic force exerted by the wall. The present work is an extension of Moraga et al's model [Computers and Fluids 2006], which was devised for a horizontal wall. The predictions of the model are checked against experimental visualizations. The influence of the Weber number, Reynolds number and wall inclination is examined

  6. Peristaltic transport of a fractional Burgers' fluid with variable viscosity through an inclined tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    In the present study,we investigate the unsteady peristaltic transport of a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Burgers' model in an inclined tube. We suppose that the viscosity is variable in the radial direction. This analysis has been carried out under low Reynolds number and long-wavelength approximations. An analytical solution to the problem is obtained using a fractional calculus approach. Figures are plotted to show the effects of angle of inclination, Reynolds number, Froude number, material constants, fractional parameters, parameter of viscosity and amplitude ratio on the pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction force, axial velocity and on the mechanical efficiency.

  7. INCLINATION AND VIBRATION MEASUREMENT BY INERTIAL SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Koichi; Abe, Masato; Koshimizu, Satoru

    To develop a practical health monitoring system, inertial sensing which can readily be done for wide variety of situations is useful. However inertial sensors are measuring inclination and acceleration in reference to gravity. Therefore inclination are influence by acceleration and vice versa caused measuring errors. Especially, errors are more affected at low-frequency band which is important to estimate displacement. In this study, to establish correcting theory for inertial sensing and to develop method to estimate parameters for some structural system. And conducted a field test targeted at the real railway bridge to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using response records of the pier under passing train load.

  8. Inclined Zenith Aurora over Kyoto on 17 September 1770: Graphical Evidence of Extreme Magnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2017-10-01

    Red auroras were observed in Japan during an extreme magnetic storm that occurred on 17 September 1770. We show new evidence that the red aurora extended toward the zenith of Kyoto around midnight. The basic appearance of the historical painting of the red aurora is geometrically reproduced based on the inclination of the local magnetic field and a detailed description in a newly discovered diary. The presence of the inclined zenith aurora over Kyoto suggests that the intensity of the September 1770 magnetic storm is comparable to, or slightly larger than that of the September 1859 Carrington storm.

  9. Behavior of a strip footing on reinforced soil subjected to inclined load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jawdat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the behavior of a strip footing under inclined load on reinforced sandy soil by using experimental model. The effect of the load inclination angle (α, number of geogrid layers (N and the relative density (RD on the bearing capacity, settlement and horizontal displacement were studied. The results showed that by increasing the number of reinforcement layers (N, the bearing capacity increased, but there is an optimum value (N=4-5 depending on relative density of supporting soil. Also the settlement and horizontal displacement of footing decreasing with increase number of reinforcement layers.

  10. Fractal behaviour of flow of an inhomogeneous fluid over a smooth inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S.; Maleki Jirsarani, N.; Ghane Motlagh, B.; Baradaran, S.; Shokrian, E.

    2001-01-01

    We have observed and analyzed fractal patterns made by the flow of an inhomogeneous fluid (a suspension) over an inclined smooth surface. We observed that if the angle of inclination is above a threshold (10 d eg C - 12 d eg C), the length of fractal clusters become infinity. We measured a fractal dimension of df=1.40 ± 0.05. This falls within the same general class of patterns of flow of water over an inhomogeneous surface. This observation is consistent with the results of theoretical modes for nonlinear fluid flow in random media

  11. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF DRIVE POWER HORIZONTAL-INCLINED BELT CONVEYOR ON ITS INITIAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there

  12. Ion Feedback Suppression Using Inclined MCP Holes in a Single-MCP+Micromegas+Pads Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the ion backflow to photocathode can be completely suppressed if one uses inclined MCP holes in a presence of magnetic field. The inclined hole angles are chosen to be aligned with the Lorentz electron angle allowing the electron transmission and amplification, while positive ions, traveling along a different angle, are caught on the MCP hole walls. The detector under investigation is a new gaseous detector structure based on a tandem of two parts, a single MCP (Microchannel) plate, a Micromegas with pad readout. We are aiming to develop a gaseous photon detector with the Bialkali photocathode, however, one could use some ideas in the paper for other types of detectors

  13. Experimental and theoretical analysis on the effect of inclination on metal powder sintered heat pipe radiator with natural convection cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Qifei, Jian; Wu, Shifeng

    2017-02-01

    An experimental study and theoretical analysis of heat transfer performance of a sintered heat pipe radiator that implemented in a 50 L domestic semiconductor refrigerator have been conducted to examine the effect of inclination angle, combined with a minimum entropy generation analysis. The experiment results suggest that inclination angle has influences on both the evaporator and condenser section, and the performance of the heat pipe radiator is more sensitive to the inclination change in negative inclined than in positive inclined position. When the heat pipe radiator is in negative inclination angle position, large amplitude of variation on the thermal resistance of this heat pipe radiator is observed. As the thermal load is below 58.89 W, the influence of inclination angle on the overall thermal resistance is not that apparent as compared to the other three thermal loads. Thermal resistance of heat pipe radiator decreases by 82.86 % in inclination of 60° at the set of 138.46 W, compared to horizontal position. Based on the analysis results in this paper, in order to achieve a better heat transfer performance of the heat pipe radiator, it is recommended that the heat pipe radiator be mounted in positive inclination angle positions (30°-90°), where the condenser is above the evaporator.

  14. Title: Accelerator Test of an Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) Prototype with Beams of 48Ca and Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Enman, A.

    2006-12-01

    The measurement and identification of high energy ions (> few MeV/n) from events originating on the Sun is of direct interest to the Living With a Star Program. These ions are a major source of Single Event Effects (SEE) in space-based electronics. Measurements of these ions also help in understanding phenomena such as Solar particle events and coronal mass ejections. These disturbances can directly affect the Earth and the near-Earth space environment, and thus human technology. The resource constraints on spacecraft generally mean that instruments that measure cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles must have low mass (a few kg) and power (a few W), be robust and reliable yet highly capable. Such instruments should identify ionic species (at least by element, preferably by isotope) from protons through the iron group. The charge and mass resolution of heavy ion instrument in space depends upon determining ions' angles of incidence. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) system is a highly innovative and uniquely simple detector configuration used to determine the angle of incidence of heavy ions in space instruments. ADIS replaces complex position sensing detectors (PSDs) with a system of simple, reliable and robust Si detectors inclined at an angle to the instrument axis. In August 2004 we tested ADIS prototypes with a 48Ca beam at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF). We demonstrate that our prototype charged particle instrument design with an ADIS system has a charge resolution of better than 0.25 e. An ADIS based system is being incorporated into the Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS), one of the instruments in the Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) System. An ADIS based system was also selected for the High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS), one of the instruments in the Space Environment Sensor Suite (SESS) on the

  15. Comparison of soft-tissue orbital morphometry in attractive and normal Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dolci, Claudia; Grandi, Gaia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Laino, Alberto; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2015-01-01

    To identify esthetic characteristics of the orbital soft tissues of attractive Italian adult women and men. Three-dimensional computerized digitizers were used to collect the coordinates of facial landmarks in 199 healthy, normal subjects aged 18 to 30 years (71 women, 128 men; mean age, 22 years) and in 126 coetaneous attractive subjects (92 women, 34 men; mean age, 20 years) selected during beauty competitions. From the landmarks, six linear distances, two ratios, six angles, and two areas were calculated. Attractive subjects were compared with normal ones by computing z-scores. Intercanthal width was reduced while eye fissure lengths were increased in both genders. Orbital heights (os-or) were increased only in attractive women, with a significant gender-related difference. The inclinations of the eye fissure were increased in attractive subjects, while the inclinations of the orbit were reduced. For several of the analyzed measurements, similar patterns of z-scores were observed for attractive men and women (r  =  .883). Attractive women and men had several specific esthetic characteristics in their orbital soft tissues; esthetic reference values can be used to determine optimal goals in surgical treatment.

  16. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    's correlation consistent basis sets, it is seen that for larger penalties, the virtual orbitals become more local than the occupied ones. We also show that the local virtual HF orbitals are significantly more local than the redundant projected atomic orbitals, which often have been used to span the virtual...

  17. Thermal conductivity of fully dense unirradiated UO{sub 2}: A new formulation from experimental results between 100 deg. C and 2500 deg. C, and associated fundamental properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delette, G; Charles, M [Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)

    1997-08-01

    The various contributions to the thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2} are first reviewed: contribution from phonons is preponderant up to 1600 deg. C; radiative contribution is negligible in the case of a polycrystalline sample, and is unable to account for the increase in conductivity observed above 1600 deg. C; electronic contribution, which seems patently to be responsible for this increase, is efficient from 1400 deg. C (electron-hole pairs treated as small polarons). Given the lack of decisive arguments on their actual efficiency, it was decided that, for temperatures above 2400 deg. C, neither a possible decrease in the electronic contribution due to vacancies, nor an additional possible contribution from Frenkel pairs would be described. We do not go therefore beyond the above-mentioned electronic contribution. In the light of these considerations, the law established by CEA for the thermal conductivity of unirradiated UO{sub 2}, on the basis of a homogeneous set of measurements between 100 deg. C and 2500 deg. C, has been revised. A least-square method applied to the above measurements was used to derive simultaneously the four adjustable constants of the law which is henceforth proposed: {lambda} = 1/A + BT+C/T{sup 2}exp(-W/kT). The values of A, B, C, and W obtained, have the advantage of giving a better account of the high temperature results compared to the Martin recommendations (which has, by the way, the same physical form as above). Furthermore, this new law allows an extrapolation towards the melting point which is better founded than the earlier CEA law, while still respecting the value of the integrated thermal conductivity up to melting. Finally, various burnup effects (impurities, stoichiometry, etc.) can be formulated in physical terms. Moreover, the values of various fundamental properties connected with the derived constants have been determined: Debye temperature, Grueneisen parameter, Mott-Hubbard energy, electrical conductivity. These values

  18. Quasiparticle dynamics and spin-orbital texture of the SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; de la Torre, A; Eknapakul, T; Buaphet, P; Mo, S-K; Meevasana, W; Bahramy, M S; Baumberger, F

    2014-02-27

    Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3 have become model systems for engineering emergent behaviour in complex transition metal oxides. Understanding the collective interactions that enable this, however, has thus far proved elusive. Here we demonstrate that angle-resolved photoemission can directly image the quasiparticle dynamics of the d-electron subband ladder of this complex-oxide 2DEG. Combined with realistic tight-binding supercell calculations, we uncover how quantum confinement and inversion symmetry breaking collectively tune the delicate interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in this system. We reveal how they lead to pronounced orbital ordering, mediate an orbitally enhanced Rashba splitting with complex subband-dependent spin-orbital textures and markedly change the character of electron-phonon coupling, co-operatively shaping the low-energy electronic structure of the 2DEG. Our results allow for a unified understanding of spectroscopic and transport measurements across different classes of SrTiO3-based 2DEGs, and yield new microscopic insights on their functional properties.

  19. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-08-01

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  20. Orbital debris: a technical assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Space Debris, National Research Council

    ..., and other debris created as a byproduct of space operations. Orbital Debris examines the methods we can use to characterize orbital debris, estimates the magnitude of the debris population, and assesses the hazard that this population poses to spacecraft...

  1. Orbital maneuvering end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an end effector device for grasping and maneuvering objects such as berthing handles of a space telescope. The device includes a V-shaped capture window defined as inclined surfaces in parallel face plates which converge toward a retainer recess in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess where latches lock handle in the recess. To align the capture window, plates may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base. Drive means is included in the form of a motor coupled with a harmonic drive speed reducer, which provides for slow movement of the fingers at a high torque so that large articles may be handled. Novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the combined intermeshing finger structure, drive means and the harmonic drive speed reducer, which features provide the required maneuverability and strength.

  2. Apparent and partial molar volumes of long-chain alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides and bromides in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Ruso, J.M.; Nimo, J.; Rodriguez, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Density measurements of dodecyl- (C 12 DBACl), tetradecyl- (C 14 DBACl), hexadecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C 16 DBACl) and of decyl- (C 10 DBABr) and dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium bromide (C 12 DBABr) in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C have been carried out. From these results, apparent and partial molar volumes were calculated. Positive deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. The change of the apparent molar volume upon micellization was calculated. The relevant parameters have been presented in function of the alkyl chain length. Apparent molar volumes of the present compounds in the micellar phase, V phi m , and the change upon micellization, ΔV phi m , have been discussed in terms of temperature and type of counterion

  3. Determination of the spiral Galaxy structure parameters based on neutral hydrogen radiowave radiation in 21 cm line. 2. Nonlinear theory. 30 deg <= |l| <= 60 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, V.G.; Mishurov, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Gas flow and its density distribution in the Galaxy spiral arm gravitational potential is calculated by means of the nonlinear theory. Line profile of H I emission in 21 cm based on the Galaxy spiral structure models proposed by Lin and Marochnik are constructed for the galactic coordinates 30 deg < or approximately |l| < or approximately 60 deg. It is shown that the conclusion about the possibility of agreement of the Marochnik model with observations made by means of the linear theory is confirmed in the nonlinear theory. In the Marochnik model distributions with R H II regions, CO-clouds, γ-radiation, supernova remnants and so on may also be understood connecting them with variation of gas compression in galactic shock with H radius

  4. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  5. Addressing the statistical mechanics of planet orbits in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogavero, Federico

    2017-10-01

    The chaotic nature of planet dynamics in the solar system suggests the relevance of a statistical approach to planetary orbits. In such a statistical description, the time-dependent position and velocity of the planets are replaced by the probability density function (PDF) of their orbital elements. It is natural to set up this kind of approach in the framework of statistical mechanics. In the present paper, I focus on the collisionless excitation of eccentricities and inclinations via gravitational interactions in a planetary system. The future planet trajectories in the solar system constitute the prototype of this kind of dynamics. I thus address the statistical mechanics of the solar system planet orbits and try to reproduce the PDFs numerically constructed by Laskar (2008, Icarus, 196, 1). I show that the microcanonical ensemble of the Laplace-Lagrange theory accurately reproduces the statistics of the giant planet orbits. To model the inner planets I then investigate the ansatz of equiprobability in the phase space constrained by the secular integrals of motion. The eccentricity and inclination PDFs of Earth and Venus are reproduced with no free parameters. Within the limitations of a stationary model, the predictions also show a reasonable agreement with Mars PDFs and that of Mercury inclination. The eccentricity of Mercury demands in contrast a deeper analysis. I finally revisit the random walk approach of Laskar to the time dependence of the inner planet PDFs. Such a statistical theory could be combined with direct numerical simulations of planet trajectories in the context of planet formation, which is likely to be a chaotic process.

  6. Irradiation creep of the martensitic steel no. 1.4914 between 400 deg C and 600 deg C (Mol 5B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschbach, K.; Doser, W.

    1983-01-01

    The irradiation induced creep of the martensitic steel DIN No. 1.4914 was investigated in the temperature range from 400 to 600 deg C for stresses up to 200 Mpa using the Mol 5B irradiation rig. The results point to a behavior quite different from that observed in the austenitic steels as will be discussed in detail. The creep is thermally activated and non-linearly dependent upon the applied stress. (author)

  7. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.

  8. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-03-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better.

  9. ORBITS AND MASSES OF THE SATELLITES OF THE DWARF PLANET HAUMEA (2003 EL61)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozzine, D.; Brown, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using precise relative astrometry from the Hubble Space Telescope and the W. M. Keck Telescope, we have determined the orbits and masses of the two dynamically interacting satellites of the dwarf planet (136108) Haumea, formerly 2003 EL61. The orbital parameters of Hi'iaka, the outer, brighter satellite, match well the previously derived orbit. On timescales longer than a few weeks, no Keplerian orbit is sufficient to describe the motion of the inner, fainter satellite Namaka. Using a fully interacting three-point-mass model, we have recovered the orbital parameters of both orbits and the mass of Haumea and Hi'iaka; Namaka's mass is marginally detected. The data are not sufficient to uniquely determine the gravitational quadrupole of the nonspherical primary (described by J 2 ). The nearly coplanar nature of the satellites, as well as an inferred density similar to water ice, strengthen the hypothesis that Haumea experienced a giant collision billions of years ago. The excited eccentricities and mutual inclination point to an intriguing tidal history of significant semimajor axis evolution through satellite mean-motion resonances. The orbital solution indicates that Namaka and Haumea are currently undergoing mutual events and that the mutual event season will last for next several years.

  10. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  11. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A Power Law Model. 1OLADEINDE, M H; 2EDOKPIA, R O; ... Keyword: power law, slider bearing, finite element, load capacity, pressure. Traditionally, most lubricants are .... The volumetric flow rate per unit width is computed by using the expression shown in ...

  12. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. ∗e-mail: ... Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions ... computing the displacement and stress fields around a long inclined tensile fault near an internal boundary. 1.

  13. The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of porosity and angle of inclination on the deflection of fluid flow in porous media. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  14. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino De Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.

  15. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Wildy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%, there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  16. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildy, Conor; Czerny, Bozena, E-mail: wildy@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-14

    Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%), there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine) or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  17. An Inclination-Dependent IRX-beta Relation for Galaxies at z~1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weichen; Kassin, Susan A.; Pacifici, Camilla; de la Vega, Alexander; Simons, Raymond C.; Barro, Guillermo; Gordon, Karl D.; Snyder, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies near cosmic noon are substantially obscured by dust. Therefore, to measure galaxy star-formation rates (SFRs), it is crucial to accurately account for dust obscuration. This is usually done by measuring the slopes of spectra in the rest-frame ultraviolet (i.e., β). Another independent method is to measure the infrared excess IRX, defined as the ratio between infrared and ultraviolet luminosity. In this work, we present the discovery that the relation between IRX and β varies systematically with galaxy inclination at z~1.5. Edge-on galaxies are on average ~0.5 dex higher in IRX than face-on galaxies at fixed β. Furthermore, we find that the difference between SFR(UV+IR) and β-corrected SFR(UV) is correlated with inclination. Our finding is consistent with the study of local galaxies (Wild et al. 2011), where the dust attenuation curve is found to flatten with increasing inclination. We interpret our results using a picture where dust and young stars are spatially mixed. In this case, β is more sensitive to the optically-thin regions near the surface of galaxy disks. Therefore, compared to the case of face-on galaxies, β measures a smaller fraction of the total dust optical depth for the edge-on galaxies, whereas IRX always probes the total optical depth. We conclude that inclination must be taken into account when evaluating dust attenuation with β at high redshift.

  18. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  19. EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaed S. Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations. 

  20. Contact of dual mobility implants: effects of cup wear and inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S

    2015-01-01

    Cup wear and inclination on the pelvic bone are significant factors, which change the contact of the articulating surfaces, thus, impacting the long-term performance of hip implants. This paper presents a finite element (FE) analysis of the contact of the dual mobility implants under the influence of cup wear and inclination. A 3D FE model of the implant was developed with the application of equivalent physiological loading and boundary conditions. Effects of cup inclination angle ranging from 45° to 60° and the wear depth ranging from 0 to 2.46 mm equivalent to up to 30 years of the implant's life on the contact pressure and von Mises stress were investigated. Simulation results show that the contact pressure and von Mises stress decrease significantly with a modest wear depth and remains quite in-sensitive to the cup inclination angle and wear depth up to 1.64 mm. With wear depth further up to 2.46 mm, the cup thickness (i.e. cup thinning on worn region) may be more predominant than increasing of contact area between the cup and the head. The wear on the inner surface of the cup is found to rule out the overall contact pressure and stress in the implant. Furthermore, individual and combined effects of both important parameters are analysed and discussed with respect to available clinical/laboratory studies.

  1. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  2. Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)

  3. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Krupička, Jan; Konfršt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2014), s. 241-247 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydraulic pipelining * coarse-grained slurry * pressure drops * pipe inclination * concentration distribution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2014

  4. The effect of relative humidity on output performance of inclined and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The set-up of 70 Watts solar panel was inclined stationary at 150 for maximum solar reception while the set-up of 80 Watts solar panel had automatic solar tracker for effective capturing of solar radiation. For 70 Watts solar panel, the maximum power output of 59.99 Watt was obtained when the relative humidity was 30%.

  5. MHD flow of a dusty viscoelastic liquid through a porous medium between two inclined parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Singh, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow of a dusty viscoelastic liquid (Oldroyd B-liquid) through a porous medium between two parallel plates inclined to the horizon has been studied. The liquid velocity, dust particle velocity and flux of flow have been obtained. Earlier results have been deduced as particular cases of the present investigation. The physical situation of the motion has been discussed graphically. (author)

  6. Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for upward bubbly flow in inclined tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Dianchuan; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Liu Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for air-water bubbly flow in an inclined circular tube was performed by using the double sensor probe method. Parameters including radial distributions of local void fraction, bubble passing frequency, interfacial area concentration and bubble equivalent diameter were measured using the probe. The inner diameter of test section is 50 mm, and the liquid superficial velocity is 0.144 m/s, with the gas superficial velocity ranging from 0 to 0.054 m/is. The results show that bubbles obviously move toward the upper wall and congregate. The local interfacial area concentration, bubble passing frequency and void fraction have similar radial distribution profiles. Different from the vertical condition, for a cross-sectional area of the test section, the peak value near the upper side increases, while decreases or even disappears near the underside. The local parameter increases as the radial positions change from lower to upper location, and the increased slope becomes larger as the inclination angles increase. The equivalent bubble diameter doesn't vary with radial position, superficial gas velocity and inclination angle, and bubble aggregation and breaking up nearly doesn't occur. The mechanism of effects of inclination on local parameter distribution for bubbly flow is explained by analyzing the transverse force governing the bubble motion. (authors)

  7. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  8. On the influence of gravity on the static state of an inclined tensioned string

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horssen, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the static state of an inclined stretched string due to gravity is considered. The string is stretched between two fixed supports which are situated at two different levels. It is assumed that the tension in the string is suffiently large such that the sag of the string due to gravity

  9. Risk analysis and assessment of vertical and incline small winder systems and peripheral activities.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moss, PS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available access .......................................................48 3.6.3 "ramped" design of station access ..................................................................49 3.6.4 Handling of material cars... vertical plane using a rope and counterweight mechanism, to allow the passage of cars when required. It is extensively used to prevent the inadvertent entry of material cars from stations into incline shafts, and to derail a runaway car so preventing...

  10. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  11. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment in different dentoskeletal frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-le; Kau, Chung; Wang, Min

    2014-06-25

    The inclination of the occlusal plane (OP) is related to facial types and experiences physiological growth-related changes. The aims of this research were to determine if there were any differences in the inclination of OP in subjects with three types of skeletal malocclusion and to investigate the characteristics and differences of functional occlusal plane (FOP) compared to bisected occlusal plane (BOP). A sample of 90 Caucasians patients was skeletal-classified into three (n = 30), and pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were digitized. Six linear and 8 angular cephalometric measurements were selected. The changes of OP inclination within each group and the differences among the three groups pre- and post-treatment were compared with paired t test and ANOVA test, respectively. The comparison and correlation between BOP and FOP were analyzed with paired t test and coefficient of correlation, respectively. The BOP angle increased in all of the three groups but only had statistically significant differences in skeletal class II patients in a mean of 1.51° (p stability (p > 0.05) in all three groups. The inclination of FOP was closely related to that of BOP (p stability in orthodontically treated patients with all three skeletal patterns.

  12. Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling-Koning, D.B.; Todreas, N.E.

    1983-09-01

    Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, and bubble distributions were measured in square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase incline flow a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. A two-region liquid velocity model is developed to explain the experimentally observed phenomena. Fundamental data for bubbles rising in rod arrays were also taken

  13. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...

  14. The effect of beam inclination on the performance of a passive vibration isolator using buckled beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H; Waters, T; Saotome, N; Nagamine, T; Sato, Y

    2016-01-01

    Passive vibration isolators are desired to have both high static stiffness to support large static load and low local stiffness to reduce the displacement transmissibility at frequencies greater than resonance. Utilization of a vertical buckled beam as a spring component is one way to realize such a stiffness characteristic since it exhibits a smaller ratio of local stiffness to static stiffness than that of a linear spring. This paper investigates the behaviour of a vibration isolator using inclined beams as well as vertical ones and examines the effect of beam inclination for the purpose of improving the isolation performance. The experimental system investigated has an isolated mass which is supported by a combination of two types of beams: buckled beams and constraining beams. The buckled beams can be inclined from the vertical by attachment devices, and the constraining beams are employed to prevent off-axis motion of the isolated mass. The results demonstrate that the inclination of the buckled beams reduces the resonance frequency and improves the displacement transmissibility at frequencies greater than resonance. (paper)

  15. Coordination patterns of shoulder muscles during level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles change with level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair kinetics and electromyography (EMG) activity of seven muscles were recorded with surface electrodes for 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer and wooden ramp (4 degree slope). Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. The kinetics variables and the onset, cessation, and duration of EMG activity from seven muscles were compared with paired t-tests for two sessions. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. Push forces on the push rim and the percentage of push phase in the cycle increased significantly during incline propulsion. Propulsion condition and posture affected muscle coordination patterns. During incline propulsion, there was more intense and longer EMG activity of push muscles in the push phase and less EMG activity of the recovery muscles, which corresponded with the increased kinetic data total force output and longer push phase in the incline condition. This work establishes a framework for developing a performance feedback system for wheelchair users to better coordinate their muscle patterning activity.

  16. Investigation on novel raceway pond with inclined paddle wheels through simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxue; Huang, Jianke; Meng, Chen; Zhu, Fachao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    The open raceway ponds are nowadays the most used large-scale reactors for microalgae culture. To avoid the stacking of microalgae, the paddle wheels are the most widely used to circulate and mix the culture medium. In this paper, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of open raceway ponds with different types of paddle wheels (the traditional paddle wheels and the novel paddle wheels with specially inclined angle of the blades). The particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to validate the reliability of the CFD model. The CFD simulation results showed that the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades had the best mixing efficiency under the same power consumption. Lastly, the results of microalgae culture experiments showed that the growth rates of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades were higher than those in the traditional reactor. The results of the culture experiments and CFD simulations were identical with each other. Therefore, a novel paddle wheel with 15° inclined angle of the blades was obtained for better microalgae cultivation.

  17. Possible Periodic Orbit Control Maneuvers for an eLISA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Welter, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible application of periodic orbit control maneuvers for so-called evolved-LISA (eLISA) missions, i.e., missions for which the constellation arm lengths and mean distance from the Earth are substantially reduced. We find that for missions with arm lengths of 106 km and Earth-trailing distance ranging from approx. 12deg to 20deg over the science lifetime, the occasional use of the spacecraft micro-Newton thrusters for constellation configuration maintenance should be able to essentially eliminate constellation distortion caused by Earth-induced tidal forces at a cost to science time of only a few percent. With interior angle variation kept to approx. +/-0:1deg, the required changes in the angles between the laser beam pointing directions for the two arms from any spacecraft could be kept quite small. This would considerably simplify the apparatus necessary for changing the transmitted beam directions.

  18. Cassini UVIS Observations of Saturn during the Grand Finale Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, W. R.; Esposito, L. W.; West, R. A.; Jouchoux, A.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D. C.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Gustin, J.; Lamy, L.; Badman, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016 and 2017, the Cassini Saturn orbiter executed a final series of high inclination, low-periapsis orbits ideal for studies of Saturn's polar regions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) obtained an extensive set of auroral images, some at the highest spatial resolution obtained during Cassini's long orbital mission (2004-2017). In some cases, two or three spacecraft slews at right angles to the long slit of the spectrograph were required to cover the entire auroral region to form auroral images. We will present selected images from this set showing narrow arcs of emission, more diffuse auroral emissions, multiple auroral arcs in a single image, discrete spots of emission, small scale vortices, large-scale spiral forms, and parallel linear features that appear to cross in places like twisted wires. Some shorter features are transverse to the main auroral arcs, like barbs on a wire. UVIS observations were in some cases simultaneous with auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) that will also be presented. UVIS polar images also contain spectral information suitable for studies of the auroral electron energy distribution. The long wavelength part of the UVIS polar images contains a signal from reflected sunlight containing absorption signatures of acetylene and other Saturn hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon spatial distribution will also be examined.

  19. Post-deposition thermal annealing studies of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon deposited at 40 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronsveld, P.C.P.; Wagt, H.J. van der; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Beyer, W.

    2007-01-01

    Post-deposition thermal annealing studies, including gas effusion measurements, measurements of infrared absorption versus annealing state, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are used for structural characterization of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films, prepared by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) at low substrate temperature (T S ). Such films are of interest for application in thin semiconductor devices deposited on cheap plastics. For T S ∼ 40 deg. C, H-evolution shows rather complicated spectra for (near-) microcrystalline material, with hydrogen effusion maxima seen at ∼ 200-250 deg. C, 380 deg. C and ∼ 450-500 deg. C, while for the amorphous material typical spectra for good-quality dense material are found. Effusion experiments of implanted He demonstrate for the microcrystalline material the presence of a rather open (void-rich) structure. A similar tendency can be concluded from Ne effusion experiments. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of stepwise annealed samples show Si-H bond rupture already at annealing temperatures of 150 deg. C. Combined AFM/X-TEM studies reveal a columnar microstructure for all of these (near-) microcrystalline materials, of which the open structure is the most probable explanation of the shift of the H-effusion maximum in (near-) microcrystalline material to lower temperature

  20. Quantitative cine-left ventriculography - Superiority of 45 .deg. RAO view to straight AB view -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The volumetry by cineangiocardiography is known to have the most diagnostic and prognostic value in the evaluation of various valvular heart diseases and ischemic heart diseases. Although many authors favor the area-length method for the volumetry of left ventricle, 45 .deg. RAO projection seems to be more simple, inexpensive and accurate technique, considering the positional relationship of cardiac valves and obliquity of the long axis of left ventricle within the chest cage. Authors present the anatomical, geometrical and radiological basis for the superiority of 45 .deg. RAO protection by analyzing 20 normal heart specimen and 115 cineangiocardiograms of valvular heart diseases, and the results as follows: 1. Blood flow and motility of the mitral and aortic valves can be more clearly demonstrated by 45 .deg. RAO projection than by AP view. 2. The long diameter of left ventricular silhouette made 45 .deg. RAO projection reflects 90% or more of real diameter. 3. In RAO 45 .deg. position, patient's left nipple is optimal and convenient level for the ruler offering accurate magnification coefficient of left ventricle. 4. Ejection fraction after the extrasystole is exaggerated regardless of the left ventricular function, so it is desirable to exclude the 2 or 3 beats after extrasystole

  1. DEG/ENaC ion channels involved in sensory transduction are modulated by cold temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askwith, Candice C.; Benson, Christopher J.; Welsh, Michael J.; Snyder, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Several DEG/ENaC cation channel subunits are expressed in the tongue and in cutaneous sensory neurons, where they are postulated to function as receptors for salt and sour taste and for touch. Because these tissues are exposed to large temperature variations, we examined how temperature affects DEG/ENaC channel function. We found that cold temperature markedly increased the constitutively active Na+ currents generated by epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 25°C. Cold temperature did not induce current from other DEG/ENaC family members (BNC1, ASIC, and DRASIC). However, when these channels were activated by acid, cold temperature potentiated the currents by slowing the rate of desensitization. Potentiation was abolished by a “Deg” mutation that alters channel gating. Temperature changes in the physiologic range had prominent effects on current in cells heterologously expressing acid-gated DEG/ENaC channels, as well as in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. The finding that cold temperature modulates DEG/ENaC channel function may provide a molecular explanation for the widely recognized ability of temperature to modify taste sensation and mechanosensation. PMID:11353858

  2. Cold resistance and metabolic activity of lichens below 0 degC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, L.; Schroeter, B.; Scheidegger, C.; Sommerkorn, M.; Hestmark, G.

    Laboratory measurements show that lichens are extremely tolerant of freezing stress and of low-temperature exposure. Metabolic activity recovered quickly after severe and extended cold treatment. Experimental results demonstrate also that CO_2 exchange is already active at around -20 degC. The psychrophilic character of polar lichen species is demonstrated by optimum temperatures for net photosynthesis between 0 and 15 degC. In situ measurements show that lichens begin photosynthesizing below 0 degC if the dry thalli receive fresh snow. The lowest temperature measured in active lichens was -17 degC at a continental Antarctic site. The fine structure and the hydration state of photobiont and mycobiont cells were studied by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) of frozen hydrated specimens. Water potentials of the frozen system are in the range of or even higher than those allowing dry lichens to start photosynthesis by water vapor uptake at +10 degC. The great success of lichens in polar and high alpine regions gives evidence of their physiological adaptation to low temperatures. In general lichens are able to persist through glacial periods, but extended snow cover and glaciation are limiting factors.

  3. Field-induced strain memory with non-180 .deg. domain-reorientation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Yoichi; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Using non-180 .deg. domain-reorientation control, we propose the strain memory effect in ferroelectric ceramics. Electric fields with asymmetric amplitudes were applied to soft-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, and the strain hysteresis and the polarization loop were measured. The butterfly curve became asymmetric under an electric field with a particular asymmetric amplitude. The asymmetric butterfly curve had two stable strain states at zero electric field. Thus, the strain memory effect was realized as the difference between the two stable strain states. An XRD analysis was carried out to verify the contribution of the non-180 .deg. domain reorientation to the strain memory effect. The non-180 .deg. domain reorientation was determined as the intensity ratio of the (002) to the (200) peak. The strain memory determined from macroscopic strain measurements had a linear relationship to the non-180 .deg. domain volume fraction. This result indicated the origin of the strain memory to be the non-180 .deg. domain reorientation.

  4. Measurement of Doppler effect up to 2000degC at FCA. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Okajima, Shigeaki; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Satoh, Kunio; Hishida, Makoto; Hayano, Mutsuhiko; Kudogh, Fumio; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-03-01

    A new experimental device for the measurement of 238 U Doppler effect up to 2000degC was developed for the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute with the intention to improve the Doppler effect analysis at high temperature in fast reactors. The measurement method consists of two different techniques; one is the reactivity worth measurement with using a small sample heated up to 1500degC, the other is the reaction rate measurement with using a foil heated up to 2000degC. In the present work, the development and measurement for the former technique is described. The technique itself had been used in critical assemblies around the world, including FCA, for the measurement up to 800degC. The present new device was developed by improving the old device throughouly to extend the sample temperature up to 1500degC which is hot enough for us to evaluate the Doppler effect in the MOX-fuel fast reactor. (author)

  5. Phosphorylated DegU Manipulates Cell Fate Differentiation in the Bacillus subtilis Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Victoria L.; Porter, Michael; Hobley, Laura; Kiley, Taryn B.; Swedlow, Jason R.; Davidson, Fordyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Cell differentiation is ubiquitous and facilitates division of labor and development. Bacteria are capable of multicellular behaviors that benefit the bacterial community as a whole. A striking example of bacterial differentiation occurs throughout the formation of a biofilm. During Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation, a subpopulation of cells differentiates into a specialized population that synthesizes the exopolysaccharide and the TasA amyloid components of the extracellular matrix. The differentiation process is indirectly controlled by the transcription factor Spo0A that facilitates transcription of the eps and tapA (tasA) operons. DegU is a transcription factor involved in regulating biofilm formation. Here, using a combination of genetics and live single-cell cytological techniques, we define the mechanism of biofilm inhibition at high levels of phosphorylated DegU (DegU∼P) by showing that transcription from the eps and tapA promoter regions is inhibited. Data demonstrating that this is not a direct regulatory event are presented. We demonstrate that DegU∼P controls the frequency with which cells activate transcription from the operons needed for matrix biosynthesis in favor of an off state. Subsequent experimental analysis led us to conclude that DegU∼P functions to increase the level of Spo0A∼P, driving cell fate differentiation toward the terminal developmental process of sporulation. PMID:24123822

  6. Control of growth mode in SrTiO3 homoepitaxy under 500 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanrong; Li Jinlong; Zhang Ying; Wei Xianhua; Deng Xinwu; Liu Xingzhao

    2004-01-01

    Homoepitaxial SrTiO 3 thin films were grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The growth mode was determined by in-situ reflective high energy electron diffraction, and the surface of the films was studied by ex-situ atomic force microscopy. At the deposition rate of 0.16A ring /sec and the laser energy density of 6J/cm 2 , layer-by-layer growth was observed above 460 deg. C substrate temperature, while the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, that is layer-by-layer growth plus island growth mode, prevailed between 460 deg. C and 410 deg. C. On further decreasing the substrate temperature, the island growth was determined under 410 deg. C. With the optimization of deposition process in terms of laser energy density and deposition rate, the lowest crystallization temperatures of SrTiO 3 films grown in layer-by-layer growth mode were obtained as low as 280 deg. C. The effects of laser energy density on growth temperature were studied

  7. Measuring the Innermost Stable Circular Orbits of Supermassive Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartas, G.; Zalesky, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Krawczynski, H. [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, CB 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dai, X. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Morgan, C. W.; Mosquera, A., E-mail: chartasg@cofc.edu [Physics Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21403 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We present a promising new technique, the g -distribution method, for measuring the inclination angle ( i ), the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and the spin of a supermassive black hole. The g -distribution method uses measurements of the energy shifts in the relativistic iron line emitted by the accretion disk of a supermassive black hole due to microlensing by stars in a foreground galaxy relative to the g -distribution shifts predicted from microlensing caustic calculations. We apply the method to the gravitationally lensed quasars RX J1131–1231 ( z {sub s} = 0.658, z {sub l} = 0.295), QJ 0158–4325 ( z {sub s} = 1.294, z {sub l} = 0.317), and SDSS 1004+4112 ( z {sub s} = 1.734, z {sub l} = 0.68). For RX J1131−1231, our initial results indicate that r {sub ISCO} ≲ 8.5 gravitational radii ( r {sub g}) and i ≳ 55° (99% confidence level). We detect two shifted Fe lines in several observations, as predicted in our numerical simulations of caustic crossings. The current Δ E distribution of RX J1131–1231 is sparsely sampled, but further X-ray monitoring of RX J1131–1231 and other lensed quasars will provide improved constraints on the inclination angles, ISCO radii, and spins of the black holes of distant quasars.

  8. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majeed Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.

  9. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The angle of inclination of the native ACL in the coronal and sagittal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jonathan C; Yonke, Bret; Tompkins, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the angle of inclination of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in both the sagittal and coronal planes and to evaluate these findings based on sex, height, BMI, and skeletal maturity. Inclusion criteria for the study included patients undergoing routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at a single outpatient orthopedic center who had an intact ACL on MRI. Measurements of the angle of inclination were made on MRIs in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Patients were compared based on sex, height, BMI, and skeletal maturity. One-hundred and eighty-eight patients were included (36 skeletally immature/152 skeletally mature; 98 male/90 female). The overall angle of inclination was 74.3° ± 4.8° in the coronal plane and 46.9° ± 4.9° in the sagittal plane. Skeletally immature patients (coronal: 71.8° ± 6.1°; sagittal: 44.7° ± 5.5°) were significantly different in both coronal and sagittal planes (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively) from skeletally mature patients (coronal: 75.3° ± 4.7°; sagittal: 47.4° ± 4.7°). There were no differences based on sex, height, or BMI. There are differences between the angle of inclination findings in this study and other studies, which could be due to MRI and measurement techniques. Clinically, skeletal maturity may be important to account for when using the ACL angle of inclination to evaluate anatomic ACL reconstruction. Prognostic retrospective study, Level of evidence III.

  11. Effective stability around the Cassini state in the spin-orbit problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansottera, Marco; Lhotka, Christoph; Lemaître, Anne

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the long-time stability in the neighborhood of the Cassini state in the conservative spin-orbit problem. Starting with an expansion of the Hamiltonian in the canonical Andoyer-Delaunay variables, we construct a high-order Birkhoff normal form and give an estimate of the effective stability time in the Nekhoroshev sense. By extensively using algebraic manipulations on a computer, we explicitly apply our method to the rotation of Titan. We obtain physical bounds of Titan's latitudinal and longitudinal librations, finding a stability time greatly exceeding the estimated age of the Universe. In addition, we study the dependence of the effective stability time on three relevant physical parameters: the orbital inclination, , the mean precession of the ascending node of Titan orbit, , and the polar moment of inertia,.

  12. Finding the Acceleration and Speed of a Light-Emitting Object on an Inclined Plane with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone's light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using…

  13. Experimental formation of cronstedtite from Cox argillite-iron interaction at decreasing temperature in the 90 deg. C-40 deg. C range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Mosser-Ruck, Regine; Rozsypal, Christophe; Truche, Laurent; Randi, Aurelien; Bartier, Daniele; Cathelineau, Michel; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Mouton, Ludovic; Michau, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Cronstedtite crystals experimentally formed during a cooling experiment (90 deg.C-40 deg. C) simulating the time-temperature evolution of the iron-clay system around the steel overpacks in nuclear waste disposal, were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM study. Cronstedtite is a T-O phyllosilicate with general formula (Fe 2+ 3-x Fe 3+ x )(Si 2-x Fe 3+ x )O 5 (OH) 4 , with 0 2 ), Callovo-Oxfordian argillite (COx) of the Paris Basin (with a solution/COx mass ratio of 10) and metal iron (powder and plates, with an iron powder/COx mass ratio of 0.5). This system was put in Teflon-line autoclaves heated at (90±2) deg. C for 6 months; then the temperature was decreased every month by step of 10 deg. C until 40 deg. C. The XRD results on run products clearly show that the T-O phyllosilicates crystallize and replace the predominant clay in the starting argillite, e.g. illite-smectite mixed-layer clays when the experimental temperature decreases. The reflections at 7.1 Angstrom, 4.76 Angstrom, 3.55 Angstrom and 2.73 Angstrom indicate that the T-O phyllosilicate formed is cronstedtite, but this technique is not efficient to determine its polytype. The SEM analyses confirm the presence of cronstedtite and show the morphological evolution of crystals with the temperature. At 90 deg. C three morphologies are recognized: trigonal pyramids and cones with hexagonal or rounded cross-section (Fig. 1), these crystals coexist with hairy berthierine-like minerals, as described by [10] and [12] The three cronstedtite shapes are observed until 70 deg. C and at lower temperatures the pyramidal morphology is dominant. From the energy dispersive X-ray analyses, structural formula of cronstedtite were calculated. The Fe II / Fe III ratio was adjusted to fix the octahedron to 3 in the calculation of the structural formula. Slight differences in the chemical compositions of cronstedtites are noticed: the pyramidal crystals have more Fe 2+ in the

  14. CryoSat/SIRAL Cal1 Calibration Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2017-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for SAR processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution that is significantly improved with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed. In fact, not only corrections for transfer function, gain and instrument path delay have to be computed (as in previous altimeters), but also corrections for phase (SAR/SARIn) and phase difference between the two receiving chains (SARIN only). Recalling that the CryoSat's orbit has a high inclination of 92° and it is non-sun-synchronous, the temperature of the SIRAL changes continuously along the orbit with a period of about 480 days and it is also function of the ascending/descending passes. By analysis of the CAL1 calibration corrections, it has been verified that the internal path delay and the instrument gain variation measured on the SIRAL are affected by the thermal status of the instrument and as a consequence they are expected to vary along the orbit. In order to gain knowledge on the calibration corrections (i.e. the instrument behavior) as function of latitude and temperature, it has been planned to command a few number of orbits where only CAL1 calibration acquisitions are continuously performed. The analysis of the CAL1 calibration corrections produced along the Calibration orbits can be also useful to verify whether the current calibration plan is able to provide sufficiently accurate corrections for the instrument acquisitions at any latitude. In 2016, the CryoSat/SIRAL Cal1 Calibration Orbits have been commanded two times, a first time the 20th of July 2016 and a second time the 24th of November 2016, and they

  15. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  16. Study of elementary mechanisms of creep in uranium as a function of temperature (150 deg. to 760 deg. C) by activation energy measurements; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de deformation par fluage de l'uranium en fonction de la temperature (de 150 deg. a 760 deg. C) par la mesure des energies d'activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Creep tests were carried out on single crystals and polycrystalline specimens of uranium in both the {alpha} and {beta} phases over the temperature range 150 - 760 deg. C. The determination of the activation energy for creep and the study of its variation with temperature made it possible to distinguish various temperature ranges in which one or more elementary mechanisms govern deformation. Micrographic observations after creep and the study of the variation of creep-rate with load support the conclusions. The creep behavior of single crystals is identical with that of polycrystalline material below 325 deg. C. From 325 deg. C to one upper limiting temperature whose value depends on the purity and previous history of the metal, the creep deformation of uranium is controlled by cross-slip. From this limiting temperature up to 520 deg. C, the creep of uranium involves two independent mechanisms operating simultaneously, the movement of screw dislocation by cross-slip and the climbing of edge dislocations out of their slip plane. Between 520 deg. C and the {alpha} - {beta} transformation temperature creep in polycrystals is governed by the climb of edge dislocations out of their slip planes, by a pile up mechanism in the case of primary creep and by dipole annihilation in the case of secondary creep. In single crystals creep is dependent on the climb of edge dislocations into pre-existent sub-boundaries and their subsequent rearrangement within these boundaries. In the {beta} phase the creep of polycrystals is governed by the diffusional climb of edge dislocations. Between 450 and 630 deg. C small alloy additions of molybdenum modify the creep characteristics of uranium although the deformation mechanisms involved are analogous to those in the pure metal. (author) [French] Des essais de fluage a diverses temperatures comprises entre 150 et 760 deg. C ont ete effectues sur des polycristaux et des monocristaux d'uranium, en phase {alpha} et en phase {beta}. La

  17. Giovanni Degli Alessandri: i primi anni del direttorato agli Uffizi fra nuovi e vecchi ruoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pasquinelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La figura di Giovanni Degli Alessandri (1765-1830, presidente dell’Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze e direttore degli Uffizi tra gli anni napoleonici e la Restaurazione di Ferdinando III d’Asburgo-Lorena, è quella di un personaggio chiave nella politica artistica fiorentina, e toscana più in generale. Nel saggio si esaminano i primi anni del suo direttorato alla Galleria, i rapporti con Antonio Canova, il suo ruolo all’interno dell’entourage di Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte, oltre a considerare alcuni spunti legati al rinnovamento degli Uffizi, nonché la delicata vicenda del passaggio in città di Dominique-Vivant Denon, direttore del Louvre. L’obbiettivo è quello di introdurre elementi di approfondimento relativamente a una figura molto nota ma poco studiata.

  18. Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Kim, H.J.; Hul'ko, O.; Xie, Y.H.; Sahni, S.; Bandaru, P.; Yablonovitch, E.

    2004-01-01

    Ge thin films are grown on Si(001) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy at 370 deg. C. The low-temperature epitaxial growth is compatible with the back-end thermal budget of current generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which is restricted to less than 450 deg. C. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows that single-crystal Ge thin films with smooth surfaces could be achieved below 450 deg. C. Double-axis x-ray θ/2θ scans also show that the epitaxial Ge films are almost fully strain-relaxed. As expected, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows a network of dislocations at the interface. Hydrogen and oxide desorption techniques are proved to be necessary for improving the quality of the Ge films, which is reflected in improved minority carrier diffusion lengths and exceptionally low leakage currents

  19. Effect of temperatures up to 130 deg C on the responses of TLD 700

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J A; Binns, P J [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-01-01

    The need to measure doses at temperatures up to 130 deg C led to an investigation into the effect of exposure and storage at these temperatures on the response of TLD 700 before and after UV phototransfer. As a preliminary, the delays required during the UV re-estimation process were optimised. The effects of storage and exposure were compared. This was followed by a detailed examination of the effects of storage at temperatures up to 130 deg C. Glow curves were analysed to investigate the rates of growth and decay of the different peaks. The findings for peaks 6 and 7 are compatible with previously reported effects at lower temperatures on peaks 3, 4 and 5. Storage at temperatures of 130 deg C or below for periods up to 28 days does not affect the UV photo-transfer response.

  20. Phase relationship in AL-Cu-Sc alloys at 450-500 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharakterova, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Al-Cu-Sc alloys containing up to 40% Cu and up to 6% Sc at 450 deg C and 500 deg C are studied using light microscopy, X-ray-spectral microanalysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, measurement of microhardness and electric resistance. It is determined, that in equilibrium with aluminium solid solution under the given temperature ther are Al 3 Sc, CuAl 2 phases of the respective binary systems and W (ScCu 6.6-4 Al 5.4-8 ) ternary phase. Isothermal cross sections of Al-Cu-Sc system at 450 and 500 deg C are plotted. Microhardness of equilibrium phases is measured. Combined solubility of copper and scandium in aluminium is determined

  1. Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, P.I.; Andreev, V.K.; Slotvinskij-Sidak, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

  2. A numerical study on buoyancy-driven flow in an inclined square enclosure heated and cooled on adjacent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, O.; Uenal, A.; Ayhan, T.

    1999-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven flows in enclosures play a vital role in many engineering applications such as double glazing, ventilation of rooms, nuclear reactor insulation, solar energy collection, cooling of electronic components, and crystal growth in liquids. Here, numerical study on buoyancy-driven laminar flow in an inclined square enclosure heated from one side and cooled from the adjacent side is conducted using finite difference methods. The effect of inclination angle on fluid flow and heat transfer is investigated by varying the angle of inclination between 0 degree and 360degree, and the results are presented in the form of streamlines and isotherms for different inclination angles and Rayleigh numbers. On the basis of the numerical data, the authors determine the critical values of the inclination angle at which the rate of the transfer within the enclosure is either maximum or minimum

  3. Impacts of Earth rotation parameters on GNSS ultra-rapid orbit prediction: Derivation and real-time correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxin; Hu, Chao; Xu, Tianhe; Chang, Guobin; Hernández Moraleda, Alberto

    2017-12-01

    % (error related to ERP) when a highly accurate observed orbit is used with the correction method. For iGMAS-predicted orbits, the accuracy improvement ranges from 8.5% for the inclined BeiDou orbits to 17.99% for the GPS orbits. This demonstrates that the correction method proposed by this study can optimize the ultra-rapid orbit prediction.

  4. Reclutamento e formazione dei poliziotti: il caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dieu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Partendo dal caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese, questo articolo illustra il modo in cui il reclutamento e la formazione possono contribuire, informalmente, alla ripartizione del potere nelle organizzazioni di polizia. Tramite la diversità delle vie di reclutamento si costituisce, di fatto, un vero e proprio sistema di "caste", con una stratificazione degli ufficiali in tre livelli gerarchici, che produce, al di là dei principi meritocratici, delle ineguaglianze manifeste nella ripartizione del potere nell'organizzazione della gendarmeria.

  5. Degradation of PsbO by the Deg Protease HhoA Is Thioredoxin Dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Irma N.; Lam, Xuan Tam; Miranda, Helder; Kieselbach, Thomas; Funk, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The widely distributed members of the Deg/HtrA protease family play an important role in the proteolysis of misfolded and damaged proteins. Here we show that the Deg protease rHhoA is able to degrade PsbO, the extrinsic protein of the Photosystem II (PSII) oxygen-evolving complex in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and in spinach. PsbO is known to be stable in its oxidized form, but after reduction by thioredoxin it became a substrate for recombinant HhoA (rHhoA). rHhoA cleaved reduced eukaryotic (...

  6. Temperature dependence of the surface energy of mercury from 0 to 250 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Halas, S

    2002-01-01

    The surface energy (SE) for mercury was calculated on the basis of the free electron model in which the electron density parameter, r sub s , for bulk electrons was calculated from the density of mercury while the electron density parameter for surface electrons, r sub s sub s , was assumed to be higher by a factor that is linearly dependent on temperature. Ideal agreement of calculated SE values with experimental data was attained for the temperatures 0-250 deg. C assuming that r sub s sub s = r sub s x 1.0021 sup T sup / sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 deg. C. (letter to the editor)

  7. Precipitation regions on the Earth of high energy electrons, injected by a point source moving along a circular Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.; Klyushnikov, G. N.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper we continue the study of precipitation regions of high-energy charged particles, carried out by the authors since 2002. In contrast to previous papers, where a stationary source of electrons was considered, it is assumed that the source moves along a low circular near-earth orbit with a constant velocity. The orbit position is set by the inclination angle of the orbital plane to the equatorial plane and the longitude of the ascending node. The total number of injected electrons is determined by the source strength and the number of complete revolutions that the source makes along the circumference. Construction of precipitation regions is produced using the computational algorithm based on solving of the system of ordinary differential equations. The features of the precipitation regions structure for the dipole approximation of the geomagnetic field and the symmetrical arrangement of the orbit relative to the equator are noted. The dependencies of the precipitation regions on different orbital parametres such as the incline angle, the ascending node position and kinetic energy of injected particles have been considered.

  8. Basic Boiling Experiments with An Inclined Narrow Gap Associated With In-Vessel Retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazu, Kuninobu; Watanabe, Fukashi; Iwaki, Chikako; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto; Hamazaki, Ryoichi; SATO, Ken-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In the case of a severe accident with relocation of the molten corium into the lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel (RPV), the successful in-vessel corium retention (IVR) can prevent the progress to ex-vessel events with uncertainties and avoid the containment failure. One of the key phenomena governing the possibility of IVR would be the gap formation and cooling between a corium crust and the RPV wall, and for the achievement of IVR, it would be necessary to supply cooling water to RPV as early as possible. The BWR features relative to IVR behavior are a deep and massive water pool in the lower plenum, and many of control rod drive guide tubes (CRDGT) installed in the lower head of RPV, in which water is injected continuously except in the case of station blackout scenario. The present paper describes the basic boiling experiment conducted in order to investigate the boiling characteristics in an inclined narrow gap simulating a part of the lower head curvature. The boiling experiments were composed of visualization tests and heat transfer tests. In the visualization tests, two types of inclined gap were constructed using the parallel plate and the V-shaped parallel plate with heating from the top plate, and the boiling flow pattern was observed with various gap width and heat flux. These observation results showed that water was easily supplied from the gap bottom of parallel plate even in a very narrow gap with smaller width than 1 mm, and water could flow continuously in the narrow gap by the geometric and thermal imbalance from the experiment results using the V-shaped parallel plate. In the heat transfer tests, the critical heat flux (CHF) data in an inclined narrow channel formed by the parallel plates were measured in terms of the parameters of gap width, heated length and inclined angle of a channel, and the effect of inclination was incorporated into the existing CHF correlation for a narrow gap. The CHF correlation modified for an inclined narrow gap

  9. Measurement of the buccolingual inclination of teeth: manual technique vs 3-dimensional software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahtab; Abdi, Amir Hossein; Farzan, Arash; Mokhtarpour, Faraneh; Baghban, AliReza Akbarzadeh

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to measure the inclination of teeth on dental casts by a manual technique with the tooth inclination protractor (TIP; MBI, Newport, United Kingdom) and a newly designed 3-dimensional (3D) software program. The correlation of the 2 techniques was evaluated, and the reliability of each technique was assessed separately. This study was conducted on 36 dental casts of normal, well-aligned Class I occlusions; we assessed 432 teeth. All casts had a normal Class I occlusion. After determining the facial axis of the clinical crown and the facial axis points on the dental casts, we measured the inclinations of the incisors and posterior teeth up to the first molars in each dental arch relative to Andrews' occlusal plane and the posterior occlusal plane using the TIP. Moreover, the casts were scanned by a structured-light 3D scanner. The inclination of teeth relative to the occlusal plane was determined using the new software. To assess the reliability, measurements of all teeth from 15 casts were repeated twice by the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Dahlberg's formula were used for calculation of correlation and reliability. Overall, the 2 techniques were not significantly different in the measurements of the inclinations of the teeth in both jaws. The ranges of Dahlberg's formula were 3.1° to 5.8° for the maxilla and 3.3° to 5.9° for the mandible. The overall correlation of the 2 techniques according to the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. For calculation of reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the TIP and the 3D method were 0.73 and 0.82, respectively. The TIP and the 3D software showed a high correlation for measurement of the inclinations of maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the occlusal plane. Also, the reproducibility of the measurements in each method was high. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of DegQVh, a serine protease and a protective immunogen from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Sun, Kun; Cheng, Shuang; Sun, Li

    2008-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is an important marine pathogen that can infect a number of aquaculture species. V. harveyi degQ (degQ(Vh)), the gene encoding a DegQ homologue, was cloned from T4, a pathogenic V. harveyi strain isolated from diseased fish. DegQ(Vh) was closely related to the HtrA family members identified in other Vibrio species and could complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli strain defective in degP. Expression of degQ(Vh) in T4 was modulated by temperature, possibly through the sigma(E)-like factor. Enzymatic analyses demonstrated that the recombinant DegQ(Vh) protein expressed in and purified from E. coli was an active serine protease whose activity required the integrity of the catalytic site and the PDZ domains. The optimal temperature and pH of the recombinant DegQ(Vh) protein were 50 degrees C and pH 8.0. A vaccination study indicated that the purified recombinant DegQ(Vh) was a protective immunogen that could confer protection upon fish against infection by V. harveyi. In order to improve the efficiency of DegQ(Vh) as a vaccine, a genetic construct in the form of the plasmid pAQ1 was built, in which the DNA encoding the processed DegQ(Vh) protein was fused with the DNA encoding the secretion region of AgaV, an extracellular beta-agarase. The E. coli strain harboring pAQ1 could express and secrete the chimeric DegQ(Vh) protein into the culture supernatant. Vaccination of fish with viable E. coli expressing chimeric degQ(Vh) significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the survival of fish against V. harveyi challenge, which was possibly due to the relatively prolonged exposure of the immune system to the recombinant antigen produced constitutively, albeit at a gradually decreasing level, by the carrier strain.

  11. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    The previous activities in the field of On Orbit Servicing studied in the 1990's included in partic-ular the capability of vehicles in GEO to capture and support satellites (mainly communication satellites) to enable repair and continuation of operations, and finally the controlled transfer the target into a permanent graveyard orbit. The specific capture tools for these applications were mostly based on robotic systems to capture and fix the target under specific dynamic constraints (e.g. slowly tumbling target) without damage, and to allow the stabilization, re-orientation and potential repair of the target and subsequent release or transport to the final disposal orbit. Due to the drastically increasing number of debris particularly in the Low Earth Orbits (SSO) the active debris removal is now necessary to counteract to the predicted debris production cascade (Kessler Syndrome), which means the pollution of the total sphere in low earth orbit and not only the SSO area. In most of the debris congresses it was recommended to start removal with the still integrated systems as soon as possible. In the case of large debris objects, the soft capture system can be replaced by a simpler and robust system able to operate from a safe distance to the target and flexible enough to capture and hold different types of targets such as deactivated and/or defective satellites, upper stages and big fragments. These nominally non -cooperative targets might be partially destroyed by the capture process, but the production of additional debris shall be avoided. A major argument for the commercial applications is a multi-target mission potential, which is possible at GEO because the transfer propellant requirement to the disposal orbit and the return to the orbit of the next potential target is relative low (orbits with similar inclination and altitude). The proposed ROGER system is designed as a spacecraft with rendezvous capabilities including inspection in the vicinity of the

  12. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  13. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    angles. Targeted areas have been selected for spectral coverage into the ultraviolet with the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS). MESSENGER's Mercury Laser Altimeter is acquiring topographic profiles when the slant range to Mercury's surface is less than 1800 km, encompassing latitudes from 20 deg. S to the north pole. Topography over the remainder of the southern hemisphere will be derived from stereo imaging, radio occultations, and limb profiles. MESSENGER's radio science experiment is determining Mercury's gravity field from Doppler signals acquired during frequent downlinks. MESSENGER's Magnetometer is measuring the vector magnetic field both within Mercury's magnetosphere and in Mercury's solar wind environment at an instrument sampling rate of up to 20 samples/s. The UVVS is determining the three-dimensional, time-dependent distribution of Mercury's exospheric neutral and ionic species via their emission lines. During each spacecraft orbit, the Energetic Particle Spectrometer measures energetic electrons and ions, and the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer measures the energies and mass per charge of thermal plasma components, both within Mercury's magnetosphere and in Mercury's solar-wind environment. The primary mission observation sequence will continue for one Earth year, until March 2012. An extended mission, currently under discussion with NASA, would add a second year of orbital observations targeting a set of focused follow-on questions that build on observations to date and take advantage of the more active Sun expected during 2012-2013. MESSENGER's total primary mission cost, projected at $446 M in real-year dollars, is comparable to that of Mariner 10 after adjustment for inflation.

  14. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au{sup 198}) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  15. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi

    1999-01-01

    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au 198 ) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  16. Surface protection of a chromia forming alloy at 1300deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, R.C.; Bennett, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Under postulated abnormal (fault) reactor conditions, a rapid temperature transient could occur such that for a short time ( 2 /1-2% CO/300 vpm H 2 O/300 vpm CH 4 , at 1.300deg C has been studied. (orig./MM)

  17. Complete dipole response in 208Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Kalmykov, Y.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Bertulani, C. A.; Carter, J.; Fujita, H.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of electric and magnetic dipole modes in 208 Pb is investigated in a high-resolution measurement of the (p-vector,p-vector') reaction under 0 deg. First results on the E1 strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance are reported.

  18. A Byzantine chant collection from Sicily: a collaboration between Copenhagen and Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an account of the collaboration between a collector of the Byzantine chant tradition of Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo) in Sicily, namely fr. Bartolomeo Di Salvo, and the editorial board of the Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, i.e. an institution under the aegis...

  19. Gas sensing with AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Vitushinsky, R.; Crego-Calama, M.; Brongersma, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN shows great promise as a generic platform for (bio-)chemical sensing because of its robustness and intrinsic sensitivity to surface charge or dipoles. Here, we employ the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of AlGaN/GaN layers grown on Si substrates for the

  20. Comment on: "Current-voltage characteristics and zero-resistance state in 2DEG"

    OpenAIRE

    Cheremisin, M. V.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that N(S)-shape current-voltage characteristics proposed to explain zero-resistance state in Corbino(Hall bar) geometry 2DEG (cond-mat/0302063, cond-mat/0303530) cannot account essential features of radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations experiments.