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Sample records for deformation energy minima

  1. Tunneling from super- to normal-deformed minima in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    An excited minimum, or false vacuum, gives rise to a highly elongated superdeformed (SD) nucleus. A brief review of superdeformation is given, with emphasis on the tunneling from the false to the true vacuum, which occurs in the feeding and decay of SD bands. During the feeding process the tunneling is between hot states, while in the decay it is from a cold to a hot state. The γ spectra connecting SD and normal-deformed (ND) states provide information on several physics issues: the decay mechanism; the spin/parity quantum numbers, energies and microscopic structures of SD bands; the origin of identical SD bands; the quenching of pairing with excitation energy; and the chaoticity of excited ND states at 2.5-5 MeV. Other examples of tunneling in nuclei, which are briefly described, include the possible role of tunneling in ΔI = 4 bifurcation in SD bands, sub-barrier fusion and proton emitters

  2. Tunneling from super- to normal-deformed minima in nuclei.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoo, T. L.

    1998-01-08

    An excited minimum, or false vacuum, gives rise to a highly elongated superdeformed (SD) nucleus. A brief review of superdeformation is given, with emphasis on the tunneling from the false to the true vacuum, which occurs in the feeding and decay of SD bands. During the feeding process the tunneling is between hot states, while in the decay it is from a cold to a hot state. The {gamma} spectra connecting SD and normal-deformed (ND) states provide information on several physics issues: the decay mechanism; the spin/parity quantum numbers, energies and microscopic structures of SD bands; the origin of identical SD bands; the quenching of pairing with excitation energy; and the chaoticity of excited ND states at 2.5-5 MeV. Other examples of tunneling in nuclei, which are briefly described, include the possible role of tunneling in {Delta}I = 4 bifurcation in SD bands, sub-barrier fusion and proton emitters.

  3. Evaluation of Docking Target Functions by the Comprehensive Investigation of Protein-Ligand Energy Minima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oferkin, Igor V; Katkova, Ekaterina V; Sulimov, Alexey V; Kutov, Danil C; Sobolev, Sergey I; Voevodin, Vladimir V; Sulimov, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    The adequate choice of the docking target function impacts the accuracy of the ligand positioning as well as the accuracy of the protein-ligand binding energy calculation. To evaluate a docking target function we compared positions of its minima with the experimentally known pose of the ligand in the protein active site. We evaluated five docking target functions based on either the MMFF94 force field or the PM7 quantum-chemical method with or without implicit solvent models: PCM, COSMO, and SGB. Each function was tested on the same set of 16 protein-ligand complexes. For exhaustive low-energy minima search the novel MPI parallelized docking program FLM and large supercomputer resources were used. Protein-ligand binding energies calculated using low-energy minima were compared with experimental values. It was demonstrated that the docking target function on the base of the MMFF94 force field in vacuo can be used for discovery of native or near native ligand positions by finding the low-energy local minima spectrum of the target function. The importance of solute-solvent interaction for the correct ligand positioning is demonstrated. It is shown that docking accuracy can be improved by replacement of the MMFF94 force field by the new semiempirical quantum-chemical PM7 method.

  4. Evaluation of Docking Target Functions by the Comprehensive Investigation of Protein-Ligand Energy Minima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Oferkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequate choice of the docking target function impacts the accuracy of the ligand positioning as well as the accuracy of the protein-ligand binding energy calculation. To evaluate a docking target function we compared positions of its minima with the experimentally known pose of the ligand in the protein active site. We evaluated five docking target functions based on either the MMFF94 force field or the PM7 quantum-chemical method with or without implicit solvent models: PCM, COSMO, and SGB. Each function was tested on the same set of 16 protein-ligand complexes. For exhaustive low-energy minima search the novel MPI parallelized docking program FLM and large supercomputer resources were used. Protein-ligand binding energies calculated using low-energy minima were compared with experimental values. It was demonstrated that the docking target function on the base of the MMFF94 force field in vacuo can be used for discovery of native or near native ligand positions by finding the low-energy local minima spectrum of the target function. The importance of solute-solvent interaction for the correct ligand positioning is demonstrated. It is shown that docking accuracy can be improved by replacement of the MMFF94 force field by the new semiempirical quantum-chemical PM7 method.

  5. [Supercomputer investigation of the protein-ligand system low-energy minima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oferkin, I V; Sulimov, A V; Katkova, E V; Kutov, D K; Grigoriev, F V; Kondakova, O A; Sulimov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the protein-ligand binding energy calculations and ligand positioning is strongly influenced by the choice of the docking target function. This work demonstrates the evaluation of the five different target functions used in docking: functions based on MMFF94 force field and functions based on PM7 quantum-chemical method accounting or without accounting the implicit solvent model (PCM, COSMO or SGB). For these purposes the ligand positions corresponding to the minima of the target function and the experimentally known ligand positions in the protein active site (crystal ligand positions) were compared. Each function was examined on the same test-set of 16 protein-ligand complexes. The new parallelized docking program FLM based on Monte Carlo search algorithm was developed to perform the comprehensive low-energy minima search and to calculate the protein-ligand binding energy. This study demonstrates that the docking target function based on the MMFF94 force field can be used to detect the crystal or near crystal positions of the ligand by the finding the low-energy local minima spectrum of the target function. The importance of solvent accounting in the docking process for the accurate ligand positioning is also shown. The accuracy of the ligand positioning as well as the correlation between the calculated and experimentally determined protein-ligand binding energies are improved when the MMFF94 force field is substituted by the new PM7 method with implicit solvent accounting.

  6. Accelerated Enveloping Distribution Sampling: Enabling Sampling of Multiple End States while Preserving Local Energy Minima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perthold, Jan Walther; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2018-05-17

    Enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is an efficient approach to calculate multiple free-energy differences from a single molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. However, the construction of an appropriate reference-state Hamiltonian that samples all states efficiently is not straightforward. We propose a novel approach for the construction of the EDS reference-state Hamiltonian, related to a previously described procedure to smoothen energy landscapes. In contrast to previously suggested EDS approaches, our reference-state Hamiltonian preserves local energy minima of the combined end-states. Moreover, we propose an intuitive, robust and efficient parameter optimization scheme to tune EDS Hamiltonian parameters. We demonstrate the proposed method with established and novel test systems and conclude that our approach allows for the automated calculation of multiple free-energy differences from a single simulation. Accelerated EDS promises to be a robust and user-friendly method to compute free-energy differences based on solid statistical mechanics.

  7. Effects of diffuser airflow minima on occupant comfort, air mixing, and building energy use (RP-1515)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Hoyt, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    There is great energy-saving potential in reducing variable air volume box minimum airflow set-points to about 10% of maximum. Typical savings are on the order of 10%-30% of total HVAC energy, remarkable for an inexpensive controls set-point change that properly maintains outside air ventilation....

  8. The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen at the time of two successive solar minima

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyeva, M A; Tretyakova, S P; Zhuravlev, D A

    1999-01-01

    The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen have been determined from nuclear track detectors exposed aboard the Earth-orbiting satellites at altitudes ranging from approx 250-400 km in two consecutive solar minimum periods of 1986-1987 and 1994-1995 with opposite polarity of the solar magnetic field. A comparison of the spectra shows no contradiction to current drift models.

  9. Shell effects in the nuclear deformation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.K.

    1973-01-01

    A new approach to shell effects in the Strutinsky method for calculating nuclear deformation energy is evaluated and the suggestion of non-conservation of angular momentum in the same method is resolved. Shell effects on the deformation energy in rotational bands of deformed nuclei are discussed. (B.F.G.)

  10. Barriers in the energy of deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interaction energy between two nuclei considering to their deformations is studied. Coulomb and nuclear in-teraction energies, as well as the deformation energies of both nuclei, are taken into account at evaluation of the interaction energy. It is shown that the barrier related to the interaction energy of two nuclei depends on the de-formations and the height of the minimal barrier is evaluated. It is obtained that the heavier nucleus-nucleus sys-tems have large deformation values at the lowest barrier. The difference between the barrier between spherical nuclei and the lowest barrier between deformed nuclei increases with the mass and the charge of the interacting nuclei.

  11. Maxima and Minima: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher , Serge

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of various operators: minima, maxima, extended minima and maxima, dynamics.; The purpose of this document is just to provide additional information about the concepts of maxima and minima in MM. This paper must simply be considered as a clarification of these notions. The notion of dynamics is also addressed. Mamba implementations of the operators are also provided.

  12. Universal time-dependence of the mean-square displacement in extremely rugged energy landscapes with equal minima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Jacobsen, Jacob M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a calculation of the time dependence of the mean-square displacement for symmetric random energy barrier hopping models at low temperatures, where the frequency dependence of the normalized diffusion constant D-tilde becomes universal, i.e., independent of the energy barrier...... probability distribution [J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. B 49, 11 709 (1994)]. The universal time dependence of the mean-square displacement is calculated from the effective medium approximation (EMA) universality equation, D-tilde lnD-tilde=s-tilde, where s-tilde is the dimensionless imaginary frequency, as well...... as for the approximation to the EMA universality equation D-tilde~=s-tilde/ln(1+s-tilde). At long times the universal mean-square displacement is linear in time, corresponding to ordinary diffusion, whereas the mean-square displacement at short times t in dimensionless units varies as 2/ln(t-1)....

  13. Determination of shell energies. Nuclear deformations and fission barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Takahiro; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami.

    1996-01-01

    We have been studying a method of determining nuclear shell energies and incorporating them into a mass formula. The main feature of this method lies in estimating shell energies of deformed nuclei from spherical shell energies. We adopt three assumptions, from which the shell energy of a deformed nucleus is deduced to be a weighted sum of spherical shell energies of its neighboring nuclei. This shell energy should be called intrinsic shell energy since the average deformation energy also acts as an effective shell energy. The ground-state shell energy of a deformed nucleus and its equilibrium shape can be obtained by minimizing the sum of these two energies with respect to variation of deformation parameters. In addition, we investigate the existence of fission isomers for heavy nuclei with use of the obtained shell energies. (author)

  14. Lens design and local minima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1981-01-01

    The widespread belief that local minima exist in the least squares lens-design error function is not confirmed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) optimization program. LASL finds the optimum-mimimum region, which is characterized by small parameter gradients of similar size, small performance improvement per iteration, and many designs that give similar performance. Local minima and unique prescriptions have not been found in many-parameter problems. The reason for these absences is that image errors caused by a change in one parameter can be compensated by changes in the remaining parameters. False local minima have been found, and four cases are discussed

  15. Energy balance and deformation mechanisms of duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Gautam; Boyer, Steven E.

    A duplex consists of a series of imbricate faults that are asymptotic to a roof thrust and a floor thrust. Depending on the final orientations of the imbricate faults and the final position of the branch lines, a duplex may be hinterland-dipping, foreland-dipping, or an antiformal stack. The exact geometry depends on various factors such as the initial dimensions of the individual slices (horses), their lithology, the amount of displacement (normalized to size of horse) on each fault, and the mechanics of movement along each fault. The energy required in duplex formation can be determined by calculating the total work involved in emplacing each horse: this is given by where W t=W p+W b+W g+W iWp is the work involved in initiating and propagating a fracture. Wb is the work involved in basal sliding, which may be frictional or some form of ductile flow, Wg is the work done against gravity during the emplacement of the horse, and Wi is the work involved in the internal deformation of the horse. By calculating and comparing these work terms it is possible to predict the conditions under which the different types of duplexes will form. Normally, the development of a hinterland-dipping duplex is most likely. However, if deformation conditions are favorable, displacements on individual imbricate faults may be very large compared to the size of the horses, leading to the formation of either antiformal stacks or foreland-dipping duplexes.

  16. Maxima and Minima Without Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Ian

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to extrema that do not require calculus are presented to help free maxima/minima problems from the confines of calculus. Many students falsely suppose that these types of problems can only be dealt with through calculus, since few, if any, noncalculus examples are usually presented. (MP)

  17. Coupling q-Deformed Dark Energy to Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Dil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel coupled dark energy model which is assumed to occur as a q-deformed scalar field and investigate whether it will provide an expanding universe phase. We consider the q-deformed dark energy as coupled to dark matter inhomogeneities. We perform the phase-space analysis of the model by numerical methods and find the late-time accelerated attractor solutions. The attractor solutions imply that the coupled q-deformed dark energy model is consistent with the conventional dark energy models satisfying an acceleration phase of universe. At the end, we compare the cosmological parameters of deformed and standard dark energy models and interpret the implications.

  18. Determination of the activation energy of A-center in the uniaxially deformed n-Ge single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Luniov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the decisions of electroneutrality equation and experimental results of measurements of the piezo-Hall-effect the dependences of activation energy of the deep level A-center depending on the uniaxial pressure along the crystallographic directions [100], [110] and [111] for n-Ge single crystals, irradiated by the electrons with energy 10 MeV are obtained. Using the method of least squares approximational polynomials for the calculation of these dependences are obtained. It is shown that the activation energy of A-center deep level decreases linearly for the entire range of uniaxial pressure along the crystallographic direction [100]. For the cases of uniaxial deformation along the crystallographic directions [110] and [111] decrease of the activation energy according to the linear law is observed only at high uniaxial pressures, when the A-center deep level interacts with the minima of the germanium conduction band, which proved the lower at the deformation. The various dependences of the activation energy of A-center depending on the orientation of the axis of deformation may be connected with features of its microstructure.

  19. Implications of Extended Solar Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Davis, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of periodicity in the solar cycle, the historical record of sunspot number has been carefully examined, attempting to make predictions about the next cycle. Much emphasis has been on predicting the maximum amplitude and length of the next cycle. Because current space-based and suborbital instruments are designed to study active phenomena, there is considerable interest in estimating the length and depth of the current minimum. We have developed criteria for the definition of a minimum and applied it to the historical sunspot record starting in 1749. In doing so, we find that 1) the current minimum is not yet unusually long and 2) there is no obvious way of predicting when, using our definition, the current minimum may end. However, by grouping the data into 22- year cycles there is an interesting pattern of extended minima that recurs every fourth or fifth 22-year cycle. A preliminary comparison of this pattern with other records, suggests the possibility of a correlation between extended minima and lower levels of solar irradiance.

  20. Energy balance and deformation at scission in 240Pu fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caamaño

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental determination of the total excitation energy, the total kinetic energy, and the evaporation neutron multiplicity of fully identified fragments produced in transfer-induced fission of 240Pu, combined with reasonable assumptions, permits to extract the intrinsic and collective excitation energy of the fragments as a function of their atomic number, along with their quadrupole deformation and their distance at scission. The results show that the deformation increases with the atomic number, Z, except for a local maximum around Z=44 and a minimum around Z=50, associated with the effect of deformed shells at Z∼44, N∼64, and spherical shells in 132Sn, respectively. The distance between the fragments also shows a minimum around Z1=44, Z2=50, suggesting a mechanism that links the effect of structure with the length of the neck at scission.

  1. Origin of the resistivity minima in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, E.

    1982-01-01

    The recently observed minima in the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of a granular superconductor are explained with use of a percolation model of a disordered granular array, which takes into account the electrostatic charging energy. The thermally activated tunneling of Cooper pairs is shown to play an important role in the interpretation of the experimental data on tin films

  2. Deformation energy of a toroidal nucleus and plane fragmentation barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchard, C.; Royer, G.

    1996-01-01

    The path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes is investigated using a one-parameter shape sequence. The deformation energy is determined within the analytical expressions obtained for the various shape-dependent functions and the generalized rotating liquid drop model taking into account the proximity energy and the temperature. With increasing mass and angular momentum, a potential well appears in the toroidal shape path. For the heaviest systems, the pocket is large and locally favourable with respect to the plane fragmentation barriers which might allow the formation of evanescent toroidal systems which would rapidly decay in several fragments to minimize the surface tension. (orig.)

  3. How deformation enhances mobility in a polymer glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Recent experiments show that deformation of a polymer glass can lead to orders-of-magnitude enhancement in the atomic level dynamics. To determine why this change in dynamics occurs, we carry out molecular dynamics simulations and energy landscape analyses. The simulations address the coarse-grained polystyrene model of Kremer and co-workers, and the dynamics, as quantified by the van Hove function, are examined as the glass undergoes shear deformation. In agreement with experiment, the simulations find that deformation enhances the atomic mobility. The enhanced mobility is shown to arise from two mechanisms: First, active deformation continually reduces barriers for hopping events, and the importance of this mechanism is modulated by the rate of thermally activated transitions between adjacent energy minima. Second, deformation moves the system to higher-energy regions of the energy landscape, characterized by lower barriers. Both mechanisms enhance the dynamics during deformation, and the second mechanism is also relevant after deformation has ceased.

  4. On the octupole deformation in Ra-Th region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.; Boening, K.; Sobiczewski, A.

    1986-03-01

    The problem of the existence of a stable octupole deformation in Ra-Th region has been reinvestigated using a Nilsson single-particle potential with a newly fitted set of parameters, which reproduce the spins of the ground states of odd-A nuclei. In the energy surfaces, calculated for 222 Ra and 222 Th, the octupole deformed minima, separated by the barriers of 150 KeV and 210 keV, respectively, have been obtained. (orig.)

  5. Energy spectrum inverse problem of q -deformed harmonic oscillator and WBK approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Nguyen Anh; Thuy, Do Thi Thu; Loan, Nguyen Thi Ha; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-01-01

    Using the connection between q-deformed harmonic oscillator and Morse-like anharmonic potential we investigate the energy spectrum inverse problem. Consider some energy levels of energy spectrum of q -deformed harmonic oscillator are known, we construct the corresponding Morse-like potential then find out the deform parameter q . The application possibility of using the WKB approximation in the energy spectrum inverse problem was discussed for the cases of parabolic potential (harmonic oscillator), Morse-like potential ( q -deformed harmonic oscillator). so we consider our deformed-three-levels simple model, where the set-parameters of Morse potential and the corresponding set-parameters of level deformations are easily and explicitly defined. For practical problems, we propose the deformed- three-levels simple model, where the set-parameters of Morse potential and the corresponding set-parameters of level deformations are easily and explicitly defined. (paper)

  6. Stored energy and annealing behavior of heavily deformed aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Kondo, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that a two-step annealing treatment, including a low-temperature, long-time annealing and a subsequent high-temperature annealing, is a promising route to control the microstructure of a heavily deformed metal. In the present study, structural parameters...... are quantified such as boundary spacing, misorientation angle and dislocation density for 99.99% aluminium deformed by accumulative roll-bonding to a strain of 4.8. Two different annealing processes have been applied; (i) one-step annealing for 0.5 h at 100-400°C and (ii) two-step annealing for 6 h at 175°C...... followed by 0.5 h annealing at 200-600°C, where the former treatment leads to discontinuous recrystallization and the latter to uniform structural coarsening. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of the relative change during annealing of energy stored as elastic energy in the dislocation structure...

  7. Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...

  8. Thermostatistic properties of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas with a general energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shukuan; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2007-01-01

    The thermostatistic problems of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas in any dimensional space and with a general energy spectrum are studied, based on the q-deformed Fermi-Dirac distribution. The effects of the deformation parameter q on the properties of the system are revealed. It is shown that q-deformation results in some novel characteristics different from those of an ordinary system. Besides, it is found that the effects of the q-deformation on the properties of the Fermi systems are very different for different dimensional spaces and different energy spectrums

  9. The Multiple-Minima Problem in Protein Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheraga, Harold A.

    1991-10-01

    The conformational energy surface of a polypeptide or protein has many local minima, and conventional energy minimization procedures reach only a local minimum (near the starting point of the optimization algorithm) instead of the global minimum (the multiple-minima problem). Several procedures have been developed to surmount this problem, the most promising of which are: (a) build up procedure, (b) optimization of electrostatics, (c) Monte Carlo-plus-energy minimization, (d) electrostatically-driven Monte Carlo, (e) inclusion of distance restraints, (f) adaptive importance-sampling Monte Carlo, (g) relaxation of dimensionality, (h) pattern-recognition, and (i) diffusion equation method. These procedures have been applied to a variety of polypeptide structural problems, and the results of such computations are presented. These include the computation of the structures of open-chain and cyclic peptides, fibrous proteins and globular proteins. Present efforts are being devoted to scaling up these procedures from small polypeptides to proteins, to try to compute the three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino sequence.

  10. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  11. Energy spectrum inverse problem of q-deformed harmonic oscillator and entanglement of composite bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nguyen Anh; Thu Thuy, Do Thi; Loan, Nguyen Thi Ha; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2017-06-01

    Using the simple deformed three-level model (D3L model) proposed in our early work, we study the entanglement problem of composite bosons. Consider three first energy levels are known, we can get two energy separations, and can define the level deformation parameter δ. Using connection between q-deformed harmonic oscillator and Morse-like anharmonic potential, the deform parameter q also can be derived explicitly. Like the Einstein’s theory of special relativity, we introduce the observer e˙ects: out side observer (looking from outside the studying system) and inside observer (looking inside the studying system). Corresponding to those observers, the outside entanglement entropy and inside entanglement entropy will be defined.. Like the case of Foucault pendulum in the problem of Earth rotation, our deformation energy level investigation might be useful in prediction the environment e˙ect outside a confined box.

  12. Influence of Stacking Fault Energy (SFE) on the deformation mode of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Van Renterghem, W.; Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The sensibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of stainless steels in light water reactor (LWR) can be caused by the localisation of deformation that takes place in these materials. Dislocation channelling and twinning modes of deformation can induce localised plasticity leading to failure. Stacking fault energy (SFE) plays an important role in every process of plastic deformation behaviour, especially in twinning and dislocation channelling. In order to correlate localised deformation with stacking fault energy, this parameter has been experimentally determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) using both dislocation node and multiple ribbons methods after compression in three different model alloys. Detailed deformation behaviour of three fabricated alloys with different stacking fault energy before and after tensile tests at temperatures from -150 deg C to 300 deg C, will be shown and discussed based on mechanical test and TEM observation. (authors)

  13. Shape coexistence in 16O, 72Se, and 240Pu: a comprehensive view based on the dynamic deformation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamic deformation model has been improved and applied to calculate the potential energies of deformation and the collective spectra of 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu. A comprehensive view based on the dynamics of five-dimensional quadrupole motion is provided for three seemingly different types of shape coexistence: spherical (Op - Oh) and deformed (2p - 2h) shapes in 16 O, spherical and deformed minima in the potential energy surface of 72 Se, ground-state shape and the fission-isomer shape of 240 Pu. 5 figures, 3 tables

  14. Partitioning of elastic energy in open-cell foams under finite deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, Rani; Taciroglu, Ertugrul; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with the computational modeling and simulation of solid foams are threefold—namely, the proper representation of an intricate geometry, the capability to accurately describe large deformations, and the extremely arduous numerical detection and enforcement of self-contact during crushing. The focus of this study is to assess and accurately quantify the effects of geometric nonlinearities (i.e. finite deformations, work produced under buckling-type motions) on the predicted mechanical response of open-cell foams of aluminum and polyurethane prior to the onset of plasticity and contact. Beam elements endowed with three-dimensional finite deformation kinematics are used to represent the foam ligaments. Ligament cross-sections are discretized through a fiber-based formulation that provides accurate information regarding the onset of plasticity, given the uniaxial yield stress–strain data for the bulk material. It is shown that the (hyper-) elastic energy partition within ligaments is significantly influenced by kinematic nonlinearities, which frequently cause strong coupling between the axial, bending, shear and torsional deformation modes. This deformation mode-coupling is uniquely obtained as a result of evaluating equilibrium in the deformed configuration, and is undetectable when small deformations are assumed. The relationship between the foam topology and energy partitioning at various stages of moderate deformation is also investigated. Coupled deformation modes are shown to play an important role, especially in perturbed Kelvin structures where over 70% of the energy is stored in coupled axial-shear and axial-bending modes. The results from this study indicate that it may not always be possible to accurately simulate the onset of plasticity (and the response beyond this regime) if finite deformation kinematics are neglected

  15. Deformation and energy absorption properties of powder-metallurgy produced Al foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, N.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Porous Al fabricated via a dissolution and sintering method using raw cane sugar. → Different deformation mode depending on the relative density of the foams. → Enhanced energy absorption by reducing pore size and relative density of the foam. → Pore size uniformity and sintering temperature affect energy absorption. - Abstract: Al-foams with relative densities ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 and mean pore sizes of 0.35, 0.70 and 1.35 mm were manufactured by a powder metallurgy technology, based on raw cane sugar as a space-holder material. Compressive tests were carried out to investigate the deformation and energy absorbing characteristics and mechanisms of the produced Al-foams. The deformation mode of low density Al-foams is dominated by the bending and buckling of cell walls and the formation of macroscopic deformation bands whereas that of high density Al-foams is predominantly attributed to plastic yielding. The energy absorbing capacity of Al-foams rises for increased relative density and compressive strength. The sintering temperature of Al-foams having similar relative densities has a marked influence on both, energy absorbing efficiency and capacity. Pore size has a marginal effect on energy efficiency aside from Al-foams with mean pore size of 0.35 which exhibit enhanced energy absorption as a result of increased friction during deformation at lower strain levels.

  16. Dynamical SUSY Breaking at Meta-Stable Minima from D-branes at Obstructed Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Franco, Sebastian; Uranga, Angel M .

    2006-01-01

    We study the existence of long-lived meta-stable supersymmetry breaking vacua in gauge theories with massless quarks, upon the addition of extra massive flavors. A simple realization is provided by a modified version of SQCD with N_{f,0} < N_c massless flavors, N_{f,1} massive flavors and additional singlet chiral fields. This theory has local meta-stable minima separated from a runaway behavior at infinity by a potential barrier. We find further examples of such meta-stable minima in flavored versions of quiver gauge theories on fractional branes at singularities with obstructed complex deformations, and study the case of the dP_1 theory in detail. Finally, we provide an explicit String Theory construction of such theories. The additional flavors arise from D7-branes on non-compact 4-cycles of the singularity, for which we find a new efficient description using dimer techniques.

  17. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  18. Imprints of the nuclear symmetry energy on gravitational waves from deformed pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Baoan; Krastev, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is a critical input for understanding many interesting phenomena in astrophysics and cosmology. We report here effects of the nuclear symmetry energy partially constrained by terrestrial laboratory experiments on the strength of gravitational waves (GWs) from deformed pulsars at both low and high rotational frequencies. (author)

  19. Relativistic Energy Analysis of Five-Dimensional q-Deformed Radial Rosen-Morse Potential Combined with q-Deformed Trigonometric Scarf Noncentral Potential Using Asymptotic Iteration Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramono, Subur; Suparmi, A.; Cari, Cari

    2016-01-01

    We study the exact solution of Dirac equation in the hyperspherical coordinate under influence of separable q-deformed quantum potentials. The q-deformed hyperbolic Rosen-Morse potential is perturbed by q-deformed noncentral trigonometric Scarf potentials, where all of them can be solved by using Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM). This work is limited to spin symmetry case. The relativistic energy equation and orbital quantum number equation l_D_-_1 have been obtained using Asymptotic Iteration Method. The upper radial wave function equations and angular wave function equations are also obtained by using this method. The relativistic energy levels are numerically calculated using Matlab, and the increase of radial quantum number n causes the increase of bound state relativistic energy level in both dimensions D=5 and D=3. The bound state relativistic energy level decreases with increasing of both deformation parameter q and orbital quantum number n_l.

  20. An activated energy approach for accelerated testing of the deformation of UHMWPE in artificial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Glatzel, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    The deformation behavior of ultrahigh molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) is studied in the temperature range of 23-80 degrees C. Samples are examined in quasi-static compression, tensile and creep tests to determine the accelerated deformation of UHMWPE at elevated temperatures. The deformation mechanisms under compression load can be described by one strain rate and temperature dependent Eyring process. The activation energy and volume of that process do not change between 23 degrees C and 50 degrees C. This suggests that the deformation mechanism under compression remains stable within this temperature range. Tribological tests are conducted to transfer this activated energy approach to the deformation behavior under loading typical for artificial knee joints. While this approach does not cover the wear mechanisms close to the surface, testing at higher temperatures is shown to have a significant potential to reduce the testing time for lifetime predictions in terms of the macroscopic creep and deformation behavior of artificial joints. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Deformed potential energy of $^{263}Db$ in a generalized liquid drop model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Bao Qiu; Zhao Yao Lin; 10.1088/0256-307X/20/11/009

    2003-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energy for super-heavy nuclei /sup 263/Db, which governs the entrance and alpha decay channels, is determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi- molecular shape is assumed in the GLDM, which includes volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, proximity effects, mass asymmetry, and an accurate nuclear radius. The microscopic single particle energies derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods- Saxon potential with a quasi-molecular shape. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method. The total deformed potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the deformed potential energy of the experiment /sup 22/Ne+/sup 241/Am to /sup 263/Db* to /sup 259/Db+4 n, which was performed on the Heavy Ion Accelerator in Lanzhou. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for t...

  2. Charge and color breaking minima in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brhlik, Michal

    2001-01-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model include complicated scalar sectors leading to the possible occurrence of non-standard minima along suitable directions in the field space. These minima usually break charge and/or color and their presence in the theory would require an explanation why the universe has settled in the standard electroweak symmetry breaking minimum. In this talk I illustrate the relevance of the charge and color breaking minima in the framework of the minimal supergravity model and a string motivated Horava-Witten scenario

  3. Effects of mechanical deformation on energy conversion efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jinho; Kim, Wook; Choi, Dukhyun; Cho, Seunghyeon; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Seunghyun; Chang, Yoon-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) are capable of converting energy from various mechanical sources into electric energy and have many attractive features such as continuous operation, replenishment and low cost. However, many researchers still have studied novel material synthesis and interfacial controls to improve the power production from PNGs. In this study, we report the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of PNGs dependent on mechanical deformations such as bending and twisting. Since the output power of PNGs is caused by the mechanical strain of the piezoelectric material, the power production and their ECE is critically dependent on the types of external mechanical deformations. Thus, we examine the output power from PNGs according to bending and twisting. In order to clearly understand the ECE of PNGs in the presence of those external mechanical deformations, we determine the ECE of PNGs by the ratio of output electrical energy and input mechanical energy, where we suggest that the input energy is based only on the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer. We calculate the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer using numerical simulation of bending and twisting of the PNG. Finally, we demonstrate that the ECE of the PNG caused by twisting is much higher than that caused by bending due to the multiple effects of normal and lateral piezoelectric coefficients. Our results thus provide a design direction for PNG systems as high-performance power generators. (paper)

  4. The general form of the relaxation of a purely interfacial energy for structured deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2017), s. 191-215 ISSN 2326-7186 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : structured deformations * relaxation * subadditive envelope * interfacial energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://msp.org/memocs/2017/5-2/p04.xhtml

  5. On the role of deformed Coulomb potential in fusion using energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fusion probabilities; quadrupole deformation; Skyrme energy density formalism ... interaction time between the colliding nuclei is large and therefore, various features of ... parameters t0, t1, t2, t3 and W0, the values of which can be adjusted for ...

  6. Nuclear-deformation energies according to a liquid-drop model with a sharp surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    We present an atlas of 665 deformation-energy maps and 150 maps of other properties of interest, relevant for nuclear systems idealized as uniformly charged drops endowed with a surface tension. The nuclear shapes are parametrized in terms of two spheres modified by a smoothly fitted quadratic surface of revolution and are specified by three variables: asymmetry, sphere separation, and a neck variable (that goes over into a fragment-deformation variable after scission). The maps and related tables should be useful for the study of macroscopic aspects of nuclear fission and of collisions between any two nuclei in the periodic table

  7. Spinal deformities after high-energy radiotherapy for nephroblastoma in children. Report of 82 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollner, G.; Pfeil, J.; Scheibel, P.

    1987-01-01

    Study of spinal deformities in 82 cases of nephroblastoma treated surgically or by chemotherapy and high-energy radiotherapy. This paper stresses the high incidence of radiation induced scoliosis which was observed in all patients who had reached adulthood. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the relations between the height of the vertebral body and of the intervertebral space, the authors propose a theory of a compensation of the reduction in vertebral height by displacement the nucleus pulposus towards the irradiated side. This phenomenon prevents the development of scoliosis in subjects under the age of 11 years, despite an already well established deformity of the vertebral bodies. The compensation decreases with increasing age and the degree od scoliosis. This explains partly the increased degree of scoliotic deformity during puberty. Orthopaedic treatment therefore needs to be started relatively early.

  8. Features micro plastic deformation auxetic beryllium irradiated with high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rarans'kij, M.D.; Olyijnich-Lisyuk, A.V.; Tashchuk, O.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    By low-frequency internal friction (LFIF) (1...3 Hz) method, the study of the behavior of the dynamic modulus of torsion (Gef) and by mathematical modeling of dislocation motion studied micro plastic deformation in naturally aged and irradiated with high-energy (18 MeV) electrons auxetic beryllium. With increasing doses of radiation found an increase in IF and speed of movement of dislocations in 2-3 times. Installed stage character micro strain auxetic Be. By mathematical modeling showed that in the irradiated material the deformation occurs due to the accelerated movement of the twin dislocations in the early stages, and anomalous dynamic deceleration of complete dislocations with an increase in the degree of deformation in the second stage. It is shown that theoretically estimated values are in good agreement with the experimentally determined.

  9. Macroscopic-microscopic energy of rotating nuclei in the fusion-like deformation valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghescu, R.A.; Royer, Guy

    2000-01-01

    The energy of rotating nuclei in the fusion-like deformation valley has been determined within a liquid drop model including the proximity energy, the two-center shell model and the Strutinsky method. The potential barriers of the 84 Zr, 132 Ce, 152 Dy and 192 Hg nuclei have been determined. A first minimum having a microscopic origin and lodging the normally deformed states disappears with increasing angular momenta. The microscopic and macroscopic energies contribute to generate a second minimum where superdeformed states may survive. It becomes progressively the lowest one at intermediate spins. At higher angular momenta, the minimum moves towards the foot of the external fission barrier leading to hyperdeformed quasi-molecular states. (author)

  10. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-11-14

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail.

  11. Interacting Dark Matter and q-Deformed Dark Energy Nonminimally Coupled to Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Dil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach to study the dark sector of the universe by considering the dark energy as an emerging q-deformed bosonic scalar field which is not only interacting with the dark matter, but also nonminimally coupled to gravity, in the framework of standard Einsteinian gravity. In order to analyze the dynamic of the system, we first give the quantum field theoretical description of the q-deformed scalar field dark energy and then construct the action and the dynamical structure of this interacting and nonminimally coupled dark sector. As a second issue, we perform the phase-space analysis of the model to check the reliability of our proposal by searching the stable attractor solutions implying the late-time accelerating expansion phase of the universe.

  12. Simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy: the case of odd-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamouda, N [Laboratoire de Physique Theoique, Faculte des Sciences, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algers (Algeria); Oudih, M R [CRNA, 2. Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algers (Algeria)

    2002-09-15

    A method of simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy, recently proposed for the even-even nuclei, is generalized to the case of odd systems. {sup *} By means of the blocked-level technique, a level density with explicit dependence on pairing correlations is defined. The microscopic corrections to the deformation energy are then determined by a procedure which is analogous to that of Strutinsky. The method is applied to the ground state of Europium isotopes using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  13. Simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy: the case of odd-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    A method of simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy, recently proposed for the even-even nuclei, is generalized to the case of odd systems. * By means of the blocked-level technique, a level density with explicit dependence on pairing correlations is defined. The microscopic corrections to the deformation energy are then determined by a procedure which is analogous to that of Strutinsky. The method is applied to the ground state of Europium isotopes using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental values

  14. ADM mass and quasilocal energy of black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole, we introduce the isolated horizon to study the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity. This is because the KS black hole is more close to the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole than the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We find the horizon and ADM masses by using the first law of thermodynamics and the area-law entropy. The mass parameter m is identified with the quasilocal energy at infinity. Accordingly, we discuss the phase transition between the KS and Schwarzschild black holes by considering the heat capacity and free energy.

  15. On the Local Minima of the Order of Appearance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The order of appearance z(n of the positive integer n is the smallest positive integer k such that n divides Fk, the kth member of the Fibonacci sequence. In this paper, we improve upon some results from (Marques, 2011 concerning local minima of z(n.

  16. Energy momentum tensor and marginal deformations in open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2004-01-01

    Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a co-dimension one D-brane. (author)

  17. Plastic incompatibility stresses and stored elastic energy in plastically deformed copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczmanski, A. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: baczman@ftj.agh.edu.pl; Hfaiedh, N.; Francois, M. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 11 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Wierzbanowski, K. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-02-15

    The X-ray diffraction method and theoretical model of elastoplastic deformation were used to examine the residual stresses in polycrystalline copper. To this end, the {l_brace}2 2 0{r_brace} strain pole figures were determined for samples subjected to different magnitudes of tensile deformation. Using diffraction data and the self-consistent model, the tensor of plastic incompatibility stress was found for each orientation of a polycrystalline grain. Crystallographic textures, macroscopic and second-order residual stresses were considered in the analysis. As a result, the distributions of elastic stored energy and von Mises equivalent stress were presented in Euler space and correlated with the preferred orientations of grains. Moreover, using the model prediction, the variation of the critical resolved shear stress with grain orientation was determined.

  18. Constitutive equations for energy balance evaluation in metals under inelastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostina, A.; Plekhov, O.; Venkatraman, B.

    2017-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of constitutive equations for energy balance evaluation in plastically deformed metals. The evolution of the defect system is described by a previously obtained model based on the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. In the framework of this model, a collective behavior of mesodefect ensembles is taken into account by the introduction of an internal variable representing additional structural strain. This parameter enables the partition of plastic work into dissipated heat and stored energy. The proposed model is applied to energy balance calculation in a Ti-1Al-1Mn specimen subjected to cyclic loading. Simulation results have shown that the model is able to describe an upward trend in the stored energy value with the increase in the load ratio.

  19. Optimizer convergence and local minima errors and their clinical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, Robert; Wu, Chuan; Mackie, Thomas R

    2003-01-01

    Two of the errors common in the inverse treatment planning optimization have been investigated. The first error is the optimizer convergence error, which appears because of non-perfect convergence to the global or local solution, usually caused by a non-zero stopping criterion. The second error is the local minima error, which occurs when the objective function is not convex and/or the feasible solution space is not convex. The magnitude of the errors, their relative importance in comparison to other errors as well as their clinical significance in terms of tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were investigated. Two inherently different optimizers, a stochastic simulated annealing and deterministic gradient method were compared on a clinical example. It was found that for typical optimization the optimizer convergence errors are rather small, especially compared to other convergence errors, e.g., convergence errors due to inaccuracy of the current dose calculation algorithms. This indicates that stopping criteria could often be relaxed leading into optimization speed-ups. The local minima errors were also found to be relatively small and typically in the range of the dose calculation convergence errors. Even for the cases where significantly higher objective function scores were obtained the local minima errors were not significantly higher. Clinical evaluation of the optimizer convergence error showed good correlation between the convergence of the clinical TCP or NTCP measures and convergence of the physical dose distribution. On the other hand, the local minima errors resulted in significantly different TCP or NTCP values (up to a factor of 2) indicating clinical importance of the local minima produced by physical optimization

  20. Features of energy impact on a billet material when cutting with outstripping plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the so-called combined machining methods based on parallel, serial or parallelserial combination of different types of energy impacts on the billet are designed and developed. Combination of two or more sources of external energy in one method of machining can be directed to the solution of different technological tasks, such as: improvement of a basic method to enhance technicaland-economic and technological indicators of machining, expansion of technological capabilities of the method, increase of reliability and stability of technological process to produce details, etc. Besides, the combined methods of machining are considered as one of the means, which enables reducing the number of operations in technological process, allows the growth of workforce productivity.When developing the combined technologies, one of the main scientific tasks is to define the general regularities of interaction and mutual influence of the energy fluxes brought to the zone of machining. The result of such mutual influence becomes apparent from the forming technological parameters of machining and determines the most rational operating conditions of technological process.In the context of conducted in BMSTU researches on the combined cutting method with outstripping plastic deformation (OPD the mutual influence of the energetic components of machining has been quantitatively assessed. The paper shows a direct relationship between the rational ratio of the two types of the mechanical energy brought in the machining zone, the machining conditions, and the optimum operating conditions.The paper offers a physical model of chip formation when machining with OPD. The essence of model is that specific works spent on material deformation of a cut-off layer are quantitatively compared at usual cutting and at cutting with OPD. It is experimentally confirmed that the final strain-deformed material states of a cut-off layer, essentially, coincide in both

  1. Effect of laser energy on the deformation behavior in microscale laser bulge forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chao; Sun Sheng; Ji Zhong; Wang Wei

    2010-01-01

    Microscale laser bulge forming is a high strain rate microforming method using high-amplitude shock wave pressure induced by pulsed laser irradiation. The process can serve as a rapidly established and high precision technique to impress microfeatures on thin sheet metals and holds promise of manufacturing complex miniaturized devices. The present paper investigated the forming process using both numerical and experimental methods. The effect of laser energy on microformability of pure copper was discussed in detail. A 3D measuring laser microscope was adopted to measure deformed regions under different laser energy levels. The deformation measurements showed that the experimental and numerical results were in good agreement. With the verified simulation model, the residual stress distribution at different laser energy was predicted and analyzed. The springback was found as a key factor to determine the distribution and magnitude of the compressive residual stress. In addition, the absorbent coating and the surface morphology of the formed samples were observed through the scanning electron microscope. The observation confirmed that the shock forming process was non-thermal attributed to the protection of the absorbent coating.

  2. Pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning as a catalyst for efficient energy dissipation in a bioceramic armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of energy-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and deformation localization via increasing energy dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm-3) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm-3). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic energy dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation.

  3. Relativistic deformed mean-field calculation of binding energy differences of mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepf, W.; Barreiro, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Binding energy differences of mirror nuclei for A=15, 17, 27, 29, 31, 33, 39 and 41 are calculated in the framework of relativistic deformed mean-field theory. The spatial components of the vector meson fields and the photon are fully taken into account in a self-consistent manner. The calculated binding energy differences are systematically smaller than the experimental values and lend support to the existence of the Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer anomaly found decades ago in nonrelativistic calculations. For the majority of the nuclei studied, however, the results are such that the anomaly is significantly smaller than the one obtained within state-of-the-art nonrelativistic calculations. (author). 35 refs

  4. Are both symmetric and buckled dimers on Si(100) minima? Density functional and multireference perturbation theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yousung; Shao, Yihan; Gordon, Mark S.; Doren, Douglas J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We report a spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) solution at the symmetric dimer structure for cluster models of Si(100). With this solution, it is shown that the symmetric structure is a minimum on the DFT potential energy surface, although higher in energy than the buckled structure. In restricted DFT calculations the symmetric structure is a saddle point connecting the two buckled minima. To further assess the effects of electron correlation on the relative energies of symmetric versus buckled dimers on Si(100), multireference second order perturbation theory (MRMP2) calculations are performed on these DFT optimized minima. The symmetric structure is predicted to be lower in energy than the buckled structure via MRMP2, while the reverse order is found by DFT. The implications for recent experimental interpretations are discussed

  5. Modular Hamiltonians for deformed half-spaces and the averaged null energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Thomas; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Wang, Huajia

    2016-09-01

    We study modular Hamiltonians corresponding to the vacuum state for deformed half-spaces in relativistic quantum field theories on {{R}}^{1,d-1} . We show that in addition to the usual boost generator, there is a contribution to the modular Hamiltonian at first order in the shape deformation, proportional to the integral of the null components of the stress tensor along the Rindler horizon. We use this fact along with monotonicity of relative entropy to prove the averaged null energy condition in Minkowski space-time. This subsequently gives a new proof of the Hofman-Maldacena bounds on the parameters appearing in CFT three-point functions. Our main technical advance involves adapting newly developed perturbative methods for calculating entanglement entropy to the problem at hand. These methods were recently used to prove certain results on the shape dependence of entanglement in CFTs and here we generalize these results to excited states and real time dynamics. We also discuss the AdS/CFT counterpart of this result, making connection with the recently proposed gravitational dual for modular Hamiltonians in holographic theories.

  6. The congruence energy: A contribution to nuclear masses and deformation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1995-06-01

    The difference between measured binding energies and those calculated using a shell- and pairing-corrected Thomas-Fermi model can be described approximately by C(I) = -10exp(-4.2|I|) MeV. The authors' interpretation of this extra binding is in terms of the granularity of quantal nucleonic density distributions, which leads to a stronger interaction for a neutron and proton with congruent nodal structures of their wave functions. The predicted doubling of this congruence energy in fission is supported by an analysis of measured fission barriers and by a study of wave functions in a dividing Hill-Wheeler box potential. A semi-empirical formula for the shape-dependent congruence energy is described

  7. The congruence energy: a contribution to nuclear masses, deformation energies and fission barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The difference between measured binding energies and those calculated using a shell- and pairing-corrected Thomas-Fermi model can be described approximately by C(I)=-10 exp(-4.2 vertical stroke I vertical stroke) MeV, where I=(N-Z)/A. Our interpretation of this extra binding is in terms of the granularity of quantal nucleonic density distributions, which leads to a stronger interaction for a neutron and proton with congruent nodal structures of their wave functions. The predicted doubling of this congruence energy in fission is supported by an analysis of measured fission barriers and by a study of wave functions in a dividing Hill-Wheeler box potential. A semi-empirical formula for the shape-dependent congruence energy is described. (orig.)

  8. Does a deformation of special relativity imply energy dependent photon time delays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical arguments in favor of energy dependent photon time delays from a modification of special relativity (SR) have met with recent gamma ray observations that put severe constraints on the scale of such deviations. We review the case of the generality of this theoretical prediction in the case of a deformation of SR and find that, at least in the simple model based on the analysis of photon worldlines which is commonly considered, there are many scenarios compatible with a relativity principle which do not contain a photon time delay. This will be the situation for any modified dispersion relation which reduces to E=\\vert p\\vert for photons, independently of the quantum structure of spacetime. This fact opens up the possibility of a phenomenologically consistent relativistic generalization of SR with a new mass scale many orders of magnitude below the Planck mass.

  9. Development of energy-harvesting system using deformation of magnetic elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Hayato; Tsumori, Fujio

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a power generation method using the deformation of a magnetic elastomer for vibration energy harvesting. The magnetic flux lines in the structure of the magnetic elastomer could be markedly changed if the properly designed structure was expanded and contracted in a static magnetic field. We set a coil on the magnetic elastomer to generate electricity by capturing this change in magnetic flux flow. We fabricated a centimeter-scale device and demonstrated that it generated 10.5 mV of maximum voltage by 10 Hz vibration. We also simulated the change in the magnetic flux flow using finite element analysis, and compared the result with the experimental data. Furthermore, we evaluated the power generation of a miniaturized device.

  10. Multiscale deformable registration for dual-energy x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, G. J.; Varon, C. A.; Kashani, H.; Richard, S.; Paul, N. S.; Van Metter, R.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Dual-energy (DE) imaging of the chest improves the conspicuity of subtle lung nodules through the removal of overlying anatomical noise. Recent work has shown double-shot DE imaging (i.e., successive acquisition of low- and high-energy projections) to provide detective quantum efficiency, spectral separation (and therefore contrast), and radiation dose superior to single-shot DE imaging configurations (e.g., with a CR cassette). However, the temporal separation between high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) image acquisition can result in motion artifacts in the DE images, reducing image quality and diminishing diagnostic performance. This has motivated the development of a deformable registration technique that aligns the HE image onto the LE image before DE decomposition. The algorithm reported here operates in multiple passes at progressively smaller scales and increasing resolution. The first pass addresses large-scale motion by means of mutual information optimization, while successive passes (2-4) correct misregistration at finer scales by means of normalized cross correlation. Evaluation of registration performance in 129 patients imaged using an experimental DE imaging prototype demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in image alignment. Specific to the cardiac region, the registration algorithm was found to outperform a simple cardiac-gating system designed to trigger both HE and LE exposures during diastole. Modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis reveals additional advantages in DE image quality in terms of noise reduction and edge enhancement. This algorithm could offer an important tool in enhancing DE image quality and potentially improving diagnostic performance.

  11. Damage Analysis and Evaluation of High Strength Concrete Frame Based on Deformation-Energy Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-bin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of characterizing the damage of high strength concrete structures is presented, which is based on the deformation energy double parameters damage model and incorporates both of the main forms of damage by earthquakes: first time damage beyond destruction and energy consumption. Firstly, test data of high strength reinforced concrete (RC columns were evaluated. Then, the relationship between stiffness degradation, strength degradation, and ductility performance was obtained. And an expression for damage in terms of model parameters was determined, as well as the critical input data for the restoring force model to be used in analytical damage evaluation. Experimentally, the unloading stiffness was found to be related to the cycle number. Then, a correction for this changing was applied to better describe the unloading phenomenon and compensate for the shortcomings of structure elastic-plastic time history analysis. The above algorithm was embedded into an IDARC program. Finally, a case study of high strength RC multistory frames was presented. Under various seismic wave inputs, the structural damages were predicted. The damage model and correction algorithm of stiffness unloading were proved to be suitable and applicable in engineering design and damage evaluation of a high strength concrete structure.

  12. On the Importance of Morphing Deformation Scheduling for Actuation Force and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland De Breuker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphing aircraft offer superior properties as compared to non-morphing aircraft. They can achieve this by adapting their shape depending on the requirements of various conflicting flight conditions. These shape changes are often associated with large deformations and strains, and hence dedicated morphing concepts are developed to carry out the required changes in shape. Such intricate mechanisms are often heavy, which reduces, or even completely cancels, the performance increase of the morphing aircraft. Part of this weight penalty is determined by the required actuators and associated batteries, which are mainly driven by the required actuation force and energy. Two underexposed influences on the actuation force and energy are the flight condition at which morphing should take place and the order of the morphing manoeuvres, also called morphing scheduling. This paper aims at highlighting the importance of both influences by using a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV with different morphing mechanisms as an example. The results in this paper are generated using a morphing aircraft analysis and design code that was developed at the Delft University of Technology. The importance of the flight condition and a proper morphing schedule is demonstrated by investigating the required actuation forces for various flight conditions and morphing sequences. More importantly, the results show that there is not necessarily one optimal flight condition or morphing schedule and a tradeoff needs to be made.

  13. Direct observation of radial distribution change during tensile deformation of metallic glass by high energy X-ray diffraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Toshio, E-mail: nasu@kekexafs.kj.yamagata-u.ac.j [Faculty of Education, Arts and Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata, 990-8560 (Japan); Sasaki, Motokatsu [Faculty of Education, Arts and Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata, 990-8560 (Japan); Usuki, Takeshi; Sekine, Mai [Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Takigawa, Yorinobu; Higashi, Kenji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Harima Science Garden City, Sayo town, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Sakurai, Masaki; Wei Zhang; Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-08-26

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the micro-mechanism of deformation behavior of metallic glasses. We report the results of direct observations of short-range and medium-range structural change during tensile deformation of metallic glasses by high energy X-ray diffraction method. Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} and Ni{sub 30}Zr{sub 70} metallic glass samples in the ribbon shape (1.5 mm width and 25 mum) were made by using rapid quenching method. Tensile deformation added to the sample was made by using special equipment adopted for measuring the high energy X-ray diffraction. The peaks in pair distribution function g(r) for Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} and N{sub 30}iZr{sub 70} metallic glasses move zigzag into front and into rear during tensile deformation. These results of direct observation on atomic distribution change for Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} and Ni{sub 30}Zr{sub 70} metallic glass ribbons during tensile deformation suggest that the micro-relaxations occur.

  14. Role of rotational energy and deformations in the dynamics of {sup 6}Li+{sup 90}Zr reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Grover, Neha; Sandhu, Kirandeep; Sharma, Manoj K., E-mail: msharma@thapar.edu

    2014-07-15

    In reference to recent experimental data, the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) has been applied to study the neutron evaporation residue (ER) cross sections of intermediate mass nucleus {sup 96}Tc{sup ⁎} spread over a wide range of incident energy across the Coulomb barrier. In order to analyze the effect of rotational energy in the dynamics of {sup 6}Li+{sup 90}Zr reaction, the cross sections have been calculated using the sticking (I{sub S}) and the non-sticking (I{sub NS}) limits of moment of inertia with inclusion of quadrupole (β{sub 2}) deformation within optimum orientation approach. The effect of either of the two approaches on the angular momentum, and hence the rotational energy associated with it, is assessed through the fragment mass distribution, preformation factor and the barrier penetrability. Also, the role of deformations is studied through a comparative analysis of decay path for spherical and β{sub 2} deformed fragmentation. The calculated evaporation residue cross sections show excellent agreement with the reported data at all incident energies for both spherical and β{sub 2}-deformed approach. Finally, the incomplete fusion (ICF) process observed due to loosely bound projectile {sup 6}Li is addressed within the framework of DCM.

  15. SOLAR ROTATION EFFECTS ON THE HELIOSHEATH FLOW NEAR SOLAR MINIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, Sergey N.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Ebert, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between fast and slow solar wind (SW) due to the Sun's rotation creates corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which further interact with each other creating complex plasma structures at large heliospheric distances. We investigate the global influence of CIRs on the SW flow in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock (TS) and the heliopause. The stream interaction model takes into account the major global effects due to slow-fast stream interaction near solar minima. The fast and slow wind parameters are derived from the Ulysses observations. We investigate the penetration of corotating structures through the TS and their further propagation through the heliosheath. It is shown that the heliosheath flow structure may experience substantial modifications, including local decreases in the radial velocity component observed by Voyager 1.

  16. Anelastic deformation processes in metallic glasses and activation energy spectrum model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, [No Value; Csach, K; Kasardova, A; Bengus, VZ; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics of anelastic deformation below the glass transition temperature (so-called 'stress induced ordering' or 'creep recovery' deformation) was investigated in Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The relaxation time spectrum model and two recently developed methods for its calculation from the

  17. Energy and Momentum Relaxation Times of 2D Electrons Due to Near Surface Deformation Potential Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, Viktor; Vasko, Fedor; Mitin, Vladimir

    1997-03-01

    The low temperature energy and momentum relaxation rates of 2D electron gas placed near the free or clamped surface of a semi-infinit sample are calculated. To describe the electron-acoustic phonon interaction with allowance of the surface effect the method of elasticity theory Green functions was used. This method allows to take into account the reflection of acoustic waves from the surface and related mutual conversion of LA and TA waves. It is shown that the strength of the deformation potential scattering at low temperatures substantially depends on the mechanical conditions at the surface: relaxation rates are suppressed for the free surface while for the rigid one the rates are enhanced. The dependence of the conductivity on the distance between the 2D layer and the surface is discussed. The effect is most pronounced in the range of temperatures 2 sl pF < T < (2 hbar s_l)/d, where pF is the Fermi momentum, sl is the velocity of LA waves, d is the width of the quantum well.

  18. Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Non-thermal plasma is a key component in gas lasers, microelectronics, medical applications, waste gas cleaners, ozone generators, plasma igniters, flame holders, flow control in high-speed aerodynamics and others. A specific feature of non-thermal plasma is its high sensitivity to variations in governing parameters (gas composition, pressure, pulse duration, E/N parameter). This sensitivity is due to complex deformations of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) shape induced by variations in electric field strength, electron and ion number densities and gas excitation degree. Particular attention in this article is paid to mechanisms of instabilities based on non-linearity of plasma properties for specific conditions: gas composition, steady-state and decaying plasma produced by the electron beam, or by an electric current pulse. The following effects are analyzed: the negative differential electron conductivity; the absolute negative electron mobility; the stepwise changes of plasma properties induced by the EEDF bi-stability; thermo-current instability and the constriction of the glow discharge column in rare gases. Some of these effects were observed experimentally and some of them were theoretically predicted and still wait for experimental confirmation.

  19. Numerical simulation of mechanisms of deformation,failure and energy dissipation in porous rock media subjected to wave stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The pore characteristics,mineral compositions,physical and mechanical properties of the subarkose sandstones were acquired by means of CT scan,X-ray diffraction and physical tests.A few physical models possessing the same pore characteristics and matrix properties but different porosities compared to the natural sandstones were developed.The 3D finite element models of the rock media with varied porosities were established based on the CT image processing of the physical models and the MIMICS software platform.The failure processes of the porous rock media loaded by the split Hopkinson pressure bar(SHPB) were simulated by satisfying the elastic wave propagation theory.The dynamic responses,stress transition,deformation and failure mechanisms of the porous rock media subjected to the wave stresses were analyzed.It is shown that an explicit and quantitative analysis of the stress,strain and deformation and failure mechanisms of porous rocks under the wave stresses can be achieved by using the developed 3D finite element models.With applied wave stresses of certain amplitude and velocity,no evident pore deformation was observed for the rock media with a porosity less than 15%.The deformation is dominantly the combination of microplasticity(shear strain),cracking(tensile strain) of matrix and coalescence of the cracked regions around pores.Shear stresses lead to microplasticity,while tensile stresses result in cracking of the matrix.Cracking and coalescence of the matrix elements in the neighborhood of pores resulted from the high transverse tensile stress or tensile strain which exceeded the threshold values.The simulation results of stress wave propagation,deformation and failure mechanisms and energy dissipation in porous rock media were in good agreement with the physical tests.The present study provides a reference for analyzing the intrinsic mechanisms of the complex dynamic response,stress transit mode,deformation and failure mechanisms and the disaster

  20. The effects of heating temperatures and time on deformation energy and oil yield of sunflower bulk seeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Sigalingging, R.; Demirel, C.

    2018-02-01

    The deformation energy (J) and percentage oil yield (%) of sunflower bulk seeds under the influence of heat treatment temperatures and heating time were examined in compression test using the universal compression testing machine and vessel diameter of 60 mm with a plunger. The heat treatment temperatures were between 40 and 100 °C and the heating time at specific temperatures of 40 and 100 °C ranged from 15 to 75 minutes. The bulk sunflower seeds were measured at a pressing height of 60 mm and pressed at a maximum force of 100 kN and speed of 5 mm/min. Based on the compression results, the deformation energy and oil yield increased along with increasing heat treatment temperatures. The results were statistically significant (p 0.05).

  1. Anomalous Arctic surface wind patterns and their impacts on September sea ice minima and trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyi Wu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used monthly mean surface wind data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Centers for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset during the period 1979–2010 to describe the first two patterns of Arctic surface wind variability by means of the complex vector empirical orthogonal function (CVEOF analysis. The first two patterns respectively account for 31 and 16% of its total anomalous kinetic energy. The leading pattern consists of the two subpatterns: the northern Laptev Sea (NLS pattern and the Arctic dipole (AD pattern. The second pattern contains the northern Kara Sea (NKS pattern and the central Arctic (CA pattern. Over the past two decades, the combined dynamical forcing of the first two patterns has contributed to Arctic September sea ice extent (SIE minima and its declining trend. September SIE minima are mainly associated with the negative phase of the AD pattern and the positive phase of the CA pattern during the summer (July to September season, and both phases coherently show an anomalous anticyclone over the Arctic Ocean. Wind patterns affect September SIE through their frequency and intensity. The negative trend in September SIE over the past two decades is associated with increased frequency and enhanced intensity of the CA pattern during the melting season from April to September. Thus, it cannot be simply attributed to the AD anomaly characterised by the second empirical orthogonal function mode of sea level pressure north of 70°N. The CA pattern exhibited interdecadal variability in the late 1990s, and an anomalous cyclone prevailed before 1997 and was then replaced by an anomalous anticyclone over the Arctic Ocean that is consistent with the rapid decline trend in September SIE. This paper provides an alternative way to identify the dominant patterns of climate variability and investigate their associated Arctic sea ice variability from a dynamical perspective. Indeed, this study

  2. Observations of linear polarization in deep minima of WW Vul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.Kh.; Chernova, G.P.; AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Dushanbe. Inst. Astrofiziki)

    1988-01-01

    In the course of patrol photometric and polarimetric observations of WW Vul, initiated in 1986 in the Crimea and Sanglok, a broad photometrical minimum was registered, the deepest part of which being composed of three consecutive weakenings of brightness. The increase of linear polarization up to 5-6% (in V band) was observed in each of them. The analysis of the observational data shows, that the main part of polarized light occurs due to scattering of star radiation by dust particles of the circumstellar envelope. the contribution of this polarized radiation increases when the occultation of the star by the opaque dust cloud weakenes the direct (non-polarized) radiation of the star. Additional source of light polarization is the alignement of non-spherical particles in the dust cloud, which are responsible for occultation. Some arguments are given in favor to the idea, that the asymmetry axis of the circumstellar disc - like envelope of WW Vul is oriented parallel to the local interstellar magnetic field. If and alignment of non-spherical particles is caused by magnetic field of the disc, magnetic lines should follow the plane of the disc. The observations confirm the hypothesis, that the source of blue emission, observed in deep minima of such type stars, is the scattered radiation of circumstellar dust

  3. INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FLUX DEPLETION DURING PROTRACTED SOLAR MINIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, David E.; Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine near-Earth solar wind observations as assembled within the Omni data set over the past 15 years that constitute the latest solar cycle. We show that the interplanetary magnetic field continues to be depleted at low latitudes throughout the protracted solar minimum reaching levels below previously predicted minima. We obtain a rate of flux removal resulting in magnetic field reduction by 0.5 nT yr -1 at 1 AU when averaged over the years 2005-2009 that reduces to 0.3 nT yr -1 for 2007-2009. We show that the flux removal operates on field lines that follow the nominal Parker spiral orientation predicted for open field lines and are largely unassociated with recent ejecta. We argue that the field line reduction can only be accomplished by ongoing reconnection of nominally open field lines or very old closed field lines and we contend that these two interpretations are observationally equivalent and indistinguishable.

  4. Effect of cold deformation on latent energy value and high-temperature mechanical properties of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.; Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Gusev, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic and magnetic characteristics and also the high-temperature mechanical properties depending on the preliminary cold deformation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel are presented. It is shown that the value of storage energy in the steel has being grown with increase of the deformation. The rate of its growth has been increased after beginning of martensitic γ→α'- transformation when value of comparative storage energy at first decreased and then has been stay practically constant. Level of mechanical properties of the steel at 1073 K has been determined not only by value of cold deformation but and structural reconstruction corresponding to deformations 35-45% and accompanying with α'-phase martensite formation and change of energy accumulating rate. Preliminary cold deformation (40-60 %) does not improve high- temperature plasticity of steel samples implanted by helium. refs. 7, figs. 2

  5. Structural Analysis of Shipping Casks, Vol. 9. Energy Absorption Capabilities of Plastically Deformed Struts Under Specified Impact Loading Conditions (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the energy absorption characteristics of plastically deformed inclined struts under impact loading. This information is needed to provide a usable method by which designers and analysts of shipping casks for radioactive or fissile materials can determine the energy absorption capabilities of external longitudinal fins on cylindrical casks under specified impact conditions. A survey of technical literature related to experimental determination of the dynamic plastic behavior of struts revealed no information directly applicable to the immediate problem, especially in the impact velocity ranges desired, and an experimental program was conducted to obtain the needed data. Mild-steel struts with rectangular cross sections were impacted by free-falling weights dropped from known heights. These struts or fin specimens were inclined at five different angles to simulate different angles of impact that fins on a shipping cask could experience under certain accident conditions. The resisting force of the deforming strut was measured and recorded as a function of time by using load cells instrumented with resistance strain gage bridges, signal conditioning equipment, an oscilloscope, and a Polaroid camera. The acceleration of the impacting weight was measured and recorded as a function of time during the latter portion of the testing program by using an accelerometer attached to the drop hammer, appropriate signal conditioning equipment, the oscilloscope, and the camera. A digital computer program was prepared to numerically integrate the force-time and acceleration-time data recorded during the tests to obtain deformation-time data. The force-displacement relationships were then integrated to obtain values of absorbed energy with respect to deformation or time. The results for various fin specimen geometries and impact angles are presented graphically, and these curves may be used to compute the energy absorption capacity of

  6. Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates with Planck-scale induced deformation of the energy-momentum dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscese, F.

    2012-01-01

    We show that harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates can be used to constrain Planck-scale physics. In particular we prove that a Planck-scale induced deformation of the Minkowski energy-momentum dispersion relation δE≃ξ 1 mcp/2M p produces a shift in the condensation temperature T c of about ΔT c /T c 0 ≃10 -6 ξ 1 for typical laboratory conditions. Such a shift allows to bound the deformation parameter up to |ξ 1 |≤10 4 . Moreover we show that it is possible to enlarge ΔT c /T c 0 and improve the bound on ξ 1 lowering the frequency of the harmonic trap. Finally we compare the Planck-scale induced shift in T c with similar effects due to interboson interactions and finite size effects.

  7. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic steel: The synergy of stacking fault energy and chemical driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, M., E-mail: m.moallemi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan, 8491663763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, A.; Baghbadorani, H. Samaei; Nezhadfar, P. Dastranjy [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the correlation of stacking fault energy's synergy and driving force in the formation of deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic stainless steel. The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic induction techniques. The kinetics of the martensite formation versus applied strain was evaluated through the sigmoidal model. It was shown that the volume fraction of ά-martensite is closely related to the driving force/SFE ratio of the alloy. The results also showed that the martensite content is similar in both XRD and magnetic methods and the applied sigmoidal model was consistent with the obtained experimental data.

  8. On the Importance of Morphing Deformation Scheduling for Actuation Force and Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    Morphing aircraft offer superior properties as compared to non-morphing aircraft. They can achieve this by adapting their shape depending on the requirements of various conflicting flight conditions. These shape changes are often associated with large deformations and strains, and hence dedicated

  9. Continuum corrections to the level density and its dependence on excitation energy, n-p asymmetry, and deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    In the independent-particle model, the nuclear level density is determined from the neutron and proton single-particle level densities. The single-particle level density for the positive-energy continuum levels is important at high excitation energies for stable nuclei and at all excitation energies for nuclei near the drip lines. This single-particle level density is subdivided into compound-nucleus and gas components. Two methods are considered for this subdivision: In the subtraction method, the single-particle level density is determined from the scattering phase shifts. In the Gamov method, only the narrow Gamov states or resonances are included. The level densities calculated with these two methods are similar; both can be approximated by the backshifted Fermi-gas expression with level-density parameters that are dependent on A, but with very little dependence on the neutron or proton richness of the nucleus. However, a small decrease in the level-density parameter is predicted for some nuclei very close to the drip lines. The largest difference between the calculations using the two methods is the deformation dependence of the level density. The Gamov method predicts a very strong peaking of the level density at sphericity for high excitation energies. This leads to a suppression of deformed configurations and, consequently, the fission rate predicted by the statistical model is reduced in the Gamov method

  10. Using vibrational Cooper minima to determine strong-field molecular-dissociation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severt, T.; Zohrabi, M.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; McKenna, J.; Gaire, B.; Kling, Nora G.; Ablikim, U.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the possibility of using vibrational ``Cooper minima'' (VCM) locations as a method to determine dissociation pathways of molecules in a strong laser field. As a test case, we study the laser-induced dissociation of an O2+ion beam by several wavelengths (λ = 800 , 400, and 266 nm) using a coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging technique. Vibrational structure is observed in the kinetic energy release spectra, revealing a suppression of the dissociation of certain vibrational levels, which is a manifestation of the VCM effect. Previously, it has been shown in H2+that first-order time-dependent perturbation theory can be used to predict the locations of the VCM. We explore if the VCM locations predicted by perturbation theory can help uniquely identify dissociation pathways in O2+and consider its utility for other systems. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. TS was partially supported by NSF-REU under Grant No. PHY-0851599.

  11. Multiple local minima in IMRT optimization based on dose-volume criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiuwen; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-01-01

    Multiple local minima traps are known to exist in dose-volume and dose-response objective functions. Nevertheless, their presence and consequences are not considered impediments in finding satisfactory solutions in routine optimization of IMRT plans using gradient methods. However, there is often a concern that a significantly superior solution may exist unbeknownst to the planner and that the optimization process may not be able to reach it. We have investigated the soundness of the assumption that the presence of multiple minima traps can be ignored. To find local minima, we start the optimization process a large number of times with random initial intensities. We investigated whether the occurrence of local minima depends upon the choice of the objective function parameters and the number of variables and whether their existence is an impediment in finding a satisfactory solution. To learn about the behavior of multiple minima, we first used a symmetric cubic phantom containing a cubic target and an organ-at-risk surrounding it to optimize the beam weights of two pairs of parallel-opposed beams using a gradient technique. The phantom studies also served to test our software. Objective function parameters were chosen to ensure that multiple minima would exist. Data for 500 plans, optimized with random initial beam weights, were analyzed. The search process did succeed in finding the local minima and showed that the number of minima depends on the parameters of the objective functions. It was also found that the consequences of local minima depended on the number of beams. We further searched for the multiple minima in intensity-modulated treatment plans for a head-and-neck case and a lung case. In addition to the treatment plan scores and the dose-volume histograms, we examined the dose distributions and intensity patterns. We did not find any evidence that multiple local minima affect the outcome of optimization using gradient techniques in any clinically

  12. {Delta}I = 2 energy staggering in normal deformed dysprosium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.A.; Brown, T.B.; Archer, D.E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Very high spin states (I{ge}50{Dirac_h}) have been observed in {sup 155,156,157}Dy. The long regular band sequences, free from sharp backbending effects, observed in these dysprosium nuclei offer the possibility of investigating the occurence of any {Delta}I = 2 staggering in normal deformed nuclei. Employing the same analysis techniques as used in superdeformed nuclei, certain bands do indeed demonstrate an apparent staggering and this is discussed.

  13. Woods-Saxon potential parametrization at large deformations for plutonium odd isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Garrote, E.; Yoneama, M.L.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Mesa, J.; Bringas, F.; Likhachev, V.P.; Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of single-particle levels in the second minima of 237,239,241 Pu was analyzed with the help of an axially-deformed Woods-Saxon potential. The nuclear shape was parametrized in terms of the cassinian ovaloids. A parametrization of the spin-orbit part of the potential was obtained in the region corresponding to large deformations (second minimum), depending only on the nuclear surface area. With this parametrization, we were able to reproduce successfully the spin, parity and energies of the rotational band built on the 8 μ s isomeric state in 239 Pu and, also, a spin assignment for both isomeric states in 237 Pu and 241 Pu was carried out. (orig.)

  14. Woods-Saxon potential parametrization at large deformations for odd-plutonium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Yoneama, M.L.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Mesa, J.; Bringas, F.; Dias, J.F.; Likhachev, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the the single-particle levels in the secondary minima of 237,239,241 Pu fissioning nuclei is analysed with the help of an axially-deformed Woods-Saxon potential. The nuclear shape was parametrized in terms of the Cassinian ovaloids. The parametrization of the spin-orbit part of the potential in the region corresponding to large deformations (second minimum), which depends only on the nuclear surface area, B s , was obtained. With this relation we were able to reproduce successfully the spin (parity) and the energies of the rotational band built on the 8μs isomeric rate in 239 Pu and also to make a spin assignment for both isomer states in 237 Pu and 241 Pu. (author)

  15. Role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, S; Jeyakumari, S; Chinnathambi, V; Sanjuan, M A F

    2010-01-01

    We report our investigation into the role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance in both underdamped and overdamped Duffing oscillators. The systems are driven by both low- and high-frequency periodic forces. We obtain theoretical expressions for the amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which resonances occur. The depth and location of the minima of the potential wells have a distinct effect on vibrational resonance in the underdamped and overdamped cases. In the underdamped system at least one resonance and at most two resonances occur and the number of resonances can be altered by varying the depth and location of the minima of the potential wells. We show that in the overdamped system there is always one and only one resonance, and the value of g at which resonance occurs is independent of the depth of the wells, but varies linearly with the locations of the minima of the wells.

  16. Role of stacking fault energy on the deformation characteristics of copper alloys processed by plane strain compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Danaf, Ehab A.; Al-Mutlaq, Ayman; Soliman, Mahmoud S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Different compositions of Cu-Zn and Cu-Al alloys are plane strain compressed. → Strain hardening rates, microstructure and texture evolution are documented. → SFE has an indirect effect rather a critical dislocation density controls twinning. → Cu-Al exhibited the need for higher dislocation density for twin initiation. → Onset of twinning occurs in the copper alloys tested with a normalized SFE ≤ 10-3. - Abstract: Samples of Cu-Al and Cu-Zn alloys with different compositions were subjected to large strains under plane strain compression (PSC), a process that simulates the rolling operation. Four compositions in the Cu-Al system, namely 1, 2, 4.7 and 7 wt.% Al and three compositions in the Cu-Zn system of 10, 20 and 30 wt.% Zn, were investigated. Adding Al or Zn to Cu effectively lowers the stacking fault energy (SFE) of the alloy and changes the deformation mechanism from dislocation slipping to dislocation slipping and deformation twinning. True stress-true strain responses in PSC were documented and the strain hardening rates were calculated and correlated to the evolved microstructure. The onset of twinning in low SFE alloys was not directly related to the low value of SFE, but rather to build up of a critical dislocation density during strain hardening in the early stage of deformation (ε < 0.1). The evolution of texture was documented for the Cu-Al samples using X-ray diffraction for samples plane strain compressed to true axial strains of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0. Orientation distribution function (ODF) plots were generated and quantitative information on the volume fraction of ideal rolling orientations were depicted and correlated with the stacking fault energy.

  17. Low-energy E1 transitions and octupole softness in odd-A deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, G B [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hamamoto, I [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Kownacki, J; Satula, W [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)

    1992-08-01

    It is found that B(E1) values for yrast spectroscopy of deformed odd-A rare-earth nuclei calculated by using a model in which one quasiparticle is coupled to a rotor are more than an order of magnitude too small. Therefore, measured B(E1) values for {sup 169}Lu were analyzed by introducing parameters which effectively took octupole softness into account. Some preliminary results of the theoretical analysis which are presented in this paper still give do not agree completely with experiment. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Recovery from Maunder-like Grand Minima in a Babcock–Leighton Solar Dynamo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark

    2018-06-01

    The Sun occasionally goes through Maunder-like extended grand minima when its magnetic activity drops considerably from the normal activity level for several decades. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain the origin of these minima. However, how the Sun managed to recover from such inactive phases every time is even more enigmatic. The Babcock–Leighton type dynamos, which are successful in explaining many features of the solar cycle remarkably well, are not expected to operate during grand minima due to the lack of a sufficient number of sunspots. In this Letter, we explore the question of how the Sun could recover from grand minima through the Babcock–Leighton dynamo. In our three-dimensional dynamo model, grand minima are produced spontaneously as a result of random variations in the tilt angle of emerging active regions. We find that the Babcock–Leighton process can still operate during grand minima with only a minimal number of sunspots, and that the model can emerge from such phases without the need for an additional generation mechanism for the poloidal field. The essential ingredient in our model is a downward magnetic pumping, which inhibits the diffusion of the magnetic flux across the solar surface.

  19. Precipitation of ferromagnetic phase induced by defect energies during creep deformation in Type 304 austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Yuhki; Shiraki, Atsuhiro; Murata, Yoshinori; Takaya, Shigeru; Koyama, Toshiyuki; Morinaga, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    The correlation of defect energies with precipitation of the ferromagnetic phase near M 23 C 6 carbide during creep tests at high temperature in Type 304 austenitic steel was examined by estimating the defect energies near the carbide, based on micromechanics. As one of the defect energies, the precipitation energy was calculated by assuming M 23 C 6 carbide to be a spherical inclusion. The other defect energy, creep dislocation energy, was calculated based on dislocation density data obtained from transmission electron microscopy observations of the creep samples. The dislocation energy density was much higher than the precipitation energy density in the initial stage of the creep process, when the ferromagnetic phase started to increase. Creep dislocation energy could be the main driving force for precipitation of the ferromagnetic phase.

  20. Precipitation of ferromagnetic phase induced by defect energies during creep deformation in Type 304 austenitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Yuhki, E-mail: tsukada@silky.numse.nagoya-u.ac.j [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shiraki, Atsuhiro; Murata, Yoshinori [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Takaya, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Koyama, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Morinaga, Masahiko [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The correlation of defect energies with precipitation of the ferromagnetic phase near M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide during creep tests at high temperature in Type 304 austenitic steel was examined by estimating the defect energies near the carbide, based on micromechanics. As one of the defect energies, the precipitation energy was calculated by assuming M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide to be a spherical inclusion. The other defect energy, creep dislocation energy, was calculated based on dislocation density data obtained from transmission electron microscopy observations of the creep samples. The dislocation energy density was much higher than the precipitation energy density in the initial stage of the creep process, when the ferromagnetic phase started to increase. Creep dislocation energy could be the main driving force for precipitation of the ferromagnetic phase.

  1. Free energy on a cycle graph and trigonometric deformation of heat kernel traces on odd spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We consider a possible ‘deformation’ of the trace of the heat kernel on odd dimensional spheres, motivated by the calculation of the free energy of a scalar field on a discretized circle. By using an expansion in terms of the modified Bessel functions, we obtain the values of the free energies after a suitable regularization.

  2. Deformation and failure in extreme regimes by high-energy pulsed lasers: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, Tane P. [The University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Remington, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hahn, Eric N. [The University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, Marc A., E-mail: mameyers@ucsd.edu [The University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-03-14

    The use of high-power pulsed lasers to probe the response of materials at pressures of hundreds of GPa up to several TPa, time durations of nanoseconds, and strain rates of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 1}° s{sup −1} is revealing novel mechanisms of plastic deformation, phase transformations, and even amorphization. This unique experimental tool, aided by advanced diagnostics, analysis, and characterization, allows us to explore these new regimes that simulate those encountered in the interiors of planets. Fundamental Materials Science questions such as dislocation velocity regimes, the transition between thermally-activated and phonon drag regimes, the slip-twinning transition, the ultimate tensile strength of metals, the dislocation mechanisms of void growth are being answered through this powerful tool. In parallel with experiments, molecular dynamics simulations provide modeling and visualization at comparable strain rates (10{sup 8}–10{sup 10} s{sup −1}) and time durations (hundreds of picoseconds). This powerful synergy is illustrated in our past and current work, using representative face-centered cubic (fcc) copper, body-centered cubic (bcc) tantalum and diamond cubic silicon as model structures.

  3. Comparison between diffraction contrast tomography and high-energy diffraction microscopy on a slightly deformed aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Renversade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain structure of an Al–0.3 wt%Mn alloy deformed to 1% strain was reconstructed using diffraction contrast tomography (DCT and high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM. 14 equally spaced HEDM layers were acquired and their exact location within the DCT volume was determined using a generic algorithm minimizing a function of the local disorientations between the two data sets. The microstructures were then compared in terms of the mean crystal orientations and shapes of the grains. The comparison shows that DCT can detect subgrain boundaries with disorientations as low as 1° and that HEDM and DCT grain boundaries are on average 4 µm apart from each other. The results are important for studies targeting the determination of grain volume. For the case of a polycrystal with an average grain size of about 100 µm, a relative deviation of about ≤10% was found between the two techniques.

  4. Quantum deformed magnon kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...

  5. Deformations and strain energy in fragments of tempered glass: experimental and numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Bjarrum, Marie

    2017-01-01

    energy and thereby the stress in a fragment post failure. The FE-model have been established in previous work Nielsen (Glass Struct Eng, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s40940-016-0036-z) and is applied here on the specific geometry and initial state of the investigated fragments. This is done by measuring...

  6. Low energy dislocation structures due to unidirectional deformation at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, D.

    1986-01-01

    The line energy of dislocations is {Gb2f(v)/4π} 1n(R/b) with R range of the dislocation stress field from the axis. This equation implies that quasi-uniform distributions are unstable relative to dislocation clusters in which neighboring dislocations mutually screen their stress fields, correspon......The line energy of dislocations is {Gb2f(v)/4π} 1n(R/b) with R range of the dislocation stress field from the axis. This equation implies that quasi-uniform distributions are unstable relative to dislocation clusters in which neighboring dislocations mutually screen their stress fields......, correspondingly leaving the major fraction of the volume free of dislocations. The value of R decreases in the following order: pile-ups to dipolar mats, Taylor lattices, tilt and dipolar walls to dislocation cell structures. This is the same order in which dislocation structures tend to develop with increasing...... dislocation density and hence increased dislocation interactions, leading to the corresponding energy decrease per unit length of dislocation line. Taking into consideration also the longer-range “termination stresses” of finite dislocation boundaries, and minimizing the total energy, explains the size...

  7. Theoretical relation between halo current-plasma energy displacement/deformation in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahab Ud-Din; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Song, Yuntao; Dalong, Chen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, theoretical model for calculating halo current has been developed. This work attained novelty as no theoretical calculations for halo current has been reported so far. This is the first time to use theoretical approach. The research started by calculating points for plasma energy in terms of poloidal and toroidal magnetic field orientations. While calculating these points, it was extended to calculate halo current and to developed theoretical model. Two cases were considered for analyzing the plasma energy when flows down/upward to the diverter. Poloidal as well as toroidal movement of plasma energy was investigated and mathematical formulations were designed as well. Two conducting points with respect to (R, Z) were calculated for halo current calculations and derivations. However, at first, halo current was established on the outer plate in clockwise direction. The maximum generation of halo current was estimated to be about 0.4 times of the plasma current. A Matlab program has been developed to calculate halo current and plasma energy calculation points. The main objective of the research was to establish theoretical relation with experimental results so as to precautionary evaluate the plasma behavior in any Tokamak.

  8. Erica multiflora (Ericaceae), Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) in Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullaj, Alfred; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Erica multiflora (Ericaceae) in Albania is confirmed to occur in the Karaburun Peninsula as well as other regions in Albania. This links the distribution of the species in Croatia to that of western Greece. Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) are reported as new for the Al......Erica multiflora (Ericaceae) in Albania is confirmed to occur in the Karaburun Peninsula as well as other regions in Albania. This links the distribution of the species in Croatia to that of western Greece. Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) are reported as new...

  9. Photoactuators for Direct Optical-to-Mechanical Energy Conversion: From Nanocomponent Assembly to Macroscopic Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Li, Zhe; Lan, Tian; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Photoactuators with integrated optical-to-mechanical energy conversion capacity have attracted growing research interest in the last few decades due to their unique features of remote control and their wide applications ranging from bionic robots, biomedical devices, and switches to motors. For the photoactuator design, the energy conversion route and structure assembly are two important parts, which directly affect the performance of the photoactuators. In particular, the architectural designs at the molecular, nano-, micro-, and macro- level, are found to play a significant role in accumulating molecular-scale strain/stress to macroscale strain/stress. Here, recent progress on photoactuators based on photochemical and photothermal effects is summarized, followed by a discussion of the important assembly strategies for the amplification of the photoresponsive components at nanoscale to macroscopic scale motions. The application advancement of current photoactuators is also presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Deciphering solar magnetic activity: on grand minima in solar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2015-07-08

    The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well- understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism—magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate, and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a “grand minimum”? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(&ish) year solar activity cycle.

  11. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: On Grand Minima in Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott William Mcintosh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism - magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a grand minimum? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(-ish year solar activity cycle.

  12. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: On Grand Minima in Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, Scott; Leamon, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism - magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a "grand minimum"? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(-ish) year solar activity cycle.

  13. Energy dissipation of Alfven wave packets deformed by irregular magnetic fields in solar-coronal arches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave energy flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.

  14. On the minima of the time integrated perturbation factor in the Scherer-Blume theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, E.F. da; Freire Junior, F.L.; Massolo, C.P.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1981-09-01

    The minima in the correlation time dependence of the Scherer-Blume time integrated attenuation coefficients for the hyperfine perturbation of ions recoiling in gas are studied. Its position and depth are determined for different physical situations and comparison with experimental data is shown. (Author) [pt

  15. Learning behavior and temporary minima of two-layer neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Hoen, Klaas; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical analysis of the occurrence of temporary minima during training of a single-output, two-layer neural network, with learning according to the back-propagation algorithm. A new vector decomposition method is introduced, which simplifies the mathematical analysis of

  16. Solar Cycle Variability and Grand Minima Induced by Joy's Law Scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark S.

    2017-08-01

    The strength of the solar cycle varies from one cycle to another in an irregular manner and the extreme example of this irregularity is the Maunder minimum when Sun produced only a few spots for several years. We explore the cause of these variabilities using a 3D Babcock--Leighton dynamo. In this model, based on the toroidal flux at the base of the convection zone, bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) are produced with flux, tilt angle, and time of emergence all obtain from their observed distributions. The dynamo growth is limited by a tilt quenching.The randomnesses in the BMR emergences make the poloidal field unequal and eventually cause an unequal solar cycle. When observed fluctuations of BMR tilts around Joy's law, i.e., a standard deviation of 15 degrees, are considered, our model produces a variation in the solar cycle comparable to the observed solar cycle variability. Tilt scatter also causes occasional Maunder-like grand minima, although the observed scatter does not reproduce correct statistics of grand minima. However, when we double the tilt scatter, we find grand minima consistent with observations. Importantly, our dynamo model can operate even during grand minima with only a few BMRs, without requiring any additional alpha effect.

  17. The Nature of Grand Minima and Maxima from Fully Nonlinear Flux Transport Dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inceoglu, Fadil; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Rempel, Matthias, E-mail: finceoglu@aip.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We aim to investigate the nature and occurrence characteristics of grand solar minimum and maximum periods, which are observed in the solar proxy records such as {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C, using a fully nonlinear Babcock–Leighton type flux transport dynamo including momentum and entropy equations. The differential rotation and meridional circulation are generated from the effect of turbulent Reynolds stress and are subjected to back-reaction from the magnetic field. To generate grand minimum- and maximum-like periods in our simulations, we used random fluctuations in the angular momentum transport process, namely the Λ-mechanism, and in the Babcock–Leighton mechanism. To characterize the nature and occurrences of the identified grand minima and maxima in our simulations, we used the waiting time distribution analyses, which reflect whether the underlying distribution arises from a random or a memory-bearing process. The results show that, in the majority of the cases, the distributions of grand minima and maxima reveal that the nature of these events originates from memoryless processes. We also found that in our simulations the meridional circulation speed tends to be smaller during grand maximum, while it is faster during grand minimum periods. The radial differential rotation tends to be larger during grand maxima, while it is smaller during grand minima. The latitudinal differential rotation, on the other hand, is found to be larger during grand minima.

  18. Allelopathic Activity and Chemical Composition of Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. Essential Oil from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Gawad, Ahmed M; El-Amier, Yasser A; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic plants attract the attention of many researchers worldwide due to their worthy applications in agriculture, human prosperity, and the environment. Essential oil (EO) could be exploited as effective alternatives to synthetic compounds as it has several biological activities including allelopathy. The EO from the aerial parts of Rhynchosia minima was extracted by hydrodistillation and investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 μL L -1 ) of the EO were prepared for investigation of their allelopathic potential on two weeds; Dactyloctenium aegyptium and Rumex dentatus. Twenty-eight compounds, mainly sesquiterpenes (69.13%) were determined. The major compounds are α-eudesmol, 2-allyl-5-tert-butylhydroquinone, caryophyllene oxide, trans-caryophyllene, and τ-cadinol. The EO from the R. minima showed a significant inhibition of D. aegyptium and R. dentatus germination, while the seedling growth was stimulated. Therefore, it is not recommended to treat these noxious weeds with the EO of R. minima before the germination. In contrast, the apparent stimulatory effect on the seedling growth offers further studies to use the EO of R. minima to enhance the fitness of different economic crops. However, characterization of green bio-herbicides such as EO (allelochemicals) from wild plants raises a new opportunity for the incorporation of new technology of bio-control against the noxious weeds. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Theoretical analysis of piezoelectric energy harvesting from traffic induced deformation of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, H J; Wang, J J; Shi, Z F; Zhang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    The problem of energy harvesting using piezoelectric transducers for pavement system applications is formulated with a focus on moving vehicle excitations. The pavement behavior is described by an infinite Bernoulli–Euler beam subjected to a moving line load and resting on a Winkler foundation. A closed-form dynamic response of the pavement is determined by a Fourier transform and the residue theorem. The voltage and power outputs of the piezoelectric harvester embedded in the pavements are then obtained by the direct piezoelectric effect. A comprehensive parametric study is conducted to show the effect of damping, the Winkler modulus, and the velocity of moving vehicles on the voltage and power output of the piezoelectric harvester. It is found that the output increases sharply when the velocity of the vehicle is close to the so-called critical velocity. (paper)

  20. A new approach to measure the elasticity modulus for ceramics using the deformation energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foschini, Cesar R.; Souza, Edson A.; Borges, Ana F. S.; Pintao, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative method to measure the modulus of elasticity to traction, E, for relatively limited sample sizes. We constructed a measurement system with a Force sensor (FS) and a Rotation movement sensor (RMS) to obtain a relationship between force (F) and bending (ΔL). It was possible by calculating the strain energy and the work of a constant force to establish a relationship between these quantities; the constant of proportionality in this relationship depends on E, I and L. I and L are the moment of inertia of the uniform cross-section in relation to an oriented axis and length, respectively, of the sample for bending. An expression that could achieve the value of E was deduced to study samples of Y-TZP ceramics. The advantages of this system compared to traditional systems are its low cost and practicality in determining E

  1. A new approach to measure the elasticity modulus for ceramics using the deformation energy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foschini, Cesar R.; Souza, Edson A. [Dept. of EngineeringFeb-UNESPBauru (Brazil); Borges, Ana F. S. [Dept. of MaterialFOB-USP, Bauru (Brazil); Pintao, Carlos A. [Dept. of PhysicsFC-UNESP, Bauru (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents an alternative method to measure the modulus of elasticity to traction, E, for relatively limited sample sizes. We constructed a measurement system with a Force sensor (FS) and a Rotation movement sensor (RMS) to obtain a relationship between force (F) and bending (ΔL). It was possible by calculating the strain energy and the work of a constant force to establish a relationship between these quantities; the constant of proportionality in this relationship depends on E, I and L. I and L are the moment of inertia of the uniform cross-section in relation to an oriented axis and length, respectively, of the sample for bending. An expression that could achieve the value of E was deduced to study samples of Y-TZP ceramics. The advantages of this system compared to traditional systems are its low cost and practicality in determining E.

  2. Dissipation and accumulation of energy during plastic deformation of Armco -iron and 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toktogulova, D.; Maksimkin, O.; Gusev, M.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Much attention is currently being paid in the fusion materials community to modeling of radiation damage and its consequences in structural alloys on mechanical properties. Such activities are best guided with experimental data on the fundamental microstructural and thermodynamic processes involved. This report addresses such fundamental concerns. During plastic deformation of metals some fraction of the externally-applied mechanical energy is converted into heat and is partially accumulated in the form of crystal lattice defects. The thermal release arises from gliding dislocations, their various interactions, their annihilation etc. With respect to irradiated material, one might expect additional heat release caused by interactions of dislocation and radiation-induced defects. To explore this possibility flat mini-tensile specimens of Armco-iron and 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel, both in the annealed condition, were irradiated in the range 2x10 18 to 1.3x10 20 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) in the WWR-K reactor at T≤350 K. Mechanical tests of both irradiated and non-irradiated specimens were conducted at room temperature in a facility that was a combination of a Calvet calorimeter and a micro-tensile device. This allows simultaneous measurement of mechanical properties and thermodynamic parameters such as deformation work, dissipated heat and latent energy during deformation. The authors derived the kinetics of changes in thermodynamic characteristics versus the deformation level. As the neutron fluence rises, the material's capability to accumulate energy appears to be declining. For example, 12Cr18Ni10Ti irradiated to 1.3x10 20 n/cm 2 did not show any energy accumulation under deformation. In Armco-iron at 1.4x10 19 n/cm 2 the heat release considerably exceeded the deformation work value. The authors assume that such effects might be related with annihilation of point defects and their complexes introduced during irradiation. To test this

  3. Deformed special relativity with an energy barrier of a minimum speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This research aims to introduce a new principle of symmetry in the flat space-time by means of the elimination of the classical idea of rest, and by including a universal minimum limit of speed in the quantum world. Such a limit, unattainable by the particles, represents a preferred inertial reference frame associated with a universal background field that breaks Lorentz symmetry. So there emerges a new relativistic dynamics where a minimum speed forms an inferior energy barrier. One of the interesting implications of the existence of such a minimum speed is that it prevents the absolute zero temperature for an ultracold gas, according to the third law of thermodynamics. So we will be able to provide a fundamental dynamical explanation for the third law by means of a connection between such a phenomenological law and the new relativistic dynamics with a minimum speed. In other words we say that our relevant investigation is with respect to the problem of the absolute zero temperature in the thermodynamics of an ideal gas. We have made a connection between the 3 rd law of Thermodynamics and the new dynamics with a minimum speed by means of a relation between the absolute zero temperature (T = 0 deg K) and a minimum average speed (V) for a gas with N particles (molecules or atoms). Since T = 0 deg K is thermodynamically unattainable, we have shown this is due to the impossibility of reaching V from the new dynamics standpoint. (author)

  4. Efficient star-topology solving local minima for geolocation in real UMTS networks: an experimental assessment with real data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Juan Antonio; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Fernández-Navarro, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    of avoiding any local minima. In this manner, errors in the positioning algorithm are only due to multipath environment and co-channel interference, ensuring that local minima do not affect the result offered by the positioning method. A provisional patent application based on this method has been filed...

  5. Surface deformation effects on stainless steel, Ni, Cu and Mo produced by medium energy He ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Florescu, V.; Sarbu, C.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate dose and energy dependence of surface deformation effects (blistering and flaking), different kinds of candidate CTR first wall materials as 12KH18N10T, W-4541, W-4016 and SS-304 stainless steels, Ni, Cu, Mo were irradiated at room temperature with 3.0, 4.7 and 6.8 MeV He + ions at IAP Cyclotron. The effects were investigated by means of a TEMSCAN 200 CX electron microscope and two metallographic Orthoplan Pol Leitz and Olympus microscopes. We observed two dose dependent main phenomena: blistering and flaking (craters). So, blisters occurrence on the irradiated surface is almost instantaneous when a critical dose (number of He ions accumulated in the region at the end of alpha particles range) is reached. Increasing irradiation dose, we reached flaking stage. So, isolated submicronic fissures along grain boundaries were observed on the blister skin, chronologically followed by large (5-20 μm) deep cracks of hundreds of microns in length, blisters opening and, finally, flaking appearance. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. High energy, widely tunable Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator with a deformed pump and optimal crystal location for angle tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang; Chen, Zhenlei

    2017-03-20

    A high energy, widely tunable Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (TPO) has been demonstrated by using a deformed pump. The deformed pump is cut from a beam spot of 2 mm in diameter by a 1-mm-wide slit. In comparison with a small pump spot (1-mm diameter), the THz-wave coupling area for the deformed pump is increased without limitation to the low-frequency end of the tuning range. Besides, the crystal location is specially designed to eliminate the alteration of the output position of the pump during angle tuning, so the initially adjusted nearest pumped region to the THz-wave exit surface is maintained throughout the tuning range. The tuning range is 0.58-2.5 THz for the deformed pump, while its low frequency end is limited at approximately 1.2 THz for the undeformed pump with 2 mm diameter. The highest THz-wave output of 2 μJ, which is 2.25 times as large as that from the pump of 1 mm in diameter, is obtained at 1.15 THz under 38 mJ (300  MW/cm2) pumping. The energy conversion efficiency is 5.3×10-5.

  7. Shape coexistence in 16O, 72Se, and 240Pu: a comprehensive view based on the dynamic deformation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that the gross features of the collective spectra of even-even nuclei ranging from 12 C to 240 Pu are reproduced by the dynamic deformation model without any fitting parameters. We apply another test to be same model in the present study. Can this single model explain three seemingly different types of shape co-existence proposed previously: spherical op-oh and deformed 2p-2h shapes in 16 O, spherical and prolate-deformed minima in the potential energy surface of 72 Se, ground state shape and fission isomer shape of 240 Pu. Of these three nuclei, only the nucleus 72 Se is off the line of beta-stability. The calculated potential energy surfaces and collective spectra of 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu are discussed and compared with experiments. The three different kinds of shape coexistence proposed previously for 16 O, 72 Se, and 240 Pu are all reproduced by the present version of the dynamic deformation model within the same model and without any fitting parameters. We conclude that the combination of the dynamics of the nine-dimensional quadrupole and pairing motions with a large space microscopic calculation provides a rather powerful tool for studying practically all even-even nuclei

  8. Dust around young stars. Observations of the polarization of UX Ori in deep minima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voshchinnikov, N.V.; Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric monitoring observations of UX Ori begun in 1986 in the Crimea and Bolivia have resulted in the observation of two deep minima of the brightness during which a growth of the linear polarization (to ≅7%) was observed, together with a tendency for the circular polarization to increase (up to ≅1%). Analysis of the observational data shows that the main source of the polarized radiation in the deep minima is the emission of the star scattered by grains of circumstellar dust. On the basis of Mie's theory for a polydisperse graphite-silicate mixtures of particles the optical properties of ellipsoidal dust envelopes have been calculated and a model of the Algol-like minimum constructed

  9. Rhaphiostylis minima Jongkind (Icacinaceae, a new liana species from Ivory Coast & Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel C.H. Jongkind

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Rhaphiostylis, R. minima sp. nov. from Liberia and Ivory Coast, is described and illustrated here. It is characterised by its comparatively small size, an ovate to lanceolate leaf blade with long drip tip and a partly glabrous ovary that is in shape in between those of R. elegans Engl. and R. preussii Engl. Rhaphiostylis elegans is lectotypified and illustrated here.

  10. Flow-duration-frequency behaviour of British rivers based on annual minima data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman, Maxine D.; Keller, Virginie; Young, Andrew R.; Cadman, Daniel

    2003-06-01

    A comparison of different probability distribution models for describing the flow-duration-frequency behaviour of annual minima flow events in British rivers is reported. Twenty-five catchments were included in the study, each having stable and natural flow records of at least 30 years in length. Time series of annual minima D-day average flows were derived for each record using durations ( D) of 1, 7, 30, 60, 90, and 365 days and used to construct low flow frequency curves. In each case the Gringorten plotting position formula was used to determine probabilities (of non-exceedance). Four distribution types—Generalised Extreme Value (GEV), Generalised Logistic (GL), Pearson Type-3 (PE3) and Generalised Pareto (GP)—were used to model the probability distribution function for each site. L-moments were used to parameterise individual models, whilst goodness-of-fit tests were used to assess their match to the sample data. The study showed that where short durations (i.e. 60 days or less) were considered, high storage catchments tended to be best represented by GL and GEV distribution models whilst low storage catchments were best described by PE3 or GEV models. However, these models produced reasonable results only within a limited range (e.g. models for high storage catchments did not produce sensible estimates of return periods where the prescribed flow was less than 10% of the mean flow). For annual minima series derived using long duration flow averages (e.g. more than 90 days), GP and GEV models were generally more applicable. The study suggests that longer duration minima do not conform to the same distribution types as short durations, and that catchment properties can influence the type of distribution selected.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UY UMa and EF Boo compiled time of minima (Yu+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.-X.; Zhang, X.-D.; Hu, K.; Xiang, F.-Y.

    2017-11-01

    In order to construct the (O-C) diagram to analyze the period change of UY UMa, we have performed a careful search for all available times of light minima. A total of 76 times of light minima were collected and listed in Table 2. >From the literatures and two well-known databases (i.e., the O-C gateway (http://var.astro.cz/ocgate) and the Lichtenknecker database of the BAV (http://www.bav-astro.de/LkDB/index.php)), we have collected a total of 75 available times of light minima for EF Boo, which are summarized in Table 3. (3 data files).

  12. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  13. High-energy X-ray measurements of structural anisotropy and excess free volume in a homogenously deformed Zr-based metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.T.; Kramer, M.J.; Besser, M.F.; Sordelet, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have used high-energy X-ray scattering to measure the structural anisotropy and excess free volume in a homogeneously deformed Zr-based metallic glass alloy. The scattering results show that bond length anisotropy is present in the samples following isothermal tensile creep deformation. The average atomic bond length in the direction parallel to the tensile loading axis is larger than that in the direction normal to the loading axis. The magnitude of the bond length anisotropy is found to be dependent on the gradient of macroscopic plastic strain along the gauge length. Furthermore, the scattering results show that the excess free volume also increases with increasing macroscopic plastic strain. Results from differential scanning calorimetry analysis of free volume variations along the gauge length of the creep samples are consistent with results from the X-ray scattering experiments

  14. Polar and equatorial coronal hole winds at solar minima: From the heliosphere to the inner corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E., E-mail: lzh@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Fast solar wind can be accelerated from at least two different sources: polar coronal holes and equatorial coronal holes. Little is known about the relationship between the wind coming from these two different latitudes and whether these two subcategories of fast wind evolve in the same way during the solar cycle. Nineteen years of Ulysses observations, from 1990 to 2009, combined with ACE observations from 1998 to the present provide us with in situ measurements of solar wind properties that span two entire solar cycles. These missions provide an ideal data set to study the properties and evolution of the fast solar wind originating from equatorial and polar holes. In this work, we focus on these two types of fast solar wind during the minima between solar cycles 22 and 23 and 23 and 24. We use data from SWICS, SWOOPS, and VHM/FGM on board Ulysses and SWICS, SWEPAM, and MAG on board ACE to analyze the proton kinetic, thermal, and dynamic characteristics, heavy ion composition, and magnetic field properties of these two fast winds. The comparison shows that: (1) their kinetic, thermal, compositional, and magnetic properties are significantly different at any time during the two minima and (2) they respond differently to the changes in solar activity from cycle 23 to 24. These results indicate that equatorial and polar fast solar wind are two separate subcategories of fast wind. We discuss the implications of these results and relate them to remote-sensing measurements of the properties of polar and equatorial coronal holes carried out in the inner corona during these two solar minima.

  15. Polar and equatorial coronal hole winds at solar minima: From the heliosphere to the inner corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Fast solar wind can be accelerated from at least two different sources: polar coronal holes and equatorial coronal holes. Little is known about the relationship between the wind coming from these two different latitudes and whether these two subcategories of fast wind evolve in the same way during the solar cycle. Nineteen years of Ulysses observations, from 1990 to 2009, combined with ACE observations from 1998 to the present provide us with in situ measurements of solar wind properties that span two entire solar cycles. These missions provide an ideal data set to study the properties and evolution of the fast solar wind originating from equatorial and polar holes. In this work, we focus on these two types of fast solar wind during the minima between solar cycles 22 and 23 and 23 and 24. We use data from SWICS, SWOOPS, and VHM/FGM on board Ulysses and SWICS, SWEPAM, and MAG on board ACE to analyze the proton kinetic, thermal, and dynamic characteristics, heavy ion composition, and magnetic field properties of these two fast winds. The comparison shows that: (1) their kinetic, thermal, compositional, and magnetic properties are significantly different at any time during the two minima and (2) they respond differently to the changes in solar activity from cycle 23 to 24. These results indicate that equatorial and polar fast solar wind are two separate subcategories of fast wind. We discuss the implications of these results and relate them to remote-sensing measurements of the properties of polar and equatorial coronal holes carried out in the inner corona during these two solar minima.

  16. Data Analysis of Minima Total Cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 on JENDL-3.2Nuclear Data File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Pandiangan, Tumpal; Ferhat-Aziz

    2000-01-01

    The integral tests of neutron cross-section for shielding material suchas nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file have been performed. Analysis ofthe calculation for nitrogen-14 was based on the MAEKER's ORNL-BroomstickExperiment at ORNL-USA. For the data comparison, the calculation analysiswith JENDL-3.1 file, ENDF/B-IV file, ENDF/B-VI file and JEF2.2 have also beencarried out. The overall calculation results by using JENDL-3.2 evaluationshowed good agreement with the experimental data, as well as those with theENDF/B-VI evaluation. In particular, the JENDL-3.2 evaluation gave betterresults than JENDL-3.1 evaluation and ENDF/B-IV. It was been concluded thatthe total cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file is invery good agreement with the experimental results, although the totalcross-section in the energy range between 0.5 MeV and 0.9 MeV on fileJENDL-3.2 was small (about 4% lower), and minima of total cross-sections wasdeeper. (author)

  17. Iterative h-minima-based marker-controlled watershed for cell nucleus segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Akhan, Ece; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2016-04-01

    Automated microscopy imaging systems facilitate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research. The first step of these systems is cell nucleus segmentation, which has a great impact on the success of the overall system. The marker-controlled watershed is a technique commonly used by the previous studies for nucleus segmentation. These studies define their markers finding regional minima on the intensity/gradient and/or distance transform maps. They typically use the h-minima transform beforehand to suppress noise on these maps. The selection of the h value is critical; unnecessarily small values do not sufficiently suppress the noise, resulting in false and oversegmented markers, and unnecessarily large ones suppress too many pixels, causing missing and undersegmented markers. Because cell nuclei show different characteristics within an image, the same h value may not work to define correct markers for all the nuclei. To address this issue, in this work, we propose a new watershed algorithm that iteratively identifies its markers, considering a set of different h values. In each iteration, the proposed algorithm defines a set of candidates using a particular h value and selects the markers from those candidates provided that they fulfill the size requirement. Working with widefield fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments reveal that the use of multiple h values in our iterative algorithm leads to better segmentation results, compared to its counterparts. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. STRUCTURE IN THE 3D GALAXY DISTRIBUTION. II. VOIDS AND WATERSHEDS OF LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of the Polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design (BBD, one of the most common response surface methodology (RSM methods, was used to optimize the experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima root (PRM. The antioxidant abilities and anticancer activity of purified polysaccharide fractions were also measured. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ultrasound exposure time, 21 min; ratio of water to material, 46 mL/g; ultrasound extraction temperature, 63 °C. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of PRM was 16.95% ± 0.07%. Furthermore, the main monosaccharides of purified fractions were Ara and Gal. PRM3 and PRM5 exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activities and reducing power in vitro. PRM3 showed strong inhibitory activities on the growth of MCF-7 cells in vitro. The above results indicate that polysaccharides from R. minima root have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants and anticancer ingredients for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of the Polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuejing; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Jie; He, Muxue; Bao, Jiaolin; Wang, Kai; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Wan, Jianbo; Su, Huanxing; Zhang, Qingwen; He, Chengwei

    2015-11-23

    Box-Behnken design (BBD), one of the most common response surface methodology (RSM) methods, was used to optimize the experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima root (PRM). The antioxidant abilities and anticancer activity of purified polysaccharide fractions were also measured. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ultrasound exposure time, 21 min; ratio of water to material, 46 mL/g; ultrasound extraction temperature, 63 °C. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of PRM was 16.95%±0.07%. Furthermore, the main monosaccharides of purified fractions were Ara and Gal. PRM3 and PRM5 exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activities and reducing power in vitro. PRM3 showed strong inhibitory activities on the growth of MCF-7 cells in vitro. The above results indicate that polysaccharides from R. minima root have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants and anticancer ingredients for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n = 2–6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Aprà, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first optimum geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the ring pentamer and several water hexamer (prism, cage, cyclic and two book) at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. All five hexamer isomer minima previously reported by MP2 are also minima on the CCSD(T) potential energy surface (PES). In addition, all CCSD(T) minimum energy structures for the n=2-6 cluster isomers are quite close to the ones previously obtained by MP2 on the respective PESs, as confirmed by a modified Procrustes analysis that quantifies the difference between any two cluster geometries. The CCSD(T) results confirm the cooperative effect of the homodromic ring networks (systematic contraction of the nearest-neighbor (nn) intermolecular separations with cluster size) previously reported by MP2, albeit with O-O distances shorter by ~0.02 Å, indicating that MP2 overcorrects this effect. The harmonic frequencies at the minimum geometries were obtained by the double differentiation of the CCSD(T) energy using an efficient scheme based on internal coordinates that reduces the number of required single point energy evaluations by ~15% when compared to the corresponding double differentiation using Cartesian coordinates. Negligible differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are found for the librational modes, while uniform increases of ~15 and ~25 cm-1 are observed for the bending and “free” OH harmonic frequencies. The largest differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are observed for the harmonic hydrogen bonded frequencies. The CCSD(T) red shifts from the monomer frequencies (Δω) are smaller than the MP2 ones, due to the fact that the former produces shorter elongations (ΔR) of the respective hydrogen bonded OH lengths from the monomer value with respect to the latter. Both the MP2 and CCSD(T) results for the hydrogen bonded frequencies were found to closely follow the relation - Δω = s · ΔR, with a rate of s = 20.3 cm-1 / 0.001 Å. The CCSD

  2. Nuclear deformations, level assignments and static nuclear moments of isotopes in the region 72Hf-77Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, C.; Rubinsztein, H.; Moeller, P.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is made between experimental and theoretical level assignments and static electromagnetic moments of nuclei in the region 72 Hf- 77 Ir. The theoretical calculations are based on the modified oscillator model. Equilibrium deformation values, epsilon and epsilon 4 , are determined for doubly-even and odd-mass nuclei from the minima in the potential energy surfaces. The influence of the different parameters entering the expressions for the magnetic dipole moment is analysed. The electric quadrupole and hexadecapole moments are calculated on the assumption that the nucleus is a homogeneously charged body with a sharp surface and a shape corresponding to that of an equipotential surface. In some selected cases, the electric multipole moments are evaluated by use of the single-particle wave functions. (Auth.)

  3. Description of the Rigid Triaxial Deformation at Low Energy in 76Ge with the Proton-Neutron Interacting Model IBM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Da-Li; Ding Bin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    We investigate properties of the low-lying energy states for 76 Ge within the framework of the proton-neutron interacting model IBM2, considering the validity of the Z = 38 subshell closure 88 Sr 50 as a doubly magic core. By introducing the quadrupole interactions among like bosons to the IBM2 Hamiltonian, the energy levels for both the ground state and γ bands are reproduced well. Particularly, the doublet structure of the γ band and the energy staggering signature fit the experimental data correctly. The ratios of B(E2) transition strengths for some states of the γ band, and the g factors of the 2 1 + , 2 2 + states are very close to the experimental data. The calculation result indicates that the nucleus exhibiting rigid triaxial deformation in the low-lying states can be described rather well by the IBM2

  4. The influence of stacking fault energy on the mechanical behavior of Cu and Cu-Al alloys: Deformation twinning, work hardening, and dynamic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Gray, George T.

    2001-01-01

    The role of stacking fault energy (SFE) in deformation twinning and work hardening was systematically studied in Cu (SFE ˜78 ergs/cm2) and a series of Cu-Al solid-solution alloys (0.2, 2, 4, and 6 wt pct Al with SFE ˜75, 25, 13, and 6 ergs/cm2, respectively). The materials were deformed under quasi-static compression and at strain rates of ˜1000/s in a Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The quasi-static flow curves of annealed 0.2 and 2 wt pct Al alloys were found to be representative of solid-solution strengthening and well described by the Hall-Petch relation. The quasi-static flow curves of annealed 4 and 6 wt pct Al alloys showed additional strengthening at strains greater than 0.10. This additional strengthening was attributed to deformation twins and the presence of twins was confirmed by optical microscopy. The strengthening contribution of deformation twins was incorporated in a modified Hall-Petch equation (using intertwin spacing as the “effective” grain size), and the calculated strength was in agreement with the observed quasi-static flow stresses. While the work-hardening rate of the low SFE Cu-Al alloys was found to be independent of the strain rate, the work-hardening rate of Cu and the high SFE Cu-Al alloys (low Al content) increased with increasing strain rate. The different trends in the dependence of work-hardening rate on strain rate was attributed to the difference in the ease of cross-slip (and, hence, the ease of dynamic recovery) in Cu and Cu-Al alloys.

  5. Maxima and minima of the orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p+-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Jung-Sik; Jung Young-Dae

    1999-01-01

    Orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p +-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasma are investigated using the semiclassical trajectory method including the close-encounter effects. In weakly coupled plasmas, the electron-ion interaction potential is given by the classical nonspherical Debye-Hueckel model. The semiclassical screened hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method is applied to describe the motion of the projectile electron in order to investigate the variation of the orientation parameter as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and Debye length. A comparison is also given for the hyperbolic-orbit and straight-line trajectory methods. The results show that the orientation parameters obtained by the hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method have maxima and minima for small impact parameter regions. In other words, there are complete 1s→2p +1 (maxima) and complete 1s→2p -1 (minima) transitions for certain impact parameters. These maxima cannot be found using the straight-line trajectory method. The variation of the propensity of the 1s→2p -1 transitions due to the plasma screening effects on the atomic wave functions is also discussed

  6. Mechanical energy losses in plastically deformed and electron plus neutron irradiated high purity single crystalline molybdenum at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelada, Griselda I. [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Lambri, Osvaldo Agustin [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Rosario - CONICET, Member of the CONICET& #x27; s Research Staff, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Bozzano, Patricia B. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica, Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Garcia, Jose Angel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Mechanical spectroscopy (MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have been performed in plastically deformed and electron plus neutron irradiated high purity single crystalline molybdenum, oriented for single slip, in order to study the dislocation dynamics in the temperature range within one third of the melting temperature. A damping peak related to the interaction of dislocation lines with both prismatic loops and tangles of dislocations was found. The peak temperature ranges between 900 and 1050 K, for an oscillating frequency of about 1 Hz. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Absence of multiple local minima effects in intensity modulated optimization with dose-volume constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants, LLC 130, Forest Hill Drive, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Deasy, Joseph O [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bortfeld, Thomas R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, MA (United States); Solberg, Timothy D [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Ammerthalstrasse 8, 85551 Heimstetten (Germany)

    2003-01-21

    This paper reports on the analysis of intensity modulated radiation treatment optimization problems in the presence of non-convex feasible parameter spaces caused by the specification of dose-volume constraints for the organs-at-risk (OARs). The main aim was to determine whether the presence of those non-convex spaces affects the optimization of clinical cases in any significant way. This was done in two phases: (1) Using a carefully designed two-dimensional mathematical phantom that exhibits two controllable minima and with randomly initialized beamlet weights, we developed a methodology for exploring the nature of the convergence characteristics of quadratic cost function optimizations (deterministic or stochastic). The methodology is based on observing the statistical behaviour of the residual cost at the end of optimizations in which the stopping criterion is progressively more demanding and carrying out those optimizations to very small error changes per iteration. (2) Seven clinical cases were then analysed with dose-volume constraints that are stronger than originally used in the clinic. The clinical cases are two prostate cases differently posed, a meningioma case, two head-and-neck cases, a spleen case and a spine case. Of the 14 different sets of optimizations (with and without the specification of maximum doses allowed for the OARs), 12 fail to show any effect due to the existence of non-convex feasible spaces. The remaining two sets of optimizations show evidence of multiple minima in the solutions, but those minima are very close to each other in cost and the resulting treatment plans are practically identical, as measured by the quality of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs). We discuss the differences between fluence maps resulting from those similar treatment plans. We provide a possible reason for the observed results and conclude that, although the study is necessarily limited, the annealing characteristics of a simulated annealing method may not be

  8. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  9. Influences of thermal deformation of cavity mirrors induced by high energy DF laser to beam quality under the simulated real physical circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoyong; Zhang, Shiqiang; He, Minbo; Zhang, Zheng; Guan, Xiaowei

    2017-05-01

    The positive-branch confocal unstable resonator with inhomogeneous gain medium was studied for the normal used high energy DF laser system. The fast changing process of the resonator's eigenmodes was coupled with the slow changing process of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors. Influences of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors to the outcoupled beam quality and transmission loss of high frequency components of high energy laser were computed. The simulations are done through programs compiled by MATLAB and GLAD software and the method of combination of finite elements and Fox-li iteration algorithm was used. Effects of thermal distortion, misaligned of cavity mirrors and inhomogeneous distribution of gain medium were introduced to simulate the real physical circumstances of laser cavity. The wavefront distribution and beam quality (including RMS of wavefront, power in the bucket, Strehl ratio, diffraction limit β, position of the beam spot center, spot size and intensity distribution in far-field ) of the distorted outcoupled beam were studied. The conclusions of the simulation agree with the experimental results. This work would supply references of wavefront correction range to the adaptive optics system of interior alleyway.

  10. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  11. Effect of nonaxial and hexadecapole deformation on the hyperfine splitting of energy levels in 238U muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaev, V.I.; Mikhajlov, I.N.; Ortlepp, Kh.G.; Fromm, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of nonaxial and hexadecapole deformation on spectra of moun atoms is considered, the model of rigid nonaxial rotator being used. Experimental data on μ -238 U obtained on the JINR synchrocyclotron are presented. The effect of monopolar, quadrupolar and hexadecapolar parts of potential on muon spectrum is studied using a separated beam of negative 105 MeV/c muons, as the contribution of other harmonics is negligible. Wave functions of 238 U nucleus are determined in the framework of the Davydov-Filipov model. The values of charge distribution parameters obtained for 238 U are compared with available ones. The comparison shows that the effect of nuclear polarization on quadrupolar splitting of n→n-1 transitions decreases with the growth of n. Quadrupolar splitting of 4F→3D transitions is sufficiently large for experimental studies. Besides, vacuum polarization, radial charge distribution etc. produce an insignificant effect on the above transitions

  12. Calorimetric features of release of plastic deformation induced internal stresses, and approach to equilibrium state on annealing of crystals and glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johari, G.P., E-mail: joharig@mcmaster.ca

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Stress release in a glass occurs at a faster rate than structural relaxation. • Plastically-deformed glass would show two exothermic minima, and no glass transition. • Enthalpy matching procedure would yield an inaccurate fictive temperature. • Complex heat capacity may distinguish plastically-deformed from quench-formed glass. - Abstract: Plastic deformation of crystals and glasses produces internal strains (stresses), which change their energy and other thermodynamic properties. On annealing, these stresses decrease at a rate faster than the structure relaxes toward the equilibrium state. Mechanism of such relaxations in crystals differs from that in glasses and it also differs for glasses of different types. In all cases, the energy related properties decrease with time isothermally and on heating, resembling the structure relaxation of a stress-free glass. We consider these features and argue that kinetics of enthalpy loss with time yields the rate constants of the stress release and of the structure change, and not the viscosity determining α-relaxation time. Since thermal cycling does not recover the enthalpy from internal stresses, a glass with stresses has neither a glass-softening temperature, T{sub g}, nor a fictive temperature, T{sub f}. Plastic deformation would not rejuvenate a physically aged glass to the properties of its un-aged state. The Prigogine–Defay ratio can be extended to all T{sub f}s, and used to investigate the effect of distribution of relaxation times on its value, but it can not be defined for an internally stressed glass. After discussing the effects of annealing on the heat capacity and DSC scans, we conclude that on slow heating, glass with deformation-induced stresses would show two exothermic minima, and normal glass would show only one such minimum. Temperature-modulated scanning calorimetry would also distinguish an internally stressed glass from an equally high-enthalpy, stress-free glass. Enthalpy

  13. Quasilocal energy for three-dimensional massive gravity solutions with chiral deformations of AdS{sub 3} boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbarz, Alan, E-mail: alan-at@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA, IFIBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Instituto de Física de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata IFLP-UNLP, C.C. 67 (Argentina); Giribet, Gaston, E-mail: gaston-at@df.uba.ar, E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Goya, Andrés, E-mail: gaston-at@df.uba.ar, E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA, IFIBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leston, Mauricio, E-mail: mauricio-at@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio IAFE-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, C.C. 67 Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-03-26

    We consider critical gravity in three dimensions; that is, the New Massive Gravity theory formulated about Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with the specific value of the graviton mass for which it results dual to a two-dimensional conformai field theory with vanishing central charge. As it happens with Kerr black holes in four-dimensional critical gravity, in three-dimensional critical gravity the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes have vanishing mass and vanishing angular momentum. However, provided suitable asymptotic conditions are chosen, the theory may also admit solutions carrying non-vanishing charges. Here, we give simple examples of exact solutions that exhibit falling-off conditions that are even weaker than those of the so-called Log-gravity. For such solutions, we define the quasilocal stress-tensor and use it to compute conserved charges. Despite the drastic deformation of AdS{sub 3} asymptotic, these solutions have finite mass and angular momentum, which are shown to be non-zero.

  14. Quantiifcation of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi; Fazal Wajid; Inayat-ur-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6) and linolenic acid (ω-3) were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98%and 14.80%respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  15. Quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6 and linolenic acid (ω-3 were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98% and 14.80% respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  16. Dimensional oscillation. A fast variation of energy embedding gives good results with the AMBER potential energy function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, M E; Crippen, G M

    1991-08-01

    The structure of the AMBER potential energy surface of the cyclic tetrapeptide cyclotetrasarcosyl is analyzed as a function of the dimensionality of coordinate space. It is found that the number of local energy minima decreases as the dimensionality of the space increases until some limit at which point equipotential subspaces appear. The applicability of energy embedding methods to finding global energy minima in this type of energy-conformation space is explored. Dimensional oscillation, a computationally fast variant of energy embedding is introduced and found to sample conformation space widely and to do a good job of finding global and near-global energy minima.

  17. Band-head spectra of low-energy single-particle excitations in some well-deformed, odd-mass heavy nuclei within a microscopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Meng-Hock [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR5797, Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR5797, Gradignan (France); Duc, Dao Duy [Ton Duc Thang University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Ton Duc Thang University, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nhan Hao, T.V. [Duy Tan University, Center of Research and Development, Danang (Viet Nam); Hue University, Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, College of Education, Hue City (Viet Nam); Long, Ha Thuy [Hanoi University of Sciences, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Quentin, P. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR5797, Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR5797, Gradignan (France); Ton Duc Thang University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Bonneau, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR5797, Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR5797, Gradignan (France)

    2016-01-15

    In four well-deformed heavy odd nuclei, the energies of low-lying rotational band heads have been determined microscopically within a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-plus-BCS approach with blocking. A Skyrme nucleon-nucleon effective interaction has been used together with a seniority force to describe pairing correlations. Only such states which are phenomenologically deemed to be related to single-particle excitations have been considered. The polarization effects, including those associated with the genuine time-reversal symmetry breaking have been fully taken into account within our model assumptions. The calculated spectra are in reasonably good qualitative agreement with available data for the considered odd-neutron nuclei. This is not so much the case for the odd-proton nuclei. A potential explanation for such a difference in behavior is proposed. (orig.)

  18. Development of Techniques for Investigating Energy Contributions to Target Deformation and Penetration During Reactive Projectile Hypervelocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    inertial system, one can use the Bernoulli equation to describe the process [Wil03]. Estimating an stationary adiabatic process with an incompressible...cally the model is based on the conservation of momentum and energy, supplemented by a correctional term. 9It can be seen, that a smaller liner...system vjet minus the penetration velocity22: vjet,theoretical = vjet − u (9) The whole process can now be described by a simplified Bernoulli formula

  19. Bunionette deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  20. Physalis minima Leaves Extract Induces Re-Endothelialization in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Nugrahenny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The administration of deoxy-corticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt can induce oxidative stress leading to decrease the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO, increase senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Physalis minima L. leaves extract on serum NO levels, circulating EPCs number, and histopathology of tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: rats without any treatment (normal, rats treated with DOCA (10 mg/kgBW s.c. twice weekly and given 0.9% NaCl to drink ad libitum for 6 weeks, and DOCA-salt-induced rats orally supplemented with P. minima leaves extract at doses of 500, 1500, or 2500 mg/kgBW for 4 weeks. Serum NO levels were measured by colorimetry. The number of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+ cells was determined by flow cytometry. The tail artery sections were histologically processed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. DOCA-salt-induced rats showed significantly (p<0.05 decrease in serum NO levels and circulating EPCs number compared to the normal. There was also more detached tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leaves extract at a dose of 500 mg/kgBW significantly (p<0.05 increased serum NO level and circulating EPCs number, and also induced an optimal re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leave extract dose-dependently increases NO bioavailability contributing to enhanced EPCs mobilization, thereby promoting re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats.

  1. [Two-dimensional model of a double-well potential: proton transfer when a hydrogen bond is deformed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, P M

    2014-01-01

    The potential energy cross-section profile along a hydrogen bond may contain two minima in certain conditions; it is so-called a double well potential. The H-bond double well potential is essential for proton transfer along this hydrogen bond. We have considered the two-dimensional model of such double well potential in harmonic approximation, and we have also investigated the proton tunneling in it. In real environments thermal motion of atoms or conformational changes may cause reorientation and relative shift of molecule fragment forming the hydrogen bond and, as a result, the hydrogen bond isdeformed. This deformation is liable to change the double well potential form and, hence, the probability of the proton tunneling is changed too. As it is shown the characteristic time of proton tunneling is essentially increased by even small relative shift of heavy atoms forming the H-bond and also rotational displacement of covalent bond generated by one of heavy atoms and the proton (hydrogen atom). However, it is also shown, at the certain geometry of the H-bond deformation the opposite effect occurred, i.e., the characteristic time is not increased and even decreased. Notice that such its behavior arises from two-dimensionality of potential wells; this and other properties of our model are discussed in detail.

  2. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  3. Particle fracture and plastic deformation in vanadium pentoxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle fracture and plastic deformation in vanadium pentoxide powders induced by high energy vibrational ball-mill ... Keywords. X-ray diffraction; ball-milling; plastic deformation; microstrain. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  4. Deformation effects in the Si + C and Si + Si reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The possible occurrence of highly deformed configurations is investigated in the. ¼ ... Fusion–fission; nuclear deformation; exclusive light charge particle measurements. .... In hot rotating nuclei formed in heavy-ion reactions, the energy level.

  5. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  6. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Rao, Vadlamudi Lakshmana; Goud, Sivagouni Lachaa

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper

  7. Direct design of an energy landscape with bistable DNA origami mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Marras, Alexander E; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

    2015-03-11

    Structural DNA nanotechnology provides a feasible technique for the design and fabrication of complex geometries even exhibiting controllable dynamic behavior. Recently we have demonstrated the possibility of implementing macroscopic engineering design approaches to construct DNA origami mechanisms (DOM) with programmable motion and tunable flexibility. Here, we implement the design of compliant DNA origami mechanisms to extend from prescribing motion to prescribing an energy landscape. Compliant mechanisms facilitate motion via deformation of components with tunable stiffness resulting in well-defined mechanical energy stored in the structure. We design, fabricate, and characterize a DNA origami nanostructure with an energy landscape defined by two stable states (local energy minima) separated by a designed energy barrier. This nanostructure is a four-bar bistable mechanism with two undeformed states. Traversing between those states requires deformation, and hence mechanical energy storage, in a compliant arm of the linkage. The energy barrier for switching between two states was obtained from the conformational distribution based on a Boltzmann probability function and closely follows a predictive mechanical model. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability to actuate the mechanism into one stable state via additional DNA inputs and then release the actuation via DNA strand displacement. This controllable multistate system establishes a foundation for direct design of energy landscapes that regulate conformational dynamics similar to biomolecular complexes.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of elastic-plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubarda, V.

    1981-01-01

    The complete set of constitutive equations which fully describes the behaviour of material in elastic-plastic deformation is derived on the basis of thermodynamic analysis of the deformation process. The analysis is done after the matrix decomposition of the deformation gradient is introduced into the structure of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The free energy function, is decomposed. Derive the expressions for the stress response, entropy and heat flux, and establish the evolution equation. Finally, we establish the thermodynamic restrictions of the deformation process. (Author) [pt

  9. Les populations iséroises de petite massette (Typha minima Hoppe : suivis et perspectives de restauration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAUNATRE, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pour se protéger des crues en montagne, les hommes ont transformé et artificialisé les cours d’eau, avec comme conséquence une perte en surface d’habitats pour la biodiversité. Ainsi, les populations de petite massette (Typha minima Hoppe, plante des berges des cours d’eau, ont régressé de 85 % en un siècle dans les Alpes ! Aujourd’hui, la législation est plus attentive à la préservation de la biodiversité dans le cadre de projets d’aménagement et elle rend obligatoire un certain nombre de mesures permettant de compenser les impacts sur les écosystèmes. Pour les aménageurs du territoire, la restauration de populations de T. minima pose cependant des questions auxquelles cet article apporte des éléments de réponses.

  10. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...... parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness...

  11. IBA in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for 168 Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong β → γ transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the β → γ transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ΔK=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics

  12. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  13. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  14. Energy landscape of social balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  15. Theoretical studies of the global minima and polarizabilities of small lithium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hanshi; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Hammond, Jeffrey R.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Apra, Edoardo; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Li, Jun; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol

    2016-01-16

    Lithium clusters Lin (n=1-20) have been investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and coupled—cluster (CC) methods. The global-minimum structures are located via an improved basin---hopping algorithm and the lowest energy Lin isomers are confirmed with DFT geometry optimizations, CCSD(T) energy calculations, and by comparing simulated and experimental polarizabilities. The tetrahedral Li4 structure is found to be the basic building block of lithium clusters Lin (n=6-20). Simulated polarizabilities, including thermal effects at room temperature, are in good agreement with measured isotropic polarizabilities.

  16. Problem of ''deformed'' superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiczewski, A.; Patyk, Z.; Muntian, I.

    2000-08-01

    Problem of experimental confirmation of deformed shapes of superheavy nuclei situated in the neighbourhood of 270 Hs is discussed. Measurement of the energy E 2+ of the lowest 2+ state in even-even species of these nuclei is considered as a method for this confirmation. The energy is calculated in the cranking approximation for heavy and superheavy nuclei. The branching ratio p 2+ /p 0+ between α decay of a nucleus to this lowest 2+ state and to the ground state 0+ of its daughter is also calculated for these nuclei. The results indicate that a measurement of the energy E 2+ for some superheavy nuclei by electron or α spectroscopy is a promising method for the confirmation of their deformed shapes. (orig.)

  17. Fusion process of Lennard-Jones clusters: global minima and magic numbers formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for modeling the fusion process of Lennard–Jones (LJ) clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms...

  18. Deformation behavior of Cu bicrystals with the Σ9(110)(221) symmetric tilt grain boundary under pure shear studied by atomistic simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Liang; Wang Shaoqing

    2010-01-01

    The deformation behavior of Cu bicrystals with the symmetric tilt grain boundary (STGB) under pure shear has been studied by atomistic simulation method with the embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials. By using an energy minimization method, it shows that there are two optimized structures of this grain boundary (GB) which correspond to two local energy minima on the potential energy surface of the GB. The structure with lower energy is the stable one while the other is a metastable structure. The pure shear process of the bicrystals at ambient temperature has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The simulated results indicate that there are three structure transformation modes of this GB depending on the shear direction: (1) pure GB sliding; (2) GB atomic shuffling accompanied by dislocation emission from GB; (3) GB migration coupled GB sliding, namely, GB coupling motion. In addition, an analysis of the structure evolution of the GB shows that, there are two mechanisms for GB coupling motion depending on the shear direction. One is the collective motion of GB atoms and the other is structure transformation realized by uncorrelated atomic shuffling processes. The former mechanism can induce structure transition of GB between the stable one and the metastable one, while the latter introduces faceting of the GB. (authors)

  19. Geometry and dynamics of particle emission from strongly deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.P.

    1995-01-01

    By using our semiclassical approach to particle evaporation from deformed nuclei, we analyze the heuristic models of particle emission from deformed nuclei which are used in the codes GANES, ALICE, and EVAP. The calculations revealed that the heuristic models are reasonable for particle energy spectra but fail, at large deformations, to describe the angular distributions

  20. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  1. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  2. Minkowski space structure of the Higgs potential in the two-Higgs-doublet model. II. Minima, symmetries, and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I. P.

    2008-01-01

    We continue to explore the consequences of the recently discovered Minkowski space structure of the Higgs potential in the two-Higgs-doublet model. Here, we focus on the vacuum properties. The search for extrema of the Higgs potential is reformulated in terms of 3-quadrics in the 3+1-dimensional Minkowski space. We prove that 2HDM cannot have more than two local minima in the orbit space and that a twice-degenerate minimum can arise only via spontaneous violation of a discrete symmetry of the Higgs potential. Investigating topology of the 3-quadrics, we give concise criteria for existence of noncontractible paths in the Higgs orbit space. We also study explicit symmetries of the Higgs potential/Lagrangian and their spontaneous violation from a wider perspective than usual

  3. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-11-01

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.

  4. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  5. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF 0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180 Pb and 184 Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF 0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF 0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  6. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  7. Fine structure in deformed proton emitting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; Davids, C. N.; Woods, P. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ressler, J. J.; Schwartz, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Walters, W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent experiment to study the proton radioactivity of the highly deformed 131 Eu nucleus, two proton lines were detected. The higher energy one was assigned to the ground-state to ground-state decay, while the lower energy, to the ground-state to the 2 + state decay. This constitutes the first observation of fine structure in proton radioactivity. With these four measured quantities, proton energies, half-life and branching ratio, it is possible to determine the Nilsson configuration of the ground state of the proton emitting nucleus as well as the 2 + energy and nuclear deformation of the daughter nucleus. These results will be presented and discussed

  8. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  9. GRAND MINIMA AND EQUATORWARD PROPAGATION IN A CYCLING STELLAR CONVECTIVE DYNAMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustson, Kyle; Miesch, Mark [High Altitude Observatory, Center Green 1, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM–CNRS–Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toomre, Juri [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The 3D MHD Anelastic Spherical Harmonic code, using slope-limited diffusion, is employed to capture convective and dynamo processes achieved in a global-scale stellar convection simulation for a model solar-mass star rotating at three times the solar rate. The dynamo-generated magnetic fields possesses many timescales, with a prominent polarity cycle occurring roughly every 6.2 years. The magnetic field forms large-scale toroidal wreaths, whose formation is tied to the low Rossby number of the convection in this simulation. The polarity reversals are linked to the weakened differential rotation and a resistive collapse of the large-scale magnetic field. An equatorial migration of the magnetic field is seen, which is due to the strong modulation of the differential rotation rather than a dynamo wave. A poleward migration of magnetic flux from the equator eventually leads to the reversal of the polarity of the high-latitude magnetic field. This simulation also enters an interval with reduced magnetic energy at low latitudes lasting roughly 16 years (about 2.5 polarity cycles), during which the polarity cycles are disrupted and after which the dynamo recovers its regular polarity cycles. An analysis of this grand minimum reveals that it likely arises through the interplay of symmetric and antisymmetric dynamo families. This intermittent dynamo state potentially results from the simulation’s relatively low magnetic Prandtl number. A mean-field-based analysis of this dynamo simulation demonstrates that it is of the α-Ω type. The timescales that appear to be relevant to the magnetic polarity reversal are also identified.

  10. Deformations of superconformal theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Dumitrescu, Thomas T. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intriligator, Kenneth [Department of Physics, University of California,9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  11. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  12. ''Identical'' bands in normally-deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.; Baktash, C.; Yu, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray transitions energies in neighboring odd- and even-mass nuclei for normally-deformed nuclear configurations are analyzed in a manner similar to recent analyses for superdeformed states. The moment of inertia is shown to depend on pair correlations and the aligned angular momentum of the odd nucleon. The implications of this analysis for ''identical'' super-deformed bands are discussed. 26 refs., 9 figs

  13. The physiology and biochemistry of the Laminaria pallida/Carpoblepharis minima and Ecklonia maxima/Suhria vittata associations from south-western Cape waters, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    The two laminarian brown algae Laminaria pallida Grev. ex. J. Ag. and Ecklonia maxima were studied. The red algae, growing attached to the brown algae namely, Carpoblepharis minima Bart. and Suhria vittata (L.) J. Ag. Pallida/C. minima and E. maxima/S. vittata associations were studied. Carpoblepharis minima has only been observed on L. pallida, whereas S. vittata has been found attached to various substrates as well as to E. maxima. Physiological studies were undertaken on both brown and red algae. Translocation was found to occur in the brown algae at a velocity of 50-100mm h- 1 in L. pallida and 240-300mm h- 1 in E. maxima after incubation in seawater containing 14 C-sodium bicarbonate (1μCi ml- 1 ). Movement of 14 C-assimilates in L. pallida was slower than in E. maxima probably due to a difference in the medulla structure. The only 14 C-labelled assimilates in the brown/red algal association were the acyclic polyol mannitol and certain amino acids. Mannitol was the major translocant in L. pallida and E. maxima. The mannitol concentration varied seasonally. Studies using 15 N-potassium nitrate showed that the major 'free' amino acids in L. pallida were alanine, glutamic acid and histadine, whereas in E. maxima they were alanine, glutamic acid and glutamine. The red algae contained mannitol and the major 'free' aminoacids were alanine, glutamine and histadine in C. minima and glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine in S. vittata. Both red algae were found to possess photosynthetic pigments, undergo 14 C-assimilation and to incorporate exogenously supplied mannitol. There was transfer of the 14 C-labelled assimilates of photosynthesis from the brown to the red algal partner in the L. pallida/C. minima association, but this did not occur in th E. maxima/S. vittata relationship

  14. Equilibrium Droplets on Deformable Substrates: Equilibrium Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koursari, Nektaria; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Starov, Victor M

    2018-05-15

    Equilibrium conditions of droplets on deformable substrates are investigated, and it is proven using Jacobi's sufficient condition that the obtained solutions really provide equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformed support. At the equilibrium, the excess free energy of the system should have a minimum value, which means that both necessary and sufficient conditions of the minimum should be fulfilled. Only in this case, the obtained profiles provide the minimum of the excess free energy. The necessary condition of the equilibrium means that the first variation of the excess free energy should vanish, and the second variation should be positive. Unfortunately, the mentioned two conditions are not the proof that the obtained profiles correspond to the minimum of the excess free energy and they could not be. It is necessary to check whether the sufficient condition of the equilibrium (Jacobi's condition) is satisfied. To the best of our knowledge Jacobi's condition has never been verified for any already published equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate. A simple model of the equilibrium droplet on the deformable substrate is considered, and it is shown that the deduced profiles of the equilibrium droplet and deformable substrate satisfy the Jacobi's condition, that is, really provide the minimum to the excess free energy of the system. To simplify calculations, a simplified linear disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm is adopted for the calculations. It is shown that both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium are satisfied. For the first time, validity of the Jacobi's condition is verified. The latter proves that the developed model really provides (i) the minimum of the excess free energy of the system droplet/deformable substrate and (ii) equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate.

  15. Curvature and the visual perception of shape: theory on information along object boundaries and the minima rule revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E Charles

    2012-07-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately, Feldman and Singh (2005, Psychological Review, 112, 243-252) proposed a mathematical derivation to yield information content as a function of curvature along a contour. Here, we highlight several fundamental errors in their derivation and in its associated implementation, which are problematic in both mathematical and psychological senses. Instead, we propose an alternative mathematical formulation for information measure of contour curvature that addresses these issues. Additionally, unlike in previous work, we extend this approach to 3-dimensional (3D) shape by providing a formal measure of information content for surface curvature and outline a modified version of the minima rule relating to part segmentation using curvature in 3D shape. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Sánchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-29

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  17. Ground state properties of exotic nuclei in deformed medium mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manju; Chatterjee, R.; Singh, Jagjit; Shubhchintak

    2017-01-01

    The dipole moment, size of the nucleus and other ground state properties of deformed nuclei 37 Mg and 31 Ne are presented. Furthermore with this deformed wave function the electric dipole strength distribution for deformed nuclei 37 Mg and 31 Ne is calculated. This will allow us to investigate the two dimensional scaling phenomenon with two parameters: quadrupole deformation and separation energy

  18. κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Y.; Dhahbi, A.; Cherif, B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in the presence of a constant transverse magnetic field. We demonstrate how the deformation parameter affects the energy eigenvalues of the system and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Our findings suggest that this system could be used to detect experimentally the effect of the deformation. We also show that the hidden supersymmetry of the non-deformed system reduces to a hidden pseudo-supersymmetry having the same algebraic structure as a result of the κ-deformation.

  19. Investigation of the neutron emission spectra of some deformed nuclei for (n, xn) reactions up to 26 MeV energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.; Bueyuekuslu, H.; Tel, E.; Aydin, A.; Boeluekdemir, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, neutron-emission spectra produced by (n, xn) reactions up to 26 MeV for some deformed target nuclei as 165 Ho, 181 Ta, 184 W, 232 Th and 238 U have been investigated. Also, the mean free path parameter's effect for 9n, xn) neutron-emission spectra has been examined. In the calculations, pre-equilibrium neutron-emission spectra have been calculated by using new evaluated hybrid model and geometry dependent hybrid model, full exciton model and cascade exciton model. The reaction equilibrium component has been calculated by Weisskopf-Ewing model. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other. (author)

  20. A novel SUSY energy bound-states treatment of the Klein-Gordon equation with PT-symmetric and q-deformed parameter Hulthén potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on investigating the exact relativistic bound-state spectra for supersymmetric, PT-supersymmetric and non-Hermitian versions of the q-deformed parameter Hulthén potential. The Hamiltonian hierarchy mechanism, namely the factorization method, is adopted within the framework of SUSYQM. This algebraic approach is used in solving the Klein-Gordon equation with the potential cases. The results obtained analytically by executing the straightforward calculations are in consistent forms for certain values of q. Achieving the results may have a particular interest for such applications. That is, they can be involved in determining the quantum structural properties of molecules for ro-vibrational states, and optical spectra characteristics of semiconductor devices with regard to the lattice dynamics. They are also employed to construct the broken or unbroken case of the supersymmetric particle model concerning the interaction between the elementary particles.

  1. δ-hydride habit plane determination in α-zirconium by strain energy minimization technique at 25 and 300 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.; Stahle, P.; Sairam, K.; Ristmana, Matti; Banerjee, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation is to predict the habit plane of δ-hydride precipitating in α-Zr at 25 and 300 deg C using strain energy minimization technique. The δ-hydride phase is modeled to undergo isotropic elastic and plastic deformation. The α-Zr phase was modeled to undergo transverse isotropic elastic deformation. Both isotropic plastic and transverse isotropic plastic deformations of α-Zr were considered. Further, both perfect and linear work-hardening plastic behaviors of zirconium and its hydride were considered. Accommodation strain energy of δ-hydrides forming in α-Zr crystal was computed using initial strain method as a function of hydride nuclei orientation. Hydride was modeled as disk with circular edge. The simulation was carried out using materials properties reported at 25 and 300 deg C. Contrary to several habit planes reported in literature for δ-hydrides precipitating in α-Zr crystal the total accommodation energy minima suggests only basal plane i.e. (0001) as the habit plane. (author)

  2. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  3. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  4. The evolution of internal stress and dislocation during tensile deformation in a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel investigated by high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-01-01

    An application of high-energy wide angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the tensile deformation of 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel is presented. With tensile loading and in-situ X-ray exposure, the lattice strain development of matrix was determined. The lattice strain was found to decrease with increasing temperature, and the difference in Young's modulus of six different reflections at different temperatures reveals the temperature dependence of elastic anisotropy. The mean internal stress was calculated and compared with the applied stress, showing that the strengthening factor increased with increasing temperature, indicating that the oxide nanoparticles have a good strengthening impact at high temperature. The dislocation density and character were also measured during tensile deformation. The dislocation density decreased with increasing of temperature due to the greater mobility of dislocation at high temperature. The dislocation character was determined by best-fit methods for different dislocation average contrasts with various levels of uncertainty. The results shows edge type dislocations dominate the plastic strain at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C, while the screw type dislocations dominate at 600 °C. The dominance of edge character in 9Cr F/M ODS steels at RT and 300 °C is likely due to the pinning effect of nanoparticles for higher mobile edge dislocations when compared with screw dislocations, while the stronger screw type of dislocation structure at 600 °C may be explained by the activated cross slip of screw segments. - Highlights: • The tensile deformation of 9Cr ODS steel was studied by synchrotron irradiation. • The evolution of internal mean stress was calculated. • The evolution of dislocation character was determined by best-fit method. • Edge type dominates plasticity at RT and 300 °C, while screw type dominates at 600 °C.

  5. The evolution of internal stress and dislocation during tensile deformation in a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel investigated by high-energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guangming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Zhou, Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhj@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Mo, Kun [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Almer, Jonathan [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    An application of high-energy wide angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the tensile deformation of 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel is presented. With tensile loading and in-situ X-ray exposure, the lattice strain development of matrix was determined. The lattice strain was found to decrease with increasing temperature, and the difference in Young's modulus of six different reflections at different temperatures reveals the temperature dependence of elastic anisotropy. The mean internal stress was calculated and compared with the applied stress, showing that the strengthening factor increased with increasing temperature, indicating that the oxide nanoparticles have a good strengthening impact at high temperature. The dislocation density and character were also measured during tensile deformation. The dislocation density decreased with increasing of temperature due to the greater mobility of dislocation at high temperature. The dislocation character was determined by best-fit methods for different dislocation average contrasts with various levels of uncertainty. The results shows edge type dislocations dominate the plastic strain at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C, while the screw type dislocations dominate at 600 °C. The dominance of edge character in 9Cr F/M ODS steels at RT and 300 °C is likely due to the pinning effect of nanoparticles for higher mobile edge dislocations when compared with screw dislocations, while the stronger screw type of dislocation structure at 600 °C may be explained by the activated cross slip of screw segments. - Highlights: • The tensile deformation of 9Cr ODS steel was studied by synchrotron irradiation. • The evolution of internal mean stress was calculated. • The evolution of dislocation character was determined by best-fit method. • Edge type dominates plasticity at RT and 300 °C, while screw type dominates at 600 °C.

  6. The evolution of internal stress and dislocation during tensile deformation in a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel investigated by high-energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-12-01

    An application of high-energy wide angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the tensile deformation of 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel is presented. With tensile loading and in-situ Xray exposure, the lattice strain development of matrix was determined. The lattice strain was found to decrease with increasing temperature, and the difference in Young's modulus of six different reflections at different temperatures reveals the temperature dependence of elastic anisotropy. The mean internal stress was calculated and compared with the applied stress, showing that the strengthening factor increased with increasing temperature, indicating that the oxide nanoparticles have a good strengthening impact at high temperature. The dislocation density and character were also measured during tensile deformation. The dislocation density decreased with increasing of temperature due to the greater mobility of dislocation at high temperature. The dislocation character was determined by best-fit methods for different dislocation average contrasts with various levels of uncertainty. The results shows edge type dislocations dominate the plastic strain at room temperature (RT) and 300 C, while the screw type dislocations dominate at 600 C. The dominance of edge character in 9Cr F/M ODS steels at RT and 300 C is likely due to the pinning effect of nanoparticles for higher mobile edge dislocations when compared with screw dislocations, while the stronger screw type of dislocation structure at 600 C may be explained by the activated cross slip of screw segments.

  7. Is nucleon deformed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1992-01-01

    The surprising answer to this question Is nucleon deformed? is : Yes. The evidence comes from a study of the quark model of the single nucleon and when it is found in a nucleus. It turns out that many of the long standing problems of the Naive Quark Model are taken care of if the nucleon is assumed to be deformed. Only one value of the parameter P D ∼1/4 (which specifies deformation) fits g A (the axial vector coupling constant) for all the semileptonic decay of baryons, the F/D ratio, the pion-nucleon-delta coupling constant fsub(πNΔ), the double delta coupling constant 1 fsub(πΔΔ), the Ml transition moment μΔN and g 1 p the spin structure function of proton 2 . All this gives strong hint that both neutron and proton are deformed. It is important to look for further signatures of this deformation. When this deformed nucleon finds itself in a nuclear medium its deformation decreases. So much that in a heavy nucleus the nucleons are actually spherical. We look into the Gamow-Teller strengths, magnetic moments and magnetic transition strengths in nuclei to study this property. (author). 15 refs

  8. Study on the deformations appearing in a high-energy accelerator superconducting magnets as a result of heat and electromagnetic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greben', L.I.; Mironov, E.S.; Mustafin, Kh.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for numerical calculations are briefly described and the results of studying the deformation distribution are given in a two-dimensional model of the SPD-3 superconduction dipole magnet. The SPD-3 model incorporates a multilayer winding with an internal diameter of 85 mm and an external diameter of 157 mm placed on a stainless-steel tube having a thichness of 5 mm. The 5-cm stainless steel binding provides strong preliminary compression of the winding. It is shown that on internal surfaces of the winding, variations in radial displacements do not exceed +-0.002 mm. Input of current corresponding to a 4.3 T induction in the aperture center results in additional radial displacements in the magnet. Azimuthal displacements in the winding increase by more than 10 times. In the magnet design version having no internal tube, considerable variations have been observed in values of radial displacements in the winding (to +-0.1 mm) while azimuthal displacements in the winding first layer have rea have reached 0.1 mm. It is shown that such substantial displacements may have a pronounced effect of the field distribution in the aperture

  9. The Influence of Deformation on the Surface Structure of Silicon Under Irradiation by $^{86}$Kr Ions with Energy 253 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasukova, L A; Hofmann, A; Komarov, F F; Semina, V K; Yuvchenko, V N

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the previously produced deformation in silicon structure by means of macro-scratch surface covering on the sputtering processes under following irradiation by swift $^{86}$Kr ions is studied. The significant leveling of surface relief of irradiated silicon was observed using atomic force microscopy method (AFM), in particular it takes place for smoothing of micro-scratches produced by mechanical polishing of silicon initial plates. The experimental studies of irradiated surface allowed one to conclude that it is impossible to explain the surface changes only by elastic cascade mechanism as it was calculated using the computer code TRIM-98, because the calculated sputtered layers of silicon at ion fluence $\\Phi_{\\rm Kr} = 1{.}3\\cdot10^{14}$ ion/cm$^{2}$ should be $\\Delta H_{\\rm Sputtering}^{\\rm Kr} = 5{.}5\\cdot10^{-3 }${\\AA}. Correspondingly, the surface changes should be explained by one of mechanisms of inelastic sputtering. The macro-cracks on the surface were observed near the scratches. I...

  10. How To Tackle the Issues in Free Energy Simulations of Long Amphiphiles Interacting with Lipid Membranes: Convergence and Local Membrane Deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipe, H. A. L.; Moreno, M. J.; Rog, T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the great challenges in membrane biophysics is to find a means to foster the transport of drugs across complex membrane structures. In this spirit, we elucidate methodological challenges associated with free energy computations of complex chainlike molecules across lipid membranes....... As an appropriate standard molecule to this end, we consider 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl-labeled fatty amine, NBD-C-n, which is here dealt with as a homologous series with varying chain lengths. We found the membrane-water interface region to be highly sensitive to details in free energy computations. Despite...... of radius 1.7 nm from the amphiphile. Importantly, the free energy results given by PGC were found to be qualitatively consistent with experimental data, while the PGD results were not. We conclude that with long amphiphiles there is reason for concern with regard to computations of their free energy...

  11. DISCOSIPHONELLA MINIMA SENOWBARI-DARYAN & LINK AND SOLENOLMIA? PARVA N. SP. ("SPHINCTOZOA", PORIFERA FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN OF THE SOUTHERN APPENNINES (NORTHERN CALABRIA/ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  12. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E., E-mail: saper43-7@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF{sup 0} Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, {sup 180}Pb and {sup 184}Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF{sup 0} functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF{sup 0} functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron

  13. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  14. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  15. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  16. Fault on-off versus strain rate and earthquakes energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doglioni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the brittle-ductile transition (BDT controls the seismic cycle. In particular, the movements detected by space geodesy record the steady state deformation in the ductile lower crust, whereas the stick-slip behavior of the brittle upper crust is constrained by its larger friction. GPS data allow analyzing the strain rate along active plate boundaries. In all tectonic settings, we propose that earthquakes primarily occur along active fault segments characterized by relative minima of strain rate, segments which are locked or slowly creeping. We discuss regional examples where large earthquakes happened in areas of relative low strain rate. Regardless the tectonic style, the interseismic stress and strain pattern inverts during the coseismic stage. Where a dilated band formed during the interseismic stage, this will be shortened at the coseismic stage, and vice-versa what was previously shortened, it will be dilated. The interseismic energy accumulation and the coseismic expenditure rather depend on the tectonic setting (extensional, contractional, or strike-slip. The gravitational potential energy dominates along normal faults, whereas the elastic energy prevails for thrust earthquakes and performs work against the gravity force. The energy budget in strike-slip tectonic setting is also primarily due elastic energy. Therefore, precursors may be different as a function of the tectonic setting. In this model, with a given displacement, the magnitude of an earthquake results from the coseismic slip of the deformed volume above the BDT rather than only on the fault length, and it also depends on the fault kinematics.

  17. Systematics of triaxial deformation in Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.; Vogel, O.; von Brentano, P.; Gelberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    The (β,γ) deformation parameters of even-even Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei have been calculated by using the triaxial rotor model. Deformation parameters calculated, on one hand, from decay properties and, on the other hand, from energies are in good agreement. The smooth dependence of the deformation parameters on Z and N is discussed. The results are compared with those extracted from properties of odd-A nuclei

  18. Dynamic deformation theory of spherical and deformed light and heavy nuclei with A = 12-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Krishna.

    1979-01-01

    Deformation dependent wave functions are calculated for different types of even-even nuclei (spherical, transitional, deformed; light, medium, heavy) without any fitting parameters. These wave functions are employed for the energies, B(E2)'s, quadrupole and magnetic moments of selected nuclei with A = 12-240 (with special emphasis on 56 Fe, 154 Gd), and for neutron cross sections of 148 Sm, 152 Sm

  19. Transmission coefficents in strongly deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    By using our semiclassical approach to particle evaporation from deformed nuclei developed earlier, we analyze here the heuristic methods of taking into account the effects of shape deformations on particle emission. These methods are based on the 'local' transmission coefficients in which the effective barrier depends on the angle with respect to the symmetry axis. The calculations revealed that the heuristic models are reasonable for particle energy spectra but fail, at large deformations, to describe the angular distributions. In A∼160 nuclei with axis ratio in the vicinity of 2:1 at temperatures of 2-3 MeV, the W (90 )/W(0 ) anisotropies of α particles with respect to the nuclear spin are 1.5 to 3 times larger than our approach predicts. The influence of spin alignment on particle energy spectra is discussed shortly. (orig.)

  20. Recrystallization of magnesium deformed at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageau, R.; Pastol, J.L.; Revel, G.

    1978-01-01

    The recrystallization of magnesium was studied after rolling at temperatures ranging between 248 and 373 K. For zone refined magnesium the annealing behaviour as observed by electrical resistivity measurements showed two stages at about 250 K and 400 K due respectively to recrystallization and grain growth. The activation energy associated with the recrystallization stage was 0.75 +- 0.01 eV. In less pure magnesium, with nominal purity 99.99 and 99.9%, the recrystallization stage was decomposed into two substages. Activation energies were determined in relation with deformation temperature and purity. The magnesium of intermediate purity (99.99%) behaved similarly to the lowest purity metal when it was deformed at high temperature and to the purest magnesium when the deformation was made at low temperature. This behaviour was discussed in connection with the theories of Luecke and Cahn. (Auth.)

  1. Random versus Deterministic Descent in RNA Energy Landscape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Day

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying sets of metastable conformations is a major research topic in RNA energy landscape analysis, and recently several methods have been proposed for finding local minima in landscapes spawned by RNA secondary structures. An important and time-critical component of such methods is steepest, or gradient, descent in attraction basins of local minima. We analyse the speed-up achievable by randomised descent in attraction basins in the context of large sample sets where the size has an order of magnitude in the region of ~106. While the gain for each individual sample might be marginal, the overall run-time improvement can be significant. Moreover, for the two nongradient methods we analysed for partial energy landscapes induced by ten different RNA sequences, we obtained that the number of observed local minima is on average larger by 7.3% and 3.5%, respectively. The run-time improvement is approximately 16.6% and 6.8% on average over the ten partial energy landscapes. For the large sample size we selected for descent procedures, the coverage of local minima is very high up to energy values of the region where the samples were randomly selected from the partial energy landscapes; that is, the difference to the total set of local minima is mainly due to the upper area of the energy landscapes.

  2. Deformed baryons: constituent quark model vs. bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Y.; Nogami, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Recently Bhaduri et al. developed a nonrelativistic constituent quark model for deformed baryons. In that model the quarks move in a deformable mean field, and the deformation parameters are determined by minimizing the quark energy subject to the constraint of volume conservation. This constraint is an ad hoc assumption. It is shown that, starting with a bag model, a model similar to that of Bhaduri et al. can be constructed. The deformation parameters are determined by the pressure balance on the bag surface. There is, however, a distinct difference between the two models with respect to the state dependence of the ''volume''. Implications of this difference are discussed

  3. An experimental study of plastic deformation of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tine

    The thesis falls in three parts, focusing on different aspects of plastic deformation of metals. Part I investigates the dislocation structures induced by hot deformation and compares these with the structures after cold deformation. In particular, it is shown that the dislocation structures...... after cold deformation by calorimetry and by analysis of the dislocation structure. The stored energy measured by calorimetry is found to be larger than that determined from the dislocation structure by a factor between 1.9 and 2.7, and this factor decreases with the plastic strain. Part III aimed...

  4. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  5. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  6. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  7. Experimental deformation of a mafic rock - interplay between fracturing, reaction and viscous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    accommodate strain via dissolution precipitation creep. The transition from dominantly brittle, to dominantly viscous deformation is determined by the onset of diffusive mass transport. In the transitional regime, reaction kinetics are strongly dependent on strain energy and viscously deforming SB form most likely from an initial brittle stage in a dominantly brittle behaving rock. Viscous deformation in our experiments takes place at comparatively low experimental T, providing a realistic phase assemblage and likely deformation mechanism for the lower crust.

  8. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  9. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  10. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

  11. Effect of contact deformation on contact electrification: a first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuanyue; Shao, Tianmin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of contact deformation on contact electrification of metallic materials was studied by the first-principles method. The results of charge population and the densities of states of the deformed contact models demonstrated that the magnitude of the transferred charge increased with deformation. The mechanism of the effect of deformation was investigated by studying the electronic properties of the deformed surface slabs. The results showed that crystal deformation led to a change in the electrostatic potential of the metal, where the number of nearly free electrons and unoccupied orbitals for charge transfer increased, and their energy barrier decreased. (paper)

  12. A strategy to find minimal energy nanocluster structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, José; Varas, Alejandro; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Kiwi, Miguel

    2013-11-05

    An unbiased strategy to search for the global and local minimal energy structures of free standing nanoclusters is presented. Our objectives are twofold: to find a diverse set of low lying local minima, as well as the global minimum. To do so, we use massively the fast inertial relaxation engine algorithm as an efficient local minimizer. This procedure turns out to be quite efficient to reach the global minimum, and also most of the local minima. We test the method with the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential, for which an abundant literature does exist, and obtain novel results, which include a new local minimum for LJ13 , 10 new local minima for LJ14 , and thousands of new local minima for 15≤N≤65. Insights on how to choose the initial configurations, analyzing the effectiveness of the method in reaching low-energy structures, including the global minimum, are developed as a function of the number of atoms of the cluster. Also, a novel characterization of the potential energy surface, analyzing properties of the local minima basins, is provided. The procedure constitutes a promising tool to generate a diverse set of cluster conformations, both two- and three-dimensional, that can be used as an input for refinement by means of ab initio methods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  14. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  15. Particle deformation during stirred media milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamey, Rhye Garrett

    Production of high aspect ratio metal flakes is an important part of the paint and coating industry. The United States Army also uses high aspect ratio metal flakes of a specific dimension in obscurant clouds to attenuate infrared radiation. The most common method for their production is by milling a metal powder. Ductile metal particles are initially flattened in the process increasing the aspect ratio. As the process continues, coldwelding of metal flakes can take place increasing the particle size and decreasing the aspect ratio. Extended milling times may also result in fracture leading to a further decrease in the particle size and aspect ratio. Both the coldwelding of the particles and the breakage of the particles are ultimately detrimental to the materials performance. This study utilized characterization techniques, such as, light scattering and image analysis to determine the change in particle size as a function of milling time and parameters. This study proved that a fundamental relationship between the milling parameters and particle deformation could be established by using Hertz's theory to calculate the stress acting on the aluminum particles. The study also demonstrated a method by which milling efficiency could be calculated, based on the amount of energy required to cause particle deformation. The study found that the particle deformation process could be an energy efficient process at short milling times with milling efficiency as high as 80%. Finally, statistical design of experiment was used to obtain a model that related particle deformation to milling parameters, such as, rotation rate and milling media size.

  16. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  17. Deformed supersymmetric mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Sidorov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by a recent interest in curved rigid supersymmetries, we construct a new type of N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetric systems by employing superfields defined on the cosets of the supergroup SU(2|1). The relevant worldline supersymmetry is a deformation of the standard N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetry by a mass parameter m. As instructive examples we consider at the classical and quantum levels the models associated with the supermultiplets (1,4,3) and (2,4,2) and find out interesting interrelations with some previous works on nonstandard d = 1 supersymmetry. In particular, the d = 1 systems with 'weak supersymmetry' are naturally reproduced within our SU(2|1) superfield approach as a subclass of the (1,4,3) models. A generalization to the N = 8, d = 1 case implies the supergroup SU(2|2) as a candidate deformed worldline supersymmetry

  18. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  20. Study of elementary mechanisms of creep in uranium as a function of temperature (150 deg. to 760 deg. C) by activation energy measurements; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de deformation par fluage de l'uranium en fonction de la temperature (de 150 deg. a 760 deg. C) par la mesure des energies d'activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Creep tests were carried out on single crystals and polycrystalline specimens of uranium in both the {alpha} and {beta} phases over the temperature range 150 - 760 deg. C. The determination of the activation energy for creep and the study of its variation with temperature made it possible to distinguish various temperature ranges in which one or more elementary mechanisms govern deformation. Micrographic observations after creep and the study of the variation of creep-rate with load support the conclusions. The creep behavior of single crystals is identical with that of polycrystalline material below 325 deg. C. From 325 deg. C to one upper limiting temperature whose value depends on the purity and previous history of the metal, the creep deformation of uranium is controlled by cross-slip. From this limiting temperature up to 520 deg. C, the creep of uranium involves two independent mechanisms operating simultaneously, the movement of screw dislocation by cross-slip and the climbing of edge dislocations out of their slip plane. Between 520 deg. C and the {alpha} - {beta} transformation temperature creep in polycrystals is governed by the climb of edge dislocations out of their slip planes, by a pile up mechanism in the case of primary creep and by dipole annihilation in the case of secondary creep. In single crystals creep is dependent on the climb of edge dislocations into pre-existent sub-boundaries and their subsequent rearrangement within these boundaries. In the {beta} phase the creep of polycrystals is governed by the diffusional climb of edge dislocations. Between 450 and 630 deg. C small alloy additions of molybdenum modify the creep characteristics of uranium although the deformation mechanisms involved are analogous to those in the pure metal. (author) [French] Des essais de fluage a diverses temperatures comprises entre 150 et 760 deg. C ont ete effectues sur des polycristaux et des monocristaux d'uranium, en phase {alpha} et en phase {beta}. La

  1. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  2. Application of the moving frame method to deformed Willmore surfaces in space forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragoda, Thanuja

    2018-06-01

    The main goal of this paper is to use the theory of exterior differential forms in deriving variations of the deformed Willmore energy in space forms and study the minimizers of the deformed Willmore energy in space forms. We derive both first and second order variations of deformed Willmore energy in space forms explicitly using moving frame method. We prove that the second order variation of deformed Willmore energy depends on the intrinsic Laplace Beltrami operator, the sectional curvature and some special operators along with mean and Gauss curvatures of the surface embedded in space forms, while the first order variation depends on the extrinsic Laplace Beltrami operator.

  3. Off-center Jahn-Teller ion: coupled polar and tetragonal deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhnin, V.S.; Sochava, L.S.

    1979-01-01

    Models of the off-center Jahn-Teller ions are considered, i.e. Ni + in SrO and Cu 27 in SrO studied earlier. Models of the off-center Jahn-Teller ion are proposed, in which mutual effect of dipole-active deformations conditioning off-centering and the Jahn-Teller tetragonal deformations takes place. Manifestations of a new type of multipit potential XY 24 of an off-center ion are considered. The Jahn-Teller effect (JTE) is studied for a duplicate in cubic environment, unharmonism of the fourth order being taken into account. In such a model of Exe of JTE, the position and quantity of minima of adiabatic potential are changed as compared with Exe of JTE taking account of unharmonism of the third order or the square Jahn-Teller interaction. While using models of the off-center Jahn-Teller ion which take account of the effect of two tetragonal Jahn-Teller deformations occurring in the Exe problem considering unharmonism of the fourth order produced on dipole-active deformations, it becomes possible to explain the experiment for SrO:Ni +

  4. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  5. Configuration dependent deformation in 183Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M.; Mukherjee, G.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime measurements in 183 Au nucleus were carried in order to probe the deformation properties of the band built on the i 3/2 and h 9/2 configurations. The nucleus of 183 Au was populated using a reaction 28 Si( 159 Tb,4n) 183 Au at a beam energy of 140 MeV. Lifetime measurements were carried out using Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) method

  6. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  7. The elastic scattering of electrons from inert gases: 5. Argon and Krypton in the vicinity of Ramsauer-Townsend minima and on the choice of pseudo-states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fon, W.C.

    1986-07-01

    Recently, several electron scattering experiments using improved experimental techniques have been reported for Ar and Kr in the region of Ramsauer-Townsend minima. The calculations of Fon et al. on electrons colliding with inert-gas atoms are extended to examine these experimental data. These calculations using a single pseudo-state to account for the dipole polarisability of the ground state atom while ignoring a whole host of excitation mechanisms, have been the subject of considerable controversy (e.g. Reinhardt 1981; Walters 1981). The answers to the questions raised by Walters (1981) may well lie in the present calculation and those of Fon et al. (1983, 1984) in which the 1 P pseudo-states used in these calculations give polarisabilities at least 15% larger than the experimental values. (author)

  8. Stokes profile analysis and vector magnetic fields. III. Extended temperature minima of sunspot umbrae as inferred from Stokes profiles of Mg I 4571 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lites, B.W.; Skumanich, A.; Rees, D.E.; Murphy, G.A.; Carlsson, M.; Sydney Univ., Australia; Oslo Universitetet, Norway)

    1987-01-01

    Observed Stokes profiles of Mg I 4571 A are analyzed as a diagnostic of the magnetic field and thermal structure at the temperature minimum of sunspot umbrae. Multilevel non-LTE transfer calculations of the Mg I-II-III excitation and ionization balance in model umbral atmospheres show: (1) Mg I to be far less ionized in sunspot umbrae than in the quiet sun, leading to greatly enhanced opacity in 4571 A, and (2) LTE excitation of 4571 A. Existing umbral models predict emission cores of the Stokes I profile due to the chromospheric temperature rise. This feature is not present in observed umbral profiles. Moreover, such an emission reversal causes similar anomalous features in the Stokes Q, U, V profiles, which are also not observed. Umbral atmospheres with extended temperature minima are suggested. Implications for chromospheric heating mechanisms and the utility of this line for solar vector magnetic field measurements are discussed. 35 references

  9. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of rigid and deformable motion correction algorithms using dual-energy CT images in view of application to CT perfusion measurements in abdominal organs affected by breathing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skornitzke, S; Fritz, F; Klauss, M; Pahn, G; Hansen, J; Hirsch, J; Grenacher, L; Kauczor, H-U; Stiller, W

    2015-02-01

    To compare six different scenarios for correcting for breathing motion in abdominal dual-energy CT (DECT) perfusion measurements. Rigid [RRComm(80 kVp)] and non-rigid [NRComm(80 kVp)] registration of commercially available CT perfusion software, custom non-rigid registration [NRCustom(80 kVp], demons algorithm) and a control group [CG(80 kVp)] without motion correction were evaluated using 80 kVp images. Additionally, NRCustom was applied to dual-energy (DE)-blended [NRCustom(DE)] and virtual non-contrast [NRCustom(VNC)] images, yielding six evaluated scenarios. After motion correction, perfusion maps were calculated using a combined maximum slope/Patlak model. For qualitative evaluation, three blinded radiologists independently rated motion correction quality and resulting perfusion maps on a four-point scale (4 = best, 1 = worst). For quantitative evaluation, relative changes in metric values, R(2) and residuals of perfusion model fits were calculated. For motion-corrected images, mean ratings differed significantly [NRCustom(80 kVp) and NRCustom(DE), 3.3; NRComm(80 kVp), 3.1; NRCustom(VNC), 2.9; RRComm(80 kVp), 2.7; CG(80 kVp), 2.7; all p VNC), 22.8%; RRComm(80 kVp), 0.6%; CG(80 kVp), 0%]. Regarding perfusion maps, NRCustom(80 kVp) and NRCustom(DE) were rated highest [NRCustom(80 kVp), 3.1; NRCustom(DE), 3.0; NRComm(80 kVp), 2.8; NRCustom(VNC), 2.6; CG(80 kVp), 2.5; RRComm(80 kVp), 2.4] and had significantly higher R(2) and lower residuals. Correlation between qualitative and quantitative evaluation was low to moderate. Non-rigid motion correction improves spatial alignment of the target region and fit of CT perfusion models. Using DE-blended and DE-VNC images for deformable registration offers no significant improvement. Non-rigid algorithms improve the quality of abdominal CT perfusion measurements but do not benefit from DECT post processing.

  10. HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRIES IN THE POLAR SOLAR WIND OBSERVED BY ULYSSES NEAR THE MINIMA OF SOLAR CYCLES 22 AND 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, R. W.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2013-01-01

    We examined solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observations from Ulysses' first and third orbits to study hemispheric differences in the properties of the solar wind and IMF originating from the Sun's large polar coronal holes (PCHs) during the declining and minimum phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. We identified hemispheric asymmetries in several parameters, most notably ∼15%-30% south-to-north differences in averages for the solar wind density, mass flux, dynamic pressure, and energy flux and the radial and total IMF magnitudes. These differences were driven by relatively larger, more variable solar wind density and radial IMF between ∼36°S-60°S during the declining phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. These observations indicate either a hemispheric asymmetry in the PCH output during the declining and minimum phase of solar cycles 22 and 23 with the southern hemisphere being more active than its northern counterpart, or a solar cycle effect where the PCH output in both hemispheres is enhanced during periods of higher solar activity. We also report a strong linear correlation between these solar wind and IMF parameters, including the periods of enhanced PCH output, that highlight the connection between the solar wind mass and energy output and the Sun's magnetic field. That these enhancements were not matched by similar sized variations in solar wind speed points to the mass and energy responsible for these increases being added to the solar wind while its flow was subsonic.

  11. Identification of up-regulated genes from the metal-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, in response to lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, A; Calderón-Vázquez, C L; Uh-Ramos, D; Fuentes, G; Ramírez-Prado, J H; Sáenz-Carbonell, L; Santamaría, J M

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. The aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker is capable to hyper-accumulate Pb in their tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its Pb accumulation and tolerance capacity are not fully understood. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are activated by S. minima in response to Pb, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library (SSH) in response to an exposure to 40μM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 for 12h. 365 lead-related differentially expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced. Among these ESTs, 143 unique cDNA (97 were registered at the GenBank and 46 ESTs were not registered, because they did not meet the GenBank conditions). Those ESTs were identified and classified into 3 groups according to Blast2GO. In terms of metabolic pathways, they were grouped into 29 KEGG pathways. Among the ESTs, we identified some that might be part of the mechanism that this fern may have to deal with this metal, including abiotic-stress-related transcription factors, some that might be involved in tolerance mechanisms such as ROS scavenging, membrane protection, and those of cell homeostasis recovery. To validate the SSH library, 4 genes were randomly selected from the library and analyzed by qRT-PCR. These 4 genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in response to lead in at least one of the two tested tissues (roots and leaves). The present library is one of the few genomics approaches to study the response to metal stress in an aquatic fern, representing novel molecular information and tools to understand the molecular physiology of its Pb tolerance and hyperaccumulation capacity. Further research is required to elucidate the functions of the lead-induced genes that remain classified as unknown, to perhaps reveal novel molecular mechanisms of Pb tolerance and accumulation capacity in aquatic plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  13. Hot compression deformation behavior of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Mehdi; Mansouri, Hojjatollah; Vafaei, Reza; Ebrahimi, Golam Reza; Kanani, Ali

    2013-06-01

    The hot compression behavior of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel was studied at the temperatures of 950-1100°C and the strain rates of 0.01-1 s-1 using a Baehr DIL-805 deformation dilatometer. The hot deformation equations and the relationship between hot deformation parameters were obtained. It is found that strain rate and deformation temperature significantly influence the flow stress behavior of the steel. The work hardening rate and the peak value of flow stress increase with the decrease of deformation temperature and the increase of strain rate. In addition, the activation energy of deformation ( Q) is calculated as 433.343 kJ/mol. The microstructural evolution during deformation indicates that, at the temperature of 950°C and the strain rate of 0.01 s-1, small circle-like precipitates form along grain boundaries; but at the temperatures above 950°C, the dissolution of such precipitates occurs. Energy-dispersive X-ray analyses indicate that the precipitates are complex carbides of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Ti.

  14. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  15. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    1994-01-01

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  16. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Deformation behavior of curling strips on tearing tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Kwon, Tae Soo; Jung, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jin Sung [Dept. of Robotics and Virtual Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper discusses the analysis of the curl deformation behavior when a dynamic force is applied to a tearing tube installed on a flat die to predict the energy absorption capacity and deformation behavior. The deformation of the tips of the curling strips was obtained when the curl tips and tube body are in contact with each other, and a formula describing the energy dissipation rate caused by the deformation of the curl tips is proposed. To improve this formula, we focused on the variation of the curl radius and the reduced thickness of the tube. A formula describing the mean curl radius is proposed and verified using the curl radius measurement data of collision test specimens. These improved formulas are added to the theoretical model previously proposed by Huang et al. and verified from the collision test results of a tearing tube.

  18. The most general form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra from the generalized uncertainty principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masood, Syed [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Zaz, Zaid [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Raza, Jamil [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Mushtaq B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India)

    2016-12-10

    In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.

  19. The most general form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra from the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, Syed; Faizal, Mir; Zaz, Zaid; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Raza, Jamil; Shah, Mushtaq B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.

  20. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  1. HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRIES IN THE POLAR SOLAR WIND OBSERVED BY ULYSSES NEAR THE MINIMA OF SOLAR CYCLES 22 AND 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, R. W.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, P.O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Pogorelov, N. V. [Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We examined solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observations from Ulysses' first and third orbits to study hemispheric differences in the properties of the solar wind and IMF originating from the Sun's large polar coronal holes (PCHs) during the declining and minimum phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. We identified hemispheric asymmetries in several parameters, most notably {approx}15%-30% south-to-north differences in averages for the solar wind density, mass flux, dynamic pressure, and energy flux and the radial and total IMF magnitudes. These differences were driven by relatively larger, more variable solar wind density and radial IMF between {approx}36 Degree-Sign S-60 Degree-Sign S during the declining phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. These observations indicate either a hemispheric asymmetry in the PCH output during the declining and minimum phase of solar cycles 22 and 23 with the southern hemisphere being more active than its northern counterpart, or a solar cycle effect where the PCH output in both hemispheres is enhanced during periods of higher solar activity. We also report a strong linear correlation between these solar wind and IMF parameters, including the periods of enhanced PCH output, that highlight the connection between the solar wind mass and energy output and the Sun's magnetic field. That these enhancements were not matched by similar sized variations in solar wind speed points to the mass and energy responsible for these increases being added to the solar wind while its flow was subsonic.

  2. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  3. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  4. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  5. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  6. Static and dynamic deformations of actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.

    1985-09-01

    The zero-point quadrupole-hexadecapole vibrations have been taken into account to calculate dynamical deformations for even-even actinide nuclei. The collective and intrinsic motions are separated according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed using the macroscopic-microscopic method in the potential energy part and the cranking model in the kinetic energy part. The BCS theory with a modified oscillator potential is applied to describe the intrinsic motion of nucleons. A new set of Nilsson potential parameters, which produces a much better description of the properties of light actinide nuclei, has also been found. (orig.)

  7. Videometric research on deformation measurement of large-scale wind turbine blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of wind energy is a promising way to generate power,and wind turbine blades play a key role in collecting the wind energy effectively.This paper attempts to measure the deformation parameter of wind turbine blades in mechanics experiments using a videometric method. In view that the blades experience small buckling deformation and large integral deformation simultaneously, we proposed a parallel network measurement(PNM) method including the key techniques such as camera network construction,c...

  8. Equilibrium deformations of single-particle states of odd nuclei of rare earth region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikov, B.A.; Tsoj, E.G.; Zuber, K.; Pashkevich, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    In terms of the Strutinsky shell-correction method using the Woods-Saxon non-spherical potential the energies, quadrupole, and hexadecapole momenta of the ground and excited states of odd-proton nuclei with 61 6 deformation on atomic nuclei non-rotation states energies is discussed. It is shown that account of deformation of α 6 type slightly influences on the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformation value

  9. Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H P; Li, X; Rui, Z Y

    2015-01-01

    Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise. (paper)

  10. Microscopic study of low-lying yrast spectra and deformation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    73, No. 4. — journal of. October 2009 physics pp. 657–668. Microscopic study of low-lying yrast spectra and deformation systematics in neutron-rich. 98−106Sr isotopes ... with a large and rigid moment of inertia. 98Sr is predicted to have a ... 2 energy as neutron number N changes from 58 to 60. The onset of deformation in ...

  11. Deformed nuclear state as a quasiparticle-pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Skalski, J.

    1988-01-01

    The deformed nuclear states, obtained in terms of the Hartree-Fock plus BCS method with the Skyrme SIII interaction, are approximated by condensates of the low-angular-momentum quasiparticle and particle pairs. The optimal pairs are determined by the variation after truncation method. The influence of the truncation on the deformation energy and the importance of the core-polarization effects are investigated

  12. Gamma band odd-even staggering in some deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairy, M.K.; Talaat, SH.M.; Morsy, M.

    2005-01-01

    A complete investigation was carried out in studying the odd-even staggering (OES) of gamma bands energy levels in some deformed nuclei up to angular momentum L=13 . With the help of Minkov treatment in the framework of a collective Vector Boson Model (VBM) with broken SU (3) symmetry. The OES behavior of deformed isotopes 162 E r, 164 E r, 166 E r, 156 G d, 170 Y b and 232 T h was studied and discussed

  13. The deformation record of olivine in mylonitic peridotites from the Finero Complex, Ivrea Zone: Separate deformation cycles during exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Agnes K.; Trepmann, Claudia A.

    2015-12-01

    Mylonitic peridotites from the Finero complex are investigated to detect characteristic olivine microfabrics that can resolve separate deformation cycles at different metamorphic conditions. The heterogeneous olivine microstructures are characterized by deformed porphyroclasts surrounded by varying amounts of recrystallized grains. A well-developed but only locally preserved foam structure is present in recrystallized grain aggregates. This indicates an early stage of dynamic recrystallization and subsequent recovery and recrystallization at quasi-static stress conditions, where the strain energy was reduced such that a reduction in surface energy controlled grain boundary migration. Ultramylonites record a renewed stage of localized deformation and recrystallization by a second generation of recrystallized grains that do not show a foam structure. This second generation of recrystallized grains as well as sutured grain and kink band boundaries of porphyroclasts indicate that these microstructures developed during a stage of localized deformation after development of the foam structure. The heterogeneity of the microfabrics is interpreted to represent several (at least two) cycles of localized deformation separated by a marked hiatus with quasi-static recrystallization and recovery and eventually grain growth. The second deformation cycle did not only result in reactivation of preexisting shear zones but instead also locally affected the host rock that was not deformed in the first stage. Such stress cycles can result from sudden increases in differential stress imposed by seismic events, i.e., high stress-loading rates, during exhumation of the Finero complex.

  14. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  15. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  16. Deformation Behavior of a Coarse-Grained Mg-8Al-1.5Ca-0.2Sr Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yan; Liu, Xiao

    2018-02-01

    The compression tests were carried out on a coarse-grained Mg-8Al-1.5Ca-0.2Sr magnesium alloy samples at temperatures from 300 to 450 °C and strain rates from 0.001 to 10 s-1. The flow stress curves were analyzed using the double-differentiation method, and double minima were detected on the flow curves. The first set of minima is shown to identify the critical strain for twinning, while the second set indicates the critical strain for the initiation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Twin variant selection was numerically identified by comprehensive analysis of the Schmid factors for different deformation modes and the accommodation strains imposed on neighboring grains. It was found that twinning is initiated before DRX. Dynamic recrystallization volume increases with strain rate at a given deformation temperature. At high strain rate, various twin variants are activated to accommodate deformation, leading to the formation of twin intersections and high DRX volume. Fully dynamic recrystallized structure can be obtained at both high and low strain rates due to the high mobility of the grain and twin boundaries at the temperature of 400 °C.

  17. Modeling plasticity by non-continuous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Yaron; Altus, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Plasticity and failure theories are still subjects of intense research. Engineering constitutive models on the macroscale which are based on micro characteristics are very much in need. This study is motivated by the observation that continuum assumptions in plasticity in which neighbour material elements are inseparable at all-time are physically impossible, since local detachments, slips and neighbour switching must operate, i.e. non-continuous deformation. Material microstructure is modelled herein by a set of point elements (particles) interacting with their neighbours. Each particle can detach from and/or attach with its neighbours during deformation. Simulations on two- dimensional configurations subjected to uniaxial compression cycle are conducted. Stochastic heterogeneity is controlled by a single "disorder" parameter. It was found that (a) macro response resembles typical elasto-plastic behaviour; (b) plastic energy is proportional to the number of detachments; (c) residual plastic strain is proportional to the number of attachments, and (d) volume is preserved, which is consistent with macro plastic deformation. Rigid body displacements of local groups of elements are also observed. Higher disorder decreases the macro elastic moduli and increases plastic energy. Evolution of anisotropic effects is obtained with no additional parameters.

  18. Computerized control of circulation. Optimal storage climate with minimal energy consumption. Pilot study; Computergestuurde Circulatieregelingen. Optimaal bewaarklimaat met minimaal energieverbruik. Praktijkonderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Janssen, H.H.J.; Gielen, T.G.; Sapounas, A. [WUR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this study is to develop computerized controls for circulation that are based on sensors, allowing for significant conservation in the electricity use of circulation [Dutch] Doelstelling van dit project is het ontwikkelen van op sensoren gebaseerde computergestuurde regelingen voor de circulatie, waardoor bij een optimaal bewaarklimaat voor alle bolgewassen zeer fors op het elektraverbruik voor circulatie bespaard kan worden.

  19. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  20. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  1. Sphalerons, deformed sphalerons and normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, Y.; Kunz, J.; Oldenburg Univ.

    1992-01-01

    Topological arguments suggest that tha Weinberg-Salam model posses unstable solutions, sphalerons, representing the top of energy barriers between inequivalent vacua of the gauge theory. In the limit of vanishing Weinberg angle, such unstable solutions are known: the sphaleron of Klinkhamer and Manton and at large values of the Higgs mass in addition the deformed sphalerons. Here a systematic study of the discrete normal modes about these sphalerons for the full range Higgs mass is presented. The emergence of deformed sphalerons at critical values of the Higgs mass is seem to be related to the crossing of zero of the eigenvalue of the particular normal modes about the sphaleron. 6 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs. (author)

  2. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  3. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  4. Energy landscapes for a machine learning application to series data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Andrew J.; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J., E-mail: dw34@cam.ac.uk [University Chemical Laboratories, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-28

    Methods developed to explore and characterise potential energy landscapes are applied to the corresponding landscapes obtained from optimisation of a cost function in machine learning. We consider neural network predictions for the outcome of local geometry optimisation in a triatomic cluster, where four distinct local minima exist. The accuracy of the predictions is compared for fits using data from single and multiple points in the series of atomic configurations resulting from local geometry optimisation and for alternative neural networks. The machine learning solution landscapes are visualised using disconnectivity graphs, and signatures in the effective heat capacity are analysed in terms of distributions of local minima and their properties.

  5. Energy landscapes for a machine learning application to series data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, Andrew J.; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Methods developed to explore and characterise potential energy landscapes are applied to the corresponding landscapes obtained from optimisation of a cost function in machine learning. We consider neural network predictions for the outcome of local geometry optimisation in a triatomic cluster, where four distinct local minima exist. The accuracy of the predictions is compared for fits using data from single and multiple points in the series of atomic configurations resulting from local geometry optimisation and for alternative neural networks. The machine learning solution landscapes are visualised using disconnectivity graphs, and signatures in the effective heat capacity are analysed in terms of distributions of local minima and their properties.

  6. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  7. MAPPING FLOW LOCALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEFORMATION OF IRRADIATED REACTOR STRUCTURAL ALLOYS - FINAL REPORT. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program No. MSF99-0072. Period: August 1999 through September 2002. (ORNL/TM-2003/63)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.

    2003-09-26

    Metals that can sustain plastic deformation homogeneously throughout their bulk tend to be tough and malleable. Often, however, if a metal has been hardened it will no longer deform uniformly. Instead, the deformation occurs in narrow bands on a microscopic scale wherein stresses and strains become concentrated in localized zones. This strain localization degrades the mechanical properties of the metal by causing premature plastic instability failure or by inducing the formation of cracks. Irradiation with neutrons hardens a metal and makes it more prone to deformation by strain localization. Although this has been known since the earliest days of radiation damage studies, a full measure of the connection between neutron irradiation hardening and strain localization is wanting, particularly in commercial alloys used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the goal of this project is to systematically map the extent of involvement of strain localization processes in plastic deformation of three reactor alloys that have been neutron irradiated. The deformation processes are to be identified and related to changes in the tensile properties of the alloys as functions of neutron fluence (dose) and degree of plastic strain. The intent is to define the role of strain localization in radiation embrittlement phenomena. The three test materials are a tempered bainitic A533B steel, representing reactor pressure vessel steel, an annealed 316 stainless steel and annealed Zircaloy-4 representing reactor internal components. These three alloys cover the range of crystal structures usually encountered in structural alloys, i.e. body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and close-packed hexagonal (cph), respectively. The experiments were conducted in three Phases, corresponding to the three years duration of the project. Phases 1 and 2 addressed irradiations and tensile tests made at near-ambient temperatures, and covered a wide range of neutron fluences

  8. Analysis of the dependence parametrization of the allocations of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering diffraction maxima from the projectile energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ponkratenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffraction range of available experimental differential cross sections of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering for 17 pairs of the interacting nuclei with 4 ≤ А ≤ 20 have been analyzed in the projectile energy wide interval from 1 to 100 МеV/nucleon. Diffraction maxima and minima positions in the transferred momentum coordinates depending on projectile energy demonstrate smooth behavior at energies higher 2 - 4 МeV/nucleon, and practically do not depend on energy at energies up to 30 - 40 МеV/nucleon. These energy dependences of maxima (minima positions can be parameterized by simple functions. It was found the suitable approximations that describe reasonably the energy dependence of the maxima (minima positions of the experimental elastic scattering differential cross sections. These approximations were evaluated with the same parameters for all colliding nuclei groups.

  9. Analysis of the dependence parametrization of the allocations of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering diffraction maxima from the projectile energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponkratenko, O.A.; Pyirnak, Val. M.; Rudchik, A.A.; Stepanenko, Yu.M.; Uleshchenko, V.V.; Shirma, Yu.O.

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction range of available experimental differential cross sections of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering for the interactive nuclei 17 pairs with 4 ≤ A ≤ 20 have been analyzed in the projectile energy wide interval from 1 to 100 MeV/nucleon. Diffraction maxima and minima positions in the transferred momentum coordinates depending on projectile energy demonstrate smooth behavior at energies higher 2 - 4 MeV/nucleon and at energies to 30 - 40 MeV/nucleon - practically does not depend on energy. These energy dependences of maxima (minima) position. can be parameterized by simple functions. It was found the suitable approximations that describe reasonable the energy dependence of the maxima (minima) positions of the experimental elastic scattering differential cross sections. These approximations were evaluated with the same parameters for all colliding nuclei groups

  10. Mass deformations of 5d SCFTs via holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutperle, Michael; Kaidi, Justin; Raj, Himanshu

    2018-02-01

    Using six-dimensional Euclidean F (4) gauged supergravity we construct a holographic renormalization group flow for a CFT on S 5. Numerical solutions to the BPS equations are obtained and the free energy of the theory on S 5 is determined holographically by calculation of the renormalized on-shell supergravity action. In the process, we deal with subtle issues such as holographic renormalization and addition of finite counterterms. We then propose a candidate field theory dual to these solutions. This tentative dual is a supersymmetry-preserving deformation of the strongly-coupled non-Lagrangian SCFT derived from the D4-D8 system in string theory. In the IR, this theory is a mass deformation of a USp(2 N ) gauge theory. A localization calculation of the free energy is performed for this IR theory, which for reasonably small values of the deformation parameter is found to have the same qualitative behaviour as the holographic free energy.

  11. Deformed Spacetime Geometrizing Interactions in Four and Five Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    This volume provides a detailed discussion of the mathematical aspects and the physical applications of a new geometrical structure of space-time, based on a generalization ("deformation") of the usual Minkowski space, as supposed to be endowed with a metric whose coefficients depend on the energy. Such a formalism (Deformed Special Relativity, DSR) allows one to account for breakdown of local Lorentz invariance in the usual, special-relativistic meaning (however, Lorentz invariance is recovered in a generalized sense) to provide an effective geometrical description of the four fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational) Moreover, the four-dimensional energy-dependent space-time is just a manifestation of a larger, five-dimensional space in which energy plays the role of a fifth (non-compactified) dimension. This new five-dimensional scheme (Deformed Relativity in Five Dimensions, DR5) represents a true generalization of the usual Kaluza-Klein (KK) formalism. The mathematical pr...

  12. Localization in Naturally Deformed Systems - the Default State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy White, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Based on the extensive literature on localized rock deformation, conventional wisdom would interpret it to be a special behaviour within an anticipated background of otherwise uniform deformation. The latter notwithstanding, the rock record is so rife with transient (cyclic), heterogeneous deformation, notably shear localization, as to characterize localization as the anticipated 'normal' behaviour. The corollary is that steady, homogeneous deformation is significantly less common, and if achieved must reflect some special set of conditions that are not representative of the general case. An issue central to natural deformation is then not the existance of localized strain, but rather how the extant deformation processes scale across tectonic phenomena and in turn organize to enable a coherent(?) descripion of Earth deformation. Deformation is fundamentally quantized, discrete (diffusion, glide, crack propagation) and reliant on the defect state of rock-forming minerals. The strain energy distribution that drives thermo-mechanical responses is in the first instance established at the grain-scale where the non-linear interaction of defect-mediated micromechanical processes introduces heterogeneous behaviour described by various gradient theories, and evidenced by the defect microstructures of deformed rocks. Hence, the potential for non-uniform response is embedded within even quasi-uniform, monomineralic materials, seen, for example, in the spatially discrete evolution of dynamic recrystallization. What passes as homogeneous or uniform deformation at various scales is the aggregation of responses at some characteristic dimension at which heterogeneity is not registered or measured. Nevertheless, the aggregate response and associated normalized parameters (strain, strain rate) do not correspond to any condition actually experienced by the deforming material. The more common types of macroscopic heterogeneity promoting localization comprise mechanically contrasting

  13. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  14. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  15. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  16. The Coulomb gap and low energy statistics for Coulomb glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Andreas; Vinokur, Valerii M; Bergli, Joakim; Kirkengen, Martin; Galperin, Yuri M

    2008-01-01

    We study the statistics of local energy minima in the configuration space of two-dimensional lattice Coulomb glasses with site disorder and the behavior of the Coulomb gap depending on the strength of random site energies. At intermediate disorder, i.e., when the typical strength of the disorder is of the same order as the nearest-neighbor Coulomb energy, the high energy tail of the distribution of the local minima is exponential. We furthermore analyze the structure of the local minima and show that most sites of the system have the same occupation numbers in all of these states. The density of states (DOS) shows a transition from the crystalline state at zero disorder (with a hard gap) to an intermediate, probably glassy state with a Coulomb gap. We analyze this Coulomb gap in some detail and show that the DOS deviates slightly from the traditional linear behavior in 2D. For finite systems these intermediate Coulomb gap states disappear for large disorder strengths and only a random localized state in which all electrons are in the minima of the random potential exists. Dedication: This paper is dedicated to Thomas Nattermann, our dearest friend, brilliant colleague, and outstanding teacher

  17. High Energy Phenomena in Eta Carinae Roberto F. Viotti , Lucio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    High Energy Phenomena in Eta Carinae ... Colliding winds model—non-thermal emission—stars: η ... very massive wind. Its unseen compan- ion should be a less evolved early-type star. It was found that the two last spectroscopic minima of June 1992 and December 1997 coincided with two X-ray eclipses detected.

  18. On infinitesimal conformai deformations of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Степановна Федченко

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new form of basic equations for conformai deformations is found. The equations involve tensor fields of displacement vector only. Conditions for trivial deformations as well as infinitesimal conformai deformations are studied.

  19. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  20. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  1. Quantifying the Erlenmeyer flask deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A; Rajan, P S; Deegan, P; Cox, T M; Bearcroft, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective Erlenmeyer flask deformity is a common radiological finding in patients with Gaucher′s disease; however, no definition of this deformity exists and the reported prevalence of the deformity varies widely. To devise an easily applied definition of this deformity, we investigated a cohort of knee radiographs in which there was consensus between three experienced radiologists as to the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology. Methods Using the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology as a benchmark, we measured the diameter of the femur at the level of the physeal scar and serially at defined intervals along the metadiaphysis. Results A measured ratio in excess of 0.57 between the diameter of the femoral shaft 4 cm from the physis to the diameter of the physeal baseline itself on a frontal radiograph of the knee predicted the Erlenmeyer flask deformity with 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity in our series of 43 independently diagnosed adults with Gaucher′s disease. Application of this method to the distal femur detected the Erlenmeyer flask deformity reproducibly and was simple to carry out. Conclusion Unlike diagnostic assignments based on subjective review, our simple procedure for identifying the modelling deformity is based on robust quantitative measurement: it should facilitate comparative studies between different groups of patients, and may allow more rigorous exploration of the pathogenesis of the complex osseous manifestations of Gaucher′s disease to be undertaken. PMID:22010032

  2. On the thermomechanical deformation of silver shape memory nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Harold S.; Ji, Changjiang

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the uniaxial thermomechanical deformation of single-crystal silver shape memory nanowires using atomistic simulations. We first demonstrate that silver nanowires can show both shape memory and pseudoelastic behavior, then perform uniaxial tensile loading of the shape memory nanowires at various deformation temperatures, strain rates and heat transfer conditions. The simulations show that the resulting mechanical response of the shape memory nanowires depends strongly upon the temperature during deformation, and can be fundamentally different from that observed in bulk polycrystalline shape memory alloys. The energy and temperature signatures of uniaxially loaded silver shape memory nanowires are correlated to the observed nanowire deformation, and are further discussed in comparison to bulk polycrystalline shape memory alloy behavior

  3. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, Luke L

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti 3 Al-(α 2 ) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α 2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  4. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Luke L.

    2010-10-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti3Al-(α2) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  5. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of precipitation hardened aluminum under high rate deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.E.; Asav, J.R.; Rohde, R.W.; Wise, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter attempts to correlate the shock compression and quasistatic deformation of 6061-T6 aluminium. Examines recovered specimens which have been shock loaded, and compares results with both static and dynamic mechanical property measurements. Discusses experimental procedures (reshock and unloading experiments, shock recovery techniques, metallographic techniques and coldwork experiments); dynamic strength and wave-profile properties (strength and shear-stress states on the Hugoniot, steady-wave risetime and viscosity); quasistatic and shock metallography studies (metallography of quasistatically deformed material; metallography of shock deformed specimens; comparison of static and shock deformation; correlation of hardness and dynamic strength measurements); and thermal trapping calculations in shocked aluminium (heterogeneous deformation and adiabatic heating in shock-wave loading; energy and risetime relations under steadywave shock compression; heterogeneous temperature calculations in aluminium). Concludes that heterogeneous shear deformation appears to play a role in the dynamic deformation process

  7. Formation of incoherent deformation twin boundaries in a coarse-grained Al-7Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. B.; Zhang, K.; Bjørge, R.; Tao, N. R.; Marthinsen, K.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. J.

    2015-08-01

    Deformation twinning has rarely been observed in coarse grained Al and its alloys except under some extreme conditions such as ultrahigh deformation strain or strain rates. Here, we report that a significant amount of Σ3 deformation twins could be generated in a coarse-grained Al-7 Mg alloy by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). A systematic investigation of the Σ3 boundaries shows that they are Σ3{112} type incoherent twin boundaries (ITBs). These ITBs have formed by gradual evolution from copious low-angle deformation bands through -twist Σ boundaries by lattice rotation. These findings provide an approach to generate deformation twin boundaries in high stacking fault energy metallic alloys. It is suggested that high solution content of Mg in the alloy and the special deformation mode of DPD played an important role in formation of the Σ and ITBs.

  8. Thermomechanical characterization of a membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Kathleen A.; McHugh, Stuart L.; Fixler, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A membrane deformable mirror has been investigated for its potential use in high-energy laser systems. Experiments were performed in which the deformable mirror was heated with a 1 kW incandescent lamp and the thermal profile, the wavefront aberrations, and the mechanical displacement of the membrane were measured. A finite element model was also developed. The wavefront characterization experiments showed that the wavefront degraded with heating. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the wavefront characterization experiments indicated a dramatic increase in the high-order wavefront modes before the optical beam became immeasurable in the sensors. The mechanical displacement data of the membrane mirror showed that during heating, the membrane initially deflected towards the heat source and then deflected away from the heat source. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicted a similar displacement behavior as shown by the mechanical displacement data but over a shorter time scale and a larger magnitude. The mechanical displacement data also showed that the magnitude of membrane displacement increased with the experiments that involved higher temperatures. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the displacement data showed that random deflections as a function of time developed and that the magnitude of these deflections increased with increased temperature. We concluded that convection, not captured in the FEA, likely played a dominant role in mirror deformation at temperatures above 35 deg. C

  9. Actuators of 3-element unimorph deformable mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianyang; Ning, Yu; Du, Shaojun

    2016-10-01

    Kinds of wavefront aberrations exist among optical systems because of atmosphere disturbance, device displacement and a variety of thermal effects, which disturb the information of transmitting beam and restrain its energy. Deformable mirror(DM) is designed to adjust these wavefront aberrations. Bimorph DM becomes more popular and more applicable among adaptive optical(AO) systems with advantages in simple structure, low cost and flexible design compared to traditional discrete driving DM. The defocus aberration accounted for a large proportion of all wavefront aberrations, with a simpler surface and larger amplitude than others, so it is very useful to correct the defocus aberration effectively for beam controlling and aberration adjusting of AO system. In this study, we desired on correcting the 3rd and 10th Zernike modes, analyze the characteristic of the 3rd and 10th defocus aberration surface distribution, design 3-element actuators unimorph DM model study on its structure and deformation principle theoretically, design finite element models of different electrode configuration with different ring diameters, analyze and compare effects of different electrode configuration and different fixing mode to DM deformation capacity through COMSOL finite element software, compare fitting efficiency of DM models to the 3rd and 10th Zernike modes. We choose the inhomogeneous electrode distribution model with better result, get the influence function of every electrode and the voltage-PV relationship of the model. This unimorph DM is suitable for the AO system with a mainly defocus aberration.

  10. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the

  11. Black holes in ω-deformed gauged N=8 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the recently found 4-dimensional ω-deformed gauged supergravity, we investigate the black hole solutions within the single scalar field consistent truncations of this theory. We construct black hole solutions that have spherical, toroidal, and hyperbolic horizon topologies. The scalar field is regular everywhere outside the curvature singularity and the stress–energy tensor satisfies the null energy condition. When the parameter ω does not vanish, there is a degeneracy in the spectrum of black hole solutions for boundary conditions that preserve the asymptotic Anti-de Sitter symmetries. These boundary conditions correspond to multi-trace deformations in the dual field theory.

  12. Black holes in ω-deformed gauged N=8 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, UMR 5672, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allé d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@ucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by the recently found 4-dimensional ω-deformed gauged supergravity, we investigate the black hole solutions within the single scalar field consistent truncations of this theory. We construct black hole solutions that have spherical, toroidal, and hyperbolic horizon topologies. The scalar field is regular everywhere outside the curvature singularity and the stress–energy tensor satisfies the null energy condition. When the parameter ω does not vanish, there is a degeneracy in the spectrum of black hole solutions for boundary conditions that preserve the asymptotic Anti-de Sitter symmetries. These boundary conditions correspond to multi-trace deformations in the dual field theory.

  13. Deformed supersymmetric quantum mechanics with spin variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoruk, Sergey; Ivanov, Evgeny; Sidorov, Stepan

    2018-01-01

    We quantize the one-particle model of the SU(2|1) supersymmetric multiparticle mechanics with the additional semi-dynamical spin degrees of freedom. We find the relevant energy spectrum and the full set of physical states as functions of the mass-dimension deformation parameter m and SU(2) spin q\\in (Z_{>0,}1/2+Z_{≥0}) . It is found that the states at the fixed energy level form irreducible multiplets of the supergroup SU(2|1). Also, the hidden superconformal symmetry OSp(4|2) of the model is revealed in the classical and quantum cases. We calculate the OSp(4|2) Casimir operators and demonstrate that the full set of the physical states belonging to different energy levels at fixed q are unified into an irreducible OSp(4|2) multiplet.

  14. Failure mechanism and supporting measures for large deformation of Tertiary deep soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhibiao; Wang Jiong; Zhang Yuelin

    2015-01-01

    The Shenbei mining area in China contains typical soft rock from the Tertiary Period. As mining depths increase, deep soft rock roadways are damaged by large deformations and constantly need to be repaired to meet safety requirements, which is a great security risk. In this study, the characteristics of deformation and failure of typical roadway were analyzed, and the fundamental reason for the roadway deformation was that traditional support methods and materials cannot control the large deformation of deep soft rock. Deep soft rock support technology was developed based on constant resistance energy absorption using constant resistance large deformation bolts. The correlative deformation mechanisms of surrounding rock and bolt were analyzed to understand the principle of constant resistance energy absorption. The new technology works well on-site and provides a new method for the excavation of roadways in Tertiary deep soft rock.

  15. M theory on deformed superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  16. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  17. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a

  18. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E.; Huang, J.; Menon, N.; Russell, T. P.; Toga, K. B.; Vella, D.; Davidovitch, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical

  19. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  20. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  1. Behaviour of the energy gap in a model of Josephson coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonel, A P; Links, J; Foerster, A

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state in a model of two single-mode Bose-Einstein condensates coupled via Josephson tunnelling. The energy gap is never zero when the tunnelling interaction is non-zero. The gap exhibits no local minimum below a threshold coupling which separates a delocalized phase from a self-trapping phase that occurs in the absence of the external potential. Above this threshold point one minimum occurs close to the Josephson regime, and a set of minima and maxima appear in the Fock regime. Expressions for the position of these minima and maxima are obtained. The connection between these minima and maxima and the dynamics for the expectation value of the relative number of particles is analysed in detail. We find that the dynamics of the system changes as the coupling crosses these points

  2. Fast free-form deformable registration via calculus of variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiguo; Chen Mingli; Olivera, Gustavo H; Ruchala, Kenneth J; Mackie, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic, fast and accurate deformable registration technique. This technique deals with free-form deformation. It minimizes an energy functional that combines both similarity and smoothness measures. By using calculus of variations, the minimization problem was represented as a set of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). A Gauss-Seidel finite difference scheme is used to iteratively solve the PDE. The registration is refined by a multi-resolution approach. The whole process is fully automatic. It takes less than 3 min to register two three-dimensional (3D) image sets of size 256 x 256 x 61 using a single 933 MHz personal computer. Extensive experiments are presented. These experiments include simulations, phantom studies and clinical image studies. Experimental results show that our model and algorithm are suited for registration of temporal images of a deformable body. The registration of inspiration and expiration phases of the lung images shows that the method is able to deal with large deformations. When applied to the daily CT images of a prostate patient, the results show that registration based on iterative refinement of displacement field is appropriate to describe the local deformations in the prostate and the rectum. Similarity measures improved significantly after the registration. The target application of this paper is for radiotherapy treatment planning and evaluation that incorporates internal organ deformation throughout the course of radiation therapy. The registration method could also be equally applied in diagnostic radiology

  3. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost' spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed ...

  4. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  5. Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Remm, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.

  6. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  7. Deformation of second and third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  8. A study on laser welding deformation of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Akikazu; Maehara, Kenji; Takeda, Shinnosuke; Matsunawa, Akira

    2002-01-01

    In heavy industries, 304 austenitic stainless steel is the most popular material which is used for nuclear equipment, chemical vessels, vacuum vessels and so on. On the fabrication, not only a joint quality but also severe dimensional accuracy is required. To keep dimensional accuracy, considerable cost and efforts are requested, because the welding deformation of austenitic stainless steel is deeply depended on the physical properties of material itself. To decrease welding deformation, big jigs or water cooling method are commonly used which lead to the high cost. In general, the fusion welding by high energy density heat source results in less distortion. Today, laser welding technology has grown up to the stage that enables to weld thick plate with small deformation. The researches of welding deformation have been conducted intensively, but they are mainly concerned for arc welding, and studies for laser welding are very few. In this report, the authors will show the test results of deformation behavior in laser welding of 304 stainless steel. Also, they will discuss the deformation behavior comparing to that in arc welding. The main results of this study are as follows. 1. The angular distortion of laser welding can be unified by heat input parameter (Hp) which is used for arc welding deformation. 2. The angular distortion are same under the condition of Hp 3 in spite of different welding method, however under the condition of Hp>6-9 J/mm 3 the angular distortion is quite different depending on the power density of welding method. 3. Pure angular distortion seemed to complete just after welding, but following longitudinal distortion took place for long period. 4. The critical value of longitudinal distortion can be estimated from heat input parameter. The transverse deformation can be also estimated by heat input parameter. (author)

  9. The Time-Dependency of Deformation in Porous Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibikas, W. M.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.

    2016-12-01

    Porous carbonate rocks are natural reservoirs for freshwater and hydrocarbons. More recently, due to their potential for geothermal energy generation as well as carbon sequestration, there are renewed interests in better understanding of the deformation behavior of carbonate rocks. We conducted a series of deformation experiments to investigate the effects of strain rate and pore fluid chemistry on rock strength and transport properties of porous limestones. Indiana limestone samples with initial porosity of 16% are deformed at 25 °C under effective pressures of 10, 30, and 50 MPa. Under nominally dry conditions, the limestone samples are deformed under 3 different strain rates, 1.5 x 10-4 s-1, 1.5 x 10-5 s-1 and 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 respectively. The experimental results indicate that the mechanical behavior is both rate- and pressure-dependent. At low confining pressures, post-yielding deformation changes from predominantly strain softening to strain hardening as strain rate decreases. At high confining pressures, while all samples exhibit shear-enhanced compaction, decreasing strain rate leads to an increase in compaction. Slower strain rates enhance compaction at all confining pressure conditions. The rate-dependence of deformation behaviors of porous carbonate rocks at dry conditions indicates there is a strong visco-elastic coupling for the degradation of elastic modulus with increasing plastic deformation. In fluid saturated samples, inelastic strain of limestone is partitioned among low temperature plasticity, cataclasis and solution transport. Comparison of inelastic behaviors of samples deformed with distilled water and CO2-saturated aqueous solution as pore fluids provide experimental constraints on the relative activities of the various mechanisms. Detailed microstructural analysis is conducted to take into account the links between stress, microstructure and the inelastic behavior and failure mechanisms.

  10. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transform...

  11. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  12. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  13. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  14. Evidence for deformation effect on the giant monopole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; de Saintignon, P.; Perrin, C.

    1980-01-01

    The giant monopole resonance in the region of deformed nuclei has been investigated by inelastic scattering of 108.5 MeV 3 He at very small scattering angles. Evidence is reported for coupling between the giant monopole and giant quadrupole vibrations, based both on energy shift and transition strength

  15. Reducing uncertainties in volumetric image based deformable organ registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Yan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Applying volumetric image feedback in radiotherapy requires image based deformable organ registration. The foundation of this registration is the ability of tracking subvolume displacement in organs of interest. Subvolume displacement can be calculated by applying biomechanics model and the finite element method to human organs manifested on the multiple volumetric images. The calculation accuracy, however, is highly dependent on the determination of the corresponding organ boundary points. Lacking sufficient information for such determination, uncertainties are inevitable--thus diminishing the registration accuracy. In this paper, a method of consuming energy minimization was developed to reduce these uncertainties. Starting from an initial selection of organ boundary point correspondence on volumetric image sets, the subvolume displacement and stress distribution of the whole organ are calculated and the consumed energy due to the subvolume displacements is computed accordingly. The corresponding positions of the initially selected boundary points are then iteratively optimized to minimize the consuming energy under geometry and stress constraints. In this study, a rectal wall delineated from patient CT image was artificially deformed using a computer simulation and utilized to test the optimization. Subvolume displacements calculated based on the optimized boundary point correspondence were compared to the true displacements, and the calculation accuracy was thereby evaluated. Results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the accuracy of the deformable organ registration can be achieved by applying the consuming energy minimization in the organ deformation calculation

  16. Adhesion along metal-polymer interfaces during plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tijum, R.; Vellinga, W. P.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    In this paper a numerical study is presented that concentrates on the influence of the interface roughness that develops during plastic deformation of a metal, on the work of adhesion and on the change of interface energy upon contact with a glassy polymer. The polymer coating is described with a

  17. Ground state shape and crossing of near spherical and deformed bands in 182Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W.C.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.; Robinson, S.J.; Barclay, M.E.; Zhao, K.; Cole, J.D.; Zganjar, E.F.; Spejewski, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    The energy levels of 182 Hg have been identified for the first time through comparison of in-beam studies of the reactions 156 154 Gd( 32 S,4n) 184 182 Hg. Levels up to 12 + in 182 Hg were established from γ-γ coincidence and singles measurement. The data establish that the ground state shape is near spherical, and that the ground band is crossed by a well deformed band at 4 + . In contrast to IBA model predictions that the deformed band will rise in energy in 182 Hg compared to 184 Hg, the energies of the deformed levels in 182 Hg continue to drop. 7 references

  18. Classical studies of the ellipsoidal shapes for dynamical deformation theories of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaud, B.

    1978-01-01

    The shape-dependent functions of the Liquid Drop and the Droplet Models are analytically calculated for an ellipsoid. Using the ellipsoidal symmetries, these functions (including the curvature function) are written in terms of three basic expressions. The nuclear deformation energy can be calculated in a simple way for axially symmetric and asymmetric ellipsoidal nuclei whatever the magnitude of the deformation is

  19. Deformation inside and outside the nuclear molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, J.; Algora, A.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Hess, P.O.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Clusterization is an important phenomenon both in light and in heavy nuclei. The two basic natural laws governing the clusterization (just like the composition of nuclei from nucleons) are the energy-minimum principle, and the Pauli-exclusion principle. In a fully microscopic description of clusterization both aspects are taken into account. This kind of description, however, is limited to the territory of light nuclei. Many interesting aspects of the clusterization, like e.g. the appearance of exotic cluster configurations, show up only in heavy nuclei. Phenomenologic approaches are applied both to light and to heavy nuclei, on an equal footing, but these models do not really contain the effects of the antisymmetrization, or it is not under control, what aspects of the exclusion principle is incorporated. Recently we have developed an approach, which involves both the energetic preference and the exclusion principle [?]. The antisymmetrization is not carried out explicitly, it is treated in an approximate way, but it is done microscopically in a well-controlled manner, and consistency-check measures, how effective it is. We calculate the energetic preference of different clusterizations both on the basis of simple binding-energy-arguments [?], and from the Dinuclear System Model (DNS) [?], including Coulomb as well as nuclear interactions. The potential energy is calculated both for the usual pole-to-pole configuration, and for those more compact configurations, which turn out to be allowed from the microscopic viewpoint. The exclusion principle is treated by the application of a selection rule, related to the microscopic structure. For light nuclei it is based on the real U(3) symmetry [?], and it is exact to the extent to which the leading term representation is valid. In heavy nuclei it is based on the quasidynamical, or effective U(3) symmetry [?]. Its validity is shown by the consistency of the quadrupole deformation of

  20. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Contacts et des Structures (LaMCoS), INSA Lyon, 20 Avenue des Sciences, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Li, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, M.Q., E-mail: zc9997242256@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural component. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different applied bonding pressures. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail. - Highlights: • A high quality hollow structural component has been fabricated by diffusion bonding. • Surface asperity deformation not only expands the interfacial contact areas, but also causes deformation heat and defects to improve the atomic diffusion. • Surface asperity deformation introduces the stored energy difference between the two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, leading to strain induced interface grain boundary migration. • The void exerts a dragging force on the interface grain boundary to retard or stop interface grain boundary migration. - Abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to

  1. Effects of high-order deformation on high-K isomers in superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. L.; Bertulani, C. A.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Using, for the first time, configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations with the inclusion of β 6 deformation, we find remarkable effects of the high-order deformation on the high-K isomers in 254 No, the focus of recent spectroscopy experiments on superheavy nuclei. For shapes with multipolarity six, the isomers are more tightly bound and, microscopically, have enhanced deformed shell gaps at N=152 and Z=100. The inclusion of β 6 deformation significantly improves the description of the very heavy high-K isomers.

  2. A thermal comparator sensor for measuring autogenous deformation in hardening Portland cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and accurate experimental device specially developed to measure autogenous deformation in hardening cement-based materials. The measuring system consists of a so-called thermal comparator sensor and a modular thermostatically controlled system. The operating principle...... of the thermal comparator is based on thermal expansion of aluminium. A particular characteristic of the measuring system is the fixation of the thermal comparator sensor to the deforming specimen. The modular system ensures effective thermostatic control of the hydrating cement paste samples. The technique...... allows continuous measurement with high accuracy of the linear deformation as well as determination of the activation energy of autogenous deformation....

  3. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  4. Phonon operators in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    For the description of the excited states in deformed nuclei new phonon operators are introduced, which depend on the sign of the angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. In the calculations with new phonons the Pauli principle is correctly taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. There is a difference in comparison with the calculation with phonons independent of the sign of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons should be used in deformed nuclei if the Pauli principle is consistently taken into account and in the calculations with the excited state wave functions having the components with more than one phonon operator [ru

  5. Phonon operators for deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formalism with the phonon operators independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection turns out to be inadequate for describing excited states of deformed nuclei. New phonon operators are introduced which depend on the signature of the angular momentum projection on the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. It is shown that the calculations with the new phonons take correctly into account the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of wave functions. The results obtained differ from those given by the phonons independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons must be used in deformed nuclei at taking systematically the Pauli principle into account and in calculations involving wave functions of excited states having components with more than one-phonon operator

  6. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  7. Minima de L'intégrale D'action du Problème Newtoniende 4 Corps de Masses Égales Dans R3: Orbites `Hip-Hop'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenciner, Alain; Venturelli, Andrea

    2000-09-01

    We consider the problem of 4 bodies of equal masses in R 3 for the Newtonian r-1 potential. We address the question of the absolute minima of the action integral among (anti)symmetric loops of class H 1 whose period is fixed. It is the simplest case for which the results of [4] (corrected in [5]) do not apply: the minima cannot be the relative equilibria whose configuration is an absolute minimum of the potential among the configurations having a given moment of inertia with respect to their center of mass. This is because the regular tetrahedron cannot have a relative equilibrium motion in R 3 (see [2]). We show that the absolute minima of the action are not homographic motions. We also show that if we force the configuration to admit a certain type of symmetry of order 4, the absolute minimum is a collisionless orbit whose configuration ‘hesitates’ between the central configuration of the square and the one of the tetrahedron. We call these orbits ‘hip-hop’. A similar result holds in case of a symmetry of order 3 where the central configuration of the equilateral triangle with a body at the center of mass replaces the square.

  8. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  9. Neutron scattering on deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Haight, R.C.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.; Lagrange, C.

    1984-09-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections around 14 MeV for 9 Be, C, 181 Ta, 232 Th, 238 U and 239 Pu have been analyzed using a coupled channel (CC) formalism for deformed nuclei and phenomenological global optical model potentials (OMP). For the actinide targets these results are compared with the predictions of a semi-microscopic calculation using Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux (JLM) microscopic OMP and a deformed ground state nuclear density. The overall agreement between calculations and the measurements is reasonable good even for the very light nuclei, where the quality of the fits is better than those obtained with spherical OMP

  10. Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)

  11. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  12. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    The field of this thesis is deformation quantization, and we consider mainly symplectic manifolds equipped with a star product. After reviewing basics in complex geometry, we introduce quantization, focusing on geometric quantization and deformation quantization. The latter is defined as a star...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  13. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  14. On the construction of translationally invariant deformed wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, R.

    1975-01-01

    Translationally invariant nuclear wave functions are constructed from deformed harmonic oscillator shell-model wave functions, with an exact projection of angular momentum quantum numbers. It is shown that the computation of matrix elements with the translationally invariant wave functions is as simple as the standard calculation, and formulae are obtained for (i) the potential energy, (ii) the kinetic energy and rms radius, and (iii) the charge form factor. (Auth.)

  15. Non-localized deformation in Cu−Zr multi-layer amorphous films under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, C. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, H. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Cao, Q.P.; Wang, X.D. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, D.X. [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hu, J.W. [Hangzhou Workers Amateur University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Jiang, J.Z., E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-09-05

    In metallic glasses (MGs), plastic deformation at room temperature is dominated by highly localized shear bands. Here we report the non-localized deformation under tension in Cu−Zr multi-layer MGs with a pure amorphous structure using large-scale atomistic simulations. It is demonstrated that amorphous samples with high layer numbers, composed of Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 60}, or Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}, present obviously non-localized deformation behavior. We reveal that the deformation behavior of the multi-layer-structured MG films is related but not determined by the deformation behavior of the composed individual layers. The criterion for the deformation mode change for MGs with a pure amorphous structure, in generally, was suggested, i.e., the competition between the elastic-energy density stored and the energy density needed for forming one mature shear band in MGs. Our results provide a promising strategy for designing tensile ductile MGs with a pure amorphous structure at room temperature. - Highlights: • Tensile deformation behaviors in multi-layer MG films. • Films with high layer numbers confirmed with a non-localized deformation behavior. • The deformation mode is reasonably controlled by whether U{sub p} larger than U{sub SB.}.

  16. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Arteaga, D.

    2007-06-25

    Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)

  17. Quantum Mechanics on the h-deformed Quantum Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sunggoo

    1998-01-01

    We find the covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra and the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the extended $h$-deformed quantum plane and solve the Schr\\"odinger equations explicitly for some physical systems on the quantum plane. In the commutative limit the behaviour of a quantum particle on the quantum plane becomes that of the quantum particle on the Poincar\\'e half-plane, a surface of constant negative Gaussian curvature. We show the bound state energy spectra for particles under specific poten...

  18. Towards classical spectrum generating algebras for f-deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullock, Ricardo; Latini, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we revise the classical analog of f-oscillators, a generalization of q-oscillators given in Man'ko et al. (1997) [8], in the framework of classical spectrum generating algebras (SGA) introduced in Kuru and Negro (2008) [9]. We write down the deformed Poisson algebra characterizing the entire family of non-linear oscillators and construct its general solution algebraically. The latter, covering the full range of f-deformations, shows an energy dependence both in the amplitude and the frequency of the motion.

  19. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-31

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  20. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  1. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  2. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  3. Deformation Driven Alloying and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    process is a repeated deformation and welding or folding of particles or layers that allows for strain levels in excess of 100 as shown in Fig.1. The...complete transformation yielded a duplex product of metastable BCC and FCC solid solutions. Another form of mechanochemical transduction is

  4. Surgical treatment of gross posttraumatic deformations in thoracic spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei E. Shul’ga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rigid severe post-traumatic thoracic spine deformities result from frequent, recent high-energy trauma in children with an increasing frequency due to a variety of reasons. These types of injuries are commonly followed by spinal cord anatomic injury; therefore, the treatment of these patients warrants special attention from the ethical viewpoint. Generally, the only indication for surgical intervention is spinal dysfunction. Considering this and the patients’ ordinary severe somatic state, surgical trauma should be minimized as much as possible. However, for adequate deformity correction, effective spine stabilization and restoration of liquorodynamics is necessary. Recent studies have reported the successful use of different methods of dorsal interventions (P/VCR in cases with unstable damages in children. Here, we present the case of a 15-year-old boy who underwent surgical treatment for coarse post-traumatic thoracic spine deformity with chronic fracture-dislocation of Th7 vertebra.

  5. Plastic deformation of aluminium under continuous electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Kushnir, V.A.; Khodak, I.V.; Mitrochenko, V.V.; Lebedev, V.P.; Krylovskij, V.S.; Lebedev, S.V.; Klepikov, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic deformation of polycrystalline aluminum (99.5%) was investigated in the absence and presence of a high-energy electron beam (E = 0.5 MeV, φ = (0.5...5)·10 13 cm -2 ·c -1 ). Reduction of the yield stress and hardening coefficient was determined as a function of deformation, the sample thickness and the beam density. The increase of plasticity of the metal due to the impact of the electron beam has been established. The temperature in the deformation process was measured, which allowed separating the contribution of radiation-induced effects on the mechanical characteristics of aluminum. Possible mechanisms of the phenomenon are discussed.

  6. Tunneling and energy splitting in an asymmetric double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae-Yup

    2008-01-01

    An asymmetric double-well potential is considered, assuming that the minima of the wells are quadratic with a frequency ω and the difference of the minima is close to a multiple of hω. A WKB wave function is constructed on both sides of the local maximum between the wells, by matching the WKB function to the exact wave functions near the classical turning points. The continuities of the wave function and its first derivative at the local maximum then give the energy-level splitting formula, which not only reproduces the instanton result for a symmetric potential, but also elucidates the appearance of resonances of tunneling in the asymmetric potential

  7. Recent developments in the theory of protein folding: searching for the global energy minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheraga, H A

    1996-04-16

    Statistical mechanical theories and computer simulation are being used to gain an understanding of the fundamental features of protein folding. A major obstacle in the computation of protein structures is the multiple-minima problem arising from the existence of many local minima in the multidimensional energy landscape of the protein. This problem has been surmounted for small open-chain and cyclic peptides, and for regular-repeating sequences of models of fibrous proteins. Progress is being made in resolving this problem for globular proteins.

  8. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraissler, Lukas; Konrads, Christian; Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a very common pathological condition which commonly produces painful disability. It is characterised as a combined deformity with a malpositioning of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by a lateral deviation of the great toe and a medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone.Taking the patient's history and a thorough physical examination are important steps. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs of the entire foot are crucial for adequate assessment in the treatment of hallux valgus.Non-operative treatment of the hallux valgus cannot correct the deformity. However, insoles and physiotherapy in combination with good footwear can help to control the symptoms.There are many operative techniques for hallux valgus correction. The decision on which surgical technique is used depends on the degree of deformity, the extent of degenerative changes of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the shape and size of the metatarsal bone and phalangeal deviation. The role of stability of the first tarsometatarsal joint is controversial.Surgical techniques include the modified McBride procedure, distal metatarsal osteotomies, metatarsal shaft osteotomies, the Akin osteotomy, proximal metatarsal osteotomies, the modified Lapidus fusion and the hallux joint fusion. Recently, minimally invasive percutaneous techniques have gained importance and are currently being evaluated more scientifically.Hallux valgus correction is followed by corrective dressings of the great toe post-operatively. Depending on the procedure, partial or full weight-bearing in a post-operative shoe or cast immobilisation is advised. Post-operative radiographs are taken in regular intervals until osseous healing is achieved. Cite this article: Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:295-302. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000005.

  9. On infinite walls in deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, S.; Walton, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the deformation quantization of a single particle moving in one dimension (i) in the presence of an infinite potential wall (ii) confined by an infinite square well, and (iii) bound by a delta function potential energy. In deformation quantization, considered as an autonomous formulation of quantum mechanics, the Wigner function of stationary states must be found by solving the so-called *-genvalue ('stargenvalue') equation for the Hamiltonian. For the cases considered here, this pseudo-differential equation is difficult to solve directly, without an ad hoc modification of the potential. Here we treat the infinite wall as the limit of a solvable exponential potential. Before the limit is taken, the corresponding *-genvalue equation involves the Wigner function at momenta translated by imaginary amounts. We show that it can be converted to a partial differential equation, however, with a well-defined limit. We demonstrate that the Wigner functions calculated from the standard Schroedinger wave functions satisfy the resulting new equation. Finally, we show how our results may be adapted to allow for the presence of another, non-singular part in the potential

  10. Moisture movement in nonisothermal deformable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, T.V.

    1983-01-01

    Many inactive uranium mill tailings impoundments currently exist in the United States. One facet of the Department of Energy's reclamation plan for these sites is to enclose the impoundments with a cover. Placement of any cover material could cause the water content of the tailings to change due to changes in the evaporation and infiltration rates. This report investigates the effects of changing mechanical and fluid stresses on deformable media. A set of one dimensional equilibrium and balance equations for both two and three phase soils are developed based on a coordinate system which is defined by the soil solids. A finite difference model was developed to solve the three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations which permits the study of the effects of liquid, gas and heat flows on the deformation of the soil. A series of example problems were selected to analyze the effects of varying the soil and environmental parameters. Four significant cases were: (1) Drainage of an originally saturated soil, (2) Consolidation of a partially saturated soil due to placement of a cover, (3) the effect of a low permeability layer on drainage, and (4) the effects of soil drying and crusting on evaporation

  11. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  12. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  13. Collisions of deformed nuclei and superheavy-element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Moeller, P.; Univ. of Aizu, Fukushima; P. Moller Scientific Computing and Graphics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Nix, J.R.; Sagawa, Hiroyuki, Sagawa

    1995-01-01

    A detailed understanding of complete fusion cross sections in heavy-ion collisions requires a consideration of the effects of the deformation of the projectile and target. The aim here is to show that deformation and orientation of the colliding nuclei have a very significant effect on the fusion-barrier height and on the compactness of the touching configuration. To facilitate discussions of fusion configurations of deformed nuclei, the authors develop a classification scheme and introduce a notation convention for these configurations. They discuss particular deformations and orientations that lead to compact touching configurations and to fusion-barrier heights that correspond to fairly low excitation energies of the compound systems. Such configurations should be the most favorable for producing superheavy elements. They analyze a few projectile-target combinations whose deformations allow favorable entrance-channel configurations and whose proton and neutron numbers lead to compound systems in a part of the superheavy region where a half-lives are calculated to be observable, that is, longer than 1 micros

  14. Collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Pauli principle in the two-phonon components of the wave functions is taken into account within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model of the nucleus with phonon operators depending on the sign of the projection of the angular momentum. The centroid energies of collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated and it is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle shifts them by 1--3 MeV to higher energies. The shifts of the three-phonon poles due to the inclusion of the Pauli principle in the three-phonon components of the wave functions are calculated. Strong fragmentation of collective two-phonon states whose energy centroids are 3--5 MeV should be expected. It is concluded that collective two-phonon states need not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation with the 168 Er nucleus and the Th and U isotopes is analyzed

  15. Situation with collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    Within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with the operators of phonons depending on the sign of the angular momentum projection, the Pauli principle is taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. The centroid energies of the collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle leads to their shift by 1-3 MeV towards high energies. The shifts of three-phonon poles due to the Pauli principle are calculated in the three-phonon components of the wave functions. The collective two-phonon states, the centroid energies of which are 3-5 MeV, are expected to be strongly fragmented. The conclusion is confirmed that the collective two-phonon states should not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation in 168 Er and in the 228 Th isotopes is analysed

  16. Are the N and Δ deformed MIT bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Maamache, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the one-gluon exchange interaction, zero-point energy, and centre-of-mass correction, on the deformation of the nucleon and Δ bags, is studied in the MIT bag model. If the sharp MIT boundary conditions are taken seriously, the strong dependence of the zero-point energy on the deformation leads to the collapse of the N and Δ bags for realistic values of the strong fine structure constant α/sub S/. If on the other hand the zero-point energy is ignored altogether, then the nucleon, spherical for α/sub S/ 3.25, while the Δ is always prolate. The various predictions of the model are, for α/sub S/> or approx. =3.25, consistent with experiment, except for the proton magnetic moment which is only about 40% of the experimental value

  17. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On deformations of linear differential systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gontsov, R.R.; Poberezhnyi, V.A.; Helminck, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns deformations of meromorphic linear differential systems. Problems relating to their existence and classification are reviewed, and the global and local behaviour of solutions to deformation equations in a neighbourhood of their singular set is analysed. Certain classical

  19. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... Our study gives insight into possible deformed structures at spherical shell closure. ... Considerable experimental and theoretical efforts ... True deformation effects can be seen only by considering configuration mixing.

  20. The quantum harmonic oscillator on a circle and a deformed quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego-Monteiro, M.A.

    2001-05-01

    We construct a deformed free quantum field theory with an standard Hilbert space based on a deformed Heisenberg algebra. This deformed algebra is a Heisenberg-type algebra describing the first levels of the quantum harmonic oscillator on a circle of large length L. The successive energy levels of this quantum harmonic oscillator on a circle of large length L are interpreted, similarly to the standard quantum one-dimensional harmonic oscillator on an infinite line, as being obtained by the creation of a quantum particle of frequency w at very high energies. (author)

  1. Potential energy landscape signatures of slow dynamics in glass forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sastry, S.; Debenedetti, P. G.; Stillinger, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    We study the properties of local potential energy minima (‘inherent structures’) sampled by liquids at low temperatures as an approach to elucidating the mechanisms of the observed dynamical slowing down observed as the glass transition temperature is approached. This onset of slow dynamics...

  2. Effect of deformation ratios on grain alignment and magnetic properties of hot pressing/hot deformation Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaohui; Li, Mengyu; Wang, Junming; Jing, Zheng; Yue, Ming; Zhu, Minggang; Li, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic properties, microstructure and orientation degrees of hot pressing magnet and hot deformation Nd-Fe-B magnets with different deformation ratios have been investigated in this paper. The remanence (Br) and maximum magnetic energy product ((BH)max) were enhanced gradually with the deformation ratio increasing from 0% to 70%, whereas the coercivity (HCj) decreased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of fractured surfaces parallel to the pressure direction during hot deformation show that the grains tend to extend perpendicularly to the c-axes of Nd2Fe14B grains under the pressure, and the aspect ratios of the grains increase with the increase of deformation ratio. Besides, the compression stress induces the long axis of grains to rotate and the angle (θ) between c-axis and pressure direction decreases. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that orientation degree improves with the increase of deformation ratio, agreeing well with the SEM results. The hot deformation magnet with a deformation ratio of 70% has the best Br and (BH)max, and the magnetic properties are as followed: Br=1.40 T, HCj=10.73 kOe, (BH)max=42.30 MGOe.

  3. Linking Scales in Plastic Deformation and Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Paneda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; S. Deshpande, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    We investigate crack growth initiation and subsequent resistance in metallic materials by means of an implicit multi-scale approach. Strain gradient plasticity is employed to model the mechanical response of the solid so as to incorporate the role of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs......) and accurately capture plasticity at the small scales involved in crack tip deformation. The response ahead of the crack is described by means of a traction-separation law, which is characterized by the cohesive strength and the fracture energy. Results reveal that large gradients of plastic strain accumulatein...... the vicinity of the crack, elevating the dislocation density and the local stress. This stress elevation enhances crack propagation and significantly lowers the steady state fracture toughness with respect to conventional plasticity. Important insight is gained into fracture phenomena that cannot be explained...

  4. Effective field theory for triaxially deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.B. [Technische Universitaet Muechen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muechen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics and JARA-HPC, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Meng, J. [Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Stellenbosch, Department of Physics, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    Effective field theory is generalized to investigate the rotational motion of triaxially deformed even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian for the triaxial rotor is obtained up to next-to-leading order within the effective field theory formalism. Its applicability is examined by comparing with a five-dimensional rotor-vibrator Hamiltonian for the description of the energy spectra of the ground state and γ band in Ru isotopes. It is found that by taking into account the next-to-leading order corrections, the ground state band in the whole spin region and the γ band in the low spin region are well described. The deviations for high-spin states in the γ bands point towards the importance of including vibrational degrees of freedom in the effective field theory formulation. (orig.)

  5. Conformal deformation of Riemann space and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzh, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for investigating conformal deformations of Riemann spaces using torsion tensor, which permits to reduce the second ' order equations for Killing vectors to the system of the first order equations, is presented. The method is illustrated using conformal deformations of dimer sphere as an example. A possibility of its use when studying more complex deformations is discussed [ru

  6. Deformation limits of polymer coated metal sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bosch, M.J.W.J.P.; Schreurs, P.J.G; Geers, M.G.D.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer coated metals are increasingly used by the packaging and automotive industry. During industrial deformation processes (drawing, roll-forming, bending etc.) the polymer-metal laminate is highly deformed at high deformation rates. These forming conditions can affect the mechanical integrity

  7. Large Deformation Constitutive Laws for Isotropic Thermoelastic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohr, Bradley J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plohr, Jeeyeon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive relation for an isotropic thermoelastic material subjected to large deformation by calculating the stress evolution equation from the free energy. For a general thermoelastic material, we employ the volume-preserving part of the deformation gradient to facilitate volumetric/shear strain decompositions of the free energy, its first derivatives (the Cauchy stress and entropy), and its second derivatives (the specific heat, Grueneisen tensor, and elasticity tensor). Specializing to isotropic materials, we calculate these constitutive quantities more explicitly. For deformations with limited shear strain, but possibly large changes in volume, we show that the differential equations for the stress components involve new terms in addition to the traditional Hooke's law terms. These new terms are of the same order in the shear strain as the objective derivative terms needed for frame indifference; unless the latter terms are negligible, the former cannot be neglected. We also demonstrate that accounting for the new terms requires that the deformation gradient be included as a field variable

  8. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  9. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  10. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  11. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... criticises figurative as well as abstract painting as passing through the brain and not acting directly upon the senses. Figurative and abstract painting both fail to liberate the Figure, implementing transformation of form, but not attaining deformations of bodies. Bacon, then, is concerned about...... deformation, about painting the sensation, which is essentially rhythm, making Figure-rhythm relations appear as vibrations that flow through the body - making resonance. Deleuze, with Bergson, argues that art extracts ’a little time in a pure state’ from the everyday repetitions, and thereby opens...

  12. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... the body, situated in real time and depth, with drawing transforming and deforming time and depth....

  13. Hindfoot Arthrodesis for Neuropathic Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Ju Huang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired neurologic disorders of the foot lead to arthrosis, deformities, instabilities, and functional disabilities. Hindfoot arthrodesis is the current option available for irreducible or nonbraceable deformities of neuropathic feet. However, the role of ankle arthrodesis in these patients has been questioned because of high nonunion and complication rates. From 1990 to 2001, 17 cases of acquired neuropathic foot deformities were treated by four tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC arthrodeses and 13 ankle arthrodeses. TTC arthrodesis was performed on cases with combined ankle and subtalar arthritis or cases whose deformities or instabilities could not be corrected by ankle fusion alone. There was no nonunion of TTC arthrodesis and seven ununited ankle arthrodeses were salvaged by two TTC-attempted arthrodeses and five revision ankle-attempted arthrodeses. Eventually in these cases, there was one nonunion in TTC arthrodesis and one nonunion in revision ankle arthrodesis. The final fusion rate was 88% (15 of 17 cases with average union time of 6.9 months (range, 2.5–18 months. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle hind-foot functional scores were evaluated: one was excellent (5.8%, seven were good (41%, eight were fair (53.3%, and one was poor (5.8% in terms of total functional outcome. We conclude that TTC arthrodesis is indicated for cases with ankle and subtalar involvement and ankle arthrodesis is an alternative for cases with intact subtalar joint. We recommend revision ankle arthrodesis if the ankle fails to fuse and the bone stock of the talus is adequate. TTC arthrodesis is reserved for ankles with poor bone stock of the talus with fragmentation.

  14. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  15. The spin symmetry for deformed generalized Poeschl-Teller potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2009-01-01

    In the case of spin symmetry we solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector deformed generalized Poeschl-Teller (DGPT) potential and obtain exact energy equation and spinor wave functions for s-wave bound states. We find that there are only positive energy states for bound states in the case of spin symmetry based on the strong regularity restriction condition λ<-η for the wave functions. The energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. Two special cases such as generalized PT potential and standard PT potential are also briefly discussed.

  16. Multiparticle states in deformed special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the properties of multiparticle states in deformed special relativity (DSR). Starting from the Lagrangian formalism with an energy dependent metric, the conserved Noether current can be derived which is additive in the usual way. The integrated Noether current had previously been discarded as a conserved quantity, because it was correctly realized that it does no longer obey the DSR transformations. We identify the reason for this mismatch in the fact that DSR depends only on the extensive quantity of total four momentum instead of the energy-momentum densities as would be appropriate for a field theory. We argue that the reason for the failure of DSR to reproduce the standard transformation behavior in the well established limits is due to the missing sensitivity to the volume inside which energy is accumulated. We show that the soccer-ball problem is absent if one formulates DSR instead for the field densities. As a consequence, estimates for predicted effects have to be corrected by many orders of magnitude. Further, we derive that the modified quantum field theory implies a locality bound

  17. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised...

  18. Comparative Magnetic Minima: Characterizing Quiet Times in the Sun and Stars. Symposium of the International Astronomical Union (286th) Held in Mendoza, Argentina on October 3-7, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    11:15 – 11:45 Invited Talk – Stars in Magnetic Grand Minima: Where Are They and What Are They Like? Steven Saar (Presentation file) 11:45 – 12:00...of Archaeology and Ancient History, University Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom IAUS 279 Death of Massive Stars: Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts...of Astronomy & Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA IAUS 283 Planetary Nebulae: an Eye to the Future A. MANCHADO, Instituto de

  19. Soft tissue deformation modelling through neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2018-05-30

    Soft tissue deformation modelling forms the basis of development of surgical simulation, surgical planning and robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This paper presents a new methodology for modelling of soft tissue deformation based on reaction-diffusion mechanics via neural dynamics. The potential energy stored in soft tissues due to a mechanical load to deform tissues away from their rest state is treated as the equivalent transmembrane potential energy, and it is distributed in the tissue masses in the manner of reaction-diffusion propagation of nonlinear electrical waves. The reaction-diffusion propagation of mechanical potential energy and nonrigid mechanics of motion are combined to model soft tissue deformation and its dynamics, both of which are further formulated as the dynamics of cellular neural networks to achieve real-time computational performance. The proposed methodology is implemented with a haptic device for interactive soft tissue deformation with force feedback. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology exhibits nonlinear force-displacement relationship for nonlinear soft tissue deformation. Homogeneous, anisotropic and heterogeneous soft tissue material properties can be modelled through the inherent physical properties of mass points. Graphical abstract Soft tissue deformation modelling with haptic feedback via neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.

  20. Recrystallization - Fundamental aspects and relations to deformation microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Lauridsen, E.M.; Leffers, T.; Pantleon, W.; Sabin, T.J.; Wert, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This Symposium, and hence this proceedings volume, is concerned with the mechanisms that control recrystallization of deformed metals and alloys. Central themes are the fundamental microstructural, orientational, and kinetic aspects of the recrystallization process; especially as they relate to the nature of the deformed state, to nucleation and growth of recrystallizing grains, and to models based on experimental observations. In recent years, significant progress has been made using a plethora of advanced techniques to characterize the morphology and local orientations in deformed metals and alloys. Thus, a key topic of the Symposium is enhanced insight into the characteristics of the deformation substructure, and into modification of the substructure by recovery, which is essential for understanding fundamental recrystallization mechanisms. Microstructures in highly strained materials will be a topic of special interest. Elucidation of the deformation substructure, and thus the local distribution of stored energy, sets the stage for progress in understanding nucleation of recrystallizing grains. It also provides a basis for new insights into the growth of nuclei, in particular concerning the means by which the deformation substructure is absorbed by and becomes incorporated into the recrystallization interface. Aspects of recrystallization of relevance to this symposium span the range from experimental and model exploration of fundamental mechanisms to methods that link scientific understanding to industrial practice. Models developed by considering the physical mechanisms elucidated by experimental studies will be addressed, as will models that enable industrial exploitation of the fundamental knowledge. Altogether, one of the significant aims of the symposium is to enhance the exploitation of the expanding knowledge of fundamental recrystallization mechanisms in industrial practice (au)

  1. Work of plastic deformation in local zone of crack apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, V.Yu.; Matvienko, Yu.G.; Rivkin, E.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For substantiating application of criteria of viscous fracture and deeoer understanding of this. process one should know strain distribution and energy consumption for plastic deformation in crack top zone. For this purpose plane samples of 300x70x1.5 mm dimension with central notch of 23, 36 and 46 mm length have been subjected to tensile testing. The samples have been cut out from sheet steel 1Kh18N9T perpendicularly to the rolling direction. It is shown that the suggested viscous fracture conception ensures general approach to the viscous and elastoplastic fracture based on the concept on specific work of plastic deformation in the localized zone νsub(l). The νsub(l) value characterizes maximum plastic material energy consumption and may serve as criterion of viscous material fracture parallel to the critical opening of the deltasub(c) crack top

  2. Analytic regularization of uniform cubic B-spline deformation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleford, James A; Yang, Qi; Lourenço, Ana M; Shusharina, Nadya; Kandasamy, Nagarajan; Sharp, Gregory C

    2012-01-01

    Image registration is inherently ill-posed, and lacks a unique solution. In the context of medical applications, it is desirable to avoid solutions that describe physically unsound deformations within the patient anatomy. Among the accepted methods of regularizing non-rigid image registration to provide solutions applicable to medical practice is the penalty of thin-plate bending energy. In this paper, we develop an exact, analytic method for computing the bending energy of a three-dimensional B-spline deformation field as a quadratic matrix operation on the spline coefficient values. Results presented on ten thoracic case studies indicate the analytic solution is between 61-1371x faster than a numerical central differencing solution.

  3. Martensitic transformation induced by irradiation and deformation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the peculiarities of martensite γ → α , (γ → ε → α , ) transformation in the steels with a low stacking fault energy (12Cr18Ni10T, Cr15AG14) irradiated by neutrons, α-particles and electrons (pulse and stationary) and then deformed with the various strain rates in the temperature range - 20 - 1000 C are considered. It is established by the electron-microscope research that the phase γ → α ' transition in irradiated and deformed steels is observed on the definite stage of evolution of the dislocation structure (after the cell formation) and the martensite formation preferentially occurs on a stacking fault aggregation. The regularities of the irradiation by high energy particles effect on the formation parameters and martensite α , -phase accumulation kinetics ones and also their role in forming of the strength and ductile properties in steels are analysed. (A.A.D.)

  4. Influence of dynamic strain ageing on tensile strain energy of type 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac Samuel, B.; Choudhary, B.K.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tensile tests were conducted on type 316 L(N) stainless steel over a wide temperature range of 300-1123 K employing strain rates ranging from 3.16 X 10 -5 to 3.16 X 10 -3/s . The variation of strain energy in terms of modulus of resilience and modulus of toughness over the wide range of temperatures and strain rates were examined. The variation in modulus of resilience with temperature and strain rate did not show the signatures of dynamic strain ageing (DSA). However, the modulus of toughness exhibited a plateau at the intermediate temperatures of 523-1023 K. Further, the distribution of energy absorbed till necking and energy absorbed from necking till fracture were found to characterise the deformation and damage processes, respectively, and exhibited anomalous variations in the temperature range 523-823 K and 823-1023 K, respectively. In addition to the observed manifestations of DSA such as serrated load-elongation curve, peaks/plateaus in flow stress, ultimate tensile strength and work hardening rate, negative strain rate sensitivity and ductility minima, the observed anomalous variations in modulus of toughness at intermediate temperatures (523-1023 K) can be regarded as yet another key manifestation of DSA. At temperatures above 1023 K, a sharp decrease in the modulus of toughness and also in the strain energies up to necking and from necking to fracture observed, with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate, reveal the onset of dynamic recovery leading to early cross slip and climb processes. (author)

  5. Alpha- and Omega-Deformations from fluxes in M-Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neil; Reffert, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    We discuss an SL(2,R) family of deformed N=2 four-dimensional gauge theories which we derive from a flux background in M-theory. In addition to the Omega-deformation this family includes a new deformation, which we call the Alpha-deformation, which can be viewed as an S-dual to the Omega-deformation. We study these gauge theories in two ways: by constructing a non-Abelian (but UV-complete) Lagrangian, and by their strong coupling lift to M-theory where their low-energy dynamics can be determined by examining the equation of motion of a single M5-brane wrapped on a Riemann surface.

  6. Flattening of the resonance spectrum of hadrons from κ-deformed Poincare algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Ferreira, P.L.; Tomio, L.; Choudhury, R.R.

    1994-02-01

    It was recently defined by Lukierski a κ-deformed Poincare algebra which is characterized by having the energy-momentum and angular momentum sub-algebras not deformed. Further Biedenharn showed that on gauging the κ-deformed electron with the electromagnetic field, one can set a limit on the allowed value of the deformation parameter ε ≡ 1/κ < 1 fm. It is shown that one gets Regge like angular excitations, J, of the mesons, non-strange and strange baryons, with a value of ε ∼ 0.082 fm and predict a flattening with J of the corresponding trajectories. The Regge fit improves on including deformation, particularly for the baryon spectrum. (author)

  7. Valence bond model potential energy surface for H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, D.M.; Brown, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    Potential energy surfaces for the H 4 system are derived using the valence bond procedure. An ab initio evaluation of the valence bond energy expression is described and some of its numerical properties are given. Next, four semiempirical evaluations of the valence bond energy are defined and parametrized to yield reasonable agreement with various ab initio calculations of H 4 energies. Characteristics of these four H 4 surfaces are described by means of tabulated energy minima and equipotential contour maps for selected geometrical arrangements of the four nuclei

  8. Angularly Deformed Special Relativity and its Results for Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Glinka, Lukasz Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the deformed Special Relativity, which leads to an essentially new theoretical context of quantum mechanics, is presented. The formulation of the theory arises from a straightforward analogy with the Special Relativity, but its foundations are laid through the hypothesis on breakdown of the velocity-momentum parallelism which affects onto the Einstein equivalence principle between mass and energy of a relativistic particle. Furthermore, the derivation is based on the technique ...

  9. Quantum Deformations of Space-Time Symmetries and Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Stichel, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss quantum deformations of Lie algebra as described by the noncoassociative modification of its coalgebra structure. We consider for simplicity the quantum $D=1$ Galilei algebra with four generators: energy $H$, boost $B$, momentum $P$ and central generator $M$ (mass generator). We describe the nonprimitive coproducts for $H$ and $B$ and show that their noncocommutative and noncoassociative structure is determined by the two-body interaction terms. Further we consider the case of phys...

  10. An approximate method for calculating the deformation of rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents as a collective model where the potential surface at spin I=0 is calculated in the Nilsson-Strutinsky model, an analytical expression for the moment of inertia is used which depends on the deformation and the pairing gaps for protons and neutrons, and the energy is minimized with respect to these gaps. Calculations in this model are performed for 16 Oyb. (HSI)

  11. Breakeven point for energetic viability for the culture of Jatropha; Produtividade minima para a viabilidade energetica da cultura do pinhao-manso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diotto, Adriano V.; Paulino, Janaina; Romanelli, Thiago L.; Flumgnan, Danilton L.; Folegatti, Marcos V. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: avdiotto@usp.br

    2012-11-01

    Due to diversity of plants that can be used to produce biofuel, Jatropha is being increasingly studied and some answers have yet to be given by the research to ensure its use as a plant producing energy. The energy balance is a methodology that takes into account all the energy input in the production system, either through direct consumption of fuel for tractors, for example, or indirectly as the added energy to fabricate the tractor Itself. Therefore, we tried to use the energy balance methodology to evaluate the minimum yield necessary to crop the Jatropha to have energetic viability in production, in other words, to have output energy greater than input energy. We evaluated four years of cultivation in a property located in Charqueada-SP. The feasibility breakeven point was 2.36 mg ha{sup -1}. The factors that most influenced the energy input to the system were the crop inputs (64.3%), followed by fuel consumption (39.7%), depreciation of machinery (3.1%) and labor which accounted for only 1.9%. (author)

  12. Dislocation Dynamics During Plastic Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmidt, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The book gives an overview of the dynamic behavior of dislocations and its relation to plastic deformation. It introduces the general properties of dislocations and treats the dislocation dynamics in some detail. Finally, examples are described of the processes in different classes of materials, i.e. semiconductors, ceramics, metals, intermetallic materials, and quasicrystals. The processes are illustrated by many electron micrographs of dislocations under stress and by video clips taken during in situ straining experiments in a high-voltage electron microscope showing moving dislocations. Thus, the users of the book also obtain an immediate impression and understanding of dislocation dynamics.

  13. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  14. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  15. q-deformed Poincare algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Muenchen Univ.; Zumino, B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    The q-differential calculus for the q-Minkowski space is developed. The algebra of the q-derivatives with the q-Lorentz generators is found giving the q-deformation of the Poincare algebra. The reality structure of the q-Poincare algebra is given. The reality structure of the q-differentials is also found. The real Laplaacian is constructed. Finally the comultiplication, counit and antipode for the q-Poincare algebra are obtained making it a Hopf algebra. (orig.)

  16. Deformation retracts of Stein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, H.; Mihalache, N.

    1995-01-01

    If X is an n-dimensional Stein space, it was proved that X has the homotopy type of a CW-complex of dimension≤n and in the algebraic case this was proved with the additional conclusion that the CW-complex is finite. In this paper the authors give an answer to the question if there exists a subset Q of X with the same topological properties as X, for instance Q is a strong deformation retract of X, and Q is a CW-complex of dimension≤n. 15 refs

  17. A particle-number conserving microscopic approach to octupole deformation of normal deformed and superdeformed states in 194Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)

  18. Simulations of fully deformed oscillating flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelas, K.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2018-02-01

    Context. In recent years, a number of numerical studies have been focusing on the significance of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the dynamics of oscillating coronal loops. This process enhances the transfer of energy into smaller scales, and has been connected with heating of coronal loops, when dissipation mechanisms, such as resistivity, are considered. However, the turbulent layer is expected near the outer regions of the loops. Therefore, the effects of wave heating are expected to be confined to the loop's external layers, leaving their denser inner parts without a heating mechanism. Aim. In the current work we aim to study the spatial evolution of wave heating effects from a footpoint driven standing kink wave in a coronal loop. Methods: Using the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed ideal, three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of footpoint driven transverse oscillations of a cold, straight coronal flux tube, embedded in a hotter environment. We have also constructed forward models for our simulation using the FoMo code. Results: The developed transverse wave induced Kelvin-Helmholtz (TWIKH) rolls expand throughout the tube cross-section, and cover it entirely. This turbulence significantly alters the initial density profile, leading to a fully deformed cross section. As a consequence, the resistive and viscous heating rate both increase over the entire loop cross section. The resistive heating rate takes its maximum values near the footpoints, while the viscous heating rate at the apex. Conclusions: We conclude that even a monoperiodic driver can spread wave heating over the whole loop cross section, potentially providing a heating source in the inner loop region. Despite the loop's fully deformed structure, forward modelling still shows the structure appearing as a loop. A movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  19. Mechanics of adsorption-deformation coupling in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yida

    2018-05-01

    This work extends Coussy's macroscale theory for porous materials interacting with adsorptive fluid mixtures. The solid-fluid interface is treated as an independent phase that obeys its own mass, momentum and energy balance laws. As a result, a surface strain energy term appears in the free energy balance equation of the solid phase, which further introduces the so-called adsorption stress in the constitutive equations of the porous skeleton. This establishes a fundamental link between the adsorption characteristics of the solid-fluid interface and the mechanical response of the porous media. The thermodynamic framework is quite general in that it recovers the coupled conduction laws, Gibbs isotherm and the Shuttleworth's equation for surface stress, and imposes no constraints on the magnitude of deformation and the functional form of the adsorption isotherms. A rich variety of coupling between adsorption and deformation is recovered as a result of combining different poroelastic models (isotropic vs. anisotropic, linear vs. nonlinear) and adsorption models (unary vs. mixture adsorption, uncoupled vs. stretch-dependent adsorption). These predictions are discussed against the backdrop of recent experimental data on coal swelling subjected to CO2 and CO2sbnd CH4 injections, showing the capability and versatility of the theory in capturing adsorption-induced deformation of porous materials.

  20. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  1. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  2. Simple method for determining binding energies of fullerene and complex atomic negative ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred

    2017-04-01

    A robust potential which embeds fully the vital core polarization interaction has been used in the Regge pole method to explore low-energy electron scattering from C60, Eu and Nb through the total cross sections (TCSs) calculations. From the characteristic dramatically sharp resonances in the TCSs manifesting negative ion formation in these systems, we extracted the binding energies for the C60, Euand Nbanions they are found to be in outstanding agreement with the measured electron affinities of C60, Eu and Nb. Common among these considered systems, including the standard atomic Au is the formation of their ground state negative ions at the second Ramsauer-Townsend (R-T) minima of their TCSs. Indeed, this is a signature of all the fullerenes and complex atoms considered thus far. Shape resonances, R-T minima and binding energies of the resultant anions are presented. This work was supported by U.S. DOE, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research.

  3. HVEM in situ deformation of Al-Li-X alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, R.E.; Kenik, E.A.; Starke, E.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium additions to aluminum alloys increase both the strength and elastic modulus while decreasing the density, thereby resulting in very attractive combinations of properties. The commercial utilization of these alloys, however, has been hindered by a lack of adequate ductility at peak strength. Recent investigations have attributed the low ductility to intense, localized deformation. This is considered to be due to the promotion of planar slip by coherent, shearable, delta' (Al 3 Li) precipitates and the presence of precipitate free zones (PFZ's) at high angle grain boundaries. An Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Zr alloy, produced by rapidly solidified powder processing, was found to exhibit ductility improvements over comparable, lithium-containing alloys. Thin foils prepared from bulk tensile samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and no evidence of localized deformation was found. These, however, were only successfully produced from the region of uniform elongation below the neck and were thus limited to approximately 4% plastic strain. In order to observe the deformation behavior under severe strain, an in situ deformation study was conducted in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM). Several investigators have used in situ HVEM techniques to study ductile fracture processes. The advantages of HVEM versus TEM for this purpose include: thicker specimens (due to a lower energy exchange of the electrons), a lower specimen contamination rate and a negligible increase in specimen temperature. Two lithium-containing alloys which had been previously reported to demonstrate localized, planar slip were studied for comparison

  4. Controllable helical deformations on printed anisotropic composite soft actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Li, Ling; Serjouei, Ahmad; Dong, Longteng; Weeger, Oliver; Gu, Guoying; Ge, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Helical shapes are ubiquitous in both nature and engineering. However, the development of soft actuators and robots that mimic helical motions has been hindered primarily due to the lack of efficient modeling approaches that take into account the material anisotropy and the directional change of the external loading point. In this work, we present a theoretical framework for modeling controllable helical deformations of cable-driven, anisotropic, soft composite actuators. The framework is based on the minimum potential energy method, and its model predictions are validated by experiments, where the microarchitectures of the soft composite actuators can be precisely defined by 3D printing. We use the developed framework to investigate the effects of material and geometric parameters on helical deformations. The results show that material stiffness, volume fraction, layer thickness, and fiber orientation can be used to control the helical deformation of a soft actuator. In particular, we found that a critical fiber orientation angle exists at which the twist of the actuator changes the direction. Thus, this work can be of great importance for the design and fabrication of soft actuators with tailored deformation behavior.

  5. Pair correlation of super-deformed rotation band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The effect of pair correlation, one of the most important residual interactions associated with the super-deformed rotation band, is discussed in terms of the characteristics of the rotation band (its effect on the moment of inertia in particular), and the tunneling into an normal deformed state in relation to its effect on the angular momentum dependence of the potential energy plane as a function of the deformation. The characteristics of the rotation band is discussed in terms of the kinematic and dynamic momenta of inertia. It is shown that the pair correlation in a super-deformed rotation band acts to decrease the former and increase the latter momentum mainly due to dynamic pair correlation. A theoretical approach that takes this effect into account can provide results that are consistent with measured momenta, although large differences can occur in some cases. Major conflicts include a large measured kinetic momentum of inertia compared to the theoretical value, and the absence of the abnormality (shape increase) generally seen in low-spin experiments. The former seems likely to be associated with the method of measuring the angular momentum. (N.K.)

  6. Studies of normal deformation in {sup 151}Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The wealth of data collected in the study of superdeformation in {sup 151}Dy allowed for new information to be obtained on the normally deformed structures in this nucleus. At high spin several new yrast states have been identified for the first time. They were associated with single-particle excitations. Surprisingly, a sequence was identified with energy spacings characteristic of a rotational band of normal ({beta}2 {approximately} 0.2) deformation. The bandhead spin appears to be 15/2{sup -} and the levels extend up to a spin of 87/2{sup -}. A clear backbend is present at intermediate spins. While a similar band based on a bandhead of 6{sup +} is known in {sup 152}Dy, calculations suggest that this collective prolate band should not be seen in {sup 151}Dy. In the experiment described earlier in this report that is aimed at determining the deformations associated with the SD bands in this nucleus and {sup 152}Dy, the deformation associated with this band will be determined. This will provide further insight into the origin of this band.

  7. Theory of the deformation of aligned polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A; Swinburne, T D; Hasan, H; Del Rosso, S; Iannucci, L; Sutton, A P

    2015-08-08

    Solitons are proposed as the agents of plastic and viscoelastic deformation in aligned polyethylene. Interactions between straight, parallel molecules are mapped rigorously onto the Frenkel-Kontorova model. It is shown that these molecular interactions distribute an applied load between molecules, with a characteristic transfer length equal to the soliton width. Load transfer leads to the introduction of tensile and compressive solitons at the chain ends to mark the onset of plasticity at a well-defined yield stress, which is much less than the theoretical pull-out stress. Interaction energies between solitons and an equation of motion for solitons are derived. The equation of motion is based on Langevin dynamics and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and it leads to the rigorous definition of an effective mass for solitons. It forms the basis of a soliton dynamics in direct analogy to dislocation dynamics. Close parallels are drawn between solitons in aligned polymers and dislocations in crystals, including the configurational force on a soliton. The origins of the strain rate and temperature dependencies of the viscoelastic behaviour are discussed in terms of the formation energy of solitons. A failure mechanism is proposed involving soliton condensation under a tensile load.

  8. Deformation performance of Waba Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salloum, T.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hassan, P. [Ontario Power Generation, Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON (Canada); Cragg, C. [Cragg Consulting Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the performance of the Waba Dam which is being monitored as part of Ontario Power Generation's Dam Safety Program. It described the deformations that have been observed in this 3600 ft long earthfill dam which lies on marine clay in eastern Ontario. An extensive instrumentation program, including foundation settlement gauges, surface monuments, slope inclinometers, load cells and piezometers has been in effect since the construction of the dam in 1975. Significant settlement has occurred at Waba Dam since its construction. Wide berms were provided upstream and downstream beyond the slopes of the main fill to ensure stability of the dyke on the soft clay foundation and the crest elevations were designed to allow for the expected settlement in the foundation which would be overstressed by the dam loading. Based on current settlements, future settlements are predicted based on Asaoka's method. Inclinometer measurements have shown a foundation lateral spreading of 12 in. The lateral versus vertical deformations were found to be comparable to well behaving embankments reported in the literature. These analyses indicate that Waba Dam is performing well and should continue to perform well into the future. 8 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  9. Deformation Characteristics of Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus T. AKANO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The composites provide design flexibility because many of them can be moulded into complex shapes. The carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites exhibit excellent fatigue tolerance and high specific strength and stiffness which have led to numerous advanced applications ranging from the military and civil aircraft structures to the consumer products. However, the modelling of the beams undergoing the arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but small strains, is a common problem in the application of these engineering composite systems. This paper presents a nonlinear finite element model which is able to estimate the deformations of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composite beams. The governing equations are based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT with a von Kármán type of kinematic nonlinearity. The anisotropic elasticity is employed for the material model of the composite material. Moreover, the characterization of the mechanical properties of the composite material is achieved through a tensile test, while a simple laboratory experiment is used to validate the model. The results reveal that the composite fibre orientation, the type of applied load and boundary condition, affect the deformation characteristics of the composite structures. The nonlinearity is an important factor that should be taken into consideration in the analysis of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composites.

  10. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  11. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  12. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  13. Microstructural evolution during tensile deformation of polypropylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Tensile deformation processes occurring at varying strain rates in high and low crystallinity polypropylenes and ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This is examined for both long and short chain polymeric materials. The deformation processes in different polymeric materials show striking dissimilarities in spite of the common propylene matrix. Additionally, the deformation behavior of long and their respective short chain polymers was different. Deformation mechanisms include crazing/tearing, wedging, ductile ploughing, fibrillation, and brittle fracture. The different modes of deformation are depicted in the form of strain rate-strain diagrams. At a constant strain rate, the strain to fracture follows the sequence: high crystallinity polypropylenes< low crystallinity polypropylenes< ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers, indicative of the trend in resistance to plastic deformation

  14. Deformation of wrought uranium: Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, R.J., E-mail: rmccabe@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Capolungo, L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech - CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Marshall, P.E.; Cady, C.M.; Tome, C.N. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The room temperature deformation behavior of wrought polycrystalline uranium is studied using a combination of experimental techniques and polycrystal modeling. Electron backscatter diffraction is used to analyze the primary deformation twinning modes for wrought alpha-uranium. The {l_brace}1 3 0{r_brace}<3 1 0> twinning mode is found to be the most prominent twinning mode, with minor contributions from the '{l_brace}1 7 2{r_brace}'<3 1 2> and {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace}'<3 7 2>' twin modes. Because of the large number of deformation modes, each with limited deformation systems, a polycrystalline model is employed to identify and quantify the activity of each mode. Model predictions of the deformation behavior and texture development agree reasonably well with experimental measures and provide reliable information about deformation systems.

  15. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  16. Effect of Preaging Deformation on Aging Characteristics of 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Rao, A. G.; Sarkar, R.; Kashyap, B. P.; Prabhu, N.

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, precipitation of sigma (σ) phase was investigated over the temperature range of 700-850 °C in undeformed and deformed (60% cold rolling) samples of 2507 super duplex stainless steel. The fraction of sigma phase formed as a result of the transformation α → σ + γ2 increases with increasing time and temperature. The increase in sigma phase leads to increase in yield strength and decrease in ductility. Preaging deformation leads to accelerated precipitation of sigma phase. The activation energy for sigma phase precipitation in deformed sample is found to be lower than that in undeformed sample.

  17. Ground-State Band and Deformation of the Z = 102 Isotope N 254

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lister, C.J.; Seweryniak, D.; Ahmad, I.; Alcorta, M.; Carpenter, M.P.; Cizewski, J.A.; Davids, C.N.; Gervais, G.; Greene, J.P.; Henning, W.F.; Janssens, R.V.; Lauritsen, T.; Siem, S.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Sullivan, D.; Uusitalo, J.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Amzal, N.; Butler, P.A.; Chewter, A.J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Herzberg, R.; Jones, G.D.; Cizewski, J.A.; Ding, K.Y.; Fotiades, N.; Fox, J.D.; Korten, W.; Leino, M.; Vetter, K.; Siem, S.

    1999-01-01

    The ground-state band of the Z=102 isotope 254 No has been identified up to spin 14, indicating that the nucleus is deformed. The deduced quadrupole deformation, β=0.27 , is in agreement with theoretical predictions. These observations confirm that the shell-correction energy responsible for the stability of transfermium nuclei is partly derived from deformation. The survival of 254 No up to spin 14 means that its fission barrier persists at least up to that spin. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Deformation effects in the cluster radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misicu, S.; Protopopescu, D.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the deformation on the decay rates of the cluster emission process 224 Ra → 210 Pb + 14 C. The interaction between the daughter and the cluster is given by a double folding potential, containing a nuclear repulsive core, with account of the quadrupole and hexadecupole deformed densities of both fragments. Upon comparison with the experimental value of the decay rate, the results obtained point out the importance of such deformations especially for the daughter nucleus

  19. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  20. Disappearance of neutron magic numbers and deformation coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The disappearance of N=8, 20 and 28 magic numbers in the neutron excess nuclei is a representative example of the special features of the unstable nuclei. In this lecture of summer school, the problems of the magic number disappearance are presented. And the appearance of the deformation coexistence and the anomalous cluster structure come into the problem with them. At the begging the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamic (AMD) framework is explained with finite range two body central force and Gorgny DIS force composed of the zero range spin-orbit force and saturability. Island of inversion is explained in the nuclear chart shown in the figure and energy curves of the nuclei near 32 Mg and the excitation level schemes of 32 Mg are shown in the serial figures. As one of the extreme example of the nuclear structure the deformation of 19 F is picked up. The level schemes and structures of 21 F are shown as well. The molecule-like structure in the island of inversion is clear. The rotational band energy of fluorine isotopes are shown up to 29 F. As a new deformation area, disappearance of N=28 magic number is in the spotlight recently. In this case it is characteristic properties that the parities of the orbits to form the gap must be the same but the angular momenta should be different by 2. According to the AMD research, it is shown that deformations of prolate, three-axis asymmetric and oblate characters coexist in the very low excitation energy region accompanying the disappearance of N=28 gap. The concept of magic numbers has been very fundamental in nuclear physics since the success of shell model. At present its disappearance in the unstable nuclei is one of the most challenging problems in the understanding of the nuclear many body problems. (S. Funahashi)

  1. Infinitesimal deformations of a formal symplectic groupoid

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Given a formal symplectic groupoid $G$ over a Poisson manifold $(M, \\pi_0)$, we define a new object, an infinitesimal deformation of $G$, which can be thought of as a formal symplectic groupoid over the manifold $M$ equipped with an infinitesimal deformation $\\pi_0 + \\epsilon \\pi_1$ of the Poisson bivector field $\\pi_0$. The source and target mappings of a deformation of $G$ are deformations of the source and target mappings of $G$. To any pair of natural star products $(\\ast, \\tilde\\ast)$ ha...

  2. Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hertzberg, Richard W; Vinci, Richard Paul; Hertzberg, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    "Hertzberg's 5th edition of Deformation & Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials offers several new features including a greater number and variety of homework problems using more computational software...

  3. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  4. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  5. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a generatrix of the meridian surface.Unlike other types of pressure elastic members (bellows, tube spring, the elastic characteristics of which are close to linear, an elastic characteristic of the corrugated membrane (typical movement versus external load is nonlinear. Therefore, the corrugated membranes can be used to measure quantities, nonlinearly related to the pressure (e.g., aircraft air speed, its altitude, pipeline fluid or gas flow rate. Another feature of the corrugated membrane is that significant movements are possible within the elastic material state. However, a significant non-linearity of membrane characteristics leads to severe complicated calculation.This article is aimed at calculating the corrugated membrane to obtain the elastic characteristics and the deformed shape of the membrane meridian, as well as at investigating the processes of buckling. As the calculation model, a thin-walled axisymmetric shell rotation is assumed. The material properties are linearly elastic. We consider a corrugated membrane of sinusoidal profile. The membrane load is a uniform pressure.The algorithm for calculating the mathematical model of an axisymmetric corrugated membrane of constant thickness, based on the Reissner’s theory of elastic thin shells, was realized as the author's program in C language. To solve the nonlinear problem were used a method of changing the subspace of control parameters, developed by S.S., Gavriushin, and a parameter marching method

  6. Fully automated deformable registration of breast DCE-MRI and PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, I. D.; Loo, C. E.; Vogel, W. V.; Pengel, K. E.; Gilhuijs, K. G. A.

    2013-02-01

    Accurate characterization of breast tumors is important for the appropriate selection of therapy and monitoring of the response. For this purpose breast imaging and tissue biopsy are important aspects. In this study, a fully automated method for deformable registration of DCE-MRI and PET/CT of the breast is presented. The registration is performed using the CT component of the PET/CT and the pre-contrast T1-weighted non-fat suppressed MRI. Comparable patient setup protocols were used during the MRI and PET examinations in order to avoid having to make assumptions of biomedical properties of the breast during and after the application of chemotherapy. The registration uses a multi-resolution approach to speed up the process and to minimize the probability of converging to local minima. The validation was performed on 140 breasts (70 patients). From a total number of registration cases, 94.2% of the breasts were aligned within 4.0 mm accuracy (1 PET voxel). Fused information may be beneficial to obtain representative biopsy samples, which in turn will benefit the treatment of the patient.

  7. Surface thickness effects and splitting of multipole excitations in deformed nuclei. [Sum rule, hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christillin, P [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Lipparini, E; Stringari, S [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Trento, Italy

    1978-09-25

    A sum-rule approach is used to study the influence of surface thickness upon the splitting of dipole and isoscalar quadrupole energies in deformed nuclei. It is shown that hydrodynamic model results are recovered in the case of a deformed skin thickness. A constant skin thickness leads in the dipole case to slightly different predictions which seem in better agreement with experiments. The splitting of the isoscalar quadrupole mode is not sensitive to the surface thickness shape.

  8. New estimates of quadrupole deformation β of some nearly spherical even Mo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Y.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, M.; Bihari, Chhail; Varshney, A.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation parameter β and γ of the collective model of Bohr and Mottelson are basic descriptors of the nuclear equilibrium shape and structure. In recent past the sets of deformation parameters (β, γ) have been extracted from both level energies and E2 transition rates in even Xe, Ba and Ce nuclei and Hf, W, Os, Pt and Hg nuclei using rigid triaxial rotor model of Davydov – Filippov

  9. Ground-state properties of axially deformed Sr isotopes in Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A.H.; Bayram, T.; Demirci, M.; Engin, B.; Bayram, T.

    2010-01-01

    Binding energies, the mean-square nuclear radii, neutron radii, quadrupole moments and deformation parameters to axially deformed Strontium isotopes were evaluated using Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov method. Shape coexistence was also discussed. The results were compared with experimental data and some estimates obtained within some nuclear models. The calculations were performed for SIy4 set of Skyrme forces and for wide range of the neutron numbers of Sr isotopes

  10. Experimental energetic balance associated to the deformation of an aluminum multicrystal and monocrystal sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louche, H.; Tabourot, L. [LMecA ESIA, Domaine Univ., Annecy (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the stored energy during the tensile deformation of an aluminum multicrystal and polycrystal sheet sample. The method is based on thermo mechanical macroscopic fields analysis, like strains and temperature, obtained by a visible and an infrared cameras. Preliminary experimental results are presented. On an Al multicrystal sheet, heterogeneous thermo mechanical fields associated to the localized movement of dislocations at a microscopic scale are presented. Furthermore, the energetic balance established during the tensile deformation of an Al polycristal show a decreasing ratio of stored energy on anelastic energy and a non constant fraction of total work converted into heat. (orig.)

  11. Cyclic deformation of bidisperse two-dimensional foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fátima Vaz, M.; Cox, S. J.; Teixeira, P. I. C.

    2011-12-01

    In-plane deformation of foams was studied experimentally by subjecting bidisperse foams to cycles of traction and compression at a prescribed rate. Each foam contained bubbles of two sizes with given area ratio and one of three initial arrangements: sorted perpendicular to the axis of deformation (iso-strain), sorted parallel to the axis of deformation (iso-stress), or randomly mixed. Image analysis was used to measure the characteristics of the foams, including the number of edges separating small from large bubbles N sl , the perimeter (surface energy), the distribution of the number of sides of the bubbles, and the topological disorder μ2(N). Foams that were initially mixed were found to remain mixed after the deformation. The response of sorted foams, however, depended on the initial geometry, including the area fraction of small bubbles and the total number of bubbles. For a given experiment we found that (i) the perimeter of a sorted foam varied little; (ii) each foam tended towards a mixed state, measured through the saturation of N sl ; and (iii) the topological disorder μ2(N) increased up to an "equilibrium" value. The results of different experiments showed that (i) the change in disorder, ? decreased with the area fraction of small bubbles under iso-strain, but was independent of it under iso-stress; and (ii) ? increased with ? under iso-strain, but was again independent of it under iso-stress. We offer explanations for these effects in terms of elementary topological processes induced by the deformations that occur at the bubble scale.

  12. Understanding thermally activated plastic deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Alomari, A.; Murty, K. L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding micromechanics of plastic deformation of existing materials is essential for improving their properties further and/or developing advanced materials for much more severe load bearing applications. The objective of the present work was to understand micromechanics of plastic deformation of Zircaloy-4, a zirconium-based alloy used as fuel cladding and channel (in BWRs) material in nuclear reactors. The Zircaloy-4 in recrystallized (at 973 K for 4 h) condition was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing at a constant cross-head velocity at temperatures in the range 293 K-1073 K and repeated stress relaxation tests at 293 K, 573 K, and 773 K. The minimum in the total elongation was indicative of dynamic strain aging phenomenon in this alloy in the intermediate temperature regime. The yield stress of the alloy was separated into effective and athermal components and the transition from thermally activated dislocation glide to athermal regime took place at around 673 K with the athermal stress estimated to be 115 MPa. The activation volume was found to be in the range of 40 b3 to 160 b3. The activation volume values and the data analyses using the solid-solution models in literature indicated dislocation-solute interaction to be a potential deformation mechanism in thermally activated regime. The activation energy calculated at 573 K was very close to that found for diffusivity of oxygen in α-Zr that was suggestive of dislocations-oxygen interaction during plastic deformation. This type of information may be helpful in alloy design in selecting different elements to control the deformation behavior of the material and impart desired mechanical properties in those materials for specific applications.

  13. Mechanical stability of the cell nucleus: roles played by the cytoskeleton in nuclear deformation and strain recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian; Liu, Haijiao; Zhu, Min; Cao, Changhong; Xu, Zhensong; Tsatskis, Yonit; Lau, Kimberly; Kuok, Chikin; Filleter, Tobin; McNeill, Helen; Simmons, Craig A; Hopyan, Sevan; Sun, Yu

    2018-05-18

    Extracellular forces transmitted through the cytoskeleton can deform the cell nucleus. Large nuclear deformation increases the risk of disrupting the nuclear envelope's integrity and causing DNA damage. Mechanical stability of the nucleus defines its capability of maintaining nuclear shape by minimizing nuclear deformation and recovering strain when deformed. Understanding the deformation and recovery behavior of the nucleus requires characterization of nuclear viscoelastic properties. Here, we quantified the decoupled viscoelastic parameters of the cell membrane, cytoskeleton, and the nucleus. The results indicate that the cytoskeleton enhances nuclear mechanical stability by lowering the effective deformability of the nucleus while maintaining nuclear sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. Additionally, the cytoskeleton decreases the strain energy release rate of the nucleus and might thus prevent shape change-induced structural damage to chromatin. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. DEA deformed stretchable patch antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X-J; Jalali Mazlouman, S; Menon, C; Mahanfar, A; Vaughan, R G

    2012-01-01

    A stretchable patch antenna (SPA) whose frequency is tuned by a planar dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented in this paper. This mechanically reconfigurable antenna system has a configuration resembling a pre-stretched silicone belt. Part of the belt is embedded with a layer of conductive liquid metal to form the patch antenna. Part of the belt is sandwiched between conductive electrodes to form the DEA. Electrical activation of the DEA results in a contraction of the patch antenna, and as a result, in a variation of its resonance frequency. Design and fabrication steps of this system are presented. Measurement results for deformation, resonance frequency variation and efficiency of the patch antenna are also presented. (paper)

  15. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    the capacity of the body to be affected by change. The everyday and the ceremonial body, the ordinary and the aberrant movement – these poles generate a passage rather than a difference from the one to the other: from attitude or position to gesture or kinaesthetic twist. Known from without through perception...... but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... criticises figurative as well as abstract painting as passing through the brain and not acting directly upon the senses. Figurative and abstract painting both fail to liberate the Figure, implementing transformation of form, but not attaining deformations of bodies. Bacon, then, is concerned about...

  16. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  17. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  18. Deformed exponentials and portfolio selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Flávia P.; Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles Casimiro

    In this paper, we present a method for portfolio selection based on the consideration on deformed exponentials in order to generalize the methods based on the gaussianity of the returns in portfolio, such as the Markowitz model. The proposed method generalizes the idea of optimizing mean-variance and mean-divergence models and allows a more accurate behavior for situations where heavy-tails distributions are necessary to describe the returns in a given time instant, such as those observed in economic crises. Numerical results show the proposed method outperforms the Markowitz portfolio for the cumulated returns with a good convergence rate of the weights for the assets which are searched by means of a natural gradient algorithm.

  19. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  20. Utilización del factor de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta en árboles de molinos de caña de azúcar. // Use of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arzola de la Peña

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aplica el criterio de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta para losárboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. La utilización de este criterio permite predecir no solamente la razón decrecimiento de las grietas sino también la inclinación que las mismas van experimentando durante su propagación, conrespecto al plano inicial donde surgen. Son modelados los dos tipos de grietas que usualmente ocurren en estos elementos,la grieta semielíptica superficial y la circunferencial. Se demuestra que la grieta circunferencial siempre crece en un planonormal al eje del árbol, mientras que las semielípticas lo harán en un plano algo inclinado en dependencia del predominiode las tensiones tangenciales. La grieta circunferencial resultó ser más crítica que la semielíptica superficial.Palabras claves: Energía de deformación, molinos de caña, propagación de grietas._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the approach of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles isapplied. The use of this approach allows predicting not only the rate of cracks growth but also the inclination that the sameones experienced during its propagation, with regard to the initial plane where they arise. The two types of cracks thatusually happens in these elements are modelled, the semielliptical superficial crack and the circumferential. It isdemonstrated that the circumferential crack always grows in a normal plane to the axis of the axle, while the semiellipticalwill make it in a plane something bowed in dependence of the prevalence of the tangential tensions. The circumferentialcrack turned out to be more critical than the semielliptical superficial.Keywords: Energy of deformation, cane mills, crack propagation.

  1. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  2. q-deformed Weinberg-Salam model and q-deformed Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.A.; Sarbishaei, M.; Mokhtari, A.

    2000-01-01

    We study the q-deformation of the gauge part of the Weinberg-Salam model and show that the q-deformed theory involves new interactions. We then obtain q-deformed Maxwell equations from which magnetic monopoles appear naturally. (author)

  3. The role of deformation microstructure in recovery and recrystallization of heavily strained metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Metals deformed to high and ultrahigh strains are characterized by a nanoscale microstructure, a large fraction of high angle boundaries and a high dislocation density. Another characteristic of such a microstructure is a large stored energy that combines elastic energy due to dislocations and bo...

  4. High prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijckmann, Anna Caroline; Huijberts, Maya S P; Schoon, Erik J; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Jolanda; Menheere, Paul P C A; van der Veer, Eveline; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W; Dumitrescu, Bianca; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C

    2008-08-01

    Earlier studies have documented that the prevalence of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral deformities in inflammatory bowel disease patients and their relation with BMD and bone turnover. One hundred and nine patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 72 with ulcerative colitis (UC) (age 44.5+/-14.2 years) were studied. BMD of the hip (by dual X-ray absorptiometry) was measured and a lateral single energy densitometry of the spine for assessment of vertebral deformities was performed. Serum markers of bone resorption (carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen) and formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide) were measured, and determinants of prevalent vertebral deformities were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Vertebral deformities were found in 25% of both CD and UC patients. Comparing patients with and without vertebral deformities, no significant difference was found between Z-scores and T-scores of BMD, or levels of serum carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide. Using logistic regression analysis the only determinant of any morphometric vertebral deformity was sex. The presence of multiple vertebral deformities was associated with older age and glucocorticoid use. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities is high in CD and UC. Male sex, but neither disease activity, bone turnover markers, clinical risk factors, nor BMD predicted their presence. The determinants for having more than one vertebral deformity were age and glucocorticoid use. This implies that in addition to screening for low BMD, morphometric assessment of vertebral deformities is warranted in CD and UC.

  5. A theoretical study on the geometry and spectroscopic properties of ground-state and local minima isomers of (CuS)n=2-6 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ceballos, Jonathan C.; Posada-Borbón, Alvaro; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Aceves, R.; Juárez-Sánchez, J. Octavio; Posada-Amarillas, Alvaro

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopic properties of gas-phase copper sulfide clusters (CuS)n (n = 2-6) are calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT approaches. The energy landscape of the potential energy surface is explored through a basin-hopping DFT methodology. Ground-state and low-lying isomer structures are obtained. The global search was performed at the B3PW91/SDD level of theory. Normal modes are calculated to validate the existence of optimal cluster structures. Energetic properties are obtained for the ground-state and isomer clusters and their relative energies are evaluated for probing isomerization. This is a few tenths of an eV, except for (CuS)2 cluster, which presents energy differences of ∼1 eV. Notable differences in the infrared spectra exist between the ground-state and first isomer structures, even for the (CuS)5 cluster, which has in both configurations a core copper pyramid. TDDFT provides the simulated absorption spectrum, presenting a theoretical description of optical absorption bands in terms of electronic excitations in the UV and visible regions. Results exhibit a significant dependence of the calculated UV/vis spectra on clusters size and shape regarding the ground state structures. Optical absorption is strong in the UV region, and weak or forbidden in the visible region of the spectrum.

  6. Commutative deformations of general relativity: nonlocality, causality, and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vegvar, P.G.N. [SWK Research, Bellingham, WA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Hopf algebra methods are applied to study Drinfeld twists of (3+1)-diffeomorphisms and deformed general relativity on commutative manifolds. A classical nonlocality length scale is produced above which microcausality emerges. Matter fields are utilized to generate self-consistent Abelian Drinfeld twists in a background independent manner and their continuous and discrete symmetries are examined. There is negligible experimental effect on the standard model of particles. While baryonic twist producing matter would begin to behave acausally for rest masses above ∝1-10 TeV, other possibilities are viable dark matter candidates or a right-handed neutrino. First order deformed Maxwell equations are derived and yield immeasurably small cosmological dispersion and produce a propagation horizon only for photons at or above Planck energies. This model incorporates dark matter without any appeal to extra dimensions, supersymmetry, strings, grand unified theories, mirror worlds, or modifications of Newtonian dynamics. (orig.)

  7. Relativistic mean field theory for deformed nuclei with pairing correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Lisheng; Toki, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Satoru; Meng, Jie

    2003-01-01

    We develop a relativistic mean field (RMF) description of deformed nuclei with pairing correlations in the BCS approximation. The treatment of the pairing correlations for nuclei whose Fermi surfaces are close to the threshold of unbound states needs special attention. With this in mind, we use a delta function interaction for the pairing interaction to pick up those states whose wave functions are concentrated in the nuclear region and employ the standard BCS approximation for the single-particle states obtained from the BMF theory with deformation. We apply the RMF + BCS method to the Zr isotopes and obtain a good description of the binding energies and the nuclear radii of nuclei from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line. (author)

  8. Nuclear limits on gravitational waves from elliptically deformed pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastev, Plamen G.; Li Baoan; Worley, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational radiation is a fundamental prediction of General Relativity. Elliptically deformed pulsars are among the possible sources emitting gravitational waves (GWs) with a strain-amplitude dependent upon the star's quadrupole moment, rotational frequency, and distance from the detector. We show that the gravitational wave strain amplitude h 0 depends strongly on the equation of state of neutron-rich stellar matter. Applying an equation of state with symmetry energy constrained by recent nuclear laboratory data, we set an upper limit on the strain-amplitude of GWs produced by elliptically deformed pulsars. Depending on details of the EOS, for several millisecond pulsars at distances 0.18 kpc to 0.35 kpc from Earth, the maximalh 0 is found to be in the range of ∼[0.4-1.5]x10 -24 . This prediction serves as the first direct nuclear constraint on the gravitational radiation. Its implications are discussed

  9. Deformation-induced martensite and resistance to cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to cavitating liquids can induce surface transformation in metastable alloys, notably the 18Cr-8Ni class of stainless steels. The question of whether such transformation contributes to erosion resistance has not been resolved. To address that issue, two metastable stainless steels (Types 301 and 304L) and a near-equiatomic NiTi alloy were subjected to cavitation. Magnetic measurements during and after cavitation erosion indicate that substantial reversion of deformation-induced martensite occurs in the highly deformed surface layers of the stainless steels. Thus, cyclic formation and reversion of martensite is deduced to be a non-trivial energy-adsorption mechanism in those steels. The extreme case of cyclic induction and essentially complete reversion of martensite is illustrated by superelastic NiTi, which is extraordinarily resistant to cavitation damage. (orig.)

  10. Electron microscopy and plastic deformation of industrial austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Barry

    1976-01-01

    The different mechanisms of plastic deformation observed in austenitic stainless steels are described and the role of transmission electron microscopy in the elucidation of the mechanisms is presented. At temperatures below 0,5Tm, different variants of dislocation glide are competitive: slip of perfect and partial dislocations, mechanical twinning and strain-induced phase transformations. The predominance of one or other of these mechanisms can be rationalized in terms of the temperature and composition dependence of the stacking fault energy and the thermodynamic stability of the austenite. At temperatures above 0,5Tm dislocation climb and diffusion of point defects become increasingly important and at these temperatures recovery, recrystallization and precipitation can also occur during deformation [fr

  11. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose

  12. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  13. Deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Deformation quantization is an algebraic but still geometrical way to define noncommutative spacetimes. In order to investigate corresponding gauge theories on such spaces, the geometrical formulation in terms of principal fibre bundles yields the appropriate framework. In this talk I will explain what should be understood by a deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles and how associated vector bundles arise in this context. (author)

  14. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  15. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  16. Deformed metals - structure, recrystallisation and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how new discoveries and advanced experimental techniques in the last 25 years have led to paradigm shifts in the analysis of deformation and annealing structures of metals and in the way the strength of deformed samples is related to structural parameters. This is described in three...

  17. Collective excitations in deformed alkali metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study of collective excitations in deformed metal clusters is presented. Sum rules are used to study the splittings of the dipole surface plasma resonance originating from the cluster deformation. The vibrating potential model is developed and used to predict the occurrence of a low lying collective mode of orbital magnetic nature. (orig.)

  18. Massless quark wavefunction in the deformed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.P.; Park, B.Y.; Koh, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    The quark wavefunctions inside the deformed bag are obtained using a modified linear boundary condition stemming from the MIT bag Lagrangian with an additional term. We propose an exact method to obtain the quark wavefunction even for a spheroidally deformed bag. (Author)

  19. Deformation aspects of time dependent fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Y.; Turner, A.P.L.; Diercks, D.R.; Laird, C.; Langdon, T.G.; Nix, W.D.; Swindeman, R.; Wolfer, W.G.; Woodford, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    For all metallic materials, particularly at elevated temperatures, deformation plays an important role in fracture. On the macro-continuum level, the inelastic deformation behavior of the material determines how stress is distributed in the body and thus determines the driving force for fracture. At the micro-continuum level, inelastic deformation alters the elastic stress singularity at the crack tip and so determines the local environment in which crack advance takes place. At the microscopic and mechanistic level, there are many possibilities for the mechanisms of deformation to be related to those for crack initiation and growth. At elevated temperatures, inelastic deformation in metallic systems is time dependent so that the distribution of stress in a body will vary with time, affecting conditions for crack initiation and propagation. Creep deformation can reduce the tendency for fracture by relaxing the stresses at geometric stress concentrations. It can also, under suitable constraints, cause a concentration of stresses at specific loading points as a result of relaxation elsewhere in the body. A combination of deformation and unequal heating, as in welding, can generate large residual stress which cannot be predicted from the external loads on the body. Acceleration of deformation by raising the temperature can be an effective way to relieve such residual stresses

  20. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  1. Electron form factors of deformable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskii, V.K.; Isupov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Using the smallness of the deformation parameter of the nucleus, we obtain simple explicit expressions for the form factors of electroexcitation of the low-lying rotation-vibration states of light, deformable, even-even nuclei. The expressions satisfactorily describe the experimental data on the excitation of collective nuclear states by the inelastic scattering of fast electrons

  2. Auroral electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, D.J.; Duncan, C.N.; Montalbetti, R.

    1981-01-01

    Auroral electron characteristic energies determined from ground-based photometer measurements of the ratio of 5577 A OI and 4278 A N 2 + emissions are compared with electron energies measured during two rocket flights into pulsating aurora. Electron spectra with Maxwellian energy distributions were observed in both flights with an increase in characteristic energy during each pulsation. During the first flight on February 15, 1980 values of E 0 ranging from 1.4 keV at pulsation minima to 1.8 keV at pulsation maxima were inferred from the 5577/4278 ratios, in good agreement with rocket measurements. During the second flight on February 23, direct electron energy measurements yielded E 0 values of 1.8 keV rising to 2.1 keV at pulsation maxima. The photometric ratio measurements in this case gave inferred E 0 values about 0.5 keV lower. This apparent discrepancy is considered due to cloud cover which impaired the absolute emission intensity measurements. It is concluded that the 5577/4278 ratio does yield a meaningful measure of the characteristic energy of incoming electrons. This ratio technique, when added to the more sensitive 6300/4278 ratio technique usable in stable auroras can now provide more complete monitoring of electron influx characteristics. (auth)

  3. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Deformation and shape coexistence in medium mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Emerging evidence for deformed structures in medium mass nuclei is reviewed. Included in this review are both nuclei that are ground state symmetric rotors and vibrational nuclei where there are deformed structures at excited energies (shape coexistence). For the first time, Nilsson configurations in odd-odd nuclei within the region of deformation are identified. Shape coexistence in nuclei that abut the medium mass region of deformation is also examined. Recent establishment of a four-particle, four-hole intruder band in the double subshell closure nucleus 96 Zr 56 is presented and its relation to the nuclear vibron model is discussed. Special attention is given to the N=59 nuclei where new data have led to the reanalysis of 97 Sr and 99 Zr and the presence of the [404 9/2] hole intruder state as isomers in these nuclei. The low energy levels of the N=59 nuclei from Z=38 to 50 are compared with recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations that can describe their transition from near-rotational to single closed shell nuclei. The odd-odd N=59 nuclei are discussed in the context of coexisting shape isomers based on the (p[303 5/2]n[404 9/2])2 - configuration. Ongoing in-beam (t,p conversion-electron) multiparameter measurements that have led to the determination of monopole matrix elements for even-even 42 Mo nuclei are presented, and these are compared with initial estimates using IBA-2 calculations that allow mixing of normal and cross subshell excitations. Lastly, evidence for the neutron-proton 3 S 1 force's influence on the level structure of these nuclei is discussed within the context of recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations. (Auth.)

  5. Versal deformation of the Lie algebra L_2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Fialowski, Alice

    2001-01-01

    We investigate deformations of the infinite-dimensional vector-field Lie algebra spanned by the fields ei = zi + 1d/dz, where i ≥ 2. The goal is to describe the base of a “versal” deformation; such a versal deformation induces all the other nonequivalent deformations and solves the deformation

  6. Infinitesimal Deformations of a Formal Symplectic Groupoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Given a formal symplectic groupoid G over a Poisson manifold ( M, π 0), we define a new object, an infinitesimal deformation of G, which can be thought of as a formal symplectic groupoid over the manifold M equipped with an infinitesimal deformation {π_0 + \\varepsilon π_1} of the Poisson bivector field π 0. To any pair of natural star products {(ast,tildeast)} having the same formal symplectic groupoid G we relate an infinitesimal deformation of G. We call it the deformation groupoid of the pair {(ast,tildeast)} . To each star product with separation of variables {ast} on a Kähler-Poisson manifold M we relate another star product with separation of variables {hatast} on M. We build an algorithm for calculating the principal symbols of the components of the logarithm of the formal Berezin transform of a star product with separation of variables {ast} . This algorithm is based upon the deformation groupoid of the pair {(ast,hatast)}.

  7. Deformation mechanisms in cyclic creep and fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.

    1979-01-01

    Service conditions in which static and cyclic loading occur in conjunction are numerous. It is argued that an understanding of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation are necessary both for design and for understanding creep-fatigue fracture. Accordingly a brief, and selective, review of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation at both low and high strain amplitudes is provided. Cyclic loading in conjunction with static loading can lead to creep retardation if cyclic hardening occurs, or creep acceleration if softening occurs. Low strain amplitude cyclic deformation is understood in terms of dislocation loop patch and persistent slip band behavior, high strain deformation in terms of dislocation cell-shuttling models. While interesting advances in these fields have been made in the last few years, the deformation mechanisms are generally poorly understood

  8. Clustering and triaxial deformations of 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Kimura, Masaaki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the positive-parity states of 40 Ca using antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) and the generator coordinate method (GCM). Imposing two different kinds of constraints on the variational calculation, we have found various kinds of 40 Ca structures such as a deformed-shell structure, as well as α- 36 Ar and 12 C- 28 Si cluster structures. After the GCM calculation, we obtained a normal-deformed band and a superdeformed band together with their side bands associated with triaxial deformation. The calculated B(E2) values agreed well with empirical data. It was also found that the normal-deformed and superdeformed bands have non-negligible α- 36 Ar cluster and 12 C- 28 Si cluster components, respectively. This leads to the presence of an α- 36 Ar higher nodal band occurring above the normal-deformed band

  9. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning......Deformation twinning1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we...... find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...

  10. Analysis of the anomalous hydrogen solubilities in deformed palladiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Nyeon; Lee, Ho Jong

    1987-02-01

    The anomalous hydrogen solubilities in the deformed palladiums were analyzed by empolying modified Kirchheim's model with considering the partially coherent strain energy which would induced during hydride precipitation around edge dislocations. The dislocation densities, obtained by this model, of the various cold worked and/or reversible US transformed palladium samples were the order of 10/sup 11/cm/sup -2/. The partially coherent strain energies were about 3 kJ/molH and nearly same in the various samples. This value could be compared with the incoherent strain energy, 0.4kJ/molH, which was obtained from the hysteresis on P-C isotherm, and the coherent strain energy calulated, 9.6kJ/molH.

  11. Cyclic deformation of Nb single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiu, F.; Anglada, M.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature and strain-rate dependence of the cyclic flow stress of Nb single crystals with two different axial orientations has been studied at temperatures between 175 and 350 K. This dependence is found to be independent of the crystal orientation when the internal stresses are taken into account, and the results are discussed in terms of the theory of thermally activated dislocation glide. A transition temperature can be identified at about 250 K which separates two regions with different thermally activated deformation behaviour. Above this transition temperature the strain rate can be described by a stress power law, and the activation energy can be represented by a logarithmic function of the stress, as in Escaig's model of screw dislocation mobility. In the temperature range 170 to 250 K the results are also in agreement with the more recent model proposed by Seeger. The large experimental errors inherent in the values of activation enthalpy at low stresses are emphasized and taken into account in the discussion of the results. It is suggested that either impurity-kink interactions or the flexibility of the screw dislocations are responsible for the trend towards the high values of activation enthalpy measured at the low stresses. (author)

  12. Cold transfer between deformed, Coulomb excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.

    1998-01-01

    The scattering system 162 Dy → 116 Sn has been examined at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier using the Heidelberg-Darmstadt Crystal Ball spectrometer combined with 5 Germanium-CLUSTER detectors. In order to study pairing correlations as a function of angular momentum cold events were selected in the 2n stripping channel by identifying and suppressing the dominant hot part of the transfer with the Crystal Ball. The CLUSTER detectors with their high γ-efficiency were used to identify the transfer channel and to resolve individual final states. Cross sections for the population of individual yrast states in a cold transfer reaction have been measured for the first time indicating the strong influence of higher transfer multipolarities. At small surface distances Coulomb-nuclear interferences were found to be responsible for the stronger decline of the population of higher yrast states in the transfer channel as compared to the Coulex channel. As a preparatory study for 2n transfer measurements between high spin yrast states in the backbending region of deformed nuclei the Coulomb excitation process in the crossing region of two bands in 162 Dy has been analyzed. The gross properties of the measured population probabilities could be interpreted in a simple band mixing model. (orig.)

  13. Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the reservoir to produce steam at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento para producir vapor en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez; Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-01-15

    Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir for steam production are defined, taking into account the minimal acceptable steam production at the surface, considering a rank of mixed-enthalpies for different well-depths, and allowing proper assessments for the impacts of the changes in fluid reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Factors able to influence steam production are discussed. They have to be considered when deciding whether or not to drill or repair a well in a particular area of the reservoir. These evaluations become much more relevant by considering the huge thermodynamic changes that have occurred at the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir from its development, starting in 1973, which has lead to abandoning some steam producing areas in the field. [Spanish] Las condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, para producir vapor se determinan tomando en cuenta la minima produccion de vapor aceptable en superficie, considerando un rango de entalpias de la mezcla y para diferentes profundidades de pozos, lo que permite valorar adecuadamente el impacto de la evolucion de la presion y entalpia del fluido en el yacimiento. Se discuten los factores que pueden afectar la produccion de vapor, los cuales se deben tomar en cuenta para determinar la conveniencia o no de perforar o reparar un pozo en determinada zona del yacimiento. Estas evaluaciones adquieren gran relevancia al considerar los enormes cambios termodinamicos que ha presentado el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, como resultado de su explotacion iniciada en 1973, lo que ha llevado a abandonar algunas zonas del campo para la produccion de vapor. Palabras Clave: Cerro Prieto, entalpia, evaluacion de yacimientos, politicas de explotacion, presion, produccion de vapor.

  14. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  15. Coal Matrix Deformation and Pore Structure Change in High-Pressure Nitrogen Replacement of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal matrix deformation is one of the main controlling factors for coal reservoir permeability changes in nitrogen foam fracturing. The characteristics and mechanism of coal matrix deformation during the process of adsorption/desorption were studied by isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments with methane and nitrogen. Based on the free-energy theories, the Langmuir equation, and elastic mechanics, mathematical models of coal matrix deformation were developed and the deformation characteristics in adsorption/desorption processes were examined. From the study, we deduced that the coal matrix swelling, caused by methane adsorption, was a Langmuir-type relationship with the gas pressure, and exponentially increased as the adsorption quantity increased. Then, the deformation rate and amplitude of the coal matrix decreased gradually with the increase of the pressure. At the following stage, where nitrogen replaces methane, the coal matrix swelling continued but the deformation amplitude decreased, which was only 19.60% of the methane adsorption stage. At the mixed gas desorption stage, the coal matrix shrank with the reduction of pressure and the shrinkage amount changed logarithmically with the pressure, which had the hysteresis effect when compared with the swelling in adsorption. The mechanism of coal matrix deformation was discussed through a comparison of the change of micropores, mesopores, and also part macropores in the adsorption process.

  16. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berek, H., E-mail: harry.berek@ikgb.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Agricolastraße 17, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Agricolastraße 17, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Losch, K.; Schladitz, K. [Fraunhofer ITWM, Fraunhoferplatz 1, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated.

  17. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berek, H.; Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G.; Losch, K.; Schladitz, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated

  18. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, V.G., E-mail: vladislav.kupriyanov@gmail.com [CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  19. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling "drop-on-a-floating-sheet" experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  20. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, V.G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.