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Sample records for deflection spectroscopy pds

  1. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A ``secondary gradient technique`` is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  2. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A secondary gradient technique'' is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  3. Sagnac interferometer for photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Harumasa; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2012-07-01

    Photothermal deflection spectroscopy is combined with a Sagnac interferometer to enhance the sensitivity of the absorption measurement by converting the photothermal beam deflection effect into the light intensity change by the interference effect. Because of stable light interference due to the common path, the signal intensity can be amplified without increasing the noise by extending the optical path length between a sample and a photodetector. The sensitivity is further improved by the use of focusing optics and double-pass geometry. This makes photothermal deflection spectroscopy applicable to any kind of material in the whole visible region with a xenon lamp for excitation and water or air as a deflection medium.

  4. Optimized frequency dependent photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, D.; Cabrera, H.; Toro, J.; Grima, P.; Leal, C.; Villabona, A.; Franko, M.

    2016-12-01

    In the letter the optimization of the experimental setup for photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy is performed by analyzing the influence of its geometrical parameters (detector and sample position, probe beam radius and its waist position etc) on the detected signal. Furthermore, the effects of the fluid’s thermo-optical properties, for optimized geometrical configuration, on the measurement sensitivity and uncertainty determination of sample thermal properties is also studied. The examined sample is a recently developed CuFeInTe3 material. It is seen from the obtained results, that it is a complex problem to choose the proper geometrical configuration as well as sensing fluid to enhance the sensitivity of the method. A signal enhancement is observed at low modulation frequencies by placing the sample in acetonitrile (ACN), while at high modulation frequencies the sensitivity is higher for measurements made in air. For both, detection in air and acetonitrile the determination of CuFeInTe3 thermal properties is performed. The determined values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are (0.048  ±  0.002)  ×  10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.6  ±  0.2 W m-1 K-1 and (0.056  ±  0.005)  ×  10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.8  ±  0.4 W m-1 K-1 for ACN and air, respectively. It is seen, that the determined values agree well within the range of their measurement uncertainties for both cases, although the measurement uncertainty is two times lower for the measurements in ACN providing more accurate results. The analysis is performed by the use of recently developed theoretical description based on the complex geometrical optics. It is also shown, how the presented work fits into the current status of photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy.

  5. Direct correlation of charge transfer absorption with molecular donor:acceptor interfacial area via photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Domingo, Ester

    2015-04-09

    We show that the Charge Transfer (CT) absorption signal in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell blends, measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), is directly proportional to the density of molecular donor/acceptor interfaces. Since the optical transitions from ground state to the interfacial CT state are weakly allowed at photon energies below the optical gap of both donor and acceptor, we can exploit the use of this sensitive linear absorption spectroscopy for such quantification. Moreover, we determine the absolute molar extinction coefficient of the CT transition for an archetypical polymer-fullerene interface. The latter is ~100 times lower than the extinction coefficient of the donor chromophore involved, allowing us to experimentally estimate the transition dipole moment (0.3 D) and the electronic coupling between ground state and CT state to be on the order of 30 meV.

  6. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cell electrodes by photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Werner, Daniel; Wetzel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Contactless and temperature-dependent evaluation of thermal diffusivities of Li-ion cell electrodes based on photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) measurements is introduced and applied to electrodes from three prismatic hardcase Li-ion cells. The accuracy of the method is validated using reference materials, which cover a wide range of thermal diffusivity. The effective thermal diffusivities of the three anode and cathode coatings and of the current collectors are determined in the temperature range of 5-45 °C. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent specific heat capacity of the electrodes is evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements in the same temperature range. Based on the experimental results the through-plane and in-plane thermal conductivity of the electrodes is calculated and compared to previously reported values. The results indicate significant influence of the porosity and manufacturing process on the effective thermal conductivity of the electrodes. The three mayor impact factors on thermal conductivity of electrodes are (i) composition, (ii) morphology of the coating and (iii) the thickness ratio of coating to current collector.

  7. PDS SHRINK. PDS SHRINK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillion, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-15

    This code enables one to display, take line-outs on, and perform various transformations on an image created by an array of integer*2 data. Uncompressed eight-bit TIFF files created on either the Macintosh or the IBM PC may also be read in and converted to a 16 bit signed integer image. This code is designed to handle all the formats used for PDS (photo-densitometer) files at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These formats are all explained by the application code. The image may be zoomed infinitely and the gray scale mapping can be easily changed. Line-outs may be horizontal or vertical with arbitrary width, angled with arbitrary end points, or taken along any path. This code is usually used to examine spectrograph data. Spectral lines may be identified and a polynomial fit from position to wavelength may be found. The image array can be remapped so that the pixels all have the same change of lambda width. It is not necessary to do this, however. Lineouts may be printed, saved as Cricket tab-delimited files, or saved as PICT2 files. The plots may be linear, semilog, or logarithmic with nice values and proper scientific notation. Typically, spectral lines are curved.

  8. Bandedge optical properties of MBE grown GaAsBi films measured by photoluminescence and photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, M.; Lewis, R. B.; Andrews, J. J.; Bahrami-Yekta, V.; Masnadi-Shirazi, M.; O'Leary, S. K.; Tiedje, T.

    2015-09-01

    The bandedge optical properties of GaAsBi films, as thick as 470 nm, with Bi content varying from 0.7% Bi to 2.8% Bi grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates are measured by photoluminescence (PL) and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS). The PDS spectra were fit with a modified Fernelius model which takes into account multiple reflections within the GaAsBi layer and GaAs substrate. Three undoped samples and two samples that are degenerately doped with silicon are studied. The undoped samples show a clear Urbach absorption edge with a composition dependent bandgap that decreases by 56 meV/% Bi and a composition independent Urbach slope parameter of 25 meV due to absorption by Bi cluster states near the valence band. The doped samples show a long absorption tail possibly due to absorption by gap states and free carriers in addition to a Burstein-Moss bandgap shift. PL of the undoped samples shows a lower energy emission peak due to defects not observed in the usually available thin samples (50 nm or less) grown under similar conditions.

  9. Quasi first-order Hermite Gaussian beam for enhanced sensitivity in Sagnac interferometer photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Naoyuki; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2016-05-30

    The detection sensitivity of a Sagnac interferometer photothermal deflection spectroscopy was enhanced by changing the probe beam pattern from zero-order to a quasi-first-order Hermite Gaussian (QHG) beam. The nature of the higher order HG mode, where the beam pattern is preserved during propagation with an increased field gradient, is utilized to enhance the measurement sensitivity. In this spectroscopy, the lateral beam deflection due to the photothermal effect is sensitively detected as a change in the interference light intensity. The change in intensity is amplified due to the higher field gradient of the QHG(1,0) beam at the photodetector. This amplification effect was both numerically and experimentally demonstrated to obtain twofold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio.

  10. Pulsed-laser Pumped Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy for Liquid Thermal Diffusivity Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Liantuan; LI Changyong; ZHANG Linjie; ZHAO Yanting; JIA Suotang; ZHOU Guosheng

    2000-01-01

    The pulsed-laser pumped photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PPDS) is applied to measure liquid thermal diffusivity in a modified collinear configuration. Here the pulsed beam is regarded as in the form of a Dirac delta function. The experiment setup used is described. Measurement result for the thermal diffusivity of a liquid sample(magnta/ethanol saturated solution) is reported. The measurement error is less than 3%.

  11. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy as characterisation method for thin film solar cells on the basis of amorphous silicon; Photothermische Deflexions-Spektroskopie als Charakterisierungsmethode fuer Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis von amorphem Silizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.

    1997-09-01

    The potential of photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) as a method to characterise solar cells based on amorphous silicon was studied in this thesis. It was demonstrated, how the proportions of the loss mechanisms of a solar cell under operating conditions can be obtained from PDS measurements as a function of the wavelength of the incident light. In addition, significant movement of heat sources in the layer system of the solar cell, such as the transition from absorption in the layers to absorption in the glass substrate can be detected using the phase of the PDS signal. However, detection of a change of the heat source distribution within the deposited layers of the solar cell was restricted by insufficient experimental resolution of the method. In particular, for the comparison with the experimental results, the dynamic heat transport within a layer system was simulated starting from a given heat source distribution and the expected amplitude and phase of the PDS signal was calculated. Experimental conditions were established to reach a high signal stability (1% in amplitude, 0.1 in phase) in order to resolve small phase shifts. Calibration experiments and theoretical calculations predict a phase shift of 0.35{+-}0.15 , if the heats source moves 0.4 {mu}m within the i-layer of a-Si:H PIN solar cell. However, phase shifts as a result of changes in the applied voltages, which are expected to be even smaller, could not be resolved experimentally. From PDS spectra at different voltages, the proportions of the loss mechanisms as a function of the wavelength were derived. 22 refs.

  12. Clustering mechanism of ethanol-water mixtures investigated with photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoraishi, M. S.; Hawk, J. E.; Phani, Arindam; Khan, M. F.; Thundat, T.

    2016-04-01

    The infrared-active (IR) vibrational mode of ethanol (EtOH) associated with the asymmetrical stretching of the C-C-O bond in pico-liter volumes of EtOH-water binary mixtures is calorimetrically measured using photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy (PMCDS). IR absorption by the confined liquid results in wavelength dependent cantilever deflections, thus providing a complementary response to IR absorption revealing a complex dipole moment dependence on mixture concentration. Solvent-induced blue shifts of the C-C-O asymmetric vibrational stretch for both anti and gauche conformers of EtOH were precisely monitored for EtOH concentrations ranging from 20–100% w/w. Variations in IR absorption peak maxima show an inverse dependence on induced EtOH dipole moment (μ) and is attributed to the complex clustering mechanism of EtOH-water mixtures.

  13. Comparative Studies on Effects of Acid Solutions on Aquatic Plants by Beam Deflection and Absorbance Spectroscopy Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Nie, Liangjiao; Inoue, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    The beam deflection method and absorbance spectroscopy were applied to study effects of acid solutions on aquatic plants, and their results were compared. Aquatic plants Egeria densa and Ceratophyllum demersum L were used as model plants. In absorbance experiments, a piece of the plants was put in a beaker with 20 mL HCl solution, and absorbance of the HCl solution was measured every 30 min. In beam deflection experiments, a probe beam from a He-Ne laser was focused to a vicinity of the plants in a culture dish with HCl solution by an objective lens, and deflection signals of the probe beam were monitored by a position sensor. Absorbance spectra of the HCl solutions with immersing of the plants showed absorbance below 410 nm, suggesting that some compounds leaked from the plants into the HCl solutions. Changes of absorbance and deflection signals with immersion time were examined for different pH levels. The changing trends of the absorbance and deflection signals with time were similar, but the absorbance changes were delayed for about 2 - 3 h. The absorbance method could not detect the effect of the pH 5.0 HCl solutions on the aquatic plants, while the deflection method could.

  14. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  15. Monitoring electrostatically-induced deflection, strain and doping in suspended graphene using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Dominik; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Berciaud, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    Electrostatic gating offers elegant ways to simultaneously strain and dope atomically thin membranes. Here, we report on a detailed in situ Raman scattering study on graphene, suspended over a Si/SiO2 substrate. In such a layered structure, the intensity of the Raman G- and 2D-mode features of graphene are strongly modulated by optical interference effects and allow an accurate determination of the electrostatically-induced membrane deflection, up to irreversible collapse. The membrane deflection is successfully described by an electromechanical model, which we also use to provide useful guidelines for device engineering. In addition, electrostatically-induced tensile strain is determined by examining the softening of the Raman features. Due to a small residual charge inhomogeneity, we find that non-adiabatic anomalous phonon softening is negligible compared to strain-induced phonon softening. These results open perspectives for innovative Raman scattering-based readout schemes in two-dimensional nanoresonators.

  16. In-situ stress analysis of the Zr/ZrO2 system as studied by Raman spectroscopy and deflection test in monofacial oxidation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpaska, L.; Favergeon, J.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.-L.; Lahoche, L.; Moulin, G.

    2016-11-01

    A comparison of measurements performed in in-situ conditions using Raman spectroscopy and Deflection Test in Monofacial Oxidation techniques were employed to study stress states developed in zirconia films grown at 500 °C is presented. The results show a good correlation between recorded Raman peak displacement and sample deflection angle. Considering analyzed volume of the material, Raman analysis represents a local measurement while the deflection test is a global response of the material. Reported stress components: (i) hydrostatic - resulted from Raman spectroscopy and (ii) in-plane - resulted from deflection test technique have been analyzed in comparison to each of the described techniques and aim to explain the behavior of zirconia at high temperatures.

  17. Finding Meaning in PDS Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    The Professional Development School (PDS) literature is filled with the stuff of good storytelling--archetypes of an ancient profession, struggles of marginalized individuals against powerful structures, personal triumphs, and devotion to a quest. However, much of the writing about PDS experiences that could be considered storytelling tends to…

  18. Time-of-flight electron energy loss spectroscopy using TM110 deflection cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Verhoeven

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the use of two TM110 resonant cavities to generate ultrashort electron pulses and subsequently measure electron energy losses in a time-of-flight type of setup. The method utilizes two synchronized microwave cavities separated by a drift space of 1.45 m. The setup has an energy resolution of 12 ± 2 eV FWHM at 30 keV, with an upper limit for the temporal resolution of 2.7 ± 0.4 ps. Both the time and energy resolution are currently limited by the brightness of the tungsten filament electron gun used. Through simulations, it is shown that an energy resolution of 0.95 eV and a temporal resolution of 110 fs can be achieved using an electron gun with a higher brightness. With this, a new method is provided for time-resolved electron spectroscopy without the need for elaborate laser setups or expensive magnetic spectrometers.

  19. Time-of-flight electron energy loss spectroscopy using TM110 deflection cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W; van Rens, J F M; van Ninhuijs, M A W; Toonen, W F; Kieft, E R; Mutsaers, P H A; Luiten, O J

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of two TM110 resonant cavities to generate ultrashort electron pulses and subsequently measure electron energy losses in a time-of-flight type of setup. The method utilizes two synchronized microwave cavities separated by a drift space of 1.45 m. The setup has an energy resolution of 12 ± 2 eV FWHM at 30 keV, with an upper limit for the temporal resolution of 2.7 ± 0.4 ps. Both the time and energy resolution are currently limited by the brightness of the tungsten filament electron gun used. Through simulations, it is shown that an energy resolution of 0.95 eV and a temporal resolution of 110 fs can be achieved using an electron gun with a higher brightness. With this, a new method is provided for time-resolved electron spectroscopy without the need for elaborate laser setups or expensive magnetic spectrometers.

  20. Time-of-flight electron energy loss spectroscopy using TM110 deflection cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W.; van Rens, J. F. M.; van Ninhuijs, M. A. W.; Toonen, W. F.; Kieft, E. R.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Luiten, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of two TM110 resonant cavities to generate ultrashort electron pulses and subsequently measure electron energy losses in a time-of-flight type of setup. The method utilizes two synchronized microwave cavities separated by a drift space of 1.45 m. The setup has an energy resolution of 12 ± 2 eV FWHM at 30 keV, with an upper limit for the temporal resolution of 2.7 ± 0.4 ps. Both the time and energy resolution are currently limited by the brightness of the tungsten filament electron gun used. Through simulations, it is shown that an energy resolution of 0.95 eV and a temporal resolution of 110 fs can be achieved using an electron gun with a higher brightness. With this, a new method is provided for time-resolved electron spectroscopy without the need for elaborate laser setups or expensive magnetic spectrometers. PMID:27704035

  1. PDS: A Performance Database Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Berry

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gathering, archiving, and distributing computer benchmark data is a cumbersome task usually performed by computer users and vendors with little coordination. Most important, there is no publicly available central depository of performance data for all ranges of machines from personal computers to supercomputers. We present an Internet-accessible performance database server (PDS that can be used to extract current benchmark data and literature. As an extension to the X-Windows-based user interface (Xnetlib to the Netlib archival system, PDS provides an on-line catalog of public domain computer benchmarks such as the LINPACK benchmark, Perfect benchmarks, and the NAS parallel benchmarks. PDS does not reformat or present the benchmark data in any way that conflicts with the original methodology of any particular benchmark; it is thereby devoid of any subjective interpretations of machine performance. We believe that all branches (research laboratories, academia, and industry of the general computing community can use this facility to archive performance metrics and make them readily available to the public. PDS can provide a more manageable approach to the development and support of a large dynamic database of published performance metrics.

  2. Performance of the ESO PDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosboel, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The astrometric and photometric performance of the PDS 1010A microdensitometer are discussed, including the tests used for checking it. The instrument was shown to satisfy operational requirements for photometric measurements of astronomical plates with respect to dynamic range and stability.

  3. Performance of the ESO PDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosboel, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The astrometric and photometric performance of the PDS 1010A microdensitometer are discussed, including the tests used for checking it. The instrument was shown to satisfy operational requirements for photometric measurements of astronomical plates with respect to dynamic range and stability.

  4. Millersville University Secondary Education PDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette I.; Mahoney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Millersville University of Pennsylvania (MU) has over 150 years of proud heritage in the preparation of teachers. This article describes how the Secondary Education Professional Development School (PDS) Program model has transformed Millersville University's secondary teacher education from a traditional teacher preparation program into a dynamic…

  5. PDS4 Training: Key Concepts and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Padams, J.; Raugh, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    Those planning to attend the PDS4 training session are strongly encouraged to review this poster prior to the training session. This poster briefly describes new vocabulary and a number of key concepts introduced with PDS4.

  6. A systematic analysis of the influence of the surrounding media in the photothermal beam deflection signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeren, A; Prior, P; Macedo, F, E-mail: fmacedo@fisica.uminho.p [Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2010-03-01

    The photothermal beam deflection (PDS) technique was tested for low thermal diffusivity materials. The effect of using different liquids as surrounding media was studied in a systematic way. The fundamental experimental parameters, like the pump beam power and the modulation frequency were also studied in order to find out the best combination that still allows us to get good signals. Due to the complexity of the optical alignment required, the usual mirage setup was adapted in order to allow the decoupling of the alignment of the cell containing the liquid and the sample holder. Simple, straightforward methods (like e.g. the phase method) were used for the thermal diffusivity determination of solids once the thermal diffusivity of the liquids used is always much lower than that of solids. The obtained values for the thermal diffusivity of test samples allow us to conclude that besides being possible to use any of the studied liquids as surrounding medium, ethanol is clearly the best choice, avoiding health problems related to CCl{sub 4}, which is the standard choice for PDS and PDS spectroscopy experiments, and technical/physical problems related to water and acetone. Modulation frequencies around 8 Hz combined with a pump beam power below 15 mW were proved to be the ideal conditions for this kind of experiment. The very low pump beam power required is also an important issue when talking about non-destructive analysis.

  7. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurements of absorption losses and detection of photoinduced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commandre, Mireille; Roche, Pierre J.; Albrand, Gerard; Pelletier, Emile P.

    1990-08-01

    Photothermal deflection has been used to map the absorption characteristics of thin film optical coatings. Our experimental set-up can give low level absorption coefficient down to 1 ppm, with a spatial resolution limited by the excitating laser beam diameter (100 tim). On single layer films, we can calculate extinction coefficient of the deposited material with a detectivity of a few i07. We present a study of absorption losses in single layer titania films and in TiOWSiO2 Fabry-Perot filters prepared in our laboratory by electron beam evaporation, ion assisted deposition and ion plating. Local variations of absorption on the sample surface can be very large especially in lowly absorbing samples; high absorption sites may be related to local defects responsible for laser damage. Furthermore, we show that some titania films can present photoinduced instabilities. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy is a good way to study absorption evolution under illumination. In Ti02/Si02 Fabry-Perot filters, we have observed that these absorption changes are associated with important drifts of transmission curves. So these instabilities can be explained by a change of the value of the complex index Ii = n - ik. Results lead to the conclusion that stability under illumination is strongly correlated to the deposition technique and also to the deposition conditions: unstable samples are mostly prepared by electron beam evaporation.

  8. Generating PDS Possibility and Practicality Thinking Using a Case and Protocol Tool to Enhance PDS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Hoppey, David

    2013-01-01

    An important feature of professional development school (PDS) work is encouraging collaborative reflective dialogue that guides a partnership toward actualizing the possibilities for and mission of a PDS. This article provides a case "illustration" of a fictitious, exemplary PDS and a "protocol" that in combination can be used…

  9. Viking Seismometer PDS Archive Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Viking Lander 2 seismometer operated successfully for over 500 Sols on the Martian surface, recording at least one likely candidate Marsquake. The Viking mission, in an era when data handling hardware (both on board and on the ground) was limited in capability, predated modern planetary data archiving, and ad-hoc repositories of the data, and the very low-level record at NSSDC, were neither convenient to process nor well-known. In an effort supported by the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program, we have converted the bulk of the Viking dataset (namely the 49,000 and 270,000 records made in High- and Event- modes at 20 and 1 Hz respectively) into a simple ASCII table format. Additionally, since wind-generated lander motion is a major component of the signal, contemporaneous meteorological data are included in summary records to facilitate correlation. These datasets are being archived at the PDS Geosciences Node. In addition to brief instrument and dataset descriptions, the archive includes code snippets in the freely-available language 'R' to demonstrate plotting and analysis. Further, we present examples of lander-generated noise, associated with the sampler arm, instrument dumps and other mechanical operations.

  10. Planetary Data System (PDS) Strategic Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily; McNutt, Ralph; Crichton, Daniel J.; Morgan, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the SMD at NASA Headquarters has directed the PDS to set up a Roadmap team to formulate a PDS Roadmap for the period 2017-2026. The purpose of this activity is to provide a forecast of both the rapidly changing Information Technology (IT) environment and the changing expectations of the planetary science communities with respect to Planetary Data archives including, specifically, increasing assessability to all planetary data. The Roadmap team will also identify potential actions that could increase interoperability with other archive and curation elements within NASA and with the archives of other National Space Agencies. The Roadmap team will assess the current state of the PDS and report their findings to the PSD Director by April 15, 2017. This presentation will give an update of this roadmap activity and serve as an opportunity to engage the planetary community at large to provide input to the Roadmap.

  11. Proactive and Adaptive Decision Support Study (PDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-09

    will enable proactive analysis within the decision support layer to anticipate, request, compute , and pre-position information supporting the decision... Proactive and Adaptive Decision Support Study (PDS) Final Report CDRL: C001 CLIN: 0006 Contract Number: N00014-14-P-1187 Submitted...PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 12/09/2014 Final Report 28 Jul 2014 - 31 Dec 2014 Proactive and

  12. How to Archive CDF in PDS4: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi, J. N.; King, T. A.; Kazden, D. P.; Joy, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Planetary Plasma Interactions (PPI) node of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) has over a year's worth of experience in archiving data from the MAVEN mission in PDS (using PDS4, PDS' new, XML-based metadata standard), and is currently developing PDS4 archive products for the ARTEMIS and Cassini missions as well. This experience has led to a set of well-defined processes and tools by which data in NASA's Common Data Format (CDF) may be prepared for inclusion in the PDS archive. First, CDF files should be prepared according to the CDF-A Specification (available at: http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/doc/), which includes requirements on the CDF data structure which allow the data to be described using PDS metadata. Furthermore, the CDF metadata should comply with the ISTP/IACG (International Solar-Terrestrial Physics Science Initiative/Inter-Agency Consultative Group for Space Sciences) guidelines (http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp_guide/istp_guide.html) published by NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF). Tools to verify CDF-A and ISTP/IACG compliance are available from PDS/PPI and SPDF, respectively. Meeting these requirements will allow CDF files to be described by using PDS4 (XML) labels. PPI has used igpp.docgen (http://release.igpp.ucla.edu/igpp/docgen/) to generate these PDS4 labels. igpp.docgen is a Java tool designed to generate documents based upon an Apache Velocity template. igpp.docgen also reads and returns metadata (attributes) and data information from the CDF file so that that information may be captured and included in the PDS4 label. This presentation will provide a tutorial of the processes, and tools used in preparing a CDF file for the PDS4 archive.

  13. The PDS-XADS reference accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A C

    2003-01-01

    At the start-up of the PDS-XADS project, the main initial specifications for the accelerator system (e.g. beam energy, beam intensity, beam profile, their stability and the accelerator availability and reliability) have been defined by Working Package 1 (WP1), in connection with the other WP of the project. From this, WP3 ("The Accelerator") has assessed the main requirements and the corresponding technical answers. A reference solution, based on a linear superconducting accelerator with its associated doubly achromatic beam line has been worked out up to some detail. For high reliability, the proposed design is intrinsically fault tolerant, relying on highly modular "de-rated" components associated to a fast digital feedback system. The proposed solution also appears to be robust concerning operational aspects like maintenance and radioprotection. A program for the remaining required R&D has been elaborated.

  14. The Deflection Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  15. IPDA PDS4 Project: Towards an International Planetary Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santa; Roatsch, Thomas; Capria, Maria Teresa; Heather, David; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hughes, Steven; Stein, Thomas; Cecconi, Baptiste; Prashar, Ajay; Batanov, Oleg; Gopala Krishna, Barla

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with the main objective of facilitating discovery, access and use of planetary data managed across international boundaries. For this purpose, the IPDA has adopted the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard as the de-facto archiving standard, and is working towards the internationalisation of the new generation of the standards, called PDS4. PDS4 is the largest upgrade in the history of the PDS, and is a significant step towards an online, distributed, model-driven and service-oriented architecture international archive. Following the successful deployment of PDS4 to support NASA's LADEE and MAVEN missions, PDS4 was endorsed by IPDA in 2014. This has led to the adoption of PDS4 by a number of international space agencies (ESA, JAXA, ISRO and Roscosmos, among others) for their upcoming missions. In order to closely follow the development of the PDS4 standards and to coordinate the international contribution and participation in its evolution, a group of experts from each international agency is dedicated to review different aspects of the standards and to capture recommendations and requirements to ensure the international needs are met. The activities performed by this group cover the assessment and implementation of all aspects of PDS4, including its use, documentation, tools, validation strategies and information model. This contribution will present the activities carried out by this group and how this partnership between PDS and IPDA provides an excellent foundation towards an international platform for planetary science research.

  16. PDS4: Developing the Next Generation Planetary Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Beebe, R.; Hughes, S.; Stein, T.; Grayzeck, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is in the midst of a major upgrade to its system. This upgrade is a critical modernization of the PDS as it prepares to support the future needs of both the mission and scientific community. It entails improvements to the software system and the data standards, capitalizing on newer, data system approaches. The upgrade is important not only for the purpose of capturing results from NASA planetary science missions, but also for improving standards and interoperability among international planetary science data archives. As the demands of the missions and science community increase, PDS is positioning itself to evolve and meet those demands.

  17. Dosage effects of cohesin regulatory factor PDS5 on mammalian development: implications for cohesinopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    Full Text Available Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS, a disorder caused by mutations in cohesion proteins, is characterized by multisystem developmental abnormalities. PDS5, a cohesion protein, is important for proper chromosome segregation in lower organisms and has two homologues in vertebrates (PDS5A and PDS5B. Pds5B mutant mice have developmental abnormalities resembling CdLS; however the role of Pds5A in mammals and the association of PDS5 proteins with CdLS are unknown. To delineate genetic interactions between Pds5A and Pds5B and explore mechanisms underlying phenotypic variability, we generated Pds5A-deficient mice. Curiously, these mice exhibit multiple abnormalities that were previously observed in Pds5B-deficient mice, including cleft palate, skeletal patterning defects, growth retardation, congenital heart defects and delayed migration of enteric neuron precursors. They also frequently display renal agenesis, an abnormality not observed in Pds5B(-/- mice. While Pds5A(-/- and Pds5B(-/- mice die at birth, embryos harboring 3 mutant Pds5 alleles die between E11.5 and E12.5 most likely of heart failure, indicating that total Pds5 gene dosage is critical for normal development. In addition, characterization of these compound homozygous-heterozygous mice revealed a severe abnormality in lens formation that does not occur in either Pds5A(-/- or Pds5B(-/- mice. We further identified a functional missense mutation (R1292Q in the PDS5B DNA-binding domain in a familial case of CdLS, in which affected individuals also develop megacolon. This study shows that PDS5A and PDS5B functions other than those involving chromosomal dynamics are important for normal development, highlights the sensitivity of key developmental processes on PDS5 signaling, and provides mechanistic insights into how PDS5 mutations may lead to CdLS.

  18. Experiments on Deflecting & Oscillating Waterjet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new type jet,the oscillating & deflecting jet ,is put forward and its oscillating and deflecting characteristics are investigated.The nozzle of the self-oscillating & deflecting water jet consists of an upstream nozzle,a downstream nozzle,an oscillating chamber and two switches,It is experimentally shown that the deflective angle may reach 9.53 degeree,the generated pressure fluctuation is very regular and the jet can efficiently increase the ability for bradking and cutting by eliminating the water cushion effect associated with a continuous jet.

  19. PDS of GoTa Trunking System%GoTa集群系统中的PDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪利标

    2005-01-01

    中兴通讯提出的GoTa技术填补了中国在集群通信领域知识产权的空白,对中国通信企业掌握核心技术,取得竞争优势具有重要意义.文章给出了中兴通讯GoTa数字集群通信系统的网络架构,并对系统中PDS状态机和接口进行了详细介绍.文章还展望了GoTa数字集群通信系统在中国的应用前景.

  20. Java Image I/O for VICAR, PDS, and ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.; Levoe, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    This library, written in Java, supports input and output of images and metadata (labels) in the VICAR, PDS image, and ISIS-2 and ISIS-3 file formats. Three levels of access exist. The first level comprises the low-level, direct access to the file. This allows an application to read and write specific image tiles, lines, or pixels and to manipulate the label data directly. This layer is analogous to the C-language "VICAR Run-Time Library" (RTL), which is the image I/O library for the (C/C++/Fortran) VICAR image processing system from JPL MIPL (Multimission Image Processing Lab). This low-level library can also be used to read and write labeled, uncompressed images stored in formats similar to VICAR, such as ISIS-2 and -3, and a subset of PDS (image format). The second level of access involves two codecs based on Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) to provide access to VICAR and PDS images in a file-format-independent manner. JAI is supplied by Sun Microsystems as an extension to desktop Java, and has a number of codecs for formats such as GIF, TIFF, JPEG, etc. Although Sun has deprecated the codec mechanism (replaced by IIO), it is still used in many places. The VICAR and PDS codecs allow any program written using the JAI codec spec to use VICAR or PDS images automatically, with no specific knowledge of the VICAR or PDS formats. Support for metadata (labels) is included, but is format-dependent. The PDS codec, when processing PDS images with an embedded VIAR label ("dual-labeled images," such as used for MER), presents the VICAR label in a new way that is compatible with the VICAR codec. The third level of access involves VICAR, PDS, and ISIS Image I/O plugins. The Java core includes an "Image I/O" (IIO) package that is similar in concept to the JAI codec, but is newer and more capable. Applications written to the IIO specification can use any image format for which a plug-in exists, with no specific knowledge of the format itself.

  1. Electric Deflection of Rotating Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gershnabel, E

    2010-01-01

    We provide a theory of the deflection of polar and non-polar rotating molecules by inhomogeneous static electric field. Rainbow-like features in the angular distribution of the scattered molecules are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one may efficiently control the deflection process with the help of short and strong femtosecond laser pulses. In particular the deflection process may by turned-off by a proper excitation, and the angular dispersion of the deflected molecules can be substantially reduced. We study the problem both classically and quantum mechanically, taking into account the effects of strong deflecting field on the molecular rotations. In both treatments we arrive at the same conclusions. The suggested control scheme paves the way for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping by inhomogeneous fields.

  2. NEOWISE diameters and albedos: now available on PDS!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Bauer, James M.; Cutri, Roc M.; Grav, Tommy; Kramer, Emily A.; Nugent, Carolyn; Sonnett, Sarah M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Wright, Edward L.

    2016-10-01

    We present the recent PDS release of minor planet physical property data from the WISE/NEOWISE fully cryogenic, 3-band cryo, and post-cryo surveys as well as the first year of the NEOWISE-Reactivation survey. This release includes 165,865 diameters, visible albedos, near-infrared albedos, and/or beaming parameters for 140,493 unique minor planets. The published data include near-Earth asteroids, Main Belt asteroids, Hildas, Jupiter Trojans, Centaurs, active Main Belt objects and irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. We provide an overview of the available data and discuss the key features of the PDS data set. The data are available online at: http://sbn.psi.edu/pds/resource/neowisediam.html.

  3. Photoelectrochemical properties of palladium sulfide (PdS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macia, M.D.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Clamagirand, J.; Ares, J.R.; Ferrer, I.J.; Sanchez, C. [UAM, Madrid (Spain). Laboratoria de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables

    2010-07-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of PdS films has been studied in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} solution. Photoelectrochemical characterization of polycrystalline PdS thin films have been carried out in the potential range -200mV

  4. Combustion Diagnostics by Photo-Deflection Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    temperature in a sooting Ilame heavily sooting flame . Nevertheless it is an inter- by geinerating tile acoustic signal on soot particles. esting idea that...mea- ly investigated. In the present work, we have only surements in a sooting flame by simply scattering laser measured the relative temperatures

  5. A Common Model to Handle PDS3 and PDS4 Data in the New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Docasal, R.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; De Marchi, G.; Grotheer, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The first of the European Space Agency's (ESA) planetary missions to make use of the latest release of the Planetary Data Standards (PDS4) are currently in advanced stages of development (ExoMars, BepiColombo). This occurs at a time when the Planetary Science Archive (PSA) has been undergoing a complete reengineering in order to increase the accessibility of ESA's planetary data holdings utilising the latest technologies and to significantly improve the user experience for both the specialist scientific community and general public alike. The PSA must also keep on handling PDS3 data arriving to the archive from active missions (Rosetta, Mars Express, Venus Express) as well as continuing to provide access to missions that have reached the legacy phase (Huygens, SMART1, Giotto). Therefore, as part of the reengineering of the PSA, an effort has been made to map the key metadata from PDS3 and PDS4 into a common data model with the intention of providing transparency to the services that make up the new PSA, and consequently to the end user. We present how this common mapping allows the PSA to support the data deliveries from the pipelines of existing missions without the need to reprocess the PDS3 data and in addition how it should simplify the data deliveries from PDS4 missions. We review how the implementation of this data model, involving a PostgreSQL database with the PostGIS extension, enables the new PSA to be able to provide multiple methods of interoperability used by the international community, such as PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol), EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol), and GIS-enabled technologies without the user having to know in detail the underlying structure of the data format.

  6. Distilling Wisdom from Practice: Finding Meaning in PDS Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    Much of what has been written about the Professional Development School (PDS) experience consists of recounting personal experiences. However, these accounts often offer little to readers since they are neither good research nor good storytelling. In this article I draw on mythology, folklore, psychology and literature to suggest that effective…

  7. Structural Basis and IP6 Requirement for Pds5-Dependent Cohesin Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ouyang, Zhuqing; Zheng, Ge; Tomchick, Diana R; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    .... The structure further reveals that Pds5 can bind inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). The IP6-binding segment of Pds5B is shaped like the jaw of a plier lever and inhibits the binding of Scc1 to Smc3. We propose that Pds5 stabilizes a transient, open state of cohesin to promote its release from chromosomes.

  8. 76 FR 59144 - National Practitioner Data Bank; Name Change of Proactive Disclosure Service (PDS) to Continuous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... of Proactive Disclosure Service (PDS) to Continuous Query AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... known as Proactive Disclosure Service (PDS). This notice announces that the prototype status is removed and that PDS is now known as Continuous Query. DATES: The effective date of this status upgrade and...

  9. Discovery of Broad Soft X-ray Absorption Lines from the Quasar Wind in PDS 456

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele; Behar, Ehud; O'Brien, Paul; Tombesi, Francesco; Turner, Tracey Jane; Costa, Michele

    2016-01-01

    High resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy of the prototype accretion disk wind quasar, PDS 456, is presented. Here, the XMM-Newton RGS spectra are analyzed from the large 2013-2014 XMM-Newton campaign, consisting of 5 observations of approximately 100 ks in length. During the last observation (hereafter OBS. E), the quasar is at a minimum flux level and broad absorption line profiles are revealed in the soft X-ray band, with typical velocity widths of $\\sigma_{\\rm v}\\sim 10,000$ km s$^{-1}$. During a period of higher flux in the 3rd and 4th observations (OBS. C and D, respectively), a very broad absorption trough is also present above 1 keV. From fitting the absorption lines with models of photoionized absorption spectra, the inferred outflow velocities lie in the range $\\sim 0.1-0.2c$. The absorption lines likely originate from He and H-like neon and L-shell iron at these energies. Comparison with earlier archival data of PDS 456 also reveals similar absorption structure near 1 keV in a 40 ks observation in 20...

  10. An improved logarithmic amplifier circuit for PDS microdensitometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. M.; Slovak, M. H.; Michalski, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A high speed logarithmic amplifier circuit for the Perkin-Elmer PDS microdensitometer is discussed. The circuit is designed around an Analog Devices 757p log-amp module. The amplifier produces undistorted profiles of rapidly changing, dense ( 4) images over the available range of scanning speeds. The circuit board was designed to replace directly the manufacturer supplied unit; neither electrical nor mechanical modifications of the basic PDS are required. The performance of the circuit is illustrated through its effects on the overall modulation transfer function of the instrument and by scans of a well exposed stellar image. Circuit diagrams and parts lists a mechanism for obtaining either circuit board layout art work or finished circuit boards are presented.

  11. Benchmarking Asteroid-Deflection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Tane; Bruck Syal, Megan; Owen, John Michael; Miller, Paul L.

    2016-10-01

    An asteroid impacting Earth could have devastating consequences. In preparation to deflect or disrupt one before it reaches Earth, it is imperative to have modeling capabilities that adequately simulate the deflection actions. Code validation is key to ensuring full confidence in simulation results used in an asteroid-mitigation plan. We are benchmarking well-known impact experiments using Spheral, an adaptive smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code, to validate our modeling of asteroid deflection. We describe our simulation results, compare them with experimental data, and discuss what we have learned from our work. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-695540

  12. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Veer Chand Rakhecha

    2004-08-01

    While studying neutron deflections produced by a magnetic prism, we have stumbled upon a simple `geometric' formula. For a prism of refractive index close to unity, the deflection simply equals the product of the refractive power − 1 and the base-to-height ratio of the prism, regardless of the apex angle. The base and height of the prism are measured respectively along and perpendicular to the direction of beam propagation within the prism. The geometric formula greatly simplifies the optimisation of prism parameters to suit any specific experiment.

  13. Relativistic Stern-Gerlach Deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Modern advances in polarized beam control should make it possible to accurately measure Stern-Gerlach (S-G) deflection of relativistic beams. Toward this end a relativistically covariant S-G formalism is developed that respects the opposite behavior under inversion of electric and magnetic fields. Not at all radical, or even new, this introduces a distinction between electric and magnetic fields that is not otherwise present in pure Maxwell theory. Experimental configurations (mainly using polarized electron beams passing through magnetic or electric quadrupoles) are described. Electron beam preparation and experimental methods needed to detect the extremely small deflections are discussed.

  14. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  15. Rome III functional dyspepsia subdivision in PDS and EPS: recognizing postprandial symptoms reduces overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, F; Holvoet, L; Tack, J

    2015-08-01

    The Rome III consensus proposed to subdivide functional dyspepsia (FD) into two groups: meal-related dyspepsia or postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), and meal-unrelated dyspepsia or epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). However, in clinical practice, overlap between both has been reported to be as high as 50%, thereby hampering clinical applicability. Although EPS is referred to as meal-unrelated dyspepsia, relationship of symptoms to meal ingestion in this category is not formally addressed in the Rome III criteria. The aim of our study was to investigate whether taking into account the relationship of epigastric pain and nausea to meal ingestion may help to improve separation between EPS and PDS. Consecutive ambulatory tertiary-care patients with epigastric symptoms filled out Rome III gastro-duodenal questionnaires with supplementary questions. Those fulfilling Rome III FD criteria and a negative endoscopy were identified and subdivided into 'pure' PDS patients (i.e., meeting criteria for PDS without EPS symptoms), 'pure' EPS (i.e., meeting criteria for EPS without PDS symptoms), and overlapping PDS-EPS (i.e., symptoms of both PDS and EPS). Out of 1029 patients coming to endoscopy, 199 patients (73% females, 45.9 ± 1.0 years, BMI: 23.7 ± 0.35) fulfilled Rome III FD diagnostic criteria, and could be subdivided into pure PDS (69% females, 49 ± 2 years, BMI: 24.2 ± 0.61), pure EPS (59% females, 47.4 ± 2 years, BMI: 23.2 ± 0.97) and overlapping PDS-EPS (64% females, age 43 ± 5 years, BMI: 26 ± 0.46). Compared with pure EPS patients, the overlap PDS-EPS patients were characterized by a higher occurrence of postprandial epigastric pain (70% vs 31%, p < 0.0001), while the occurrence of epigastric pain in between meals was borderline (48% vs 38%, p = 0.05). In addition, the overlap PDS-EPS patients reported a higher occurrence of postprandial nausea (23% vs 0%, p < 0.0001), and bloating (79% vs 28%, p = 0.0001). When postprandial epigastric pain and postprandial

  16. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  17. Structure of the Pds5-Scc1 Complex and Implications for Cohesin Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle W. Muir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion is a fundamental prerequisite to faithful genome segregation. Cohesion is precisely regulated by accessory factors that modulate the stability with which the cohesin complex embraces chromosomes. One of these factors, Pds5, engages cohesin through Scc1 and is both a facilitator of cohesion, and, conversely also mediates the release of cohesin from chromatin. We present here the crystal structure of a complex between budding yeast Pds5 and Scc1, thus elucidating the molecular basis of Pds5 function. Pds5 forms an elongated HEAT repeat that binds to Scc1 via a conserved surface patch. We demonstrate that the integrity of the Pds5-Scc1 interface is indispensable for the recruitment of Pds5 to cohesin, and that its abrogation results in loss of sister chromatid cohesion and cell viability.

  18. PDS4 - Some Principles for Agile Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S. H.; Joyner, R.; Algermissen, S.; Padams, J.

    2015-12-01

    PDS4, a research data management and curation system for NASA's Planetary Science Archive, was developed using principles that promote the characteristics of agile development. The result is an efficient system that produces better research data products while using less resources (time, effort, and money) and maximizes their usefulness for current and future scientists. The key principle is architectural. The PDS4 information architecture is developed and maintained independent of the infrastructure's process, application and technology architectures. The information architecture is based on an ontology-based information model developed to leverage best practices from standard reference models for digital archives, digital object registries, and metadata registries and capture domain knowledge from a panel of planetary science domain experts. The information model provides a sharable, stable, and formal set of information requirements for the system and is the primary source for information to configure most system components, including the product registry, search engine, validation and display tools, and production pipelines. Multi-level governance is also allowed for the effective management of the informational elements at the common, discipline, and project level. This presentation will describe the development principles, components, and uses of the information model and how an information model-driven architecture exhibits characteristics of agile curation including early delivery, evolutionary development, adaptive planning, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change.

  19. Growth of Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} films by controlled sulfurization of sputtered Pd on native oxide of Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, R., E-mail: rbhatt@barc.gov.in [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai–400 085 (India); Bhattacharya, S.; Basu, R.; Singh, A. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai–400 085 (India); Deshpande, U. [UGC–DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore–452017 (India); Surger, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physikalisches Institut and DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, P.O. Box 6980, D–76049 Karlsruhe (Germany); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Aswal, D.K.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai–400 085 (India)

    2013-07-31

    Thin films of different Pd–S phase, namely Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2}, have been reproducibly grown by the sulfurization of Pd films deposited on native oxide of (111) Si substrates by radio frequency sputtering method. In order to achieve controlled sulfurization, a three-stage sulfurization setup consisting of evaporation chamber, activation chamber and sulfurization chamber has been developed. The sulfurization of Pd films (kept at a constant temperature of 500 °C) was carried out using sulfur vapors activated to different temperature between 550 and 700 °C. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that formation of Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} phases takes place for the activation temperatures of 550, 600 and 700 °C, respectively. The room temperature resistivity of Pd, Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} were found to be respectively 0.1, 15.9, 15,000 and 20,000 μΩ cm. The temperature-dependent electrical resistivity measurements showed metallic conduction for Pd and Pd{sub 4}S films. The Seebeck coefficient measured at 300 K for these Pd–S phases showed their n-type conducting behavior. - Highlights: • Multichamber sulfurization setup designed for preparing thin films of Pd–S. • S vapor activated at 550, 600 and 700 °C results in Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} phases. • The Seebeck coefficient of Pd–S phases shows their n-type conducting behavior. • Transport properties of Pd{sub 4}S phase show that it is a metallic phase. • High resistivity and thermopower of PdS and PdS{sub 2} show semiconducting nature.

  20. Multi-epoch Detections of Water Ice Absorption in Edge-on Disks around Herbig Ae Stars: PDS 144N and PDS 453

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    2017-01-01

    We report the multi-epoch detections of water ice in 2.8-4.2 μ {{m}} spectra of two Herbig Ae stars, PDS 144N (A2 IVe) and PDS 453 (F2 Ve), which have an edge-on circumstellar disk. The detected water ice absorption is found to originate from their protoplanetary disks. The spectra show a relatively shallow absorption of water ice of around 3.1 μ {{m}} for both objects. The optical depths of the water ice absorption are ˜0.1 and ˜0.2 for PDS 144N and PDS 453, respectively. Compared to the water ice previously detected in low-mass young stellar objects with an edge-on disk with a similar inclination angle, these optical depths are significantly lower. It suggests that stronger UV radiation from the central stars effectively decreases the water ice abundance around the Herbig Ae stars through photodesorption. The water ice absorption in PDS 453 shows a possible variation of the feature among the six observing epochs. This variation could be due to a change of absorption materials passing through our line of sight to the central star. The overall profile of the water ice absorption in PDS 453 is quite similar to the absorption previously reported in the edge-on disk object d216-0939, and this unique profile may be seen only at a high inclination angle in the range of 76°-80°.

  1. In Search of the Essence of a Good School: School Characteristics Leading to Successful PDS Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Aviva; Oster-Levinz, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Professional Development Schools (PDSs) are collaborative ventures between schools and teacher training institutions. We identify the characteristics of a school that lead to successful PDS collaboration, relating them to Teitel's model (2003) that merges the principal standards of collaboration with the stages necessary for developing a PDS. We…

  2. Structural Basis and IP6 Requirement for Pds5-Dependent Cohesin Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhuqing; Zheng, Ge; Tomchick, Diana R; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-04-21

    The ring-shaped cohesin complex regulates transcription, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation by dynamically entrapping chromosomes to promote chromosome compaction and sister-chromatid cohesion. The cohesin ring needs to open and close to allow its loading to and release from chromosomes. Cohesin dynamics are controlled by the releasing factors Pds5 and Wapl and the cohesin stabilizer Sororin. Here, we report the crystal structure of human Pds5B bound to a conserved peptide motif found in both Wapl and Sororin. Our structure establishes the basis for how Wapl and Sororin antagonistically influence cohesin dynamics. The structure further reveals that Pds5 can bind inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). The IP6-binding segment of Pds5B is shaped like the jaw of a plier lever and inhibits the binding of Scc1 to Smc3. We propose that Pds5 stabilizes a transient, open state of cohesin to promote its release from chromosomes.

  3. Field distribution analysis in deflecting structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Deflecting structures are used now manly for bunch rotation in emittance exchange concepts, bunch diagnostics and to increase the luminosity. The bunch rotation is a transformation of a particles distribution in the six dimensional phase space. Together with the expected transformations, deflecting structures introduce distortions due to particularities - aberrations - in the deflecting field distribution. The distributions of deflecting fields are considered with respect to non linear additions, which provide emittance deteriorations during a transformation. The deflecting field is treated as combination of hybrid waves HE{sub 1} and HM{sub 1}. The criteria for selection and formation of deflecting structures with minimized level of aberrations are formulated and applied to known structures. Results of the study are confirmed by comparison with results of numerical simulations.

  4. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  5. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  6. Deflection Control in Rigid Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varunkrishna, Nulu; Jayasankar, R.

    2017-07-01

    The need for modern transportation systems together with the high demand for perpetual pavements under the drastically increasing applied loads has led to a great deal of research on concrete as a pavement material worldwide. This research indeed instigated many modifications in concrete aiming for improving the concrete properties. Pavement Quality Concrete requires higher flexural strength and fewer deflections in hardened state. Fiber reinforcement and latex modification are two reliable approaches serving the required purposes. The concrete made with these two modifications is called Polymer-modified Fiber-reinforced concrete. The present study deals with the usage of polypropylene as fiber and SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) Latex as polymer. M30 grade concrete was modified by replacing cement with two different percentages of fiber (0.5%, 1.0% of weight of cement) and with three different percentages of SBR latex (10%, 15% & 20% of weight of cement).

  7. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  8. Pds5 regulators segregate cohesion and condensation pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kevin; Skibbens, Robert V

    2015-06-02

    Cohesins are required both for the tethering together of sister chromatids (termed cohesion) and subsequent condensation into discrete structures-processes fundamental for faithful chromosome segregation into daughter cells. Differentiating between cohesin roles in cohesion and condensation would provide an important advance in studying chromatin metabolism. Pds5 is a cohesin-associated factor that is essential for both cohesion maintenance and condensation. Recent studies revealed that ELG1 deletion suppresses the temperature sensitivity of pds5 mutant cells. However, the mechanisms through which Elg1 may regulate cohesion and condensation remain unknown. Here, we report that ELG1 deletion from pds5-1 mutant cells results in a significant rescue of cohesion, but not condensation, defects. Based on evidence that Elg1 unloads the DNA replication clamp PCNA from DNA, we tested whether PCNA overexpression would similarly rescue pds5-1 mutant cell cohesion defects. The results indeed reveal that elevated levels of PCNA rescue pds5-1 temperature sensitivity and cohesion defects, but do not rescue pds5-1 mutant cell condensation defects. In contrast, RAD61 deletion rescues the condensation defect, but importantly, neither the temperature sensitivity nor cohesion defects exhibited by pds5-1 mutant cells. In combination, these findings reveal that cohesion and condensation are separable pathways and regulated in nonredundant mechanisms. These results are discussed in terms of a new model through which cohesion and condensation are spatially regulated.

  9. Metadata Design in the New PDS4 Standards - Something for Everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raugh, Anne C.; Hughes, John S.

    2015-11-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, supports, and distributes data of diverse targets, from diverse sources, to diverse users. One of the core problems addressed by the PDS4 data standard redesign was that of metadata - how to accommodate the increasingly sophisticated demands of search interfaces, analytical software, and observational documentation into label standards without imposing limits and constraints that would impinge on the quality or quantity of metadata that any particular observer or team could supply. And yet, as an archive, PDS must have detailed documentation for the metadata in the labels it supports, or the institutional knowledge encoded into those attributes will be lost - putting the data at risk.The PDS4 metadata solution is based on a three-step approach. First, it is built on two key ISO standards: ISO 11179 "Information Technology - Metadata Registries", which provides a common framework and vocabulary for defining metadata attributes; and ISO 14721 "Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model", which provides the framework for the information architecture that enforces the object-oriented paradigm for metadata modeling. Second, PDS has defined a hierarchical system that allows it to divide its metadata universe into namespaces ("data dictionaries", conceptually), and more importantly to delegate stewardship for a single namespace to a local authority. This means that a mission can develop its own data model with a high degree of autonomy and effectively extend the PDS model to accommodate its own metadata needs within the common ISO 11179 framework. Finally, within a single namespace - even the core PDS namespace - existing metadata structures can be extended and new structures added to the model as new needs are identifiedThis poster illustrates the PDS4 approach to metadata management and highlights the expected return on the development investment for PDS, users and data

  10. Multi-Epoch Detections of Water Ice Absorption in Edge-on Disks around Herbig Ae Stars: PDS 144N and PDS 453

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We report the multi-epoch detections of the water ice in 2.8-4.2 micron spectra of two Herbig Ae stars, PDS 144N (A2 IVe) and PDS 453 (F2 Ve), which have an edge-on circumstellar disk. The detected water ice absorption is found to originate from their protoplanetary disks. The spectra show a relatively shallow absorption of water ice around 3.1 micron for both objects. The optical depths of the water ice absorption are ~0.1 and ~0.2 for PDS 144N and PDS 453, respectively. Compared to the water ice previously detected in low-mass young stellar objects with an edge-on disk with a similar inclination angle, these optical depths are significantly lower. It suggests that stronger UV radiation from the central stars effectively decreases the water ice abundance around the Herbig Ae stars through photodesorption. The water ice absorption in PDS 453 shows a possible variation of the feature among the six observing epochs. This variation could be due to a change of absorption materials passing through our line-of-sigh...

  11. The Self-Organized Archive: SPASE, PDS and Archive Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Roberts, D. A.; Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.

    2005-05-01

    Information systems with high quality metadata enable uses and services which often go beyond the original purpose. There are two types of metadata: annotations which are items that comment on or describe the content of a resource and identification attributes which describe the external properties of the resource itself. For example, annotations may indicate which columns are present in a table of data, whereas an identification attribute would indicate source of the table, such as the observatory, instrument, organization, and data type. When the identification attributes are collected and used as the basis of a search engine, a user can constrain on an attribute, the archive can then self-organize around the constraint, presenting the user with a particular view of the archive. In an archive cooperative where each participating data system or archive may have its own metadata standards, providing a multi-system search engine requires that individual archive metadata be mapped to a broad based standard. To explore how cooperative archives can form a larger self-organized archive we will show how the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) data model will allow different systems to create a cooperative and will use Planetary Data System (PDS) plus existing space physics activities as a demonstration.

  12. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Phillip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Griswold, Janelle; Kangas, Miikka; Johansson, Isbella; Alnawakhtha, Yusuf; Prater, Kenyon; Lang, Alex; Madajian, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DESTAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR [1][5][6] and DE-STARLITE [2][5][6] are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In the DE-STAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds an "asteroid" sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed.

  13. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  14. PDS 144: The First Confirmed Herbig Ae-Herbig Ae Wide Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbeck, J. B.; Grady, C. A.; Perrin, M. D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Tofflemire, B. M.; Brown, A.; Holtzman, J. A.; Arraki, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Woodgate, B.; Petre, R.; Daly, B.; Grogin, N. A.; Bonfield, D. G.; Williger, G. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    PDS 144 is a pair of Herbig Ae stars that are separated by 5farcs35 on the sky. It has previously been shown to have an A2Ve Herbig Ae star viewed at 83° inclination as its northern member and an A5Ve Herbig Ae star as its southern member. Direct imagery revealed a disk occulting PDS 144 N—the first edge-on disk observed around a Herbig Ae star. The lack of an obvious disk in direct imagery suggested PDS 144 S might be viewed face-on or not physically associated with PDS 144 N. Multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope imagery of PDS 144 with a 5 year baseline demonstrates PDS 144 N & S are comoving and have a common proper motion with TYC 6782-878-1. TYC 6782-878-1 has previously been identified as a member of Upper Sco sub-association A at d = 145 ± 2 pc with an age of 5-10 Myr. Ground-based imagery reveals jets and a string of Herbig-Haro knots extending 13' (possibly further) which are aligned to within 7° ± 6° on the sky. By combining proper motion data and the absence of a dark mid-plane with radial velocity data, we measure the inclination of PDS 144 S to be i = 73° ± 7°. The radial velocity of the jets from PDS 144 N & S indicates they, and therefore their disks, are misaligned by 25° ± 9°. This degree of misalignment is similar to that seen in T Tauri wide binaries.

  15. Improved Data Search Capability At The PDS Rings Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mitchell K.; Ballard, L.; Showalter, M. R.; Heather, N.

    2007-10-01

    As the number and complexity of NASA's data sets grow, users legitimately face the "needle-in-a-haystack" problem of zeroing in on the finite set of data products most relevant to a particular scientific question. They expect to be able to query the archive using a rich set of reliable metadata, without necessarily knowing in advance which data set(s) might hold the answers, or even whether an answer can be found within the archive's holdings. The Rings Node is developing a web-based search engine that is capable of meeting many of these challenges. The user can start a query at a very high level (e.g., images of Saturn) and "drill down" through all the available holdings to reach the desired data products (e.g., infrared images of Saturn's F ring at low phase angle and resolution finer than 5 km per pixel). The interface responds quickly to each new constraint entered by the user, removing irrelevant options and adding new ones as appropriate. For example, if it is determined that only Cassini images fit the constraints entered so far, then a page of Cassini-related constraints becomes available but options for occultation profiles and Hubble data are hidden. At each step, the engine displays a live tally of how many available products match the user's constraints. Using Ajax technology, caching of previous results, and a highly optimized database, the system is quick and responsive in spite of the millions of database records that must be searched. The proto-type was unveiled for the COSPAR Capacity Building Workshop on Planetary Science, held in Montevideo, Uruguay earlier this year. The new search engine can be accessed at http://pds-rings.seti.org/catalog/.

  16. Ion Beam Shepherd for Asteroid Deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Bombardelli, C

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel concept to impart a continuous thrust to an Earth threatening asteroid from a hovering spacecraft without need for physical attachment nor gravitational interaction with the asteroid. The concept involves an ion thruster placed at a distance of a few asteroid diameters directing a stream of quasi-neutral plasma against the asteroid surface resulting into a net transferred momentum. As the transmitted force is independent of the asteroid mass and size the method allows deflecting subkilometer asteroids with a spacecraft much lighter when compared to a gravity tractor spacecraft of equal deflection capability. The finding could make low-cost asteroid deflection missions possible in the coming years.

  17. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  18. PDS 144: The First Confirmed Herbig Ae - Herbig Ae Wide Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbeck, J B; Perrin, M D; Wisniewski, J P; Tofflemire, B M; Brown, A; Holtzman, J A; Arraki, K; Hamaguchi, K; Woodgate, B; Petre, R; Daly, B; Grogin, N A; Bonfield, D G; Williger, G M; Lauroesch, J T; 10.1088/0004-637X/744/1/54

    2012-01-01

    PDS 144 is a pair of Herbig Ae stars that are separated by 5.35" on the sky. It has previously been shown to have an A2Ve Herbig Ae star viewed at 83\\circ inclination as its northern member and an A5Ve Herbig Ae star as its southern member. Direct imagery revealed a disk occulting PDS 144 N - the first edge-on disk observed around a Herbig Ae star. The lack of an obvious disk in direct imagery suggested PDS 144 S might be viewed face-on or not physically associated with PDS 144 N. Multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope imagery of PDS 144 with a 5 year baseline demonstrates PDS 144 N & S are comoving and have a common proper motion with TYC 6782-878-1. TYC 6782-878-1 has previously been identified as a member of Upper Sco sub-association A at d = 145 \\pm 2 pc with an age of 5-10 Myr. Ground-based imagery reveals jets and a string of Herbig-Haro knots extending 13' (possibly further) which are aligned to within 7\\circ \\pm 6\\circ on the sky. By combining proper motion data and the absence of a dark mid-plane wit...

  19. Alaska North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  20. Mexico East-West Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  1. Alaska East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 millionterrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  2. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  3. Finite element analysis modeling of pulse-laser excited photothermal deflection (mirage effect) from aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Bialkowski, Stephen E

    2008-12-01

    A finite element analysis method for numerical modeling of the photothermal deflection spectroscopy of aerosols is presented. The models simulate pulse-laser excited photothermal deflection from aerosols collected on a plane surface substrate in air medium. The influence of the aerosol and substrate properties on the transient photothermal deflection signal is examined. We have previously obtained experimental results for photothermal deflection spectrometry of aerosols deposited onto a plate from an impactor system (O. O. Dada and S. E. Bialkowski, Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 1336 (2008)). This paper supports the validity of the experimental results presented in that paper and helps in answering some of the questions raised. The modeling results presented here demonstrate that the (peak) normalized transient temperature change profile and (peak) normalized transient photothermal deflection profile are a good approximation and invariant with number of particles, inter-particle distance, and particulate shape, which suggests that the photothermal deflection signal amplitude may be calibrated linearly with total mass of aerosols and the method could be applied to analysis of complex aerosols.

  4. A Massive X-ray Outflow From The Quasar PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ward, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton spectroscopic observations of the luminous, radio-quiet quasar PDS 456. The hard X-ray spectrum of PDS 456 shows a deep absorption trough (constituting 50% of the continuum) at energies above 7 keV in the quasar rest frame, which can be attributed to a series of blue-shifted K-shell absorption edges due to highly ionized iron. The higher resolution soft X-ray grating RGS spectrum exhibits a broad absorption line feature near 1 keV, which can be modeled by a blend of L-shell transitions from highly ionized iron (Fe XVII - XXIV). An extreme outflow velocity of approx. 50000 km/s is required to model the K and L shell iron absorption present in the XMM-Newton data. Overall, a large column density (N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of highly ionized gas (log xi = 2.5) is required in PDS 456. A large mass outflow rate of approx. 10 solar mass/year (assuming a conservative outflow covering factor of 0.1 steradian) is derived, which is of the same order as the overall mass accretion rate in PDS 456. This represents a substantial fraction (approx. 10%) of the quasar energy budget, whilst the large column and outflow velocity place PDS 456 towards the extreme end of the broad absorption line quasar population.

  5. PDS/PIO: Lightweight Libraries for Collective Parallel I/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Christon, M.; Heermann, P.D.; Sturtevant, J.

    1998-10-28

    PDS/PIO is a lightweight, parallel interface designed to support efficient transfers of massive, grid-based, simulation data among memory, disk, and tape subsystems. The higher-level PDS (Parallel Data Set) interface manages data with tensor and unstructured grid abstractions, while the lower-level PIO (Parallel Input/Output) interface accesses data arrays with arbitrary permutation, and provides communication and collective 1/0 operations. Higher-level data abstraction for finite element applications is provided by PXI (Parallel Exodus Interface), which supports, in parallel, functionality of Exodus 11, a finite element data model developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The entire interface is implemented in C with Fortran-callable PDS and PXI wrappers.

  6. PDS/PIO: Lightweight libraries for collective parallel I/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STURTEVANT,JUDITH E.; CHEN,PANG-CHIEH; HEERMANN,PHILIP D.; CHRISTON,MARK A.; GREENBERG,DAVID S.

    2000-02-01

    PDS/PIO is a lightweight, parallel interface designed to support efficient transfers of massive, grid-based, simulation data among memory, disk, and tape subsystems. The higher-level PDS (Parallel Data Set) interface manages data with tensor and unstructured grid abstractions, while the lower-level PIO (Parallel Input/Output) interface accesses data arrays with arbitrary permutation, and provides communication and collective I/O operations. Higher-level data abstraction for finite element applications is provided by PXI (Parallel Exodus Interface), which supports, in parallel, functionality of Exodus II, a finite element data model developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The entire interface is implemented in C with Fortran-callable PDS and PXI wrappers.

  7. First year pre-service science teachers’ experiences of authentic instructional tasks in a PDS setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Birgitte; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    of the study presented is to contribute to the further development of the local PDS initiative, examine how the PDS setting can frame first year pre-service science teachers’ inquiries and understand their learning through such authentic instructional tasks. Two examples, which meet the five criteria......Professional development schools (PDS) have been a source of inspiration for a new approach at the teacher education in Aarhus (DK). The importance of student teachers’ inquiries in authentic settings is in line with various research-based approaches to educating (science) teachers. The purpose...... for an authentic instructional task, are presented. Ten students were asked to describe their experiences of working with these tasks during repeated interviews. They refer to concrete examples of school students’ activities and/or learning when reflecting on their own learning and to dialogue with school students...

  8. First year pre-service science teachers’ experiences of authentic instructional tasks in a PDS setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Birgitte Schou; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    . The small groups gave the student teachers the opportunity to get on a level with the school students. They also refer to the iterative dimension and the importance of formative assessment. Based on the evaluative criteria it may be concluded that the two examples are successful models for authentic......Professional development schools (PDS) have been a source of inspiration for a new approach at the teacher education in Aarhus (DK). The importance of student teachers’ inquiries in authentic settings is in line with various research-based approaches to educating (science) teachers. The purpose...... of the study presented is to contribute to the further development of the local PDS initiative, examine how the PDS setting can frame first year pre-service science teachers’ inquiries and understand their learning through such authentic instructional tasks. Two examples, which meet the five criteria...

  9. Base deflection and microleakage of composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulillo, L A; de Goes, M F; Consani, S

    1994-06-01

    The flexural deflections of human dentin, Herculite XR, Dycal, Vidrion F, zinc phosphate base, and combinations of composite-base were determined. The influence of the flexural deflections in the marginal microleakage was also determined for the composite-base combinations. The flexural deflection test for dentin showed no statistically significant differences between the two floor cavity depths studied. There were significant differences among cements when the thickness of the base was 1 mm whereas no differences occurred at 2 mm. The composite-base combinations did not present statistical differences. There were no statistically significant differences in the microleakage levels among loaded and non-loaded specimens; however, dye penetration was visually greater in loaded samples.

  10. Small angle electron diffraction and deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electron optical system is constructed in order to obtain small angle diffraction and Lorentz deflection of electrons at the order of down to 10-6 radian in the reciprocal space. Long-distance camera length up to 3000 m is achieved in a conventional transmission electron microscope with LaB6 thermal emission type. The diffraction pattern at 5 × 10-6 radian is presented in a carbon replica grating with 500 nm lattice spacing while the magnetic deflection pattern at 2 × 10-5 radian is exhibited in Permalloy elements. A simultaneous recording of electron diffraction and Lorentz deflection is also demonstrated in 180 degree striped magnetic domains of La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  11. Palladium sulphide (PdS) films as a new thermoelectric sulphide compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Clamagirand, J.; Macia, M.D.; Ferrer, I.J.; Sanchez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Lab. de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables

    2010-07-01

    Palladium sulphide (PdS) films have been prepared by direct sulphuration of 20 nm thick palladium films at different temperatures (200 C < T < 450 C). Sulphurated films exhibit an unique crystalline phase: PdS. Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of these films are between -110 and -150 {mu}V/K and {proportional_to} 0.08 to 0.8 {omega}cm depending on the sulphuration temperature. Negative sign of Seebeck coefficient indicates an n type conduction in all films. Discussion is focused on the influence of atomic ratio between sulphur and palladium as well as impurities arising from the substrate on transport properties. (orig.)

  12. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of PDS-XADS Spallation Target%PDS-XADS散裂靶热工水力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼塞; 俞冀阳; 杨永伟

    2013-01-01

    本文对小型加速器驱动的次临界系统(ADS)-PDS-XADS散裂靶进行了热工水力分析.分析的XADS型实验堆基于欧洲PDS-XADS实验项目的设计,使用铅铋合金(LBE)作为冷却剂.散裂靶是ADS的核心部件之一,用以确保反应堆功率维持在指定水平.本文利用计算流体力学软件ANSYSCFX 11.0对散裂靶的下部区域进行热工水力分析.分析采用稳态计算、剪切应力输运(SST)湍流模型,在壁面边界条件处采用自动壁面函数法,针对不同的散裂靶设计进行计算流体力学(CFD)分析,最后根据散裂靶设计限值选择最优设计方案.%The thermal-hydraulic analysis of PDS-XADS spallation target for 80 MW reactor core power was studied. PDS-XADS is a small scale experimental accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS). The analysis presented in this paper was based on lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled XADS type experimental reactors, which are the designs of the European experimental PDS-XADS project. The spallation target is a very important component of ADS because it is responsible to keep the reactor power at the required level by spallation reactions. A high rate of neutron production by spallation reaction creates the problem of decay heat cooling. LBE flow is properly cooled, but the window is not properly cooled because of the stagnation point in the pole of the window. It would be very difficult to keep the window temperature below the design limit, which is an important design limit challenge. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of LBE spallation target was carried out by using ANSYS CFX 11.0. The detailed CFD analysis, which reveals thermal and hydraulic conditions in the window and spallation region, was carried out for different spallation target designs. Finally, the spallation target design limit was used to choose the best design.

  13. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  14. Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Nathan A.

    2013-10-01

    Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

  15. Deflection of uncooperative targets using laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Nicolas; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2015-09-01

    Owing to their ability to move a target in space without requiring propellant, laser-based deflection methods have gained attention among the research community in the recent years. With laser ablation, the vaporized material is used to push the target itself allowing for a significant reduction in the mass requirement for a space mission. Specifically, this paper addresses two important issues which are thought to limit seriously the potential efficiency of a laser-deflection method: the impact of the tumbling motion of the target as well as the impact of the finite thickness of the material ablated in the case of a space debris. In this paper, we developed a steady-state analytical model based on energetic considerations in order to predict the efficiency range theoretically allowed by a laser deflection system in absence of the two aforementioned issues. A numerical model was then implemented to solve the transient heat equation in presence of vaporization and melting and account for the tumbling rate of the target. This model was also translated to the case where the target is a space debris by considering material properties of an aluminium 6061-T6 alloy and adapting at every time-step the size of the computational domain along with the recession speed of the interface in order to account for the finite thickness of the debris component. The comparison between the numerical results and the analytical predictions allow us to draw interesting conclusions regarding the momentum coupling achievable by a given laser deflection system both for asteroids and space debris in function of the flux, the rotation rate of the target and its material properties. In the last section of this paper, we show how a reasonably small spacecraft could deflect a 56m asteroid with a laser system requiring less than 5kW of input power.

  16. User Guide to the PDS Dataset for the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Kaelberer, Monte S.; Gorius, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This User Guide to the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been written with two communities in mind. First and foremost, scientists external to the Cassini Project who seek to use the CIRS data as archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS). In addition, it is intended to be a comprehensive reference guide for those internal to the CIRS team.

  17. PDS Leadership Team as Community of Practice: Implications for Local School System and Higher Education Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Laura Corbin; Brown-Hobbs, Stacey; Civetti, Linda; Gordon, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Professional development school (PDS) partnerships have existed in one local school system (LSS) with three different institutions of higher education (IHE) for over a decade. Commonalities and distinctive features were noted between the partnerships. In an attempt to establish standardized and equitable policies from the LSS level,…

  18. Party policy position of Die Linke. A continuation of the PDS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Plassa, R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the German party Die Linke emerged as the result of the PDS (Party of Democratic Socialism; the successor of the Communist Party) merging with the WASG (Wahlalternative Arbeit und Soziale Gerechtigkeit; a break away left wing of the Social Democrats). This article compares the policy

  19. Food Policy and Legal Battles: The Case of the ECA and PDS in Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is one in a large collection of papers, articles, books and reports on food policy in India. Indeed, food policy is a widely researched topic in India. To name a few genres, there are several historical overviews and evaluations of PDS; there are economic models and calculatio

  20. Dark matter prospects in deflected mirage mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Michael; Nelson, Brent D., E-mail: holmes.mi@neu.edu, E-mail: b.nelson@neu.edu [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The recently introduced deflected mirage mediation (DMM) model is a string-motivated paradigm in which all three of the major supersymmetry-breaking transmission mechanisms are operative. We begin a systematic exploration of the parameter space of this rich model context, paying special attention to the pattern of gaugino masses which arise. In this work we focus on the dark matter phenomenology of the DMM model as such signals are the least influenced by the model-dependent scalar masses. We find that a large portion of the parameter space in which the three mediation mechanisms have a similar effective mass scale of 1 TeV or less will be probed by future direct and indirect detection experiments. Distinguishing deflected mirage mediation from the mirage model without gauge mediation will prove difficult without collider input, though we indicate how gamma ray signals may provide an opportunity for distinguishing between the two paradigms.

  1. Surface effects on large deflection of nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2015-01-01

    Surface effects play an important role in the mechanical behavior of nanosized structural elements owing to the increased ratio of surface area to volume. The surface effects on the large deflection of nanowires were considered. Both geometric nonlinearity in finite deformation and surface effects at nanoscale were taken into account to analyze the bending of nanowires subjected to a concentrated force. For simply supported beams and clamped-clamped beams, the influence of surface effects and geometric nonlinearity were discussed in detail. It is found that both surface effects and geometric nonlinearity tend to decrease the deflection of bending nanowires and thus increase the effective elastic modulus of nanowires. Surface effects yield the size dependent behavior of nanowires.

  2. Optical forces through guided light deflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton;

    2013-01-01

    Optical trapping and manipulation typically relies on shaping focused light to control the optical force, usually on spherical objects. However, one can also shape the object to control the light deflection arising from the light-matter interaction and, hence, achieve desired optomechanical effects....... In this work we look into the object shaping aspect and its potential for controlled optical manipulation. Using a simple bent waveguide as example, our numerical simulations show that the guided deflection of light efficiently converts incident light momentum into optical force with one order...... show that the force on the waveguide exceeds the combined forces on spherical trapping handles. Furthermore, it shows that static illumination can exert a constant force on a moving structure, unlike the position-dependent forces from harmonic potentials in conventional trapping....

  3. Deflection analysis of rectangular spatial coverage truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Kirsanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An elastic spatial statically determinate truss of regular type, simulating the rectangular in plan coverage was considered. In the plane of the base the truss has two axes of symmetry. Four support structures (spherical hinge, cylindrical hinge and two vertical rods are located at its corners. An analytic solution was found for forces in the rods of the truss. Using the Maxwell-Mohr’s formula, the dependence of the deflection of the center was discovered in the truss under the influence of the concentrated force. There are five parameters of the problem in this formula: three linear dimensions, and the numbers of hinges on its lateral sides. To determine the desired patterns by means of the computer mathematics system Maple the recursion task by two parameters was solved. It was shown that dependence of the deflection on the number of panels and height of the truss detects a minimum, allowing optimizing the size of the structure.

  4. Deflection of proton beams by crystal miscut surface

    CERN Document Server

    Babaev, A A; Dabagov, S B

    2014-01-01

    First computer experiment results on proton beam deflection by the crystal miscut surface are presented. The phenomenology of proton channeling and quasichanneling has been applied to describe new features of the beam deflection. The analysis predicts efficient beam deflection by the acute crystal end due to repelling miscut potential.

  5. Deflection rheoevolution of lithosphere under subduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉英; 王维襄

    1997-01-01

    Along the continental margin, the tectonic system consisting of trench, island arc, back arc basin and outer rise is often known as a convergent transitional belt between the oceanic lithosphere and the continental litho-sphere. The occurrence, development and activity of trench and outer rise bear closely on the underthrusting process of the oceanic lithosphere. A generalized analytical theory of deflection rheoevolution of lithosphere under subduction is established, and solutions with universal significance have been obtained.

  6. [Pliability and deflection of diagnostic catheters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelyhe, Liza; Bognár, Eszter

    2014-09-28

    The cardiac catheter is an intravascular catheter, which is introduced or implanted into the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The catheters may break or king during their introduction and/or removal. The aim of the authors was to study the pliability of two catheters with the same material but different diameters according to the Food and Drug Administration's recommendation. The bending points, diameter decrease, deflection, and their correlation and dependence on the distance from the tip, as well as the influence of the initial diameter of the catheters were determined. The bending of catheters was performed on 9 bending points (120-280 mm from the tip by 20 mm) on 16 gauges with different radius (10-2.5 mm by 0.5 mm). A linear dependency between the diameter decrease and deflection was observed, which was independent from the placement of the measurement in both catheters examined. The larger initial diameter had significant (p = 0.05) greater diameter decrease than the smaller, but the curves characteristic of the diameter decrease and deflection were similar. The applied method seems to be useful for the examination of weak points of cardiac catheters.

  7. An improved logarithmic amplifier circuit for PDS microdensitometers. [Photometric Data Systems for astronomical observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. M.; Slovak, M. H.; Michalski, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    A high-speed logarithmic-amplifier circuit for a PDS microdensitometer is discussed. The circuit is designed around a 757P log-amp module which replaces the FMI 531 'Negative Log/Anti-log' device of the original. The new amplifier is capable of producing undistorted profiles of rapidly changing, dense images over the available range of scanning speeds. The circuit board has been designed to directly replace the manufacturer supplied unit; neither electrical nor mechanical modifications of the basic PDS are required. The performance of the circuit is illustrated through its effects on the overall Modulation Transfer Function of the instrument and by scans of a well-exposed stellar image. Circuit diagrams and parts lists are presented.

  8. Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) power system development (PDS) II. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    This report documents the results and conclusions of the PDS II, Phase I, preliminary design of a 10 MWe OTEC power system, using enhanced plate type heat exchangers, and of representative 0.2 MWe test articles. It further provides the documentation (specifications, drawings, trade studies, etc.) resulting from the design activities. The data and discussions of the technical concepts are organized to respond to the PDS II, Phase II proposal evaluation criteria. This volume, which specifically addresses the three evaluation categories (heat exchangers, rotating machinery, and power system configuration and performance) is an integral part of the Phase II plans (proposal) which describe the technical approach to delivering test articles to OTEC-1. In addition, there is a section which addresses power system cost and net energy analysis and another which discusses the results of stainless steel feasibility studies. Supporting documentation is contained in two appendix volumes.

  9. A Compton-thick Wind in the High Luminosity Quasar, PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Behar, E.; Miller, L.; Turner, T. J.; Braito, V.; Fabian, A. C.; Kaspi, S.; Mushotzky, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    PDS 456 is a nearby (z=0.184), luminous (L(sub bol) approximately equal to 10(exp 47) ergs(exp -1) type I quasar. A deep 190 ks Suzaku observation in February 2007 revealed the complex, broad band X-ray spectrum of PDS 456. The Suzaku spectrum exhibits highly statistically significant absorption features near 9 keV in the quasar rest-frame. We show that the most plausible origin of the absorption is from blue-shifted resonance (1s-2p) transitions of hydrogen-like iron (at 6.97 keV in the rest frame). This indicates that a highly ionized outflow may be present moving at near relativistic velocities (0.26-0.31c). A possible hard X-ray excess is detected above 15 keV with HXD (at 99.8% confidence), which may arise from high column density gas (N(sub H) greater than 10(exp 24)cm(exp -2) partially covering the X-ray emission, or through strong Compton reflection. Here we propose that the iron K-shell absorption in PDS 456 is associated with a thick, possibly clumpy outflow, covering about 20% of 4(pi) steradian solid angle. The outflow is likely launched from the inner accretion disk, within 15-100 gravitational radii of the black hole. The kinetic power of the outflow may be similar to the bolometric luminosity of PDS 456. Such a powerful wind could have a significant effect on the co-evolution of the host galaxy and its supermassive black hole, through feedback.

  10. A Single-Material Logical Junction Based on 2D Crystal PdS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Asl, Mahdi; Kuc, Agnieszka; Miró, Pere; Heine, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A single-material logical junction with negligible contact resistance is designed by exploiting quantum-confinement effects in 1T PdS2 . The metallic bilayer serves as electrodes for the semiconducting channel monolayer, avoiding contact resistance. Heat dissipation is then governed by tunnel loss, which becomes negligible at channel lengths larger than 2.45 nm. This value marks the integration limit for a conventional 2D transistor.

  11. PDS4: Meeting Big Data Challenges Via a Model-Driven Planetary Science Data Architecture and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S. H.; Joyner, R.; Ramirez, P.

    2014-12-01

    Big science data management entails cataloging, processing, distribution, multiple ways of analyzing and interpreting the data, long-term preservation, and international cooperation of massive amount of scientific data. PDS4, the next generation of the Planetary Data System (PDS), uses an information model-driven architectural approach coupled with modern information technologies and standards to meet theses challenges of big science data management. PDS4 is an operational example of the use of an explicit data system architecture and an ontology-base information model to drive the development, operations, and evolution of a scalable data system along the entire science data lifecycle from ground systems to the archives. This overview of PDS4 will include a description of its model-driven approach and its overall systems architecture. It will illustrate how the system is being used to help meet the expectations of modern scientists for interoperable data systems and correlatable data in the Big Data era.

  12. An Architecture for Real-Time Processing of OSIRIS-REx Engineering and Science Data, from Raw Telemetry to PDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Herein we describe an architecture developed for processing engineering and science data for the OSIRIS-REx mission. The architecture is soup-to-nuts, starting with raw telemetry and ending with submission to PDS.

  13. Effect of PdS on Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution of Nanostructured CdS under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of PdS as a cocatalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, nanostructured PdS/CdS were prepared by an in situ coprecipitation and hydrothermal method, respectively. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible absorption spectra, and photoluminescence spectra (PL. With PdS highly dispersed in the CdS nanostructures, the photoactivity was evaluated by hydrogen evolution from aqueous solution containing Na2S/Na2SO3 as sacrificial reagents under visible light irradiation. When the concentration of PdS was 1% by weight, PdS/CdS, prepared by the in situ coprecipitation, showed the highest photocatalytic activity, while that prepared by hydrothermal method showed the most stability for hydrogen evolution. The effect of highly dispersed PdS on the photoactivity was discussed.

  14. Characterisation of a Mechanical Deflection Sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Miyambo, M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ). REFERENCES Snyman, I.M. and Reinecke, J.D. 2006. Measuring the impulse from an explosive charge, Ballistics Symposium South Africa, Denel-OTB, Bredasdorp, 15?16 Aug 2006. Miyambo, M.E. and Pandelani, T. 2012. The Mechanical Deflection Sensor Test... Mechanical Defl ection Sensor M MIYAMBO AND T PANDELANI CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: mmiyambo@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS...

  15. A Bridge Deflection Monitoring System Based on CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-term monitoring of the midspan deflection of Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction on 309 national roads in Zibo city, this paper proposes Zhang’s calibration-based DIC deflection monitoring method. CCD cameras are used to track the change of targets’ position, Zhang’s calibration algorithm is introduced to acquire the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of CCD cameras, and the DIC method is combined with Zhang’s calibration algorithm to measure bridge deflection. The comparative test between Zhang’s calibration and scale calibration is conducted in lab, and experimental results indicate that the proposed method has higher precision. According to the deflection monitoring scheme, the deflection monitoring software for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is developed by MATLAB, and a 4-channel CCD deflection monitoring system for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is integrated in this paper. This deflection monitoring system includes functions such as image preview, simultaneous collection, camera calibration, deflection display, and data storage. In situ deflection curves show a consistent trend; this suggests that the proposed method is reliable and is suitable for the long-term monitoring of bridge deflection.

  16. Intervention of One Rupee Rice in PDS: Utilisation and Impact in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha States in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahendran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To find out the utilisation and impact of the scheme of pricing one kg rice at one rupee among the poor people and other beneficiaries at PDS outlets in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha states of India. For the purpose of this study, multi-stage random sampling method was used. Quantitative data was collected from the public using structured questionnaire. Data collection was done between 2nd December 2013 and 11th February 2014. The results show that more than 94.8% of poor families are utilising PDS grains in Odisha and 92.5% of BPL families are utilising PDS grains in Andhra Pradesh. In both the state’s 30% of the population is Above Poverty Line (APL families, and they do not buy most of the commodities and more particularly in rice. As part of PDS reform, both these states have improved transparency with computerised ration shops and biometric ration cards and pin numbers. PDS outlets are more useful to poor people than for the Above Poverty Line families. This study suggests that allotments of rice for APL families must be cut to control corruption and leakages, this study also suggest that millets must be introduced in the PDS to increase nutrition security.

  17. A Limited Deflection Routing Algorithm Based on Burst Loss Threshold in OBS Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ru-yan; LONG Ke-ping; WU Wei; YANG Xiao-long; ZHU Wei-le

    2005-01-01

    The deflection routing protocol is an effective contention resolution in Optical Burst Switching network. However, it can worsen loss performance of non-deflected burst on the deflection route. To improve the burst loss performance, a limited deflection routing scheme based on burst loss threshold is proposed to prevent injudicious deflection routing. By using threshold check function, it restrainedly allows the deflected burst to preemptive network resource, consequently, improve the QoS performance of non-deflected burst. Simulation results show that the scheme can efficiently prevent deflected burst contending with non-deflected burst on deflection route, and effectively improve the burst loss performance of entire networks.

  18. Deflections of Nanowires with Consideration of Surface Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI He; YANG Zhou; ZHANG Yi-Min; WEN Bang-Chun

    2010-01-01

    @@ The elementary beam model is modified to include the surface effects and used to analyze the deflections of nanowires under different boundary conditions.The results show that compared to deflections of nanowires without consideration of surface effects,the surface effects can enlarge or reduce deflections of nanowires,and nanowire buckling occurs under certaJn conditions.This study might be helpful for design of nanowire-based nanoelectromechanical systems.

  19. Deflection of elastic beam with SMA wires eccentrically inserted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamian, S.; Nik Mohamed, N. A.; Ihsan, A. K. A. Mohd; Ismail, A. E.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Kamarudin, K. A.; Nor, N. H. Muhd

    2017-08-01

    This research is intended to investigate the ability of shape memory alloys (SMA), through its activation, in generating loads to control beam deflection. An elastic beam is formed by sandwiching eccentrically SMA wires between two elastic plates. SMA wires are activated by electrical current from the power supply. Laser displacement meter (LDM) is used to measures deflection of sample. Results show that the deflection of the beam is dependent on the temperature change. The temperature-deflection response also shows the existence of hysteresis.

  20. Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, C A de S [Departamento de FIsica, Universidade Federal da ParaIba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2004-12-01

    In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be undoubted evidence of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive a general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field. (brief report)

  1. Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED

    CERN Document Server

    De Pires, C A S

    2004-01-01

    In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be an undoubted signal of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive the general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field.

  2. 美国专业发展学校(PDS)功能探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤

    2013-01-01

    20世纪80年代以来,大学与中小学合作成为世界教师教育改革的流行范式.美国专业发展学校(Professional Development School简称PDS)是其中卓有成效的代表研究发现,美国专业发展学校的功能主要集中在四个方面:职前教师培养、在职教盲者专业发展、调查与探究、学生学业成就改进.

  3. A microprocessor-based control system for the Vienna PDS microdensitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkner, H.; Stoll, M.; Hron, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Motorola Exorset 30 system, based on a Motorola 6809 microprocessor which serves as control processor for the microdensitometer is presented. User communication and instrument control are implemented in this syatem; data transmission to a host computer is provided via standard interfaces. The Vienna PDS system (VIPS) software was developed in BASIC and M6809 assembler. It provides efficient user interaction via function keys and argument input in a menu oriented environment. All parameters can be stored on, and retrieved from, minifloppy disks, making it possible to set up large scanning tasks. Extensive user information includes continuously updated status and coordinate displays, as well as a real time graphic display during scanning.

  4. Teach Deflection Concepts with Hacksaw Blades and Rubber Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology and engineering educators can use a simple hacksaw blade to help students learn about deflection, as that which occurs in a beam. Here the beam is fixed at one end and allowed to deflect in a manner that is easy to see and measure--the hacksaw blade represents a cantilever, an overhanging structure. This simple and very inexpensive…

  5. Falling asleep at the wheel among Italian professional drivers (PDs: Results from the HiRis PD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Rosso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A high percentage of professional drivers (PDs often report feeling fatigue during their work, and falling asleep at the wheel (FAW is a major contributing factor to the occurrence of near-miss or actual accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of FAW among Italian PDs and the effect of fatigue on this occurrence (corrected for the main predictive factors already known. Material and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Data from PDs (N = 497 were used for analyses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of reported sudden-onset sleep at the wheel with working conditions and general lifestyle factors. Results: Forty-one percent of the interviewees experienced at least 1 episode per month of sudden-onset sleep at the wheel (4.7% per week. Predictive factors of self-reported FAW were: age > 55 years old (odds ratio (OR = 4.91, confidence interval (CI: 1.79–13.50, p 22 (OR = 3.93, 95% CI: 1.90–8.14, p < 0.01. Conclusions: There are different work and human factors underlying FAW among PDs. The Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire might be useful in measuring fatigue in this group and in detecting PDs at high risk of experiencing FAW.

  6. Study on the causes and methods of influencing concrete deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Xiang; Tang, Jinyu

    2017-09-01

    Under the long-term effect of static load on reinforced concrete beam, the stiffness decreases and the deformation increases with time. Therefore, the calculation of deflection is more complicated. According to the domestic and foreign research results by experiment the flexural deflection of reinforced concrete, creep, age, the thickness of the protective layer, the relative slip, the combination of steel yielding factors of reinforced concrete deflection are summarized, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional direct measurement of deflection, that by increasing the beam height, increasing the moment of inertia, ncrease prestressed reinforcement ratio, arching, reduce the load, and other measures to reduce the deflection of prestressed construction, improve the reliability of structure.

  7. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  8. Modeling and Simulating Dynamics of Missiles with Deflectable Nose Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Gu Liangxian; Pan Lei

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the dynamic characteristics of deflectable nose missiles with rotary single-channel control. After introduction of effective attack and sideslip angles as well as quasi-body coordinates based on the spin characteristics of the missile's body, an integrated rigid kinetic model of missile with deflectable nose control is set up in the quasi-body coordinates considering the interaction between the missile's nose and body by using rootless multi-rigid-body system dynamics and is linearized. Then an analysis with simulation is conducted to investigate the coupling characteristics between the channels, the influences of nose deflection on the body and the dynamic characteristics of missile's body. The results indicate that various channels of missiles with deflectable nose control are coupled cross-linked; the nose deflection tends to make the body move in the opposite direction and, finally, evidences the correctness and reasonability of the kinetic model proposed by this article.

  9. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  10. X-ray flaring in PDS 456 observed in a high-flux state

    CERN Document Server

    Matzeu, G A; Nardini, E; Braito, V; Turner, T J; Costa, M T

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of a $190$\\,ks (net exposure) \\textit{Suzaku} observation, carried out in 2007, of the nearby ($z=0.184$) luminous (L$_{\\rm bol}\\sim10^{47}$\\,erg\\,s$^{-1}$) quasar PDS\\,456. In this observation, the intrinsically steep bare continuum is revealed compared to subsequent observations, carried out in 2011 and 2013, where the source is fainter, harder and more absorbed. We detected two pairs of prominent hard and soft flares, restricted to the first and second half of the observation respectively. The flares occur on timescales of the order of $\\sim50$\\,ks, which is equivalent to a light-crossing distance of $\\sim10\\,R_{\\rm g}$ in PDS\\,456. From the spectral variability observed during the flares, we find that the continuum changes appear to be dominated by two components: (i) a variable soft component ($2$\\,keV). The photon index of the latter power-law component appears to respond to changes in the soft band flux, increasing during the soft X-ray flares. Here the softening of the spectra, ...

  11. Constraining physical parameters of ultra-fast outflows in PDS 456 with Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, K.; Odaka, H.; Done, C.; Gandhi, P.; Takahashi, T.

    2014-07-01

    Deep absorption lines with extremely high velocity of ˜0.3c observed in PDS 456 spectra strongly indicate the existence of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs). However, the launching and acceleration mechanisms of UFOs are still uncertain. One possible way to solve this is to constrain physical parameters as a function of distance from the source. In order to study the spatial dependence of parameters, it is essential to adopt 3-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations that treat radiation transfer in arbitrary geometry. We have developed a new simulation code of X-ray radiation reprocessed in AGN outflow. Our code implements radiative transfer in 3-dimensional biconical disk wind geometry, based on Monte Carlo simulation framework called MONACO (Watanabe et al. 2006, Odaka et al. 2011). Our simulations reproduce FeXXV and FeXXVI absorption features seen in the spectra. Also, broad Fe emission lines, which reflects the geometry and viewing angle, is successfully reproduced. By comparing the simulated spectra with Suzaku data, we obtained constraints on physical parameters. We discuss launching and acceleration mechanisms of UFOs in PDS 456 based on our analysis.

  12. [A simplified technique for repair of quadriceps tendon rupture by transpatellar PDS-cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, H; Agneskirchner, J D; Lobenhoffer, P

    2005-06-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are relatively unusual injuries caused by direct or more frequently indirect trauma. Since complete ruptures lead to loss of active extension of the knee joint, operative treatment is usually indicated. Several techniques are described in the literature. However, relatively little is known about the functional outcome after operative treatment of acute quadriceps tendon ruptures. We present a new operative technique using a 1.3-mm PDS cord passed through a transverse drill hole in the proximal pole of the patella. We operated ten consecutive cases of complete quadriceps tendon ruptures with the technique described between January 2000 and June 2003. Eight of ten patients were evaluated after a mean follow-up time of 38 months by physical examination, IKDC Subjective score, Lysholm and Tegner score as well as an isokinetic test of the quadriceps strength. No complications were noted in this period. The average postoperative scores were 87 (IKDC), 98 (Lysholm), and 4.5 (Tegner). Isokinetic testing showed an average of 25% quadriceps strength deficit. The operative treatment of complete quadriceps tendon ruptures using a PDS cord through a drill hole in the patella is a safe and effective technique permitting functional postoperative treatment.

  13. X-ray flaring in PDS 456 observed in a high-flux state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzeu, G. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Turner, T. J.; Costa, M. T.

    2017-03-01

    We present an analysis of a 190 ks (net exposure) Suzaku observation, carried out in 2007, of the nearby (z = 0.184) luminous (Lbol ∼ 1047 erg s-1) quasar PDS 456. In this observation, the intrinsically steep bare continuum is revealed compared to subsequent observations, carried out in 2011 and 2013, where the source is fainter, harder and more absorbed. We detected two pairs of prominent hard and soft flares, restricted to the first and second halves of the observation, respectively. The flares occur on time-scales of the order of ∼50 ks, which is equivalent to a light-crossing distance of ∼10 Rg in PDS 456. From the spectral variability observed during the flares, we find that the continuum changes appear to be dominated by two components: (i) a variable soft component (2 keV). The photon index of the latter power-law component appears to respond to changes in the soft band flux, increasing during the soft X-ray flares. Here, the softening of the spectra, observed during the flares, may be due to Compton cooling of the disc corona induced by the increased soft X-ray photon seed flux. In contrast, we rule out partial covering absorption as the physical mechanism behind the observed short time-scale spectral variability, as the time-scales are likely too short to be accounted for by absorption variability.

  14. The prevalence of weak magnetic fields in Herbig Ae stars: The case of PDS2

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Schöller, M; Ilyin, I

    2015-01-01

    Models of magnetically driven accretion and outflows reproduce many observational properties of T Tauri stars, but the picture is much less clear for the Herbig Ae/Be stars, due to the poor knowledge of their magnetic field strength and topology. The Herbig Ae star PDS2 was previously included in two magnetic studies based on low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Only in one of these studies the presence of a weak mean longitudinal magnetic field was reported. In the present study, for the first time, high-resolution HARPS spectropolarimetric observations of PDS2 are used to investigate the presence of a magnetic field. A firm detection of a weak longitudinal magnetic field is achieved using the multi-line singular value decomposition method for Stokes profile reconstruction (=33+-5G). To gain better knowledge of typical magnetic field strengths in late Herbig Be and Herbig Ae stars, we compiled previous magnetic field measurements, revealing that only very few stars have fields stronger than 200G,...

  15. Implementing Heliophysics and Planetary Virtual Observatory standards on top of a PDS node

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.; Ritschel, B.; Ceconni, B.; Genot, V.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years metadata standards have been developed for many of the science domains. While there have been domain independent efforts like Dublin Core, most of the domain models are independent designs that do not share a common vocabulary. However the domain models typically share common concepts making it possible to describe resources in multiple domains by mapping terms related to common concepts. In some instances mapping is a simple translation, whereas in other instances the mapping is semantic. Two domains where cross registering resources is both important and useful are the domains of Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. In the Heliophysics domain SPASE is the prescribed metadata standard and in the Planetary Sciences the prescribed metadata standard is IPDA/PDS4. We show how using a combination of translations, SKOS representations, and supplemental information can be used to implement virtual observatory metadata standards on top of a PDS node. We also show that when common services such as SAMP and the delivery of data in standard formats like VOTable and CDF enable comparison and analysis of multi-discipline data.

  16. Load Deflection Characteristics of Nickel Titanium Initial Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the characteristics of commonly used initial archwires by their load deflection graphs.Materials and Methods: This study tested three wire designs namely copper nickel titanium (CNT, nickel titanium (NiTi, and multi-strand NiTi (MSNT archwires engaged in passive self-ligating (PSL brackets, active self-ligating (ASL brackets or conventional brackets. To evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the specimens, a three-point bending test was performed. The testing machine vertically applied force on the midpoint of the wire between the central incisor and canine teeth to obtain 2 and 4mm of deflection. The force level at maximum deflection and characteristics of plateau (the average plateau load and the plateau length were recorded. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used at P <0.05 level of significance.Results: Force level at maximum deflection and plateau length were significantly affected by the amount of deflection. The type of archwires and brackets had significant effects on force level at maximum deflection, and plateau length. However, the bracket type had no significant effect on the average plateau force.Conclusion: With any type of brackets in deflections of 2 and 4mm, MSNT wire exerted the lowest while NiTi wire exerted the highest force level at maximum deflection and plateau phase. The force level at maximum deflection and the plateau length increased with raising the amount of primary deflection; however the average plateau force did not change significantly.

  17. Coupler induced monopole component and its minimization in deflecting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ambattu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflecting cavities are used in particle accelerators for the manipulation of charged particles by deflecting or crabbing (rotating them. For short deflectors, the effect of the power coupler on the deflecting field can become significant. The particular power coupler type can introduce multipole rf field components and coupler-specific wakefields. Coupler types that would normally be considered like standard on-cell coupler, waveguide coupler, or mode-launcher coupler could have one or two rf feeds. The major advantage of a dual-feed coupler is the absence of monopole and quadrupole rf field components in the deflecting structure. However, a dual-feed coupler is mechanically more complex than a typical single-feed coupler and needs a splitter. For most applications, deflecting structures are placed in regions where there is small space hence reducing the size of the structure is very desirable. This paper investigates the multipole field components of the deflecting mode in single-feed couplers and ways to overcome the effect of the monopole component on the beam. Significant advances in performance have been demonstrated. Additionally, a novel coupler design is introduced which has no monopole field component to the deflecting mode and is more compact than the conventional dual-feed coupler.

  18. Heavy colored SUSY partners from deflected anomaly mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a deflected anomaly mediation scenario from SUSY QCD which can lead to both positive and negative deflection parameters (there is a smooth transition between these two deflection parameter regions by adjusting certain couplings). Such a scenario can naturally give a SUSY spectrum in which all the colored sparticles are heavy while the sleptons are light. As a result, the discrepancy between the Brookheaven $g_\\mu-2$ experiment and LHC data can be reconciled in this scenario. We also find that the parameter space for explaining the $g_\\mu-2$ anomaly at $1\\sigma$ level can be fully covered by the future LUX-ZEPLIN 7.2 Ton experiment.

  19. Simulations of directed energy comet deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Lubin, Philip M.; Hughes, Gary B.

    2016-09-01

    Earth-crossing asteroids and comets pose a long-term hazard to life and property on Earth. Schemes to mitigate the impact threat have been studied extensively but tend to focus on asteroid diversion while neglecting the possibility of a comet threat. Such schemes often demand physically intercepting the target by spacecraft, a task feasible only for targets identified decades in advance in a restricted range of orbits. A threatening comet is unlikely to satisfy these criteria and so necessitates a fundamentally different approach for diversion. Comets are naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar heating of their surfaces which activates sublimation-driven jets. Artificial heating of a comet, such as by a high-powered laser array in Earth orbit, may supplement natural heating by the Sun to purposefully manipulate its path to avoid an impact. The effectiveness of any particular laser array for a given comet depends on the comet's heating response which varies dramatically depending on factors including nucleus size, orbit and dynamical history. These factors are incorporated into a numerical orbital model using established models of nongravitational perturbations to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of using high-powered laser arrays in Earth orbit or on the ground to deflect a variety of comets. Simulation results suggest that orbital arrays of 500m and 10GW operating for 10 min=d over 1 yr may be adequate for mitigating impacts by comets up to 500m in diameter. Continuously operating ground-based arrays of 100m and 10GW may be similarly effective when appropriately located.

  20. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.

  1. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  2. Restoration of APOLLO Data by the NSSDC and PDS Lunar Data Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. The LDN has prioritized the restoration of these data based on their scientific and engineering value and the level of effort required. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  3. openPDS: protecting the privacy of metadata through SafeAnswers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Shmueli, Erez; Wang, Samuel S; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The rise of smartphones and web services made possible the large-scale collection of personal metadata. Information about individuals' location, phone call logs, or web-searches, is collected and used intensively by organizations and big data researchers. Metadata has however yet to realize its full potential. Privacy and legal concerns, as well as the lack of technical solutions for personal metadata management is preventing metadata from being shared and reconciled under the control of the individual. This lack of access and control is furthermore fueling growing concerns, as it prevents individuals from understanding and managing the risks associated with the collection and use of their data. Our contribution is two-fold: (1) we describe openPDS, a personal metadata management framework that allows individuals to collect, store, and give fine-grained access to their metadata to third parties. It has been implemented in two field studies; (2) we introduce and analyze SafeAnswers, a new and practical way of protecting the privacy of metadata at an individual level. SafeAnswers turns a hard anonymization problem into a more tractable security one. It allows services to ask questions whose answers are calculated against the metadata instead of trying to anonymize individuals' metadata. The dimensionality of the data shared with the services is reduced from high-dimensional metadata to low-dimensional answers that are less likely to be re-identifiable and to contain sensitive information. These answers can then be directly shared individually or in aggregate. openPDS and SafeAnswers provide a new way of dynamically protecting personal metadata, thereby supporting the creation of smart data-driven services and data science research.

  4. openPDS: protecting the privacy of metadata through SafeAnswers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye

    Full Text Available The rise of smartphones and web services made possible the large-scale collection of personal metadata. Information about individuals' location, phone call logs, or web-searches, is collected and used intensively by organizations and big data researchers. Metadata has however yet to realize its full potential. Privacy and legal concerns, as well as the lack of technical solutions for personal metadata management is preventing metadata from being shared and reconciled under the control of the individual. This lack of access and control is furthermore fueling growing concerns, as it prevents individuals from understanding and managing the risks associated with the collection and use of their data. Our contribution is two-fold: (1 we describe openPDS, a personal metadata management framework that allows individuals to collect, store, and give fine-grained access to their metadata to third parties. It has been implemented in two field studies; (2 we introduce and analyze SafeAnswers, a new and practical way of protecting the privacy of metadata at an individual level. SafeAnswers turns a hard anonymization problem into a more tractable security one. It allows services to ask questions whose answers are calculated against the metadata instead of trying to anonymize individuals' metadata. The dimensionality of the data shared with the services is reduced from high-dimensional metadata to low-dimensional answers that are less likely to be re-identifiable and to contain sensitive information. These answers can then be directly shared individually or in aggregate. openPDS and SafeAnswers provide a new way of dynamically protecting personal metadata, thereby supporting the creation of smart data-driven services and data science research.

  5. Geoid Height and Deflection of the Vertical Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of the National Geodetic Survey has produced a series of high-resolution gravimetric geoid models, hybrid geoid models, and associated deflection of the...

  6. Deflection measurements of LABAN canister sections in horizontal attitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeman, W.

    1985-01-08

    Deflection measurements made on the LABAN canister sections indicate that the apparent stiffness of its frames, with all the diagnostics experiments installed, is not significantly different from the stiffness of the bare frames.

  7. U.S. East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the conterminous United States is the DEFLEC96 model. The computationused about 1.8 million terrestrial and...

  8. U.S. North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the conterminous United States is the DEFLEC96 model. The computationused about 1.8 million terrestrial and...

  9. Hawaiian Islands North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  10. Hawaiian Islands East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  11. PR/VI North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 26,000...

  12. Possible influences on bullet trajectory deflection in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabiano; Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects. A surprisingly consistent 6.5° absolute deflection angle was found when these bullets passed through 22.5 to 23.5cm of ballistic gelatine. The projection angle, determined by the direction of the deflection, appeared to be random. The consistent absolute angle, in combination with the random projection angle, resulted in a cone-like deflection pattern.

  13. PR/VI East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 26,000...

  14. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... and June 2010. Retain current deflection standards for six more months and enlist the assistance of a Lean Six-Sigma group. Response to Comments The prices proposed in our December 2009 proposal...

  15. In Search of Signature Pedagogy for PDS Teacher Education: A Review of Articles Published in "School-University Partnerships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Franco, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    ''In Search of Signature Pedagogy for PDS Teacher Education'' is a review of articles published in "School-University Partnerships" which emerged in response to Shulman's critique that we do not possess powerful, consistent models of practice that we can define and have deeply studied. To these ends, we searched…

  16. A History of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) Imaging Node's Map-A-Planet Legacy Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) Imaging Node’s Map-A-Planet Legacy Web Services have served the planetary data community for more than fifteen years. Here we look back at the evolution and development of the services over the that time.

  17. Deflection and Rotation of CMEs from Active Region 11158

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Christina; Gopalswamy, Nat; Xie, Hong; Yashiro, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    Between 13 and 16 February 2011, a series of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupted from multiple polarity inversion lines within active region 11158. For seven of these CMEs we employ the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) flux rope model to determine the CME trajectory using both Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and coronagraph images. We then use the model called Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT) for nonradial CME dynamics driven by magnetic forces to simulate the deflection and rotation of the seven CMEs. We find good agreement between ForeCAT results and reconstructed CME positions and orientations. The CME deflections range in magnitude between 10^{circ } and 30^{circ}. All CMEs are deflected to the north, but we find variations in the direction of the longitudinal deflection. The rotations range between 5^{circ} and 50^{circ} with both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations. Three of the CMEs begin with initial positions within 2^{circ} from one another. These three CMEs are all deflected primarily northward, with some minor eastward deflection, and rotate counterclockwise. Their final positions and orientations, however, differ by 20^{circ} and 30^{circ}, respectively. This variation in deflection and rotation results from differences in the CME expansion and radial propagation close to the Sun, as well as from the CME mass. Ultimately, only one of these seven CMEs yielded discernible in situ signatures near Earth, although the active region faced toward Earth throughout the eruptions. We suggest that the differences in the deflection and rotation of the CMEs can explain whether each CME impacted or missed Earth.

  18. Comparison of UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 processes for the degradation of atenolol in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Liu; Lei Fang; Yongchao Zhou; Tuqiao Zhang; Yu Shao

    2013-01-01

    UV/H2O2 and UV/peroxodisulfate (PDS) processes were adopted to degrade a typical β-blocker atenolol (ATL).The degradation efficiencies under various operational parameters (oxidant dosage,pH,HCO3-,humic acid (HA),NO3-,and Cl-) were compared.Principal factor analysis was also performed with a statistical method for the two processes.It was found that increasing the specific dosage of the two peroxides ([peroxide]0/[ATL]0) ranging from 1∶1 to 8∶1 led to a faster degradation rate but also higher peroxide residual.Within the pH range 3-11,the optimum pH was 7 for the UV/PDS process and elevating pH benefitted the UV/H2O2 process.The presence of HCO3-,HA,and Cl-adversely affected ATL oxidation in both processes.The NO3-concentration 1-3 mmol/L accelerated the destruction of ATL by the UV/PDS process,but further increase of NO3-concentration retarded the degradation process,contrary to the case in the UV/H2O2 process.The rank orders of effects caused by the six operational parameters were pH ≈ specific dosage > [HA]0 > [NO3-]0 > [HCO3-]0 > [Cl-]0 for the UV/H2O2 process and specific dosage > pH > [HA]0 > [NO3-]0 > [HCO3-]0 >[Cl-]0 for the UV/PDS process.The UV/PDS process was more sensitive to changes in operational parameters than the UV/H2O2 process but more efficient in ATL removal under the same conditions.

  19. Deflection load characteristics of laser-welded orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Etsuko; Stigall, Garrett; Elshahawy, Waleed; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2012-07-01

    To compare the deflection load characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous joints made by laser welding using various types of orthodontic wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 inch × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel (Co-Cr-Ni), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (12 mm long each) were made by Nd:YAG laser welding. Two types of welding methods were used: two-point welding and four-point welding. Nonwelded wires were also used as a control. Deflection load (N) was measured by conducting the three-point bending test. The data (n  =  5) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P welded specimens showed lower deflection loads compared to corresponding control wires and exhibited higher deflection loads compared to heterogeneously welded combinations. For homogeneous combinations, Co-Cr-Ni/Co-Cr-Ni showed a significantly (P welded groups. In heterogeneous combinations, SS/Co-Cr-Ni and β-Ti/Ni-Ti showed higher deflection loads than those of the remaining heterogeneously welded combinations (significantly higher for SS/Co-Cr-Ni). Significance (P welding method). However, no significant difference in deflection load was found between four-point and two-point welding in each homogeneous or heterogeneous combination. Heterogeneously laser-welded SS/Co-Cr-Ni and β-Ti/Ni-Ti wires provide a deflection load that is comparable to that of homogeneously welded orthodontic wires.

  20. Large deflection analysis of cantilever beam under end point and distributed load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Tolou, N; Barari, Amin;

    2014-01-01

    Although the deflection of beams has been studied for decades, the solutions were either linearized (i.e. small deflection) or based on elliptic integrals or functions (large deflection). The latter one includes the geometric nonlinearity but calculation of the deflection along the beam length re...

  1. PDS and NASA Tournament Laboratory Project to Engage Citizen Scientists and to Provide New Access to Cassini Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odess, Jennifer; Gordon, Mitch; Showalter, Mark; LaMora, Andy; Del Villar, Ambi; Raugh, Anne; Erickson, Kristen; Galica, Carol; Grayzeck, Ed; Morgan, Thomas; Knopf, Bill

    2014-11-01

    Jennifer Odess (1), Mitch Gordon (2), Mark Showalter (2), Andy LaMora (1), Ambi Del Villar (1), Anne Raugh (3), Kristen Erickson (4), Carol Galica (4), Ed Grayzeck (5), T. Morgan (5), and Bill Knopf (4)1. Appirio Top Coder, Inc2. SETI Institute3. University of Maryland4. NASA Headquarters5. Goddard Space Flight CenterThe Planetary Data System (PDS), working with the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) and TopCoder® , is using challenge-based competition to generate new applications that increase both access to planetary data and discoverability—allowing users to “mine” data, and thus, to make new discoveries from data already “on the ground”. The first challenge-based completion was an optimized database and API for comet data at the PDS Small Bodies Node (SBN) in 2012. Since start-up, the installation at SBN has been tweaked to provide access to the comet data holdings of the SBN, and has introduced new users and new developers to PDS data. A follow-on contest using Cassini images from the PDS Rings Discipline Node, was designed to challenge the competitors to create new, more transparent, agile tools for public access to NASA’s planetary data, where “public” includes citizen scientists and educators. The experience gained with the API at SBN was applied to establishing a second installation at the PDS Planetary Rings Node (Rings), to serve as the basis to develop similar access tools at Rings to make the growing archive of Cassini images available through the API. The Cassini-Rings project had as its goal to develop a crowd-sourcing project with eventual application across the PDS holdings. From the contest results, a preliminary algorithm can detect known satellites hidden in Saturn’s rings which should prove valuable to programmers. The contest approach is also of potential use to educators for exercises studying the solar system. The progress to date and results of this citizen-scientist project will be discussed.

  2. Needle deflection estimation using fusion of electromagnetic trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, H; Hashtrudi-Zaad, K; Fichtinger, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a needle deflection estimation method to compensate for needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. We combine a kinematic needle deflection estimation model, electromagnetic (EM) trackers, and a Kalman filter (KF). We reduce the impact of error from the needle deflection estimation model by using the fusion of two EM trackers to report the approximate needle tip position in real-time. One reliable EM tracker is installed on the needle base, and estimates the needle tip position using the kinematic needle deflection model. A smaller but much less reliable EM tracker is installed on the needle tip, and estimates the needle tip position through direct noisy measurements. Using a KF, the sensory information from both EM trackers is fused to provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position with much reduced variance in the estimation error. We then implement this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated prostate cancer brachytherapy needle insertion. At a typical maximum insertion depth of 15 cm, needle tip mean estimation error was reduced from 2.39 mm to 0.31 mm, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution.

  3. The PDS 66 Circumstellar Disk as seen in Polarized Light with the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Schuyler G; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Nielsen, Eric L; Wang, Jason; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary H; Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Goodsell, Stephen J; Grady, Carol A; Graham, James R; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hines, Dean C; Hung, Li-Wei; Kalas, Paul; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik T; Schneider, Glenn; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2016-01-01

    We present H and K band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.12'' inner working angle (IWA) in H band, almost 3 times as close to the star as the previous HST observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.35'' effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the East side of the disk which is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the South possibly due to shadowing from material within the inner working angle. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  4. Broad-band short term X-ray spectral variability of the quasar PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzeu, G.; Reeves, J.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Costa, M.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-07-01

    We present an analysis of a recent 500 ks Suzaku observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby (z=0.184) luminous (L_{bol}˜10^{47} erg s^{-1}) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. Short term X-ray spectral variability has been detected, which may be caused by two variable coverers of column density log (N_{H,1}/cm^{-2})=22.3±0.1 and log (N_{H,2}/cm(-2) )=23.2±0.1 We find that the partial covering requires an outflow velocity of ˜0.25 c, coincident with the velocity of the highly ionised outflow at the 99.9 % confidence level. Therefore the partial covering clouds could be the denser clumpy part of an inhomogeneous wind. An obscuration event occurs 1250 ks into the observation, where the spectrum becomes totally opaque at Fe K. This implies that the size of the absorber and likewise the X-ray emitter, to be less than 20 Rg. We also analyse the flaring behaviour in the lightcurve. The behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray flux, suggested a corona characterised by an extended "warm" region of ˜20 Rg in size combined with more compact regions of "hot" electrons of ˜8 Rg in size.

  5. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Nielsen, Eric L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Room 552, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chilcote, Jeffrey [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Draper, Zachary H. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goodsell, Stephen J. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: swolff9@jh.edu [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  6. Ultrafast optical beam deflection in a pump probe configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lingliang; Tian, Jinshou; Wang, Tao; Wu, Shengli; Li, Fuli; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Guilong

    2016-09-01

    Propagation of a signal beam in an AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide multiple-prism light deflector is theoretically investigated by solving the scalar Helmholtz equation to obtain the dependences of the temporal and spatial resolvable characteristics of the ultrafast deflector on the material dispersion of GaAs including group velocity dispersion and angular dispersion, interface reflection, and interface scattering of multiple-prism deflector. Furthermore, we experimentally confirm that, in this ultrafast beam deflection device, the deflecting angle of the signal light beam is linear with the pump fluence and the temporal resolution of the ultrafast deflection is 10 ps. Our results show that the improvement of the temporal and spatial resolvable performances is possible by properly choosing the structural parameters and enhancing the quality of the device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274377 and 61176006) and the State Major Research Equipment Project, China (Grant No. ZDY2011-2).

  7. ABRUPT DEFLECTED SUPERCRITICAL WATER FLOW IN SLOPED CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-kun; NI Han-gen

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the bottom slope on abrupt deflected supercritical water flow was experimentally and theoretically studied. Model tests were conducted in a flume of 1.2 m wide and 2.6 m long with sloped bottom at an angle 35.54o, its length of deflector was 0.2 m and the deflection angles were 15o and 30o. An approximate method for calculatjng the shock wave angle and depth ratio of the abrupt deflected supercritical water flow was suggested, and a correction coefficient for the hydrodynamic pressure was introduced to generalize the momentum equation in the direction perpendicular to the shock front. It must be noticed that in the sloped channel the shock wave angle and the depth ratio are no longer constant as those in the horizontal channels, but slowly change along the shock front. The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data.

  8. Linearizing Intra-Train Beam-Beam Deflection Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.R.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    Beam-beam deflection feedback acting within the crossing time of a single bunch train may be needed to keep linear collider beams colliding at high luminosity. In a short-pulse machine such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) this feedback must converge quickly to be useful. The non-linear nature of beam-beam deflection vs. beam-beam offset in these machines precludes obtaining both rapid convergence and a stable steady-state lock to beam offsets with a linear feedback algorithm. We show that a simply realizable programmable non-linear amplifier in the feedback loop can linearize the feedback loop, approximately compensating the beam-beam deflection non-linearity. Performance of a prototype non-linear amplifier is shown. Improvement of convergence and stability of the beam-beam feedback loop is simulated.

  9. Novel deflecting cavity design for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2011-07-25

    To prevent significant loss of the luminosity due to large crossing angle in the future ERL based Electron Ion Collider at BNL (eRHIC), there is a demand for crab cavities. In this article, we will present a novel design of the deflecting/crabbing 181 MHz superconducting RF cavity that will fulfil the requirements of eRHIC. The quarter-wave resonator structure of the new cavity possesses many advantages, such as compact size, high R{sub t}/Q, the absence of the same order mode and lower order mode, and easy higher order mode damping. We will present the properties and characteristics of the new cavity in detail. As the accelerator systems grow in complexity, developing compact and efficient deflecting cavities is of great interest. Such cavities will benefit situations where the beam line space is limited. The future linac-ring type electron-ion collider requires implementation of a crab-crossing scheme for both beams at the interaction region. The ion beam has a long bunches and high rigidity. Therefore, it requires a low frequency, large kicking angle deflector. The frequency of the deflecting mode for the current collider design is 181 MHz, and the deflecting angle is {approx}5 mrad for each beam. At such low frequency, the previous designs of the crab cavities will have very large dimensions, and also will be confronted by typical problems of damping the Lower Order Mode (LOM), the Same Order Mode (SOM), and as usual, the Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this paper we describe how one can use the concept of a quarter-wave (QW) resonator for a deflecting/crabbing cavity, and use its fundamental mode to deflect the beam. The simplicity of the cavity geometry and the large separation between its fundamental mode and the first HOM make it very attractive.

  10. Absorbable Polydioxanone (PDS) suture provides fewer wound complications than polyester (ethibond) suture in acute Tendo-Achilles rupture repair

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, M N

    2017-05-01

    We prospectively studied acute Achilles tendon rupture in patients over a two 2-year period and reviewed the causes, outcome and complications. There were 53 patients included with acute Achilles rupture with minimum follow up period of 6 months. We compared the outcomes including infection rate and Boyden score between the two groups repaired by Polydioxanone and Polyester respectively. All infected cases had a suture repair using the polyester suture. The difference in the infection rate was highly significant between the 2 groups (p=0.001). All 34 patients (100%) in the PDS group had good \\/ excellent results based on the Boyden clinical assessment. Conversely, only 16 patients 9(68.4%) had good or excellent results IN Polyester repair group. Patients treated with a non- absorbable suture (ethibond) material for repair had a higher incidence infection and worse Boyden scores than the absorbable PDS group.

  11. Two-mode polarized traveling wave deflecting structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建豪; 顾强; 方文程; 童德春; 赵振堂

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-mode polarizable deflecting structure, as a new concept for bunch measure-ment and beam control. With two modes of HEM11 and HEM12 operating in the same structure on horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, the operation status can be switched between the two polarization modes. They can be operated simultaneously with two independent input power sources. With two-mode deflecting structure, the bunch distortion caused by the geometric wake-fields in the accelerating structure can be mea-sured by one structure.

  12. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  13. Multiplexed Force and Deflection Sensing Shell Membranes for Robotic Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Black, Richard; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark; Chau, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation, e.g., for extravehicular robots making vehicle repairs. Although strain gauges have been widely used, a new sensing approach is desirable for applications that require greater robustness, design flexibility including a high degree of multiplexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic noise. This invention is a force and deflection sensor a flexible shell formed with an elastomer having passageways formed by apertures in the shell, with an optical fiber having one or more Bragg gratings positioned in the passageways for the measurement of force and deflection.

  14. Research on network failure handling technology based on deflection routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YU; Shanzhi CHEN; Xin LI; Zhen QIN

    2008-01-01

    A new deflection routing scheme is proposed to overcome the drawback of existing deflection routing scheme that cannot handle node failure and suffer from routing loops.A new algorithm for computing the backup shortest path tree(SPT)is proposed and a set of procedures are defined for utilizing the backup SPT in case of node or link failure.The failure can be handled swiftly and the backup routes are guaranteed to be loop-free.Experimental results show that the backup routes calculated by proposed scheme are close to the optimal routes by totally re-computing.

  15. The 1919 measurement of the deflection of light

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Clifford M

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the deflection of starlight during a total solar eclipse on May 29, 1919 was the first verification of general relativity by an external team of scientists, brought Einstein and his theory to the attention of the general public, and left a legacy of experimental testing that continues today. The discovery of gravitational lenses turned Einstein's deflection into an important tool for astronomy and cosmology. This article reviews the history of the 1919 measurement and other eclipse measurements, describes modern measurements of the effect using radio astronomy, and of its cousin, the Shapiro time delay, and discusses gravitational lenses.

  16. Silica-based PLC with heterogeneously-integrated PDs for one-chip DP-QPSK receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yu; Nasu, Yusuke; Tamura, Munehisa; Kasahara, Ryoichi; Aozasa, Shinichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Tsunashima, Satoshi; Muramoto, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-10

    To realize a DP-QPSK receiver PLC, we heterogeneously integrated eight high-speed PDs on a silica-based PLC platform with a PBS, 90-degree optical hybrids and a VOA. The use of a 2.5%-Δ waveguide reduced the receiver PLC size to 11 mm x 11 mm. We successfully demonstrated 32 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal demodulation with the receiver PLC.

  17. MV/LV PDS transformers: Novel approach for the maximization of the preventive maintenance activities- A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi Morad; El barkany Abdellah; El khalfi Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    In today’s energy market in Morocco, a stable and reliable electric power supply system is an inevitable prerequisite for the technological and economic growth of the kingdom. Due to this, manypublic distribution companies are increasing their competitiveness by adopting new maintenance philosophies to reduce their Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs. Indeed, being one of the most important parts of the medium voltage network, MV/LV public distribution substations transformer (PDS) play a k...

  18. Cloning and characterization of the phytoene desaturase ( pds) gene — a key enzyme for carotenoids synthesis in Dunaliella (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2008-08-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella is outstanding for its ability of massive accumulation of carotenoids. To elucidate the carotenoids synthesis pathway in this alga, phytoene desaturase ( pds) gene cDNA together with its DNA sequences were isolated and their structures and functions analyzed. The full-length pds cDNA of 2290 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ243892) was deduced from RACE results, including untranslated 21 bp 5'-and 520 bp 3'-flanking regions and an open reading frame of 582 amino acids, coding a protein of 64.196 kDa. The DNA sequence of 2908 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ845248) including five introns was obtained. The fifth intron was uncompleted and complex, including two bases’ perfect repeats (GT)10 and large different-sized repeats within the last 400 bp. The Southern blot hybridization result demonstrated that this gene occurred as a single copy in this species, and the quantitative RT-PCR result showed that the transcription of this gene was constitutive. The evolutional significance of pds was discussed.

  19. Mid-term outcome comparing temporary K-wire fixation versus PDS augmentation of Rockwood grade III acromioclavicular joint separations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilotto Susann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The treatment of acute acromioclavicular (AC joint injuries depends mainly on the type of the dislocation and patient demands. This study compares the mid term outcome of two frequently performed surgical concepts of Rockwood grade III AC joint separations: The temporary articular fixation with K-wires (TKW and the refixation with an absorbable polydioxansulfate (PDS sling. Findings Retrospective observational study of 86 patients with a mean age of 37 years underwent either TKW (n = 70 or PDS treatment (n = 16 of Rockwood grade III AC joint injuries. Mid term outcome with a mean follow up of 3 years was measured using a standardized functional patient questionnaire including Constant score, ASES rating scale, SPADI, XSMFA-D and a pain score. K-wire therapy resulted in significantly better functional results expressed by Constant score (88 ± 10 vs. 73 ± 18, ASES rating scale (29 ± 3 vs. 25 ± 5, SPADI (3 ± 9 vs. 9 ± 13, XSMFA-D function (13 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 3, XSMFA-D impairment (4 ± 1 vs. 6 ± 2 and pain score (1 ± 1 vs. 2 ± 2. Conclusion Either temporary K-wire fixation and PDS sling enable good or satisfying functional results in the treatment of Rockwood grade III AC separations. However functional outcome parameters indicate a significant advantage for the K-wire technique.

  20. PDS MSL Analyst's Notebook: Supporting Active Rover Missions and Adding Value to Planetary Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Thomas

    Planetary data archives of surface missions contain data from numerous hosted instruments. Because of the nondeterministic nature of surface missions, it is not possible to assess the data without understanding the context in which they were collected. The PDS Analyst’s Notebook (http://an.rsl.wustl.edu) provides access to Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) data archives by integrating sequence information, engineering and science data, observation planning and targeting, and documentation into web-accessible pages to facilitate “mission replay.” In addition, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Phoenix Lander, Lunar Apollo surface mission, and LCROSS mission data are available in the Analyst’s Notebook concept, and a Notebook is planned for the Insight mission. The MSL Analyst’s Notebook contains data, documentation, and support files for the Curiosity rovers. The inputs are incorporated on a daily basis into a science team version of the Notebook. The public version of the Analyst’s Notebook is comprised of peer-reviewed, released data and is updated coincident with PDS data releases as defined in mission archive plans. The data are provided by the instrument teams and are supported by documentation describing data format, content, and calibration. Both operations and science data products are included. The operations versions are generated to support mission planning and operations on a daily basis. They are geared toward researchers working on machine vision and engineering operations. Science versions of observations from some instruments are provided for those interested in radiometric and photometric analyses. Both data set documentation and sol (i.e., Mars day) documents are included in the Notebook. The sol documents are the mission manager and documentarian reports that provide a view into science operations—insight into why and how particular observations were made. Data set documents contain detailed information regarding the mission, spacecraft

  1. The effect of asteroid topography on surface ablation deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Ablation techniques for deflecting hazardous asteroids deposit energy into the asteroid's surface, causing an effective thrust on the asteroid as the ablating material leaves normal to the surface. Although it has long been recognized that surface topography plays an important role in determining the deflection capabilities, most studies to date have ignored this aspect of the model. This paper focuses on understanding the topography for real asteroid shapes, and how this topography can change the deflection performance of an ablation technique. The near Earth asteroids Golevka, Bennu, and Itokawa are used as the basis for this study, as all three have high-resolution shape models available. This paper shows that naive targeting of an ablation method without accounting for the surface topography can lower the deflection performance by up to 20% in the cases studied in terms of the amount of acceleration applied in the desired direction. If the ablation thrust level is assumed to be 100 N, as used elsewhere in the literature, this misapplication of thrust translates to tens of kilometers per year in decreased semimajor axis change. However, if the ablation method can freely target any visible point on the surface of the asteroid, almost all of this performance can be recovered.

  2. Deflection of Light by Gravity: A Physical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Joshua B.

    1982-01-01

    Einstein's equivalence principle relates effects seen by an accelerating observer to those experienced by an observer in a gravitational field, providing an explanation of bending of a light beam by gravity. Because the calculations lead to results one-half the value found experimentally, obtaining the correct light deflection is discussed.…

  3. On guided versus deflected fields in controlled-source electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    The detection of electrically resistive targets in applied geophysics is of interest to the hydrocarbon, mining and geotechnical industries. Elongated thin resistive bodies have been extensively studied in the context of offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Such targets guide electromagnetic fields in a process which superficially resembles seismic refraction. On the other hand, compact resistive bodies deflect current in a process which has more similarities to diffraction and scattering. The response of a real geological structure is a non-trivial combination of these elements-guiding along the target and deflection around its edges. In this note the electromagnetic responses of two end-member models are compared: a resistive layer, which guides the electromagnetic signal, and a resistive cylinder, which deflects the fields. Results show that the response of a finite resistive target tends to saturate at a much lower resistivity than a resistive layer, under identical survey configurations. Furthermore, while the guided electromagnetic fields generated by a buried resistive layer contain both anomalous horizontal and vertical components, the process of electromagnetic deflection from a buried resistive cylinder creates mainly anomalous vertical fields. Finally, the transmitter orientation with respect to the position of a finite body is an important survey parameter: when the distance to the target is much less than the host skin depth, a transmitter pointing towards the resistive cylinder will produce a stronger signal than a transmitter oriented azimuthally with respect to the cylinder surface. The opposite situation is observed when the distance to the target is greater than the host skin depth.

  4. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022''. However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission?s preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  5. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022". However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission's preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  6. Large deflection analysis of skew plates under uniformly distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    load-deflection plane to show the effect of skew angle, aspect ratio and boundary condition. ... by edge 1, 2, 3 and 4 on the plate boundaries in Figures 1(a)-1(d). ... one-dimensional coordinate functions along normalized coordinate are shown ...

  7. An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the re

  8. Deflection routing scheme for GMPLS-based OBS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Arafat; Mahmood, Waqar; Alomar, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    is not applicable in such an integrated solution. This is due to the existence of already established Label Switched Paths (LSPs) between edge nodes in a GMPLS-based OBS network which guide the Data Burst Headers (DBHs) through the network. In this paper we propose a novel deflection routing scheme which can...

  9. Towards a mechanistic analysis of Benkelman beam deflection measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.F.H.M.; Priambodo Koesrindartono, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces and describes the Benkelman beam deflection test. Furthermore Benkelman beam tests are simulated using two multi-layer programs, based on an elastic and visco-elastic material model for asphalt. The results of these two programs are compared with each other. Finally, using the

  10. Cantilever deflection measurement and actuation by an nterdigitated transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strambini, E.; Piazza, V.; Pingue, P.; Biasiol, G.; Sorba, L.; Beltram, F.

    2010-01-01

    A scheme that allows all-electrical high-bandwidth readout of a cantilever deflection by means of an integrated interdigitated transducer is presented. The present approach takes advantage of the piezoelectricity of the chosen cantilever substrate material to generate and detect surface-acoustic-wav

  11. Electro-optical approach to pavement deflection management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rish, Jeff W., III; Adcock, Avery D.; Tuan, Christopher Y.; Baker, Samuel L.; Welker, Hugh W., II; Johnson, Roger F.

    1995-07-01

    A prototype continuous deflection device, referred to as a rolling weight deflectometer (RWD), has been developed as a nondestructive evaluation tool for airfield pavements. The system consists of a rigid trailer equipped with specially designed optical triangulation pavement sensors, a high-speed data acquisition system, and a high-pressure tire/load platform assembly. Pavement sensors are mounted on a rigid box beam equipped with an internal sensor system that corrects, in real time, the relative pavement height position measurements for displacements induced in the beam by mechanical vibrations, changes in temperature, or nonuniform dynamic loads at points where the beam attaches to the frame. The device produces continuous deflection profiles that show pavement response to a moving loaded wheel along the path of travel. These deflection profiles, combined with multiple passes along a lane, provide a far more detailed picture of the pavement structural integrity than has ever before been possible, because existing evaluation tools only produce response information at discrete points. Preliminary results show deflections measured by the RWD are in general agreement with the expected pavement response for various loads. A discussion of the device configuration, preliminary data, and potential as a pavement management tool is presented.

  12. Observation of Beam-beam Deflections with LHC Orbit Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kozanecki, W; Wenninger, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHC luminosity is calibrated in dedicated fills with van der Meer scans (vdM) of the beams that are performed repeatedly in both planes. During vdM scans the relative separation of the two LHC beams is scanned in a range of ±6 sigma , where sigma is the single beam size, probing the beam-beam deflection over a relatively large range. Orbit data logged parasitically during those scans were analysed and the beam-beam deflections at the IP being scanned could be reconstructed from orbit fits in the LHC arcs surrounding the IP. Despite the small size of the kicks (≤ 1μrad) the coherent beam-beam deflections are clearly resolved. The beam parameters that are extracted from the fit to the beam-beam deflection data were compared to luminosity data fits and they were found to be in good agreement. The closed orbit shift due to the beam-beam kick is also clearly observed in the beam position interpolation at the collision point.

  13. The origin of ultrafast outflows in AGN: Monte Carlo simulations of the wind in PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Kouichi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Done, Chris; Gandhi, Poshak; Watanabe, Shin; Sako, Masao; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast outflows (UFOs) are seen in many AGN, giving a possible mode for AGN feedback on to the host galaxy. However, the mechanism(s) for the launch and acceleration of these outflows are currently unknown, with UV line driving apparently strongly disfavoured as the material along the line of sight is so highly ionized that it has no UV transitions. We revisit this issue using the Suzaku X-ray data from PDS 456, an AGN with the most powerful UFO seen in the local Universe. We explore conditions in the wind by developing a new 3D Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. The code only handles highly ionized ions, but the data show the ionization state of the wind is high enough that this is appropriate, and this restriction makes it fast enough to explore parameter space. We reproduce the results of earlier work, confirming that the mass-loss rate in the wind is around 30 per cent of the inferred inflow rate through the outer disc. We show for the first time that UV line driving is likely to be a major contribution to the wind acceleration. The mass-loss rate in the wind matches that predicted from a purely line driven system, and this UV absorption can take place out of the line of sight. Continuum driving should also play a role as the source is close to Eddington. This predicts that the most extreme outflows will be produced from the highest mass accretion rate flows on to high-mass black holes, as observed.

  14. Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Orthotropic Membranes in Large Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhou-Lian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the research on the vibration of orthotropic membrane, which commonly applied in the membrane structural engineering. We applied the large deflection theory of membrane to derive the governing vibration equations of orthotropic membrane, solved it, and obtained the power series formula of nonlinear vibration frequency of rectangular membrane with four edges fixed. The paper gave the computational example and compared the two results from the large deflection theory and the small one, respectively. Results obtained from this paper provide some theoretical foundation for the measurement of pretension by frequency method; meanwhile, the results provide some theoretical foundation for the research of nonlinear vibration of membrane structures and the response solving of membrane structures under dynamic loads.

  15. Jet deflection by very weak guide fields during magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M V; Lapenta, G; Newman, D L; Markidis, S; Che, H

    2011-09-23

    Previous 2D simulations of reconnection using a standard model of initially antiparallel magnetic fields have detected electron jets outflowing from the x point into the ion outflow exhausts. Associated with these jets are extended "outer electron diffusion regions." New PIC simulations with an ion to electron mass ratio as large as 1836 (an H(+) plasma) now show that the jets are strongly deflected and the outer electron diffusion region is broken up by a very weak out-of-plane magnetic guide field, even though the diffusion rate itself is unchanged. Jet outflow and deflection are interpreted in terms of electron dynamics and are compared to recent measurements of jets in the presence of a small guide field in Earth's magnetosheath.

  16. Estimation of the deflection of the vertical using gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoussakis, Gerassimos; Korakitis, Romylos; Milas, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    We present a method to estimate the deflection of the vertical at a point P on the Earth's physical surface by forming a small network of three points around point P, with known geodetic coordinates (φ, λ, h) and by obtaining gravity measurements at all points. In the first step, the gravity values are used to form the Eötvös matrix of the actual gravity potential W at point P. In the second step, the gravity differences and the components of the Eötvös matrix are used to form a linear system of three algebraic equations with three unknowns, which are the first order partial derivatives of the actual potential W. The solution of the system enables us to determine the components ξ and η of the deflection of the vertical at the chosen point P. Finally, we present a numerical simulation, using several points scattered on a wide area of the Earth's surface.

  17. Deflection of Rotating Symmetric Molecules by Inhomogeneous Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gershnabel, Erez

    2011-01-01

    We consider deflection of rotating symmetric molecules by inhomogeneous optical and static electric fields, compare results with the case of linear molecules, and find new singularities in the distribution of the scattering angle. Scattering of the prolate/oblate molecules is analyzed in detail, and it is shown that the process can be efficiently controlled by means of short and strong femtosecond laser pulses. In particular, the angular dispersion of the deflected molecules may be dramatically reduced by laser-induced molecular pre-alignment. We first study the problem by using a simple classical model, and then find similar results by means of more sophisticated methods, including the formalism of adiabatic invariants and direct numerical simulation of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. The suggested control scheme opens new ways for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping by optical and static fields.

  18. Measurement of Large Forces and Deflections in Microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Hals, Kai Axel; Chen, Xuyuan

    2008-01-01

    Properties of typical MEMS materials have been widely investigated. Mechanical properties of MEMS structures depend not only on the bulk material properties, but also structural factors. A measurement system has been made to measure force/deflection on microstructures to examine some of the structural properties. This is a stylus setup integrated with a load cell and a linear actuator. First, the requirements for the measurement system were established. Then the system was built up and characterized. We have successfully made measurements on a typical micromechanical structure, a cantilever accelerometer design. The stylus placement accuracy, the spring constant along the proof mass, analysis of the force/deflection curve shape and destructive tests on the cantilever have been investigated in our experiment and will be presented in this paper.

  19. Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)

  20. A map of UHECRs deflections through the turbulent GMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pshirkov, M.S. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetsky Prospekt 13, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, 142290 Pushchino (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tinyakov, P.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Théorique, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Urban, F.R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Théorique, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of the random part of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF) on the propagation of ultra high-energy cosmic rays. We are able to derive a clear and direct relation between the observed variance of rotation measures and the predicted cosmic ray deflections, which puts a solid upper limit of the experimentally observed displacements. Remarkably, this is obtained bypassing entirely the detailed knowledge of the magnetic properties of the turbulent plasma, and that of the electron density variance. Over most of the sky the random deflections for 40 EeV protons do not exceed 1–2°, and can be as large as 5° close to the Galactic plane.

  1. SUPERCONDUCTING RF-DIPOLE DEFLECTING AND CRABBING CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, Jean [ODU, JLAB; De Silva, Paygalage Subashini [ODU, JLAB

    2013-09-01

    Recent interests in designing compact deflecting and crabbing structures for future accelerators and colliders have initiated the development of novel rf structures. The superconducting rf-dipole cavity is one of the first compact designs with attractive properties such as higher gradients, higher shunt impedance, the absence of lower order modes and widely separated higher order modes. Two rf-dipole designs of 400 MHz and 499 MHz have been designed, fabricated and tested as proof-of-principle designs of compact deflecting and crabbing cavities for the LHC high luminosity upgrade and Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade. The first rf tests have been performed on the rf-dipole geometries at 4.2 K and 2.0 K in a vertical test assembly with excellent results. The cavities have achieved high gradients with high intrinsic quality factors, and multipacting levels were easily processed.

  2. Prediction of Double Layer Grids' Maximum Deflection Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza K. Moghadas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient neural networks models are trained to predict the maximum deflection of two-way on two-way grids with variable geometrical parameters (span and height as well as cross-sectional areas of the element groups. Backpropagation (BP and Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks are employed for the mentioned purpose. The inputs of the neural networks are the length of the spans, L, the height, h and cross-sectional areas of the all groups, A and the outputs are maximum deflections of the corresponding double layer grids, respectively. The numerical results indicate that the RBF neural network is better than BP in terms of training time and performance generality.

  3. Effect of layer length on deflection in sandwich beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbu, Muthanna A.; AL-Ameri, Riyadh

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on sandwich beams strengthened mechanically by two external steel plates attached to their tension and compression sides with so-called "shear connectors ". This study is based on the individual behaviour of each component of the composite sandwich section (i.e. reinforced concrete beam and upper steel plate and lower steel plate). The approach has been developed to simulate the behaviour of such beams, and is based on neglecting the separation between the three layers; i.e., the deflections are equal in each element through the same section. The differential equations reached were solved analytically. Deflection was calculated by using the approach for several beams, tested in two series, and close agreements were obtained with the experimental values. Furthermore, the interaction efficiency between the three elements in a composite sandwich beam has been considered thoroughly, from which the effect of some parameters, such as plate length upon the behaviour of such beams, were studied.

  4. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Yoon Lee; Jong-Mun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved condu...

  5. Galvanometer deflection: a precision high-speed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, D P; Raamot, J

    1976-06-01

    An X-Y galvanometer deflection system capable of high precision in a random access mode of operation is described. Beam positional information in digitized form is obtained by employing a Ronchi grating with a sophisticated optical detection scheme. This information is used in a control interface to locate the beam to the required precision. The system is characterized by high accuracy at maximum speed and is designed for operation in a variable environment, with particular attention placed on thermal insensitivity.

  6. Mechanical radiation detection via sub-Brownian lever deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammig, Mark David

    2005-07-01

    A micromechanical lever that deflects in response to the impacts of charged particles is proposed as a means of improving upon the capabilities of existing radiation detection technology. When a particle strikes an object, momentum is transferred to the impacted body. The resulting body motion can be correlated to the energy of the incident particle. The momentum detector offers promise as a highly discriminating, high-resolution tool for ion sensing. Advances required to successfully realize a spectroscopic capability have been completed; specifically, techniques for reproducibly fabricating micromechanical structures have been optimized, and an instrument that measures miniscule deflections has been developed. Even absent substantial refinement efforts, the novel coupled-cavity optical detector can resolve lever motions on the order of 1--10 picometers. A method by which the Brownian motion of the lever can be stilled has been proven which elicits reductions sufficient to measure heavy-ion impact, the deflections from which may be several orders of magnitude below the thermal vibration amplitude. Using active forcing techniques, the Brownian vibration of the microlevers has been reduced from room temperature (288 K) to sub-Kelvin temperatures, for levers vibrating in air. The mechanical factors that limit the noise reduction magnitude are discussed and methods of surmounting those limitations are identified.

  7. Stiffness and Angular Deflection analysis of Revolute Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pundru Srinivasa Rao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed to determine the Cartesian stiffness matrix and angular deflection analysis of revolute manipulator. The selected manipulator has rigid fixed link, two movable links and two rotary joints with joint stiffness coefficients are taken into account. The kinematic model of revolute joint manipulator has considered as a planar kinematic chain, which is composed by rigid fixed link and two revolute joints with clearance and deformable elements. The calculation of stiffness matrix depends on Jacobian matrix and change of configuration. The rotational joints are modeled as torsion springs with the same stiffness constant. The relative angular deflections are proportional to the actuated torques taken into account. The subject of this paper has to describe a method for stiffness analysis of serial manipulator. In the present work is to derive the stiffness matrix and angular deflection equations in the Robotic manipulator under the consideration of two-link optimum geometry model for rotary joint manipulator. The stiffness values are measured by displacements of its revolute links loaded by force.

  8. Comparison Between Two Solutions Based on the Relationship of Load-deflection Character of a Large Deflection Rubber Circular Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段浩; 胡宗武; 杨赪石; 黎佑铭

    2003-01-01

    The rubber circular plate is considered as a kind of membrane. Based on the character that there existsno bending-moment inside a membrane, the geometric behavior of the rubber circular plate in expanding state wasdescribed with the aid of a group of mathematic method. The relationship between deflection and load was attainedby means of calculating stress and strain inside the curved-surface of rubber plate. Meantime, based on Henckymethod, the relationship between deflection and load was attained and considered as the Hencky solution. The dif-ferent results given rise by the two different resolving methods were compared. The deviation results from theHencky method was discussed, and a kind of correcting method was put forward.

  9. Deflection unit for multi-beam mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzkus, Florian; Butschke, Joerg; Irmscher, Mathias; Jurisch, Michael; Klingler, Wolfram; Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans; Springer, Reinhard

    2008-10-01

    Two main challenges of future mask making are the decreasing throughput of the pattern generators and the insufficient line edge roughness of the resist structures. The increasing design complexity with smaller feature sizes combined with additional pattern elements of the Optical Proximity Correction generates huge data volumes which reduce correspondingly the throughput of conventional single e-beam pattern generators. On the other hand the achievable line edge roughness when using sensitive chemically amplified resists does not fulfill the future requirements. The application of less sensitive resists may provide an improved roughness, however on account of throughput, as well. To overcome this challenge a proton multi-beam pattern generator is developed [1]. Starting with a highly parallel broad beam, an aperture-plate is used to generate thousands of separate spot beams. These beams pass through a blanking-plate unit, based on a CMOS device for de-multiplexing the writing data and equipped with electrodes placed around the apertures switching the beams "on" or "off", dependent on the desired pattern. The beam array is demagnified by a 200x reduction optics and the exposure of the entire substrate is done by a continuous moving stage. One major challenge is the fabrication of the required high aspect deflection electrodes and their connection to the CMOS device. One approach is to combine a post-processed CMOS chip with a MEMS component containing the deflection electrodes and to realize the electrical connection of both by vertical integration techniques. For the evaluation and assessment of this considered scheme and fabrication technique, a proof-of-concept deflection unit has been realized and tested. Our design is based on the generation of the deflection electrodes in a silicon membrane by etching trenches and oxide filling afterwards. In a 5mm x 5mm area 43,000 apertures with the corresponding electrodes have been structured and wired individually or in

  10. Calculation of PDS-XADS core closed-loop transfer function by using feedback with the lumped-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghassem, Alireza; Payirandeh, Ali; Abbaspour, Ali [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the PDS-XADS LBE-cooled core open-loop transfer function was calculated by considering the source importance in point-kinetic equations. For this purpose, the overall-feedback transfer function was calculated considering the lumped-model for 14-steps of subcritical levels. Following effects were considered in three steps: 1. Doppler broadening, fuel expansion, coolant density and structure expansion, 2. Delayed-reactivity and void-worth inserted to prior step, 3. Severe-accident condition, inserted to prior steps. The linear stability analysis was modeled by using the Bode diagrams, Nyquist stability criterion and Nichols chart in MATLAB for each subcritical level and six groups of delayed neutrons. For optimized subcritical level determination, a conservative severe accident was considered. According to calculation results and analysis, the PDS-XADS core is stable and in optimized subcritical level, has the higher safety margin. The results are in good agreement with SIMMER-III code and main neutronic results. The optimized subcritical level by using the lumped-model is 0.97687.

  11. Deflection by kinetic impact: Sensitivity to asteroid properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck Syal, Megan; Michael Owen, J.; Miller, Paul L.

    2016-05-01

    Impacting an asteroid with a spacecraft traveling at high speed delivers an impulsive change in velocity to the body. In certain circumstances, this strategy could be used to deflect a hazardous asteroid, moving its orbital path off of an Earth-impacting course. However, the efficacy of momentum delivery to asteroids by hypervelocity impact is sensitive to both the impact conditions (particularly velocity) and specific characteristics of the target asteroid. Here we numerically model asteroid response to kinetic impactors under a wide range of initial conditions, using an Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. Impact velocities spanning 1-30 km/s were investigated, yielding, for a particular set of assumptions about the modeled target material, a power-law dependence consistent with a velocity-scaling exponent of μ = 0.44. Target characteristics including equation of state, strength model, porosity, rotational state, and shape were varied, and corresponding changes in asteroid response were documented. The kinetic-impact momentum-multiplication factor, β, decreases with increasing asteroid cohesion and increasing porosity. Although increased porosity lowers β, larger porosities result in greater deflection velocities, as a consequence of reduced target masses for asteroids of fixed size. Porosity also lowers disruption risk for kinetic impacts near the threshold of disruption. Including fast (P = 2.5 h) and very fast (P = 100 s) rotation did not significantly alter β but did affect the risk of disruption by the impact event. Asteroid shape is found to influence the efficiency of momentum delivery, as local slope conditions can change the orientation of the crater ejecta momentum vector. These results emphasize the need for asteroid characterization studies to bracket the range of target conditions expected at near-Earth asteroids while also highlighting some of the principal uncertainties associated with the kinetic-impact deflection strategy.

  12. The 2017 Eclipse: Centenary of the Einstein Light Deflection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennefick, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    August 21st, 2017 will see a total eclipse of the Sun visible in many parts of the United States. Coincidentally this date marks the centenary of the first observational attempt to test Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by measuring gravitational deflection of light by the Sun. This was attempted by the Kodaikanal Observatory in India during the conjunction of Regulus with the Sun in daylight on August 21st, 1917. The observation was attempted at the urging of the amateur German-British astronomer A. F. Lindemann, with his son, F. A. Lindemann, a well-known physicist, who later played a significant role as Churchill's science advisor during World War II. A century later Regulus will once again be in conjunction with the Sun, but by a remarkable coincidence, this will occur during a solar eclipse! Efforts will be made to measure the star deflection during the eclipse and the experiment is contrasted with the famous expeditions of 1919 which were the first to actually measure the light deflection, since the 1917 effort did not meet with success. Although in recent decades there have been efforts made to suggest that the 1919 eclipse team, led by Arthur Stanley Eddington and Sir Frank Watson Dyson, over-interpreted their results in favor of Einstein this talk will argue that such claims are wrong-headed. A close study of their data analysis reveals that they had good grounds for the decisions they made and this conclusion is reinforced by comparison with a modern re-analysis of the plates by the Greenwich Observatory conducted in 1977.

  13. Spin Rate and Deflection Ratio of a Ping Pong Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Joon Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a spherical object’s spin rate on the curvature of its flight, Ping Pong balls, of varying spin rates, were hit horizontally and recorded from above with a high-speed camera. It was shown that there was a proportional relationship between the ball’s spin rate and deflection ratio. Additionally, using the results of the analyzed data, a coefficient of skin friction of the Ping Pong ball was found to be approximately 0.2 under the specific conditions of this investigation.

  14. Online Estimation of wind turbine blade deflection with UWB signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jakobsen, Morten Lomholt; Østergaard, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use ultra-wideband (UWB) signals for the localization of blade tips on wind turbines. Our approach is to acquire two separate distances to each tip via time-delay estimation, and each tip is then localized by triangulation. We derive an approximate maximum a posteriori (MAP) delay...... estimator exploiting i) contextual prior information and ii) a direct-path approximation. The resulting deflection estimation algorithm is computationally feasible for online usage. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the overall triangulation uncertainty and it is observed that negative correlation...

  15. Direct measurement of Vorticella contraction force by micropipette deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Danielle; Tejada, Jonathan; Matsudaira, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The ciliated protozoan Vorticella convallaria is noted for its exceptionally fast adenosine triphosphate-independent cellular contraction, but direct measurements of contractile force have proven difficult given the length scale, speed, and forces involved. We used high-speed video microscopy to image live Vorticella stalled in midcontraction by deflection of an attached micropipette. Stall forces correlate with both distance contracted and the resting stalk length. Estimated isometric forces range from 95 to 177 nanonewtons (nN), or 1.12 nN·μm(-1) of the stalk. Maximum velocity and work are also proportional to distance contracted. These parameters constrain proposed biochemical/physical models of the contractile mechanism.

  16. Angular Dispersion and Deflection Function for Heavy Ion Elastic Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zhen; MAO Rui-Shi; YUAN Xiao-Hua; Xu Zhi-Guo; ZHANG Hong-Bin; XU Hua-Gen; QI Hui-Rong; WANG Yue; JIA Fei; WU Li-Jie; DING Xian-Li; WANG Qi; GAO Qi; GAO Hui; LI Song-Lin; LI Jun-Qing; ZHANG Ya-Peng; XIAO Guo-Qing; JIN Gen-Ming; REN Zhong-Zhou; ZHOU Shan-Gui; XU Wang; HAN Jian-Long; Fan Gong-Tao; ZHANG Shuang-Quan; PANG Dan-Yang; SERGEY Yu-Kun; XIAO Zhi-Gang; XU Hu-Shan; SUN Zhi-Yu; HU Zheng-Guo; ZHANG Xue-Ying; WANG Hong-Wei

    2007-01-01

    The differential cross sections for elastic scattering products of17 F on 208 Pb have been measured.The angular dispersion plots of In(dσ/dθ)versus θ2 are obtained from the angular distribution of the elastic scattering differential cross sections.Systematical analysis on the angular dispersion for the available experimental data indicates that there is an angular dispersion turning angle at forward angular range within the grazing angle.This turning angle can be clarified as nuclear rainbow in classical deflection function.The exotic behaviour of the nuclear rainbow angle offers a new probe to investigate the halo and skin phenomena.

  17. The Deflection of Charged Particles in an Electric Dodecapole Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, D. G.; Chalut, K.; Thompson, J. S.; Kvale, T. J.

    1997-10-10

    The properties of an ion-optical device consisting of twelve long parallel rods placed equidistantly on a circle are briefly reviewed. The use of this device in its dodecapole configuration to deflect ions in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the dodecapole is discussed. Results of trajectory computations made with the SIMION ion-optics computer program demonstrate that the device works remarkably well in separating the constituents of a multiply-charged ion beam. The use of this device to merge an ion beam with an optical beam is proposed.

  18. Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing System Based on UWB Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2016-01-01

    by triangulation. An experimental setup with corner reflector antenna mounted at the tip and horn antennas at the root of a 37.3 m long blade is described. Analyzing the data from the experiment, special attention is given to the propagation aspects of the UWB links, with focus on the multipath effects caused...... by the blade. It is demonstrated that despite the adverse effects of the multipath propagation the ranging accuracy of the system amounts to 1.5 cm, leading to maximum error of deflection 4.5 %....

  19. Observation of Femtosecond Bunch Length Using a Transverse Deflecting Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huning, M.; Bolzmann, A.; Schlarb, H.; /DESY; Frisch, J.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Smith, T.; /SLAC; Rossbach, J.; /Hamburg U.

    2005-12-14

    The design of the VUV-FEL at DESY demands bunch lengths in the order of 50 fs and below. For the diagnostic of such very short bunches a transverse deflecting RF structure (LOLA) has been installed which streaks the beam according to the longitudinal distribution. Tests in the VUV-FEL yielded a rich substructure of the bunches. The most pronounced peak in the has a rms length of approximately 50 fs during FEL operation and below 20 fs FWHM at maximum compression. Depending on the transverse focusing a resolution well below 50 fs was achieved.

  20. THE HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCE WHERE THE DEFLECTIONS AND ROTATIONS OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS OCCUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, C.; Opher, M., E-mail: ckay@bu.edu [Astronomy Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the trajectory of a coronal mass ejection (CME), including any deflection from a radial path, and the orientation of its magnetic field is essential for space weather predictions. Kay et al. developed a model, Forecasting a CME’s Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), of CME deflections and rotation due to magnetic forces, not including the effects of reconnection. ForeCAT is able to reproduce the deflection of observed CMEs. The deflecting CMEs tend to show a rapid increase of their angular momentum close to the Sun, followed by little to no increase at farther distances. Here we quantify the distance at which the CME deflection is “determined,” which we define as the distance after which the background solar wind has negligible influence on the total deflection. We consider a wide range in CME masses and radial speeds and determine that the deflection and rotation of these CMEs can be well-described by assuming they propagate with constant angular momentum beyond 10 R{sub ⊙}. The assumption of constant angular momentum beyond 10 R{sub ⊙} yields underestimates of the total deflection at 1 AU of only 1%–5% and underestimates of the rotation of 10%. Since the deflection from magnetic forces is determined by 10 R{sub ⊙}, non-magnetic forces must be responsible for any observed interplanetary deflections or rotations where the CME has increasing angular momentum.

  1. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  2. UHECR correlations taking account of composition and Galactic magnetic deflections

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, J

    2013-01-01

    We predict the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays including their deflection in the Galactic magnetic field, for several combinations of source and composition hypotheses: the sources are hard X-ray AGNs or uniformly sample the matter distribution of galaxies, and the composition at the source is pure proton or is the Galactic cosmic ray composition measured by CREAM. We use the regular component of the Jansson-Farrar 2012 model for the GMF and allow for rigidities as low as 2 EeV. We report the correlations of published UHECRs, rescaling event energies so as to reconcile the spectra of the different experiments and taking the overall energy uncertainty into account; different composition hypotheses are considered. This work demonstrates the feasibility of calculating GMF deflections to low enough rigidities to allow for heavy composition in correlation studies, and that non-trivial arrival direction structure should be expected even for mixed or heavy composition, as long as UHECRs come from the l...

  3. Large deflection of flexible tapered functionally graded beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Davoodinik; G.H.Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the semi-analytical analyses of the flexible cantilever tapered functionally graded beam under combined inclined end loading and intermediate loading are studied.In order to derive the fully non-linear equations governing the non-linear deformation,a curvilinear coordinate system is introduced.A general non-linear second order differential equation that governs the shape of a deflected beam is derived based on the geometric nonlinearities,infinitesimal local displacements and local rotation concepts with remarkable physical properties of functionally graded materials.The solutions obtained from semi-analytical methods are numerically compared with the existing elliptic integral solution for the case of a flexible uniform cantilever functionally graded beam.The effects of taper ratio,inclined end load angle and material property gradient on large deflection of the beam are evaluated.The Adomian decomposition method will be useful toward the design of tapered functionally graded compliant mechanisms driven by smart actuators.

  4. Design and Field Test of a Galvanometer Deflected Streak Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C C; Goosman, D R; Wade, J T; Avara, R

    2002-11-08

    We have developed a compact fieldable optically-deflected streak camera first reported in the 20th HSPP Congress. Using a triggerable galvanometer that scans the optical signal, the imaging and streaking function is an all-optical process without incurring any photon-electron-photon conversion or photoelectronic deflection. As such, the achievable imaging quality is limited mainly only by optical design, rather than by multiple conversions of signal carrier and high voltage electron-optics effect. All core elements of the camera are packaged into a 12 inch x 24 inch footprint box, a size similar to that of a conventional electronic streak camera. At LLNL's Site-300 Test Site, we have conducted a Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of fast object velocity using this all-optical camera side-by-side with an intensified electronic streak camera. These two cameras are configured as two independent instruments for recording synchronously each branch of the 50/50 splits from one incoming signal. Given the same signal characteristics, the test result has undisputedly demonstrated superior imaging performance for the all-optical streak camera. It produces higher signal sensitivity, wider linear dynamic range, better spatial contrast, finer temporal resolution, and larger data capacity as compared with that of the electronic counterpart. The camera had also demonstrated its structural robustness and functional consistence to be well compatible with field environment. This paper presents the camera design and the test results in both pictorial records and post-process graphic summaries.

  5. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yoon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  6. System for deflection measurements of floating dry docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a system for deflection measurement of floating dry docks. The system contains two measurement channels observing opposite directions of the dock. It also includes set of reference marks, an industrial computer and a display. Each channel contains CMOS camera with long focal-length lens. Reference marks are implemented as IR LED arrays with 940 nm working wavelength for better performance within bad weather conditions (e.g. fog, rain, high humidity etc.). In the paper we demonstrate results of an analysis of different optical schemes for coupling the oppositely directed channels of the measurement unit and show that the scheme with two image sensors with separated lenses is an optimal option, because it allows usage of nonequidistant location of reference marks and demonstrates the least value of parasitic shift caused by rotations of the measuring unit. The developed system was tested both on specially-designed setup and in real infrastructure of a floating dry dock. The conducted tests proved that a measuring error of the system is smaller than +/- 1.5 mm within the measurement range of +/- 150 mm when deflection of 100 m dock is measured. Obtained results showed that the system demonstrates an ability to work in a harsh environment including poor weather conditions.

  7. Determination of the Critical Value of Deflection for Embedded Cylindrical Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-qi; CHEN Bin; WANG Hai-yan

    2005-01-01

    An embedded cylinder is a large-diameter cylinder embedded in a soil foundation. The state of failure of such an embedded cylindrical structure shows large deflection instead of slide and overturn of the traditional gravity type of structure placed on a rubble base or foundation base. The critical value of deflection of the embedded cylindrical structure, which is the maximum allowable deflection for stability calculation of the cylinder, is a vital control value. Through investigation on deflection and soil pressures on an embedded cylinder by model experiments, the variations of the angle of rotation θ of a cylinder with effective anti-overturning ratio η and moment MH of thrust are discussed. On the basis of experimental study, the critical value of deflection of the cylindrical structure is proposed in the paper. Meanwhile, the formulas for calculating deflection of cylinders are derived.

  8. Deflection routing in slotted self-routing networks with arbitrary topology

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A deflection routing algorithm that can be applied to a novel self-routing address scheme for networks with arbitrary topology is proposed. The proposed deflection routing algorithm can be implemented all-optically using bitwise optical logic gates. Besides the primary output link selection, alternate output link choices by a packet at each node in case of deflection are also encoded in the address header. Priority classes can also be defined in the proposed address scheme. The performance of...

  9. The structure of pre-transitional protoplanetary disks. I. Radiative transfer modeling of the disk+cavity in the PDS 70 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, R.; Hashimoto, J.; Rafikov, R.; Zhu, Z.; Whitney, B.; Kudo, T.; Muto, T.; Brandt, T.; McClure, M.K.; Wisniewski, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Grady, C.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K.W.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G.R.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; McElwain, M.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martin, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2012-01-01

    Through detailed radiative transfer modeling, we present a disk+cavity model to simultaneously explain both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and Subaru H-band polarized light imaging for the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk PDS 70. In particular, we are able to match not only the radial de

  10. Global Trends of CME Deflections Based on CME and Solar Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, C; Evans, R M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate space weather forecasting requires knowledge of the trajectory of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), including any deflections close to the Sun or through interplanetary space. Kay et al. 2013 introduced ForeCAT, a model of CME deflection resulting from the background solar magnetic field. For a magnetic field solution corresponding to Carrington Rotation (CR) 2029 (declining phase, April-May 2005), the majority of the CMEs deflected to the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS), the minimum in magnetic pressure on global scales. Most of the deflection occurred below 4 Rs. Here we extend ForeCAT to include a three dimensional description of the deflecting CME. We attempt to answer the following questions: a) Do all CMEs deflect to the magnetic minimum? and b) Does most deflection occur within the first few solar radii (~4 Rs)? Results for solar minimum and declining phase CMEs show that not every CME deflects to the magnetic minimum and that typically about half of the deflection occurs below 10 Rs. Slow, narr...

  11. Mission Analysis For the Ion Beam Deflection of Fictitious Asteroid 2015PDC

    CERN Document Server

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Cano, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    A realistic mission scenario for the deflection of fictitious asteroid 2015PDC is investigated that makes use of the ion beam shepherd concept as primary deflection technique. The article deals with the design of a low thrust rendezvous trajectory to the asteroid, the estimation of the propagated covariance ellipsoid and the outcome of a slow-push deflection starting from three worst case scenarios (impacts in New Delhi, Dhaka and Teheran). Displacing the impact point towards very low populated areas, as opposed to full deflection, is found to be the simplest and most effective mitigation approach. Mission design, technical and political aspects are discussed.

  12. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...... is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics...

  13. BRIEF REPORT: Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, C. A. de S.

    2004-12-01

    In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be undoubted evidence of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive a general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field.

  14. Quantum Effects on the Deflection of Light and the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we apply the Gauss--Bonnet theorem to calculate the deflection angle by a quantum corrected Schwarzschild black hole in the weak limit approximation. In particular, we calculate the light deflection by two types of quantum corrected black holes: the renormalization group improved Schwarzschild solution and the quantum corrected Schwarzschild solution in Bohmian quantum mechanics. We start from the corresponding optical metrics to use then the Gauss--Bonnet theorem and calculate the Gaussian curvature in both cases. Finally, we calculate the leading terms of the deflection angle and show that quantum corrections modifies the deflection angle in both solutions.

  15. Orthogonally interdigitated shielded serpentine travelling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward C.; Hudson, Charles L.

    1995-01-01

    A new deflection structure (12) which deflects a beam of charged particles, uch as an electron beam (15), includes a serpentine set (20) for transmitting a deflection field, and a shielding frame (25) for housing the serpentine set (20). The serpentine set (20) includes a vertical serpentine deflection element (22) and a horizontal serpentine deflection element (24). These deflection elements (22, 24) are identical, and are interdigitatedly and orthogonally disposed relative to each other, for forming a central transmission passage (75), through which the electron beam (15) passes, and is deflected by the deflection field, so as to minimize drift space signal distortion. The shielding frame (25) includes a plurality of ground blocks (26, 28, 30, 32), and forms an internal serpentine trough (77) within these ground blocks, for housing the serpentine set (20). The deflection structure (12) further includes a plurality of feedthrough connectors (35, 37, 35I, 37I), which are inserted through the shielding frame (25), and which are electrically connected to the serpentine set (20).

  16. The NASA Tournament Laboratory (NTL): Improving Data Access at PDS while Spreading Joy and Engaging Students through 16 Micro-Contests

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMora, Andy; Raugh, A.; Erickson, K.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W.; Morgan, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA PDS hosts terabytes of valuable data from hundreds of data sources and spans decades of research. Data is stored on flat-file systems regulated through careful meta dictionaries. PDS's data is available to the public through its website which supports data searches through drill-down navigation. While the system returns data quickly, result sets in response to identical input differ depending on the drill-down path a user follows. To correct this Issue, to allow custom searching, and to improve general accessibility, PDS sought to create a new data structure and API, and to use them to build applications that are a joy to use and showcase the value of the data to students, teachers and citizens. PDS engaged TopCoder and Harvard Business School through the NTL to pursue these objectives in a pilot effort. Scope was limited to Small Bodies Node data. NTL analyzed data, proposed a solution, and implemented it through a series of micro-contests. Contest focused on different segments of the problem; conceptualization, architectural design, implementation, testing, etc. To demonstrate the utility of the completed solution, NTL developed web-based and mobile applications that can compare targets, regardless of mission. To further explore the potential of the solution NTL hosted "Mash-up" challenges that integrated the API with other publically available assets, to produce consumer and teaching applications, including an Augmented Reality iPad tool. Two contests were also posted to middle and high school students via the NoNameSite.com platform, and as a result of these contests, PDS/SBN has initiated a Facebook program. These contests defined and implemented a data warehouse with the necessary migration tools to transform legacy data, produced a public web interface for the new search, developed a public API, and produced four mobile applications that we expect to appeal to users both within and, without the academic community.

  17. Periodic Relativity: Deflection of Light, Acceleration, Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaveri V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vectorial analysis relating to derivation of deflection of light is presented. Curvilinear acceleration is distinguished from the Newtonian polar conic acceleration. The dif- ference between the two is due to the curvature term. Lorentz invariant expression for acceleration is derived. A physical theory of rotation curves of galaxies based on second solution to Einstein’s field equation is presented. Theory is applied to Milky Way, M31, NGC3198 and Solar system. Modified Kepler’s third law yields correct orbital periods of stars in a galaxy. Deviation factor in the line element of t he theory happens to be the ratio of the Newtonian gravitational acceleration to th e measured acceleration of the star in the galaxy. Therefore this deviation factor can replace the MOND function.

  18. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  19. Asteroid Deflection Using a Spacecraft in Restricted Keplerian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Ketema, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    A method for asteroid deflection that makes use of a spacecraft moving back and forth on a segment of an appropriate Keplerian orbit about the asteroid is described and evaluated. It is shown that, on average, the spacecraft describing such a trajectory can exert a significantly larger force on the asteroid than e.g. a stationary gravity tractor, thereby reducing the time needed to effect a desired velocity change for the asteroid. Furthermore, the current method does not require canted thrusters on the spacecraft (unlike a stationary gravity tractor), markedly reducing the amount of fuel needed to create a given change in the asteroid velocity. In addition, the method allows for the simultaneous use of several spacecraft, further strengthening the overall tugging effect on the asteroid, and distributing the thrust requirement among the spacecraft.

  20. Fabrication and Testing of Deflecting Cavities for APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammosser, John; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert; Jim, Henry; Katherine, Wilson; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ali, Nassiri; Jim, Kerby; Jeremiah, Holzbauer; Genfa, Wu; Joel, Fuerst; Yawei, Yang; Zenghai, Li

    2013-09-01

    Jefferson Lab (Newport News, Virginia) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has fabricated and tested four first article, 2.8 GHz, deflecting SRF cavities, for Argonne's Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) project. These cavities are unique in many ways including the fabrication techniques in which the cavity cell and waveguides were fabricated. These cavity subcomponents were milled from bulk large grain niobium ingot material directly from 3D CAD files. No forming of sub components was used with the exception of the beam-pipes. The challenging cavity and helium vessel design and fabrication results from the stringent RF performance requirements required by the project and operation in the APS ring. Production challenges and fabrication techniques as well as testing results will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Study of surface charges in ballistic deflection transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millithaler, J.-F.; Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; Mateos, J.; GonzáIez, T.; Margala, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the behavior of surface charges in ballistic deflection transistors, at room temperature, where the in-plane geometry associating two drains with two gates in push-pull modes allows the control of electron path. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and compared with experimental data by using different models for accounting for surface charge effects. The simple model which assumes a constant and uniform value of the surface charge provides good results at equilibrium, but it is not able to correctly reproduce the BDT’s complex behavior when biased. We have confirmed that for a correct description of the device operation it is necessary to use a model allowing the surface charge to adapt itself locally to the carrier concentration in its surroundings.

  2. Profiling compact toroid plasma density on CTIX with laser deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel Joseph Erwin

    A laser deflectometer measures line-integrated plasma density gradient using laser diodes and amplified point detectors. A laser passing through an optically thin plasma is refracted by an amount proportional to the line-integrated electron density gradient. I have designed, installed, and operated a deflection diagnostic for the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX), a plasma rail gun which can create compact toroid (CT) plasmas of controllable density and velocity. The diagnostic design and motivation are discussed, as well as three experiments performed with deflectometry. Thus, my thesis consists of the design of the deflectometer diagnostic, a comparison of its accuracy to interferometer density measurements, and finally a survey of compact toroid density profiles in two dimensions conducted with an array of detectors.

  3. Plumb line deflection varied with time obtained by repeated gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付广裕; 李正心

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the plumb line deflection varied with time (PLV) are calculated with the Vening-Meinesz formula for Xiaguan and Beijing point based on the 28 and 39 campaigns of gravimetry at the local gravity networks in the Western Yunnan Earthquake Prediction Experiment Area and the North China, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that: ① the maximum of PLV is under 0.12 and amplitudes of interannual variation are under 0.022.②PLV can be determined with the reliability of 0.012 by the modeling based on the precession of repeated gravimetry. This implies that repeated gravimetry could be used to determine the PLV. ③There exist some common and different characteristics for the different places and different components. It may provide a new approach for the study on the local or global geodynamic by using repeated gravimetry.

  4. Theory of using magnetic deflections to combine charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckbeck, Mackenzie K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Several radiation effects projects in the Ion Beam Lab (IBL) have recently required two disparate charged particle beams to simultaneously strike a single sample through a single port of the target chamber. Because these beams have vastly different mass–energy products (MEP), the low-MEP beam requires a large angle of deflection toward the sample by a bending electromagnet. A second electromagnet located further upstream provides a means to compensate for the small angle deflection experienced by the high-MEP beam during its path through the bending magnet. This paper derives the equations used to select the magnetic fields required by these two magnets to achieve uniting both beams at the target sample. A simple result was obtained when the separation of the two magnets was equivalent to the distance from the bending magnet to the sample, and the equation is given by: Bs= 1/2(rc/rs) Bc, where Bs and Bc are the magnetic fields in the steering and bending magnet and rc/rs is the ratio of the radii of the bending magnet to that of the steering magnet. This result is not dependent upon the parameters of the high MEP beam, i.e. energy, mass, charge state. Therefore, once the field of the bending magnet is set for the low-MEP beam, and the field in the steering magnet is set as indicted in the equation, the trajectory path of any high-MEP beam will be directed into the sample.

  5. Exploring the Spatial Resolution of the Photothermal Beam Deflection Technique in the Infrared Region

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    In photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy (PTBD) generating and detection of thermal waves occur generally in the sub-millimeter length scale. Therefore, PTBD provides spatial information about the surface of the sample and permits imaging and/or microspectrometry. Recent results of PTBD experiments are presented with a high spatial resolution which is near the diffraction limit of the infrared pump beam (CLIO-FEL). We investigated germanium substrates showing restricted O+-doped regions with an infrared absorption line at a wavelength around 11.6 microns. The spatial resolution was obtained by strongly focusing the probe beam (i.e. a HeNe laser) on a sufficiently small spot. The strong divergence makes it necessary to refocus the probe beam in front of the position detector. The influence of the focusing elements on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio is discussed. In future studies we expect an enhanced spatial resolution due to an extreme focusing of the probe beam leading to a highly sensitive...

  6. Arc Deflection Length Affected by Transverse Rotating Magnetic Field with Lateral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru; High Current Energy Laboratory (HiCEL) Team

    2016-10-01

    Gas metal arc welding using shielding gas is often used in the welding industry. However, the arc deflection affected by lateral gas is problem because of inappropriate heat transfer. Shielding gas is used in order to prevent the instability affected by the arc deflection. However, the shielding gas causes turbulence, then blowhole of weld defect occurs because the arc affected by the instability is contaminated by the air. Thus, the magnetic field is applied to the arc in order to stabilize the arc using low amount of shielding gas. The method of applying the transverse rotating magnetic field (RMF) to the arc is one of the methods to prevent the arc instability. The RMF drives the arc because of electromagnetic force. The driven arc is considered to be prevented to arc deflection of lateral gas because the arc is restrained by the magnetic field because of the driven arc. In addition, it is assume the RMF prevented to the arc deflection of lateral gas from the multiple directions. In this paper, the arc deflection length affected by the RMF with lateral gas was elucidated in order to know the effect of the RMF for arc stabilization. Specifically, the arc deflection length affected by the magnetic frequency and the magnetic flux density is measured by high speed video camera. As a result, the arc deflection length decreases with increasing magnetic frequency, and the arc deflection length increases with increasing the magnetic flux density.

  7. Evaluation of disparate laser beam deflection technologies by means of number and rate of resolvable spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Peter; Hohenstein, Ralph; Schmidt, Michael

    2013-08-15

    We introduce a method to objectively evaluate systems of differing beam deflection technologies that commonly are described by disparate technical specifications. Using our new approach based on resolvable spots we will compare commercially available random-access beam deflection technologies, namely galvanometer scanners, piezo scanners, MEMS scanners, acousto-optic deflectors, and electro-optic deflectors.

  8. Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core concrete slab systems. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... For the prediction of the long-term deflection, a measured ratio of long-term ...

  9. A nonlinear mathematical model for large deflection of incompressible saturated poroelastic beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear governing equations are established for large deflection of incompressible fluid saturated poroelastic beams under constraint that diffusion of the pore fluid is only in the axial direction of the deformed beams. Then, the nonlinear bending of a saturated poroelastic cantilever beam with fixed end impermeable and free end permeable, subjected to a suddenly applied constant concentrated transverse load at its free end, is examined with the Galerkin truncation method. The curves of deflections and bending moments of the beam skeleton and the equivalent couples of the pore fluid pressure are shown in figures. The results of the large deflection and the small deflection theories of the cantilever poroelastic beam are compared, and the differences between them are revealed. It is shown that the results of the large deflection theory are less than those of the corresponding small deflection theory, and the times needed to approach its stationary states for the large deflection theory are much less than those of the small deflection theory.

  10. A small-gap electrostatic micro-actuator for large deflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Holger; Schenk, Harald; Kaiser, Bert; Langa, Sergiu; Gaudet, Matthieu; Schimmanz, Klaus; Stolz, Michael; Lenz, Miriam

    2015-12-11

    Common quasi-static electrostatic micro actuators have significant limitations in deflection due to electrode separation and unstable drive regions. State-of-the-art electrostatic actuators achieve maximum deflections of approximately one third of the electrode separation. Large electrode separation and high driving voltages are normally required to achieve large actuator movements. Here we report on an electrostatic actuator class, fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process, which allows high deflections with small electrode separation. The concept presented makes the huge electrostatic forces within nanometre small electrode separation accessible for large deflections. Electrostatic actuations that are larger than the electrode separation were measured. An analytical theory is compared with measurement and simulation results and enables closer understanding of these actuators. The scaling behaviour discussed indicates significant future improvement on actuator deflection. The presented driving concept enables the investigation and development of novel micro systems with a high potential for improved device and system performance.

  11. Design Optimization of Deflection Caused After Release of Multilayer Structural Membrane of Symmetric Toggle Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization in deflection caused by the inbuilt stress generated in mechanical or movable membrane of Symmetric Toggle RF MEMS Switch (STS. The movable membrane of STS was initially fabricated with two different materials, i.e. Chrome and Gold. The simulated deflection at 70 °C was 11.9 µm, and experimental deflection was 11-12 µm. We present a study of inbuilt deflection reduction in multimetal movable layers without change in actuation voltage of the switch. The design study was initially carried out on cantilevers and then on structural membrane of STS. STS with proposed multilayer of Cr-Au-Au-Ti-Au has a simulated deflection of 0.56 µm at 70 °C.

  12. Four-dimensional visualization of a small-scale flame based on deflection tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zhigang; Zhao, Minmin

    2016-11-01

    Optical computed tomography is an important technique in the visualization and diagnosis of various flow fields. A small-scale diffusion flame was visualized using deflection tomography. A projection sampling system was proposed for deflection tomography to obtain deflectograms with a pair of gratings. Wave-front retrieval was employed for processing the deflectograms to obtain the deflection angles of the rays. This two-dimensional data extraction method expanded the application of deflection tomography and was suitable for the projection extraction of small-scale combustion. Deflection angle revision reconstruction algorithm was used to reconstruct the temperature distributions in 10 cross sections for each deflectogram in different instants. The flow structure was reconstructed using a visualization toolkit equipped with the marching cube and ray casting algorithms. The performed experiments demonstrated the three-dimensional dynamic visualization of temperature distributions and the flame structures of small-scale diffusion combustion.

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Deflections of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel under Four-point Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Fajrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of theoretical and experimental deflection of a hybrid sandwich panel under four-point bending load. The paper initially presents few basic equations developed under three-point load, followed by development of model under four-point bending load and a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental results. It was found that the proposed model for predicting the deflection of hybrid sandwich panels provided fair agreement with the experimental values. Most of the sandwich panels showed theoretical deflection values higher than the experimental values, which is desirable in the design. It was also noticed that the introduction of intermediate layer does not contribute much to reduce the deflection of sandwich panel as the main contributor for the total deflection was the shear deformation of the core that mostly determined by the geometric of the samples and the thickness of the core.

  14. Improvements of the undulator spectral performance by compensating the backing beam deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C; Chang, L H; Chang, C H; Fan, T C; Bach, H; Blomqvist, I

    2002-01-01

    This study thoroughly examines how the backing beam deflection affects the undulator spectral performance. Reduction of the undulator spectral intensity owing to backing beam deflection is analytically evaluated based on plane-wave approximation. The results reveal that the amplitude and the slope of the backing beam deflection affect the undulator spectral performance. Provided is a novel figure-of-merit, rms of the regressed accumulated gap deviation, to determine the backing beam deflection budget. An example of a 3.9 m undulator supporting carriage mounted with 50-mm period length undulator magnet (U5) under a maximum magnetic loading of 5 metric tons at a minimum operating gap of 14 mm, is provided. Its mechanical features are first examined via 3D commercial finite element code ANSYS that concludes the backing beam deflection is influenced heavily by the rigidity of the undulator support frames. Examining the corresponding spectral performance shows that significantly diminishing the undulator spectral ...

  15. Numerical Simulation Study on the Surface Deflection of Cylindrical Shallow Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Zhongwen; BAO Jun; LIU Zhongyuan; YANG Yuying; SUN Zhenzhong

    2006-01-01

    The increasing applications of new materials such as high strength low alloy (HSAL) steels and aluminum alloy sheets have lead to greater focus on the surface deflections of auto body panels in the automobile industry in recent years. The finite element models of cylindrical shallow shell that can represent auto body panels are established. Numerical simulations of forming and unloading of cylindrical shallow shell are carried out. And a measurement and evaluation method of the surface deflection is introduced. The simulations of surface deflections with various blank holding forces (BHF) show great agreement with the experimental results. The influence laws of sheet thickness and material properties such as yield strength σs, strain-hardening exponent n, anisotropy parameter r and strength coefficient k on the surface deflection are achieved by simulations, which give a basic reference for controlling surface deflections.

  16. Directed Energy Deflection Laboratory Measurements of Asteroids and Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, T.; Lubin, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary and space defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR [1][5][6] and DE-STARLITE [2][5][6] are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In the DE-STAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds an "asteroid" or a space debris sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 µN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 µN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 µN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 60 µN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed.

  17. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  18. Short term X-ray spectral variability of the quasar PDS 456 observed in a low flux state

    CERN Document Server

    Matzeu, Gabriele A; Nardini, Emanuele; Braito, Valentina; Costa, Michele T; Tombesi, Francesco; Gofford, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the 2013 Suzaku campaign on the nearby luminous quasar PDS 456, covering a total duration of ~1 Ms and a net exposure of 455 ks. During these observations, the X-ray flux was suppressed by a factor of >10 in the soft X-ray band when compared to other epochs. We investigated the broadband continuum by constructing a spectral energy distribution, making use of the optical/UV photometry and hard X-ray spectra from the later XMM-Newton/NuSTAR campaign in 2014. The high energy part of this low flux state cannot be accounted for by self-consistent accretion disc and corona models without attenuation by absorbing gas, which partially covers a substantial fraction of the line of sight towards the X-ray source. Two absorption layers are required, of column density $\\log (N_{\\rm{H,low}}/{\\rm cm^{-2}})=22.3\\pm0.1$ and $\\log (N_{\\rm{H,high}}/{\\rm cm^{-2}})=23.2\\pm0.1$, with average covering factors of ~80% (with typical 5% variations) and 60% ($\\pm$10-15%), respectively. In these observations PD...

  19. Photometric calibration of NGS/POSS and ESO/SRC plates using the NOAO PDS measuring engine. I - Stellar photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Roc M.; Low, Frank J.; Marvel, Kevin B.

    1992-01-01

    The PDS/Monet measuring engine at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory was used to obtain photometry of nearly 10,000 stars on the NGS/POSS and 2000 stars on the ESO/SRC Survey glass plates. These measurements have been used to show that global transformation functions exist that allow calibration of stellar photometry from any blue or red plate to equivalent Johnson B and Cousins R photoelectric magnitudes. The four transformation functions appropriate for the POSS O and E and ESO/SRC J and R plates were characterized, and it was found that, within the measurement uncertainties, they vary from plate to plate only by photometric zero-point offsets. A method is described to correct for the zero-point shifts and to obtain calibrated B and R photometry of stellar sources to an average accuracy of 0.3-0.4 mag within the range R between values of 8 and 19.5 for red plates in both surveys, B between values of 9 and 20.5 on POSS blue plates, and B between values of 10 and 20.5 on ESO/SRC blue plates. This calibration procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid photometry of very large numbers of stellar sources.

  20. Non-thermal hard X-ray emission in galaxy clusters observed with the BeppoSAX PDS

    CERN Document Server

    Nevalainen, J; Bonamente, M; Colafrancesco, S

    2004-01-01

    We study the X-ray emission in a sample of galaxy clusters using the BeppoSAX PDS instrument in the 20 -- 80 keV energy band. The non-thermal hard X-ray cluster emission (HXR) is detected at a 2 sigma level in 50% of the non-significantly AGN-contaminated clusters: A2142, A2199, A2256, A3376, Coma, Ophiuchus and Virgo. The data are consistent with a scenario whereby relaxed clusters have no hard X-ray component of non-thermal origin, whereas merger clusters do, with a 20-80 keV luminosity of 10^(43-44) erg/s. The co-added spectrum of the above clusters indicates a power-law spectrum for the HXR with a photon index of 2.8+0.3-0.4 in the 12-115 keV band, and we find indication that it has extended distribution. These indications argue against significant contamination from obscured AGN, which have harder spectra and centrally concentrated distribution. These results are supportive of the assumption of the merger shock acceleration of electrons in clusters. Assuming that the Cosmic Microwave Background photons e...

  1. The origin of ultra-fast outflows in AGN: Monte-Carlo simulations of the wind in PDS 456

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, Kouichi; Done, Chris; Gandhi, Poshak; Watanabe, Shin; Sako, Masao; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) are seen in many AGN, giving a possible mode for AGN feedback onto the host galaxy. However, the mechanism(s) for the launch and acceleration of these outflows are currently unknown, with UV line driving apparently strongly disfavoured as the material along the line of sight is so highly ionised that it has no UV transitions. We revisit this issue using the Suzaku X-ray data from PDS 456, an AGN with the most powerful UFO seen in the local Universe. We explore conditions in the wind by developing a new 3-D Monte-Carlo code for radiation transport. The code only handles highly ionised ions, but the data show the ionisation state of the wind is high enough that this is appropriate, and this restriction makes it fast enough to explore parameter space. We reproduce the results of earlier work, confirming that the mass loss rate in the wind is around 30% of the inferred inflow rate through the outer disc. We show for the first time that UV line driving is likely to be a major contributio...

  2. Cloning and Characterization of the Phytoene Desaturase(pds) Gene-a Key Enzyme for Carotenoids Synthesis in Dunaliella (Chlorophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guohua; SUI Zhenghong; ZHANG Xuecheng

    2008-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella is outstanding for its ability of massive accumulation of carotenoids. To elucidate the carotenoids synthesis pathway in this alga, phytoene desaturase (pals) gene cDNA together with its DNA sequences were isolated and their structures and functions analyzed. The full-length pds cDNA of 2290 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ243892) was de- duced from RACE results, including untranslated 21 bp 5'- and 520 bp 3'- flanking regions and an open reading frame of 582 amino acids, coding a protein of 64.196 kDa. The DNA sequence of 2908 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ845248) including five introns was obtained. The fifth intron was uncompleted and complex, including two bases' perfect repeats (GT)10 and large different-sized repeats within the last 400 bp. The Southern blot hybridization result demonstrated that this gene occurred as a single copy in this species, and the quantitative RT-PCR result showed that the transcription of this gene was constitutive. The evolutional significance ofpds was discussed.

  3. Comet deflection by directed energy: a finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajian, Jonathan; Griswold, Janelle; Gandra, Anush; Hughes, Gary B.; Zhang, Qicheng; Rupert, Nic; Lubin, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Comets and Asteroids are viable threats to our planet; if these space rocks are smaller than 25 meters, they burn up in the atmosphere, but if they are wider than 25 meters they can cause damage to the impact area. Anything more than one to two kilometers can have worldwide effects, furthermore a mile-wide asteroid travelling at 30,000 miles per hour has the energy equal to a megaton bomb and is very likely to wipe out most of the life on Earth. Residents near Chelyabinsk, Russia experienced the detrimental effects of a collision with a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) on 15 February 2013 as a 20 m object penetrated the atmosphere above that city. The effective yield from this object was approximately 1/2 Megaton TNT equivalent (Mt), or that of a large strategic warhead. The 1908 Tunguska event, also over Russia, is estimated to have had a yield of approximately 15 Mt and had the potential to kill millions of people had it come down over a large city1. In the face of such danger a planetary defense system is necessary and this paper proposes a design for such a system. DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) is a phased array laser system that can be used to oblate, deflect and de-spin asteroids and comets.

  4. String formulation of space charge forces in a deflecting bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The force between two moving point charges, because of its inverse square law singularity, cannot be applied directly in the numerical simulation of bunch dynamics; radiative effects make this especially true for short bunches being deflected by magnets. This paper describes a formalism circumventing this restriction in which the basic ingredient is the total force on a point charge comoving with a longitudinally aligned, uniformly charged string. Bunch evolution can then be treated using direct particle-to-particle, intrabeam scattering, with no need for an intermediate, particle-in-cell, step. Electric and magnetic fields do not appear individually in the theory. Since the basic formulas are both exact (in paraxial approximation) and fully relativistic, they are applicable to beams of all particle types and all energies. But the theory is expected to be especially useful for calculating the emittance growth of the ultrashort electron bunches of current interest for energy recovery linacs and free-electron lasers. The theory subsumes coherent synchrotron radiation and centrifugal space charge force. Renormalized, on-axis, longitudinal field components are in excellent agreement with values from Saldin et al. [DESY Report No. DESY-TESLA-FEL-96-14, 1995; Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. ANIMAER0168-9002 417, 158 (1998).10.1016/S0168-9002(98)00623-8

  5. String formulation of space charge forces in a deflecting bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Talman

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The force between two moving point charges, because of its inverse square law singularity, cannot be applied directly in the numerical simulation of bunch dynamics; radiative effects make this especially true for short bunches being deflected by magnets. This paper describes a formalism circumventing this restriction in which the basic ingredient is the total force on a point charge comoving with a longitudinally aligned, uniformly charged string. Bunch evolution can then be treated using direct particle-to-particle, intrabeam scattering, with no need for an intermediate, particle-in-cell, step. Electric and magnetic fields do not appear individually in the theory. Since the basic formulas are both exact (in paraxial approximation and fully relativistic, they are applicable to beams of all particle types and all energies. But the theory is expected to be especially useful for calculating the emittance growth of the ultrashort electron bunches of current interest for energy recovery linacs and free-electron lasers. The theory subsumes coherent synchrotron radiation and centrifugal space charge force. Renormalized, on-axis, longitudinal field components are in excellent agreement with values from Saldin et al. [DESY Report No. DESY-TESLA-FEL-96-14, 1995; Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 417, 158 (1998.NIMAER0168-900210.1016/S0168-9002(9800623-8

  6. A simple damage detection indicator using operational deflection shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, R. P. C.; Maia, N. M. M.; Almeida, R. A. B.; Urgueira, A. P. V.

    2016-05-01

    Catastrophic structural failure of aircrafts, bridges, buildings and other structures in modern societies has always been of primary concern because of the loss of human lifes and of negative economic impact. The aging of the structures, the growing dependency on their role in our networks of transportation, energy and comunications, the smaller construction tolerances, the bigger power demanded and the media and society awardness to catastrophic events are sufficient motivations for the growing field of structural health monitoring, which aims at assessing the actual condition of a structure and to identify incipient damage. Damage identification can be considered as a two step process, the detection and the diagnosis. The former, and fundamental step, is the confirmation of an efective damage existence. When the response is affirmative, the latter step begins with the diagnosis, and then the questions are: where?, how much?, what type?, when will it fail? In this paper the authors propose a simple method to detect and relatively quantify structural damage by using measured vibrations data, specifically the operational deflections shapes. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are presented to validate the proposed method.

  7. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  8. GPS deflection monitoring of the West Gate Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziq, Noor; Collier, Philip

    2007-05-01

    The achievable precision and relatively high sampling rates of currently available GPS receivers are well suited for monitoring the movements of long-span engineering structures where the amplitude of movements is often more than a few centimetres and the frequency of vibrations is low (below 10 Hz). However, engineering structures often offer non-ideal environments for GPS data collection due to high multipath interference and obstructions causing cycle slips in the GPS observations. Also, for many engineering structures such as bridge decks, vertical movements are more pronounced and more structurally critical than horizontal movements. Accuracy of GPS determined positions in the vertical direction is typically two to three times poorer than in the horizontal component. This paper describes the results of a GPS deflection monitoring trial on the West Gate Bridge in Melbourne, Australia. The results are compared to the estimated frequencies and movements from the design of the bridge and previous accelerometer campaigns. The frequency information derived from the GPS results is also compared to frequency data extracted from an accelerometer installed close to a GPS receiver. GPS results agree closely to the historical results and recent accelerometer trials for key modal frequencies. This indicates the suitability of GPS receivers to monitor engineering structures that exhibit smaller movements due to their stiffness and in environments not ideally suited to using GPS.

  9. Three-dimensional parabolic equation modeling of mesoscale eddy deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L

    2016-02-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanography, including ocean fronts and eddies, on global scale low-frequency acoustics is examined using a fully three-dimensional parabolic equation model. The narrowband acoustic signal, for frequencies from 2 to 16 Hz, is simulated from a seismic event on the Kerguellen Plateau in the South Indian Ocean to an array of receivers south of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, a distance of 9100 km. The path was chosen for its relevance to seismic detections from the HA10 Ascension Island station of the International Monitoring System, for its lack of bathymetric interaction, and for the dynamic oceanography encountered as the sound passes the Cape of Good Hope. The acoustic field was propagated through two years (1992 and 1993) of the eddy-permitting ocean state estimation ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) system. The range of deflection of the back-azimuth was 1.8° with a root-mean-square of 0.34°. The refraction due to mesoscale oceanography could therefore have significant impacts upon localization of distant low-frequency sources, such as seismic or nuclear test events.

  10. Comparing deflection measurements of a magnetically steerable catheter using optical imaging and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillaney, Prasheel, E-mail: Prasheel.Lillaney@ucsf.edu; Caton, Curtis; Martin, Alastair J.; Losey, Aaron D.; Evans, Leland; Saeed, Maythem; Cooke, Daniel L.; Wilson, Mark W.; Hetts, Steven W. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging modality for interventional radiology, giving clinicians another tool for minimally invasive image-guided interventional procedures. Difficulties associated with endovascular catheter navigation using MRI guidance led to the development of a magnetically steerable catheter. The focus of this study was to mechanically characterize deflections of two different prototypes of the magnetically steerable catheterin vitro to better understand their efficacy. Methods: A mathematical model for deflection of the magnetically steerable catheter is formulated based on the principle that at equilibrium the mechanical and magnetic torques are equal to each other. Furthermore, two different image based methods for empirically measuring the catheter deflection angle are presented. The first, referred to as the absolute tip method, measures the angle of the line that is tangential to the catheter tip. The second, referred to the base to tip method, is an approximation that is used when it is not possible to measure the angle of the tangent line. Optical images of the catheter deflection are analyzed using the absolute tip method to quantitatively validate the predicted deflections from the mathematical model. Optical images of the catheter deflection are also analyzed using the base to tip method to quantitatively determine the differences between the absolute tip and base to tip methods. Finally, the optical images are compared to MR images using the base to tip method to determine the accuracy of measuring the catheter deflection using MR. Results: The optical catheter deflection angles measured for both catheter prototypes using the absolute tip method fit very well to the mathematical model (R{sup 2} = 0.91 and 0.86 for each prototype, respectively). It was found that the angles measured using the base to tip method were consistently smaller than those measured using the absolute tip method. The deflection angles measured

  11. Kinetics and modeling of sulfonamide antibiotic degradation in wastewater and human urine by UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruochun; Yang, Yongkui; Huang, Ching-Hua; Zhao, Lin; Sun, Peizhe

    2016-10-15

    Sulfonamide antibiotics have been frequently detected in the aquatic environment and are of emerging concern due to their adverse bio-effect and potential of inducing antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the degradation kinetics of sulfonamide antibiotics in synthetic wastewater and hydrolyzed human urine by low pressure (LP) UV, UV/H2O2 and UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS). Direct photolysis rates of sulfonamide antibiotics varied and depended on the structures. Sulfonamides with a five-membered heterocyclic group underwent faster direct photolysis. For indirect photolysis processes, second-order rate constants of sulfonamide antibiotics with hydroxyl radical, sulfate radical and carbonate radical were determined, which were (6.21-9.26) × 10(9), (0.77-16.1) × 10(10) and (1.25-8.71) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. A dynamic model was applied and successfully predicted the degradation kinetics of sulfonamides in different water matrices. In synthetic wastewater, carbonate radical contributed to approximately 10% of the overall removal, whereas in synthetic hydrolyzed urine, carbonate radical was the dominant reactive species to degrade sulfonamides. Sulfonamide antibiotics were eliminated more efficiently in synthetic hydrolyzed urine than in synthetic wastewater and UV/PDS was more efficient than UV/H2O2 to degrade most sulfonamides. Energy evaluation showed that UV/PDS costs less energy than LPUV and UV/H2O2 under the experimental conditions applied in this study, particularly for sulfonamides whose indirect photolysis overweighed direct photolysis. By varying UV dose and oxidant dose, the UV/H2O2 process can be optimized to achieve higher efficiency than the UV/PDS process in synthetic wastewater.

  12. Mutations in CG8878, a Novel Putative Protein Kinase, Enhance P Element Dependent Silencing (PDS) and Position Effect Variegation (PEV) in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Allen; Locke, John

    2014-01-01

    Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV) in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV) using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white+ transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w+ silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS) can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var)205 and Su(var)3–7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1) that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white+ in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1), phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV) at wm4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two. PMID:24614804

  13. Mutations in CG8878, a novel putative protein kinase, enhance P element dependent silencing (PDS and position effect variegation (PEV in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen McCracken

    Full Text Available Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white+ transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w+ silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var205 and Su(var3-7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1 that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white+ in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1, phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV at w(m4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two.

  14. The NASA Tournament Laboratory (“NTL”): Improving Data Access at PDS while Spreading Joy and Engaging Students through 16 Micro-Contests

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMora, Andy; Raugh, A.; Erickson, K.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W.; Lydon, M.; Lakhani, K.; Crusan, J.; Morgan, T. H.

    2012-10-01

    NASA PDS hosts terabytes of valuable data from hundreds of data sources and spans decades of research. Data is stored on flat-file systems regulated through careful meta dictionaries. PDS’s data is available to the public through its website which supports data searches through drill-down navigation. While the system returns data quickly, result sets in response to identical input differ depending on the drill-down path a user follows. To correct this issue, to allow custom searching, and to improve general accessibility, PDS sought to create a new data structure and API, and to use them to build applications that are a joy to use and showcase the value of the data to students, teachers and citizens. PDS engaged TopCoder and Harvard Business School through the NTL to pursue these objectives in a pilot effort. Scope was limited to Small Bodies Node data. NTL analyzed data, proposed a solution, and implemented it through a series of micro-contests. Contest focused on different segments of the problem; conceptualization, architectural design, implementation, testing, etc. To demonstrate the utility of the completed solution, NTL developed web-based and mobile applications that can compare targets, regardless of mission. To further explore the potential of the solution NTL hosted “Mash-up” challenges that integrated the API with other publically available assets, to produce consumer and teaching applications, including an Augmented Reality iPad tool. Two contests were also posted to middle and high school students via the NoNameSite.com platform, and as a result of these contests, PDS/SBN has initiated a Facebook program. These contests defined and implemented a data warehouse with the necessary migration tools to transform legacy data, produced a public web interface for the new search, developed a public API, and produced four mobile applications that we expect to appeal to users both within and without the academic community.

  15. The Heliocentric Distance Where the Deflections and Rotations of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections Occur

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the trajectory of a coronal mass ejection (CME), including any deflection from a radial path, and the orientation of its magnetic field is essential for space weather predictions. Kay et al. (2015b) developed a model, Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), of CME deflections and rotation due to magnetic forces, not including the effects of reconnection. ForeCAT is able to reproduce the deflection of observed CMEs (Kay et al. 2015a). The deflecting CMEs tend to show a rapid increase of their angular momentum close to the Sun, followed by little to no increase at farther distances. Here we quantify the distance at which the CME deflection is "determined," which we define as the distance after which the background solar wind has negligible influence on the total deflection. We consider a wide range in CME masses and radial speeds and determine that the deflection and rotation of these CMEs can be well-described by assuming they propagate with constant angular momentum beyond 10 Rs. The a...

  16. Deflection determination of concrete structures considering nonlinearity based on long-gauge strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wan; Lv, Kui; Li, Bing; Jiang, Yuchen; Hu, Xiamin; Qu, Qizhong

    2017-10-01

    Deflection determination of concrete structures using distributed long-gauge strain sensors is investigated in this paper. Firstly, the relationship between deflection and distributed long-gauge strain of concrete beams is presented, and the method is independent of external load and takes account of structural nonlinearity. The deflection distribution along the span of a beam-like structure can be predicted from strain response for the whole process of loading (elastic stage, concrete cracking stage and steel yielding stage). Secondly, experiment of a reinforced concrete beam has been conducted to verify the accuracy of the method. Experimental results show that the relative error between the estimated and actual deflection can be controlled within about 5% while the error can reach up to about 70% if structural nonlinearity is not considered. Finally, the influence of error of material parameters and sensor gauge length on deflection estimation has been analyzed. The error of concrete compression strength has a limited influence on deflection prediction while the contribution of tensile concrete should be considered before concrete cracking. The error of area of tensile bars will affect the deflection accuracy after concrete cracking.

  17. Influence of deflection hole angle on effusion cooling in a real combustion chamber condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-solid coupling simulation is conducted to investigate the performance of effusion cooling in the real combustion chamber condition of strong rotation and primary holes. The wall temperature and film cooling effectiveness of different deflection angle is analyzed. From the results, it is concluded that the performance of effusion is better than conventional film cooling. The wall temperature and gradient is lower, the cooling efficiency is higher and the coolant is reduced by 20%, but pressure loss is slightly increased. The cooling effectiveness decreases behind primary holes because of local combustion. Comparison with the effect of deflection angle, the cooling performance of 60 deg deflection angle is best. The coolant is better attached to the wall downstream when the deflection angle is same as the rotating mainstream. In addition, the effect of deflection angle is not so significant on the coolant flow rate, but a large negative impact on the pressure loss. Although the cooling effectiveness of 60 deg deflection angle is highest, the total pressure recovery coefficient is lower. The maximum temperature drops about 70K and the outlet temperature distribution trends more consistent. So various factors should be taken into consideration when designing of deflection angle.

  18. Implementation of Input Block of Minimally Buffered Deflection NoC Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti M. Shahane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional system on chip designs employ the shared bus architecture for data transfer in highly integrated Multiprocessor system on chips(MPSoC.Network on chip (NoCis a new paradigm for on chip communication for Multiprocessor systems on chips(MPSoCs. NoCs replace the traditional shared buses system with routing switches. Heart of the NoC is the router and it consists of an input buffer, arbiter, crossbar and an output port. The NoC router uses a buffer to store the incoming packets. These buffers improve the performance but they consume more power and area. Bufferless deflection routing is the solution for improvement in energy efficiency. In this method deflections of the packets take place to overcome the contention problem. But at high network load, deflection routing degrades the performance because of unnecessary hopping of data packets. The MinBD (minimally buffered deflection router is a new router design that uses a small buffer for bufferless deflection routing. In this paper the input block of MinBD router is implemented on FPGA which shows that a small buffer will help to reduce the network deflection rate. It also improves the performance and energy efficiency while buffering only deflected data packets.

  19. New results from the CERN-SPS beam deflection experiments with bent crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Worm, T.; Uggerhøj, E.; Mikkelsen, U.; Graftström, P.; Gatignon, L.; Elsener, K.; Doble, N.; Biino, C.; Freund, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Clément, M.

    1996-10-01

    Results from five distinct bending experiments performed recently in the H8 beam at CERN are presented. Firstly, deflection of a positive pion beam at 200 GeV/c is compared to the "standard" 450-GeV/c proton beam for a bending angle of 3.1 mrad along the (111) plane in a 50 mm silicon crystal. Second, deflection of negative pions at 200 GeV/c is investigated for the same crystal, for incidence along the (111) plane as well as the axis. Small deflection effects are seen, but no negative particles are bent through the full bending angle of the crystal. Third, the first results from beam deflection at high energy using a germanium crystal are shown. Slightly higher deflection efficiencies than for silicon are seen for large bending angles, but significantly smaller than expected for such a crystal with higher atomic number. Fourth, deflection efficiencies using a strongly irradiated silicon crystal have been measured for the first time, and a small reduction in efficiency is seen in the irradiated region. Finally, deflection of positive particles using axial alignment of a bent silicon crystal has been investigated at 450 GeV/c. Qualitatively similar behaviour as in previous experiments at 12 GeV/c is seen; the beam splits into several beams corresponding to the different planes, and even weak planes are observed.

  20. Real-Time Deflection Monitoring for Milling of a Thin-Walled Workpiece by Using PVDF Thin-Film Sensors with a Cantilevered Beam as a Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Ming; Liu, Dongsheng; Luo, Huan

    2016-01-01

    .... To understand the workpiece deflection behavior in a machining process, a new real-time nonintrusive method for deflection monitoring is presented, and a detailed analysis of workpiece deflection...

  1. 伴内耳畸形的人工耳蜗植入患者SLC26A4(PDS)基因突变分析%Screening of SLC26A4(PDS) gene mutation in cochlear implant recipients with inner ear malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东野; 陈晓巍; 金昕; 左瑾; 魏朝刚; 曹克利; 方福德

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨伴内耳畸形的人工耳蜗植入患者SLC26A4(PDS)基因突变发生的概率、突变类型,以及SLC26A4(PDS)基因突变与各种内耳畸形及术中听神经电诱发复合动作电位(ECAP)检出率之间的关系.方法 选取48例伴有内耳畸形的人工耳蜗植入者及50例健康对照.取外周血提取基因组DNA,经聚合酶链反应扩增SLC26A4(PDS)基因全部编码区,包括2~21号外显子,扩增产物纯化后直接测序分析突变.48例患者在人工耳蜗植入术中通过神经反应遥测(NRT)技术,直接近场记录听神经电诱发复合动作电位(ECAP).结果 前庭水管扩大组中70.3%(26/37)、其他内耳畸形组中18.2%(2/11)的患者发现有SLC26A4(PDS)基因突变.本研究中共发现15种突变类型,其中有8种为新发现的类型.IVS7-2A》G是最常见的SLC26A4(PDS)基因突变类型,45.9%(17/37)的前庭水管扩大患者发现此种突变.在伴内耳畸形的人工耳蜗植入者患者中,未发现SLC26A4(PDS)基因突变与术中听神经电诱发复合动作电位(ECAP)检出率之间有相关性.结论 SLC26A4(PDS)基因突变是前庭水管扩大畸形的主要病因,IVS7-2A》G是其最常见的突变类型.

  2. Light deflection with torsion effects caused by a spinning cosmic string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusufi, Kimet [State University of Tetovo, Physics Department, Tetovo (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculation shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion. (orig.)

  3. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  4. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Rathod; P K Singh; Vasant Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45° with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope 174Yb and the fermionic isotope 171Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  5. Analysis of rolls deflection of Sendzimir mill by 3D FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; LEE Gyoo Taek

    2007-01-01

    The deflection of rolls of Sendzimir mill with double AS-U-Roll was simulated by finite element method(FEM). The influences of rolling pressure, strip width and rolls-assignment on rolls deflection were analyzed. The results show that the work roll deflection increases with the increase of rolling pressure and the reduction of work roll radius, but the rigid displacement of work roll slightly changes; the work roll end might appear negative displacement for the narrow strip width and high rolling pressure that might cause the contact of work rolls. The research results are significant for guiding production and theoretical analysis of the rolls system of Sendzimir mill.

  6. Self-Deflection of Dark Screening Spatial Solitons Based on Higher-Order Space Charge Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-Yong; LIU Jin-Song; LIU Shi-Xiong; WANG Cheng; ZHANG Hui-Lan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of higher-order space charge field on the self-deflection of dark screening spatial solitons in biased photorefractive crystals are numerically investigated under steady-state conditions. The expression for an induced space-charge electric field including higher-order space-charge field terms is obtained. Numerical results indicate that dark solitons possess a self-deflection process during propagation, and the solitons always bend in the direction of the c axis of the crystal The self-deflection of dark solitons can experience considerable increase especially in the regime of high bias field strengths.

  7. Mode-locked Lasers Applied to Deflecting a Near Earth Object on Collision Course with Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Fork, Richard; Burgess, Luke; Bergstue, Grant

    2013-01-01

    We consider synchronized trains of sub-picosecond pulses generated by mode-locked lasers applied to deflection of near Earth objects (NEO) on collision course with Earth. Our method is designed to avoid a predicted collision of the NEO with Earth by at least the diameter of Earth. We estimate deflecting a 10,000 MT NEO, such as the asteroid which struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia to be feasible within several months using average power in the ten kilowatt range. We see this deflection method as scalable to larger NEO to a degree not possible using continuous laser systems.

  8. Photonic-based laser driven electron beam deflection and focusing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Plettner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a dielectric photonic structure for ultrafast deflection and focusing of relativistic charged particle beams. The structure is designed to transform a free-space laser beam into a deflection force that acts on the free particles with the same optical phase over a distance of travel that is much greater than the laser wavelength. The proposed structure has a two-dimensional geometry and is compatible with existing nanofabrication methods. Deflection fields of GV/m magnitude and subfemtosecond switching speeds are expected to be possible from these dielectric structures. With these elements a submeter scale extreme ultraviolet synchrotron source seems feasible.

  9. Light deflection with torsion effects caused by a spinning cosmic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-06-01

    Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculation shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion.

  10. Multipole Field Effects for the Superconducting Parallel-Bar Deflecting/Crabbing Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Delayen, Jean Roger [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar deflecting/crabbing cavity is currently being considered as one of the design options in rf separation for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade and for the crabbing cavity for the proposed LHC luminosity upgrade. Knowledge of multipole field effects is important for accurate beam dynamics study of rf structures. The multipole components can be accurately determined numerically using the electromagnetic surface field data in the rf structure. This paper discusses the detailed analysis of those components for the fundamental deflecting/crabbing mode and higher order modes in the parallel-bar deflecting/crabbing cavity.

  11. Light Deflection with Torsion Effects Caused by a Spinning Cosmic String

    CERN Document Server

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-01-01

    Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculations shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion.

  12. The importance of being elastic: deflection of a badminton racket during a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Maxine; Rasmussen, John

    2010-03-01

    The deflection profiles of a badminton racket during strokes performed by elite and world-class badminton players were recorded by strain gauges and subsequently analysed to determine the role of shaft stiffness in racket performance. Deflection behaviour was consistent in all strokes across all players, suggesting a controlled use of racket elasticity. In addition, all impacts occurred within 100 ms of each other, a duration in which deflection velocity provides an increase in racket velocity, indicating that the players were able to use racket elasticity to their advantage. Since deflection behaviour is a product of the racket-player interaction, further work is required to determine the effects of different racket properties and player techniques on the elastic response of rackets during strokes.

  13. Deflection of light ray due to a charged body using Material Medium Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Saswati

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational deflection of light ray is an important prediction of General Theory of Relativity. In this paper we develop analytical expression of the deflection of light ray without any weak field approximation due to a charged gravitational body represented by Reissner_Nordstr\\"om (RN) and Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) space time geometry, using material medium approach. It is concluded that although both the geometries represent the charged, non-rotating, spherically symmetric gravitating body, but the effect of charge on the gravitational deflection is just opposite to each other. The gravitational deflection decreases with charge in the RN geometry and increases with charge in the JNW geometry. The calculations obtained here are compared with other methods done by different authors. The formalism is applied to an arbitrary selected pulsar PSRB1937+21 as a gravitating body, as a test case.

  14. Analysis of Deflection Problems of Large-span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-span continuous rigid frame bridge is a kind of common structural form in long-span bridges of our country, but one of the main diseases of these bridges is the excessive deflection in the mid-span, which seriously affects the safety of the structure. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis for the causes of the excessive deflection, and lists the commonly-used control measures in engineering. Simultaneously, new improvement measures and the comparative analysis of before-and-after improvements are put forward on this basis. However, these measures can be used to inhibit deflection in a certain extent, but cannot avoid the occurrence of deflection completely.

  15. Evaluation of Accuracy and Precision of Several Highway Speed Deflection Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, Gonzalo R; Visintine, Beth A.; Rocha,Sergio; Velarde, Jorge; Gallardo, Paola; Nazarian, Soheil; Siddharthan, Rajaratnam V.; Nasimifar, Seyyed

    2014-01-01

    Structural Session 2: Evaluation of Deflection Devices Moderated by Doug Chalman This presentation was held at the Pavement Evaluation 2014 Conference, which took place from September 15-18, 2014 in Blacksburg, Virginia. Presentation only

  16. Design and Development of Superconducting Parallel-Bar Deflecting/Crabbing Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payagalage Subashini Uddi De Silva, Jean Delayen

    2012-07-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar cavity is a deflecting/crabbing cavity with attractive properties that is being considered for a number of applications. We present the designs of a 499 MHz deflecting cavity developed for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade and a 400 MHz crabbing cavity for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. Prototypes of these two cavities are now under development and fabrication.

  17. Encoding whisker deflection velocity within the rodent barrel cortex using phase-delayed inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runjing; Patel, Mainak; Joshi, Badal

    2014-12-01

    The primary sensory feature represented within the rodent barrel cortex is the velocity with which a whisker has been deflected. Whisker deflection velocity is encoded within the thalamus via population synchrony (higher deflection velocities entail greater synchrony among the corresponding thalamic population). Thalamic (TC) cells project to regular spiking (RS) cells within the barrel cortex, as well as to inhibitory cortical fast-spiking (FS) neurons, which in turn project to RS cells. Thus, TC spikes result in EPSPs followed, with a small time lag, by IPSPs within an RS cell, and hence the RS cell decodes TC population synchrony by employing a phase-delayed inhibition synchrony detection scheme. As whisker deflection velocity is increased, the probability that an RS cell spikes rises, while jitter in the timing of RS cell spikes remains constant. Furthermore, repeated whisker deflections with fixed velocity lead to system adaptation--TC →RS, TC →FS, and FS →RS synapses all weaken substantially, leading to a smaller probability of spiking of the RS cell and increased jitter in the timing of RS cell spikes. Interestingly, RS cell activity is better able to distinguish among different whisker deflection velocities after adaptation. In this work, we construct a biophysical model of a basic 'building block' of barrel cortex - the feedforward circuit consisting of TC cells, FS cells, and a single RS cell - and we examine the ability of the purely feedforward circuit to explain the experimental data on RS cell spiking probability, jitter, adaptation, and deflection velocity discrimination. Moreover, we study the contribution of the phase-delayed inhibition network structure to the ability of an RS cell to decode whisker deflection velocity encoded via TC population synchrony.

  18. Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)

  19. Influence of tool deflection on micro channel pattern of 6:4 brass with rectangular tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Kang-Won LEE; Sang-Cheon PARK; Jae-Gu KIM; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyoung-Taik PARK; Kyung-Hyun WHANG

    2009-01-01

    Machining experiment of micro channel structure with 6:4 brass was carried out by shaping process using a single crystal diamond tool. FEM simulation using solid cantilever beam model was analyzed. In result of experiment, tool deflection is observed as machining characteristics through result of experiments such as surface roughness, cutting force and burr formations. And the influence of tool deflection is experimentally proved.

  20. Prediction of Extrusion Pressure And Product Deflection Of Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. GUNDU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available - In this paper artificial neural network was used as a modeling tool for simulation and prediction of extrusion pressure and product deflection of extrudes of lead alloys. An extensive experimental program was undertaken to extrude a lead (Pb alloy on ELE Compact-1500 compression machine. The neural model of extrusion pressure and product deflection was developed based on groups of experiments carried out as samples, Eight (8 die bearing parameters (die bearing length, radius of curvature, slip angle, die angle, die ratio ram displacement, pocket depth and die diameter were used as inputs into the network architecture of 8 [4-3]2 2 in predicting the extrusion pressure and product deflection. After series of network architectures were trained using different training algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt, Bayesian Regulation, Resilient Backpropagation using MATLAB 7.9.0 (R20096, the LM8 [4-3]2 2 was selected as the most appropriate model. Prediction of the neural model exhibited reasonable correlation with the experimental extrusion pressure and product deflection. The predicted extrusion pressure and product deflection gave reasonable errors and higher correlation coefficients indicating that the model is robust for predicting extrusion pressure and product deflection.

  1. Large deflection and rotation of Timoshenko beams with frictional end supports under three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Kui; Li, Xian-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Three-point bending of a beam is studied based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Large deflection and large rotation of a beam resting on simple supports with friction are calculated for a concentrated force acting at the midspan. Using the Lagrangian kinematic relations, a system of non-linear differential equations are obtained for a prismatic shear-deformable Timoshenko beam. Exact solutions for the deflection, horizontal displacement, and rotation of cross-section are derived analytically. Two deflections of small and large scale exist under three-point bending. The solutions corresponding to linearized model coincide with the well-known solutions to the classical Timoshenko beams. Numerical calculations are carried out to show the effect of the important parameters such as shear rigidity of the beam and the coefficient of friction at the contact position between the beam and supports on the deflection. The load-deflection curves are graphically presented. A comparison of large deflections and large rotations with their classical counterparts and with experimental data is made. The obtained results are useful in safety design of linear and non-linear beams subject to three-point bending.

  2. Using ForeCAT Deflections and Rotations to Constrain the Early Evolution of CMEs

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, C; Colaninno, R C; Vourlidas, A

    2016-01-01

    To accurately predict the space weather effects of coronal mass ejection (CME) impacts at Earth one must know if and when a CME will impact Earth, and the CME parameters upon impact. Kay et al. (2015b) presents Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), a model for CME deflections based on the magnetic forces from the background solar magnetic field. Knowing the deflection and rotation of a CME enables prediction of Earth impacts, and the CME orientation upon impact. We first reconstruct the positions of the 2008 April 10 and the 2012 July 12 CMEs from the observations. The first of these CMEs exhibits significant deflection and rotation (34 degrees deflection and 58 degrees rotation), while the second shows almost no deflection or rotation (<3 degrees each). Using ForeCAT, we explore a range of initial parameters, such as the CME location and size, and find parameters that can successfully reproduce the behavior for each CME. Additionally, since the deflection depends strongly on the behavior of a ...

  3. A novel deflection shape function for rectangular capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer diaphragms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A highly accurate analytical deflection shape function that describes the deflection profiles of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs with rectangular membranes under electrostatic pressure has been formulated. The rectangular diaphragms have a thickness range of 0.6–1.5 μm and a side length range of 100–1000 μm. The new deflection shape function generates deflection profiles that are in excellent agreement with finite element analysis (FEA results for a wide range of geometry dimensions and loading conditions. The deflection shape function is used to analyze membrane deformations and to calculate the capacitances between the deformed membranes and the fixed back plates. In 50 groups of random tests, compared with FEA results, the calculated capacitance values have a maximum deviation of 1.486% for rectangular membranes. The new analytical deflection function can provide designers with a simple way of gaining insight into the effects of designed parameters for CMUTs and other MEMS-based capacitive type sensors.

  4. Evaluation of cuspal deflection in premolar teeth restored with low shrinkable resin composite (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Labib Mohamed; Nabih, Sameh Mahmoud; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated cuspal deflection in premolar teeth restored with low shrinkable resin composite. A total of 40 human premolars were used for cuspal deflection evaluation in this study. Each group was divided into four equal groups according to the type of resin composite and the adhesive used as follows: group A: Using low shrinkable resin composite (silorane) with its adhesive system; group B: Using low shrinkable composite (silorane) with G-bond; group C: Using Filtek Z350 composite with G-bond; and group D: Using Filtek Z350 composite with AdheSE. Cusp deflection was detected using Universal measuring microscope and laser horizontal metroscope. This study was done to investigate the effect of polymerization shrinkage stresses of two resin composite materials (Filtek Z350 and Filtek P90) on cuspal deflection of mesio-occluso-distal restoration. For this study, the extracted non-carious maxillary second premolars were selected. Forty teeth that showed no more than 5% variation in their dimensions were used. A significant increase in cuspal deflection of cavities restored with the methacrylate-based (Filtek Z350) compared with the silorane (P90) resin-based composites was obtained. The change in the organic matrix or materials formulation of the resin composite using silorane has a positive effect on controlling the cusp deflection.

  5. Investigation of UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing with a Tip Antenna inside a Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej;

    2016-01-01

    An UWB blade deflection sensing system with a tip antenna inside a blade is investigated in this paper. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is utilized. This system composes of two UWB radio links between one antenna inside the blade tip and two antennas outside the blade root. Blade deflections ar......, and the sensing system can realize the deflection tracking with a maximum deviation of 0.21 m and root mean squared error of 0.11 m.......An UWB blade deflection sensing system with a tip antenna inside a blade is investigated in this paper. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is utilized. This system composes of two UWB radio links between one antenna inside the blade tip and two antennas outside the blade root. Blade deflections......-blade time-domain measurements are proposed to verify the simulations and realize the blade deflection sensing with an in-blade tip antenna. With the optimized in-blade tip antenna polarization and two root antenna locations, an accuracy of 2 cm is achieved for the tip-root antenna distance estimation...

  6. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  7. Experimental Estimating Deflection of a Simple Beam Bridge Model Using Grating Eddy Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel three-point method using a grating eddy current absolute position sensor (GECS for bridge deflection estimation is proposed in this paper. Real spatial positions of the measuring points along the span axis are directly used as relative reference points of each other rather than using any other auxiliary static reference points for measuring devices in a conventional method. Every three adjacent measuring points are defined as a measuring unit and a straight connecting bar with a GECS fixed on the center section of it links the two endpoints. In each measuring unit, the displacement of the mid-measuring point relative to the connecting bar measured by the GECS is defined as the relative deflection. Absolute deflections of each measuring point can be calculated from the relative deflections of all the measuring units directly without any correcting approaches. Principles of the three-point method and displacement measurement of the GECS are introduced in detail. Both static and dynamic experiments have been carried out on a simple beam bridge model, which demonstrate that the three-point deflection estimation method using the GECS is effective and offers a reliable way for bridge deflection estimation, especially for long-term monitoring.

  8. Record Deflection Efficiencies Measured for High Energy Protons in a Bent Germanium Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsener, K.; Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstrom, P.; Mikkelsen, U.; Kirsebom, K.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Freund, A.

    1997-05-01

    New experimental results on the deflection of 450 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c protons in a bent Ge crystal are presented. At 450 GeV/c, the 50 mm long crystal gave record deflection efficiencies up to 60% for small angles (1 mrad), while at angles as large as 12 mrad, the efficiency is about 25 times larger than for a silicon crystal of the same size. Measurements up to 20 mrad deflection angle have been performed at 200 GeV/c as well as 450 GeV/c - the lower bending dechanneling leads to a rather slow decrease in efficiency at lower momenta, and 15% of the 200 GeV/c beam hitting the crystal are still deflected at the largest angles measured. These experimental results are in good agreement with a model for channeling deflection developed by Ellison and give confidence in extrapolations to higher energies (e.g. to LHC), other crystal materials or different deflection angles.

  9. PDS Planetary Maps API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing a set of NASA Extensions to the Google Maps API—and soon to other frameworks such as OpenLayers as well—that will make these platforms more useful...

  10. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  11. Research Data Supporting "A facile low temperature route to deposit TiO2 scattering layer for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells"

    OpenAIRE

    Garmaroudi, Zahra Andaji; Abdi - Jalebi, Mojtaba; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Friend, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Raw data files pertaining to the UV-Vis absorption, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Photo thermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), Incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and solar cell measurements. EPSRC [EP/M005143/1

  12. Degradation of pharmaceuticals and metabolite in synthetic human urine by UV, UV/H2O2, and UV/PDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruochun; Sun, Peizhe; Boyer, Treavor H; Zhao, Lin; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-03-03

    To minimize environmental pharmaceutical micropollutants, treatment of human urine could be an efficient approach due to the high pharmaceutical concentration and toxic potential excreted in urine. This study investigated the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP) and N4-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (acetyl-SMX) in synthetic fresh and hydrolyzed human urines by low-pressure UV, and UV combined with H2O2 and peroxydisulfate (PDS). The objective was to compare the two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and assess the impact of urine matrices. All three compounds reacted quickly in the AOPs, exhibiting rate constants of (6.09-8.53) × 10(9) M(-1)·s(-1) with hydroxyl radical, and (2.35-16.1) × 10(9) M(-1)·s(-1) with sulfate radical. In fresh urine matrix, the pharmaceuticals' indirect photolysis was significantly suppressed by the scavenging effect of urine citrate and urea. In hydrolyzed urine matrix, the indirect photolysis was strongly affected by inorganic urine constituents. Chloride had no apparent impact on UV/H2O2, but significantly raised the hydroxyl radical concentration in UV/PDS. Carbonate species reacted with hydroxyl or sulfate radical to generate carbonate radical, which degraded SMX and TMP, primarily due to the presence of aromatic amino group(s) (k = 2.68 × 10(8) and 3.45 × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1)) but reacted slowly with acetyl-SMX. Ammonia reacted with hydroxyl or sulfate radical to generate reactive nitrogen species that could react appreciably only with SMX. Kinetic simulation of radical concentrations, along with products analysis, helped elucidate the major reactive species in the pharmaceuticals' degradation. Overall, the AOPs' performance was higher in the hydrolyzed urine than fresh urine matrix with UV/PDS better than UV/H2O2, and varied significantly depending on pharmaceutical's structure.

  13. Compensations of beamlet deflections for 1 MeV accelerator of ITER NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; de Esch, H. P. L.; Grisham, Larry R.; Boilson, Deirdre; Hemsworth, Ronald S.; Tanaka, Masanobu

    2013-02-01

    Compensation methods of beamlet deflections have been studied in a three dimensional (3D) beam analysis using OPERA-3d code for 1 MeV accelerator of the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI). The beamlet deflection is caused by i) magnetic field generated by permanent magnets embedded in the extraction grid (EXG) for electron suppression and ii) space charge repulsion between the beamlets and beam groups. Moreover, the beamlet deflection is caused due to electric field distortion formed by a grid support structure. In order to compensate the beamlet deflections due to i) and ii), an aperture offset of 0.6 mm was applied in the electron suppression grid (ESG) and a metal bar with 3 mm in thickness, so-called a kerb, was attached around the aperture area at the back side of the ESG, respectively. Detailed configuration of the compensation methods was also considered so as to suppress the beam spread due to the electric field distortion and to lower electric field concentrations at the edge of the kerb. For the beamlets near the grid support structure, the beamlet deflection due to the space charge repulsion could be negated due to the electric field distortion formed by the grid support structure.

  14. Feasibility study on a strain based deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghyun; Aihara, Aya; Puntsagdash, Ganbayar; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Okuma, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The bending stiffness of the wind turbine blades has decreased due to the trend of wind turbine upsizing. Consequently, the risk of blades breakage by hitting the tower has increased. In order to prevent such incidents, this study proposes a deflection monitoring system that can be installed to already operating wind turbine's blades. The monitoring system is composed of an estimation algorithm to detect blade deflection and a wireless sensor network as a hardware equipment. As for the estimation method for blade deflection, a strain-based estimation algorithm and an objective function for optimal sensor arrangement are proposed. Strain-based estimation algorithm is using a linear correlation between strain and deflections, which can be expressed in a form of a transformation matrix. The objective function includes the terms of strain sensitivity and condition number of the transformation matrix between strain and deflection. In order to calculate the objective function, a simplified experimental model of the blade is constructed by interpolating the mode shape of a blade from modal testing. The interpolation method is effective considering a practical use to operating wind turbines' blades since it is not necessary to establish a finite element model of a blade. On the other hand, a sensor network with wireless connection with an open source hardware is developed. It is installed to a 300 W scale wind turbine and vibration of the blade on operation is investigated.

  15. Fusion of electromagnetic trackers to improve needle deflection estimation: simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-10-01

    We present a needle deflection estimation method to anticipate needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. Using limited additional sensory information, our approach reduces the estimation error caused by uncertainties inherent in the conventional needle deflection estimation methods. We use Kalman filters to combine a kinematic needle deflection model with the position measurements of the base and the tip of the needle taken by electromagnetic (EM) trackers. One EM tracker is installed on the needle base and estimates the needle tip position indirectly using the kinematic needle deflection model. Another EM tracker is installed on the needle tip and estimates the needle tip position through direct, but noisy measurements. Kalman filters are then employed to fuse these two estimates in real time and provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position, with reduced variance in the estimation error. We implemented this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated needle insertions and performed sensitivity analysis for various conditions. At an insertion depth of 150 mm, we observed needle tip estimation error reductions in the range of 28% (from 1.8 to 1.3 mm) to 74% (from 4.8 to 1.2 mm), which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution.

  16. An improved equivalent circuit model of a four rod deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsimon, R.; Burt, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present an improved equivalent circuit model for a four rod deflecting cavity which calculates the frequencies of the first four modes of the cavity as well as the RT/Q for the deflecting mode. Equivalent circuit models of RF cavities give intuition and understanding about how the cavity operates and what changes can be made to modify the frequency, without the need for RF simulations, which can be time-consuming. We parameterise a generic four rod deflecting cavity into a geometry consisting of simple shapes. Equations are derived for the line impedance of the rods and the capacitance between the rods and these are used to calculate the resonant frequency of the deflecting dipole mode as well as the lower order mode and the model is bench-marked against two test cases; the CEBAF separator and the HL-LHC 4-rod LHC crab cavity. CST and the equivalent circuit model agree within 4% for both cavities with the LOM frequency and within 1% for the deflecting frequency. RT/Q differs between the model and CST by 37% for the CEBAF separator and 25% for the HL-LHC 4-rod crab cavity; however this is sufficient for understanding how to optimise the cavity design. The model has then been utilised to suggest a method of separating the modal frequencies in the HL-LHC crab cavity and to suggest design methodologies to optimise the cavity geometries.

  17. Laser heating of a cavity versus a plane surface for metal targets utilizing photothermal deflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. H.; Greif, R.; Russo, R. E.

    1996-08-01

    The effects of a cylindrical cavity in a metal surface on the energy coupling of a laser beam with the solid were investigated by using a photothermal deflection technique. The photothermal deflection of a probe beam over the cavity was measured while the bottom of the cavity was heated with a Nd-YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. Cavities in three different materials and with two different aspect ratios were used for the experiment. Temperature distributions in the solid and the surrounding air were computed numerically and used to calculate photothermal deflections for cavity heating and for plane surface heating. Reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity increased the photothermal deflection amplitude significantly with larger increases for materials with larger thermal diffusivity. The computed photothermal deflections agreed more closely with the experimental results when reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity was included in the numerical model. The overall energy coupling between a heating laser and a solid is enhanced by a cavity.

  18. Deflection of 32.8 TeV/c fully stripped Pb ions by means of a bent Si crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Biino, C; Doble, Niels T; Elsener, K; Gatignon, L; Grafström, P; Herr, Werner; Keppler, P; Major, J V; Mikkelsen, U; Taratin, A; Velasco, M

    2000-01-01

    New results on the deflection of fully stripped 32.8 TeV/c Pb ions in a bent Si crystal at the CERN-SPS are reported. Deflection efficiencies above 10% have been measured for deflection angles in the range 4-9 mrad.The effect of particle losses due to interaction in the crystal and other systematic errors have been carefully investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical calculations

  19. Deflection of 32.8 TeV/c fully stripped Pb ions by means of a bent Si crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K. E-mail: konrad.elsener@cern.ch; Gatignon, L.; Grafstroem, P.; Herr, W.; Keppler, P.; Major, J.; Mikkelsen, U.; Taratin, A.; Velasco, M

    2000-04-01

    New results on the deflection of fully stripped 32.8 TeV/c Pb ions in a bent Si crystal at the CERN-SPS are reported. Deflection efficiencies above 10% have been measured for deflection angles in the range 4-9 mrad. The effect of particle losses due to interaction in the crystal and other systematic errors have been carefully investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  20. Deflection of 32.8 TeV/c fully stripped Pb ions by means of a bent Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biino, C.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Herr, W.; Keppler, P.; Major, J.; Mikkelsen, U.; Taratin, A.; Velasco, M.

    2000-03-01

    New results on the deflection of fully stripped 32.8 TeV/c Pb ions in a bent Si crystal at the CERN-SPS are reported. Deflection efficiencies above 10% have been measured for deflection angles in the range 4-9 mrad. The effect of particle losses due to interaction in the crystal and other systematic errors have been carefully investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  1. O uso e manejo dos recursos naturais na Amazônia Brasileira: a organização social e produtiva do PDS Nova Bonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Ferreira Milagres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a organização social e a utilização dos recursos naturais pelas famílias beneficiadas pelo programa de reforma agrária na Amazônia brasileira, considerando aspectos das práticas extrativistas e do manejo comunitário da floresta. O objeto de análise é o Projeto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (PDS Nova Bonal, localizado no estado do Acre. A organização do território e da produção no PDS Nova Bonal ao articular orientações direcionadas tanto para o atendimento das práticas de agricultura convencional quanto agro-extrativistas, tem diferenças de outros assentamentos rurais criados pelo governo brasileiro. O trabalho analisa as possibilidades dessa modalidade de projeto proporcionar o desenvolvimento socioeconômico das famílias beneficiadas e, ao mesmo tempo, melhores condições de sustentabilidade no uso dos recursos naturais. Também são analisados os aspectos legais e formais que direcionam este modelo de projeto de reforma agrária no uso e manejo dos recursos naturais na Amazônia.

  2. Multi-wavelength Observations of the Gas-rich Host Galaxy of PDS 456: a New Challenge for the ULIRG-to-QSO Transition Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, M S; Frayer, D T; Tilanus, R P J; Yun, Min S.

    2004-01-01

    We report new K-band, radio continuum, and CO (1-0) imaging observations and 850 micron photometric observations of PDS 456, the most luminous QSO in the local universe (z<0.3). The 0.6'' resolution K-band image obtained using the Keck telescope shows three compact K~16.5 (M(K)~ -21) sources at a projected distance of ~10 kpc to the southwest, and the host galaxy of PDS 456 may be interacting or merging with one or more companions. The observations using the OVRO millimeter array has revealed a narrow CO (1-0) line (FWHM = 181 km/s) centered at z=0.1849, and 9 x 10^9 solar mass of molecular gas mass is inferred. Radio continuum luminosity is nearly an order of magnitude larger than expected from its FIR luminosity, and the radio source, unresolved by the 2" beam of the VLA, is dominated by the AGN activity. Our 850 micron photometric observations suggest that the cold dust content of the host galaxy is less than one half of the amount in Arp 220. Its SED has both a QSO-like and a ULIRG-like nature, and the...

  3. The Structure of Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disks. II. Azimuthal Asymmetries, Different Radial Distributions of Large and Small Dust Grains in PDS~70

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, J; Brown, J M; Dong, R; Muto, Mr Takayuki; Zhu, Dr Zhaohuan; Wisniewski, Dr John P; Ohashi, N; kudo, T; Kusakabe, N; Abe, L; Akiyama, E; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, T; Carson, J; Currie, Dr Thayne; Egner, S; Feldt, M; Grady, C A; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, K; Ishii, M; Iye, Dr Masanori; Janson, M; Kandori, R; Knapp, G; Kuzuhara, M; Kwon, J; Matsuo, T; McElwain, M W; Mayama, S; Mede, K; Miyama, S; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T -S; Serabyn, Dr Gene; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi, Y; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Thalmann, Dr Christian; Tomono, D; Turner, E L; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2014-01-01

    The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-$\\mu$m size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report SMA observations of the dust continuum at 1.3~mm and $^{12}$CO~$J=2\\rightarrow1$ line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS~70. PDS~70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of $\\sim$65~AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger ga...

  4. Solar system constraints on asymptotically flat IR modified Horava gravity through light deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai; Lu, Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the motion of photons around a Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) black hole and obtain constraints on IR modified Ho$\\check{r}$ava gravity without cosmological constant ($\\sim \\Lambda_{W}$). An analytic formula for the light deflection angle is obtained. For a propagating photon, the deflection angle $\\delta \\varphi$ increases with large values of the Ho$\\check{r}$ava gravity parameter $\\omega$. Under the UV limit $\\omega \\longrightarrow \\infty$, deflection angle reduces to the result of usual Schwarzschild case, $4GM/R$. It is also found that with increasing scale of astronomical observation system the Ho$\\check{r}$ava-Lifshitz gravity should satisfy $|\\omega M^2|>1.1725 \\times10^{-16}$ with $12%$ precision for Earth system, $|\\omega M^2| > 8.27649 \\times 10^{-17}$ with $17%$ precision for Jupiter system and $|\\omega M^2| > 8.27650\\times 10^{-15}$ with $0.17%$ precision for solar system.

  5. The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, O

    2015-01-01

    The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.

  6. Flame four-dimensional deflection tomography with compressed-sensing-revision reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Minmin; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Zhaohang

    2016-08-01

    Deflection tomography with limited angle projections was investigated to visualize a premixed flame. A projection sampling system for deflection tomography was used to obtain chronological deflectogram arrays at six view angles with only a pair of gratings. A new iterative reconstruction algorithm with deflection angle compressed-sensing revision was developed to improve reconstruction-distribution quality from incomplete projection data. Numerical simulation and error analysis provided a good indication of algorithm precision and convergence. In the experiment, 150 fringes were processed, and temperature distributions in 20 cross-sections were reconstructed from projection data in four instants. Four-dimensional flame structures and temperature distributions in the flame interior were visualized using the visualization toolkit. The experimental reconstruction was then compared with the result obtained from computational fluid dynamic analysis.

  7. Converse Piezoelectric Effect Induced Transverse Deflection of a Free-Standing ZnO Microbelt

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Youfan

    2009-07-08

    We demonstrate the first electric field induced transverse deflection of a single-crystal, free-standing ZnO microbelt as a result of converse piezoelectric effect. For a microbelt growing along the c-axis, a shear stress in the a-c plane can be induced when an electric field E is applied along the a-axis of the wurtzite structure. As amplified by the large aspect ratio of the microbelt that grows along the c-axis, the strain localized near the root can be detected via the transverse deflection perpendicular to the ZnO microbelt. After an experimental approach was carefully designed and possible artifacts were ruled out, the experimentally observed degree of deflection of the microbelt agrees well with the theoretically expected result. The device demonstrated has potential applications as transverse actuators/sensors/switches and electric field induced mechanical deflectors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. High power RF system for transverse deflecting structure XFEL TDS INJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobuev, E. N.; Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Smirnov, A. J.; Sobenin, N. P.; Churanov, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    The high power RF system (HPRF) is designed for RF feeding of the transverse deflecting structure of the transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS System INJ of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser. The HPRF system includes klystron, waveguide ceramic windows, directional couplers, waveguide vacuum units, spark detector and waveguide line. Operating frequency is 2997.2 MHz. Peak input power is up to 3 MW. The HPRF system has been developed, manufactured and assembled in the XFEL Injector building. The total length of the waveguide line is 55 m from the klystron at the -5 floor to the transverse deflecting structure at the -7 floor. All designed RF parameters have been obtained experimentally at low RF power level.

  9. Deflection and Vibration Control of Laminated Plates Using Extension and Shear Actuated Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of surface bonded and embedded piezoelectric composite actuators is examined through a numerical study. Modelling schemes are therefore developed by applying the isoparametric finite element approach to idealise extension-bending and shear-bending couplings due to piezoelectric actuations. A modal control based linear quadratic regulator is employed to perform the active vibration control studies. Influence of shear actuation direction and its width has been examined and interesting deflection patterns are noticed. The through width SAFC develops a constant deflection beyond its length along the laminated plate length. In contrast, segmented SAFC produces a moderate to linearly varying deflection pattern. MFC actuators have shown promising features in vibration control performances. Nevertheless, closed loop damping presents the efficiency of SAFC in the vibration control application. It is therefore envisaged that optimally actuated smart laminates can be designed using MFC and SAFC to efficiently counteract the disturbance forces.

  10. Cryogenic Test of a Proof-of-Principle Superconducting RF-Dipole Deflecting and Crabbing Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, S U; Delayen, Jean Roger

    2013-01-01

    Recent applications in need of compact low-frequency deflecting and crabbing cavities have initiated the design and development of new superconducting structures operating at high gradients with low losses. Previously, TM$_{110}$ -type deflecting and crabbing cavities were developed and have also been operated successfully. However, these geometries are not favorable designs for low operating frequencies. The superconducting rf-dipole cavity is the first compact deflecting and crabbing geometry that has demonstrated high gradients and high shunt impedance. Since the fundamental operating mode is the lowest mode and is widely separated from the nearest higher order mode, the rf-dipole design is an attractive geometry for effective damping of the higher order modes in high current applications. A 400 MHz rf-dipole cavity was designed, fabricated, and tested as a proof-of-principle cavity. The cavity achieved high operating gradients, and the multipacting levels were easily processed and did not reoccur.

  11. Simultaneous Optical Measurements of Axial and Tangential Steady-State Blade Deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the majority of fiber-optic blade instrumentation is being designed and manufactured by aircraft-engine companies for their own use. The most commonly employed probe for optical blade deflection measurements is the spot probe. One of its characteristics is that the incident spot on a blade is not fixed relative to the blade, but changes depending on the blade deformation associated with centrifugal and aerodynamic loading. While there are geometrically more complicated optical probe designs in use by different engine companies, this paper offers an alternate solution derived from a probe-mount design feature that allows one to change the probe axial position until the incident spot contacts either a leading or a trailing edge. By tracing the axial position of either blade edge one is essentially extending the deflection measurement to two dimensions, axial and tangential. The blade deflection measurements were obtained during a wind tunnel test of a fan prototype.

  12. Deflected anomaly mediated SUSY breaking scenario with general messenger–matter interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to introduce general messenger–matter interactions in the deflected anomaly mediated SUSY breaking scenario. The most general form for the resulting soft parameters is derived. New interference terms between the GMSB type and AMSB type contributions are the unique feature of this scenario. Messenger–matter interactions involving sleptons can be used to solve the tachyonic slepton problem and naturally lead to positive slepton masses regardless of the sign of deflection parameter. Besides, due to the new contributions, large |At| that will not trigger color-breaking stop VEV are also possible in this scenario, thus can easily give the 125 GeV higgs which was discovered by LHC. This type of deflected AMSB scenario need very few messenger species, thus can avoid possible non-perturbative gauge couplings below the GUT scale (or Landau pole below the Planck scale.

  13. Enhanced Deflection of Light Ray by Atomic Ensemble on Coherent Population Oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jing; ZHOU Lan; KUANG Le-Man

    2009-01-01

    In recent experiments [e.g., Nature Physics 2 (2006) 332], the enhanced light deflection in an atomic ensemble due to inhomogeneous fields is demonstrated by the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) based mechanism. In this paper, we explore a different mechanism for the similar phenomenon of the enhanced light deflection.This mechanism is based on the coherent population oscillation, which leads to the hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The medium causing the deflection of probe light is an ensemble of two-level atoms manipulated by a strong controlled field on the two photon resonances. In the large detuning condition, the response of the medium to the pump field and signal field is obtained with steady state approximation. And it is found that after the probe field travels across the medium, the signal ray bends due to the spatial-dependent profile of the control beam.

  14. The Influence of the Supporting Wheel Deflection of Large-scale Rotary Kiln on Maximum Contact Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuejun; Qiu Weiliang; Yuan Yincai; Li Ping

    2006-01-01

    The relation between the maximum contact stress ratio and deflection angle is derived from Hertz contact theory when the deflection of rotary kiln supporting wheel happens. According to the analysis of practical example, the maximum contact stress ratio within the deflection range of rotary kiln supporting wheel is listed. The contact stress will increase largely when rotary kiln supporting wheel deflects with little angle,which probably will result in accidents correlating to safety. This will provide theory conference for the design,the operating condition analysis and adjusting of the rotary kiln.

  15. Deflection estimation of a wind turbine blade using FBG sensors embedded in the blade bonding line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Woo-Ram; Jeong, Min-Soo; Lee, In; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the deflection of flexible composite wind turbine blades is very important to prevent the blades from hitting the tower. Several researchers have used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors—a type of optical fiber sensor (OFS)—to monitor the structural behavior of the blades. They can be installed on the surface and/or embedded in the interior of composites. However, the typical installation positions of OFSs present several problems, including delamination of sensing probes and a higher risk of fiber breakage during installation. In this study, we proposed using the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap as a new installation position of embedded OFSs for estimating the deflection of the blades. Laboratory coupon tests were undertaken preliminarily to confirm the strain measuring capability of embedded FBG sensors in adhesive layers, and the obtained values were verified by comparison with results obtained by electrical strain gauges and finite element analysis. We performed static loading tests on a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade to evaluate its deflections using embedded FBG sensors positioned in the bonding line. The deflections were estimated by classical beam theory considering a rigid body rotation near the tip of the blade. The evaluated tip deflections closely matched those measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Therefore, we verified the capability of embedded FBG sensors for evaluating the deflections of wind turbine blades. In addition, we confirmed that the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap is a practical location to embed the FBG sensors.

  16. Determination of peak deflections from human surrogates using chestbands in side impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J

    2013-08-01

    To understand the biomechanics of the human body in motor vehicle environments, physical models including anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) and biological models (postmortem human surrogates) are used, and sled tests are conducted. Deflection is often used as a biomechanical variable to characterize the effects of impact loading and derive injury criteria. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different techniques and recommend a methodology to determine the peak thorax and abdominal deflections from temporal contours using chestbands in oblique lateral impacts. The side impact ATD WorldSID representing human surrogates was positioned on a seat. The seat was rigidly fixed to the platform of an acceleration sled. The oblique load-wall fixed to the sled consisted of separate and adjustable plates to contact the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Two 59-gage chestbands were wrapped on the thorax and abdomen. Tests were conducted at low, medium, and high velocities (3.4, 6.7, and 7.5m/s) and three methods, termed the spine-sternum, bilateral, and spine-box, were used to determine the global peak deflection and its angulation. Results indicated that all three methods produced very similar angulations, for all velocity tests, and at both thorax and abdominal regions. However, maximum deflections were the lowest in the spine-sternum, followed by bilateral and spine-box methods, with one exception. Based on the development of deflection contours, locations used in the definitions of the origin, and accuracy in identifying critical locations/points in time-varying contours, results of the present study indicate that the bilateral method is the optimum procedure to determine the oblique peak deflection vector in biomechanical tests.

  17. Deflection of a liquid metal jet/drop in a tokamak environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelekasis, Nikos, E-mail: pel@uth.gr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Benos, Lefteris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Gomes, Rui [Associação EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We model steady flow of a liquid metal jet inside an electromagnetic field in the presence of inertia and capillary forces. • Similar analysis is performed for the motion of a liquid metal spherical drop. • The deflection of the trajectory is predicted as a function of the intensity of the externally imposed magnetic and electric fields. • The analysis is used as a proof of principle study in reference to experimental observations of jet/drop deflection due to j{sup →}×B{sup →} effects in the ISTTOK tokamak. • We discuss the possibility of using liquid metal flows as an alternative approach toward enhancing power exhaust in tokamak facilities. - Abstract: The interaction of a liquid gallium jet with plasma has been investigated in the ISTTOK tokamak. The jet was observed to remain intact during its interaction with plasma, within a certain length beyond which drop formation was observed. Significant deflection of the jet was detected as soon as plasma production was started. Furthermore, a strong dependency of the deflection magnitude on plasma position was observed that could be correlated with plasma potential gradients. As a means to capture and, possibly, quantify this effect, a preliminary magnetohydrodynamic analysis was performed in order to predict the trajectory of a jet that is traveling inside an electromagnetic field. The effect of Lorentz forces, gravity and pressure drop are accounted for in a unidirectional model that assumes a small jet radius in comparison with the trajectory length. The effect of external electric potential gradients on jet deflection was ascertained in conjunction with the importance of electric stresses in modulating the jet speed and radius. Analysis of the results reported in the ISTTOK experiments identifies the process of jet break-up as a capillary instability. The trajectory of the ensuing droplets is modeled and intensification of the deflection process is predicted in the presence of Lorentz

  18. Tip position control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator based on nonlinear deflection feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oke, G. E-mail: oke@boun.edu.tr; Istefanopulos, Y

    2003-07-01

    The control of flexible link manipulators has gained an increasing importance in robotics, in recent years. To control the tip of a flexible manipulator, the joint angles should converge to the desired positions fast and elastic deflections must be effectively suppressed. In this study, a two-link flexible manipulator is controlled by three methods and the results are compared. These methods are, Pd control, PD control augmented by a nonlinear correction term feedback, where the correction term is a function of the deflection of each link, and an adaptive fuzzy controller with the nonlinear correction term feedback. Simulations have been carried out to compare the performances of all three methods.

  19. Static deflection analysis of non prismatic multilayer p-NEMS cantilevers under electrical load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavithra, M., E-mail: pavithramasi78@gmail.com [PhD Research Scholar, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-46 (India); Muruganand, S. [Assistant professor, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-46 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Deflection of Euler-Bernoulli non prismatic multilayer piezoelectric nano electromechanical (p-NEMS) cantilever beams have been studied theoretically for various profiles of p-NEMS cantilevers by applying the electrical load. This problem has been answered by applying the boundary conditions derived by simple polynomials. This method is applied for various profiles like rectangular and trapezoidal by varying the thickness of the piezoelectric layer as well as the material. The obtained results provide the better deflection for trapezoidal profile with ZnO piezo electric layer of suitable nano cantilevers for nano scale applications.

  20. Probability-based method using RFEM for predicting wall deflection caused by excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-geng TANG

    2011-01-01

    This study employs the random finite element method (RFEM) to analyze the wall deflection caused by excavation.The RFEM combined random fields of material properties with the FEM through the Monte Carlo simulation.A well-documented excavation case history is employed to evaluate the influence of uncertainty of analysis parameters.This study shows that RFEM can provide reasonable estimations of the exceedance probability of wall deflection caused by excavation,and has the potential to be a useful tool to account for the uncertainties of material and model parameters in the numerical analysis.

  1. Orbital Simulations on Deflecting Near-Earth Objects by Directed Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin J.; Melis, Carl; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Laser ablation of a Near-Earth Object (NEO) on a collision course with Earth produces a cloud of ejecta which exerts a thrust on the NEO, deflecting it from its original trajectory. Ablation may be performed from afar by illuminating an Earth-targeting asteroid or comet with a stand-off "DE- STAR" system consisting of a large phased-array laser in Earth orbit. Alternatively, a much smaller stand-on "DE-STARLITE" system may travel alongside the target, slowly deflecting it from nearby over a l...

  2. Stern-Gerlach deflection of field-free aligned paramagnetic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gershnabel, E; Averbukh, I Sh

    2011-01-01

    The effects of laser-induced prealignment on the deflection of paramagnetic molecules by inhomogeneous static magnetic field are studied. Depending on the relevant Hund's coupling case of the molecule, two different effects were identified: either suppression of the deflection by laser pulses (Hund's coupling case (a) molecules, such as ClO), or a dramatic reconstruction of the broad distribution of the scattering angles into several narrow peaks (for Hund's coupling case (b) molecules, such as O2 or NH). These findings are important for various applications using molecular guiding, focusing and trapping with the help of magnetic fields.

  3. A Novel Deflection Method for Measuring the Growth Stress of Thermally Growing Oxide Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A kind of new deflection technique has been developed for measuring the growth stress of thermally growing oxide scales duringhigh temperature oxidation of alloys. The average growth stresses in oxide scales such as Al2O3, NiO and Cr2O3 formed onthe surface of the superalloys can be investigated by this technique. Unlike the comventional deflection method, the novelmethod does not need to apply a coating for preventing one main face of thin strip specimen from oxidizing and can be usedunaer tne condition of longer time and higher temperature.

  4. Wind tunnel testing of a closed-loop wake deflection controller for wind farm power maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Filippo; Petrović, Vlaho; Schreiber, Johannes; Nanos, Emmanouil M.; Croce, Alessandro; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results from wind tunnel tests aimed at evaluating a closed- loop wind farm controller for wind farm power maximization by wake deflection. Experiments are conducted in a large boundary layer wind tunnel, using three servo-actuated and sensorized wind turbine scaled models. First, we characterize the impact on steady-state power output of wake deflection, achieved by yawing the upstream wind turbines. Next, we illustrate the capability of the proposed wind farm controller to dynamically driving the upstream wind turbines to the optimal yaw misalignment setting.

  5. Laser-driven deflection arrangements and methods involving charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettner, Tomas [San Ramon, CA; Byer, Robert L [Stanford, CA

    2011-08-09

    Systems, methods, devices and apparatus are implemented for producing controllable charged particle beams. In one implementation, an apparatus provides a deflection force to a charged particle beam. A source produces an electromagnetic wave. A structure, that is substantially transparent to the electromagnetic wave, includes a physical structure having a repeating pattern with a period L and a tilted angle .alpha., relative to a direction of travel of the charged particle beam, the pattern affects the force of the electromagnetic wave upon the charged particle beam. A direction device introduces the electromagnetic wave to the structure to provide a phase-synchronous deflection force to the charged particle beam.

  6. Control of deflection deformation of plate-shape castings in solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤淑; 金英达

    2003-01-01

    The deformation mechanism during the solidification was analyzed based on the experimental results ofthe castings. An approximate quadratic differential equation and its discrete model of calculation deflection were pro-posed. The model indicates that the key factors leading to the deflection deformation are the thermal bending mo-ment M and the flexural rigidity E.J. The smaller the former and the larger the latter is, the smaller the deflectiondeformation will be. The experiments are carried out at various technical conditions, and their results appear good a-greement with calculation ones. A method was proposed to predict and control the casting deformation.

  7. In Situ Characterization of the Local Work Function along Individual Free Standing Nanowire by Electrostatic Deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yicong; Zhao, Chengchun; Huang, Feng; Zhan, Runze; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-17

    In situ characterization of the work function of quasi one dimensional nanomaterials is essential for exploring their applications. Here we proposed to use the electrostatic deflection induced by work function difference between nanoprobe and nanowire for in situ measuring the local work function along a free standing nanowire. The physical mechanism for the measurement was discussed in details and a parabolic relationship between the deflection and the potential difference was derived. As a demonstration, measurement of the local work functions on the tip and the sidewall of a ZnO nanowire with Au catalyst at its end and a LaB6 nanowire have been achieved with good accuracy.

  8. Deflection of 450 GeV protons by planar channeling in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, B. N.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Atherton, H. W.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Jeanneret, J. B.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.

    1992-08-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been bent by various angles from 4 to 14 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal. Detailed investigations of the deflected beam as well as the unbent and scattered particles have been performed. The incident beam had a divergence of about 35 μrad (FWHM). 20% of the protons hitting the crystal front face were found to be initially channeled. The measured bending efficiencies range from 5 to 2% (for increasing deflection angles) are compared to theoretical estimates including surface acceptance and dechanneling in bent silicon crystals.

  9. Deflection of 450 GeV protons by planar channeling in a bent silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B.N.; Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E.; Worm, T. (Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation, Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)); Atherton, H.W.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstroem, P.; Jeanneret, J.B. (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)); Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1992-08-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been bent by various angles from 4 to 14 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal. Detailed investigations of the deflected beam as well as the unbent and scattered particles have been performed. The incident beam had a divergence of about 35 [mu]rad (FWHM). 20% of the protons hitting the crystal front face were found to be initially channeled. The measured bending efficiencies range from 5 to 2% (for increasing deflection angles) and are compared to theoretical estimates including surface acceptance and dechanneling in bent silicon crystals. (orig.).

  10. Analysis of HOM Properties of Superconducting Parallel-Bar Deflecting/Crabbing Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen

    2011-07-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar cavity is currently being considered for a number of deflecting and crabbing applications due to improved properties and compact design geometries. The 499 MHz deflecting cavity proposed for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade and the 400 MHz crab cavity for the proposed LHC luminosity upgrade are two of the major applications. For high current applications the higher order modes must be damped to acceptable levels to eliminate any beam instabilities. The frequencies and R/Q of the HOMs and mode separation are evaluated and compared for different parallel-bar cavity designs.

  11. The ellipsoidal corrections for boundary value problems of deflection of the vertical with ellipsoid boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The boundary value problem of deflections of vertical with ellipsoid boundary is studied in the paper. Based on spherical harmonic series, the ellipsoidal corrections for the boundary value problem are derived so that it can be well solved. In addition, an imitation arithmetic is given for examining the accuracies of solutions for the boundary value problem as well as its spherical approximation problem, and the computational results illustrate that the boundary value problem has higher accuracy than its spherical approximation problem if deflection of the vertical are measured on geoid.

  12. Comparison between Deflection and Vibration Characteristics of Rectangular and Trapezoidal profile Microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booun Bang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of microcantilevers are increasingly being used as physical, biological, and chemical sensors in various applications. To improve the sensitivity of microcantilever sensors, this study analyses and compares the deflection and vibration characteristics of rectangular and trapezoidal profile microcantilevers. Three models of each profile are investigated. The cantilevers are analyzed for maximum deflection, fundamental resonant frequency and maximum stress. The surface stress is modelled as in-plane tensile force applied on the top edge of the microcantilevers. A commercial finite element analysis software ANSYS is used to analyze the designs. Results show paddled trapezoidal profile microcantilevers have better sensitivity.

  13. Features of the galactic magnetic field regarding deflections of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Marcus; Erdmann, Martin; Mueller, Gero; Urban, Martin [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Most recent models of the galactic magnetic field have been derived from Faraday rotation measurements and imply strong deflections even for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We investigate the characteristics of the different field parametrizations and point out similarities and interesting features. Among them are extragalactic regions which are invisible for an Earth bound observation and the transition from diffuse to ballistic behaviour in the 1 EeV energy regime. Applying this knowledge to a directional analysis, there are indications for deflection patterns by the galactic magnetic field in cosmic ray arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  15. Analisis Struktur Balok Non Prismatis Menggunakan Metode Persamaan Slope – Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Slope – deflection equation method is an analysis method to solve statically indeterminate structure. This method is a simple technique to analyze continuous beam, either prismatic or non prismatic. The technique for analyzing non prismatic beam is based on the prismatic beam concept, but with the introduce of some modification coefficient. These coefficients are available in some textbook discussing about structural analysis. This research has an objective to compare the analysis result of a continuous non prismatic beam, with slope – deflection equation method, and result from a structural analysis program (i.e. SAP 2000 v.11.00. The internal moment at the joints produced from this two method will be compared each other. The results show that there is a small difference resulted in internal moment, obtained from hand calculation with slope – deflection method and from software output. The differences resulted from this two techniques are 2 up to 6%. Based on this result it can be stated that slope-deflection method can be used to analyze statically indeterminate nonprismatic beam with some modification factors. The result obtained is nearly the same with one obtained from commercial softwares. 

  16. Comparative research on the methods for measuring the mode deflection angle of cylindrical resonator gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Fan, Zhenfang; Wang, Dongya; Wang, Yanyan; Pan, Yao; Qu, Tianliang; Xu, Guangming

    2016-10-01

    The existence of mode deflection angle in the cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) leads to the signal drift on the detecting nodes of the gyro vibration and significantly decreases the performance of the CRG. Measuring the mode deflection angle efficiently is the foundation of tuning for the imperfect cylindrical shell resonator. In this paper, an optical method based on the measuring gyroscopic resonator's vibration amplitude with the laser Doppler vibrometer and an electrical method based on measuring the output voltage of the electrodes on the resonator are both presented to measure the mode deflection angle. Comparative experiments were implemented to verify the methodology and the results show that both of the two methods could recognize the mode deflection angle efficiently. The precision of the optical method relies on the number and position of testing points distributed on the resonator. The electrical method with simple circuit shows high accuracy of measuring in a less time compared to the optical method and its error source arises from the influence of circuit noise as well as the inconsistent distribution of the piezoelectric electrodes.

  17. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  18. DEFLECTION OF A HETEROGENEOUS WIDE-BEAM UNDER UNIFORM PRESSURE LOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. V. Holschuh; T. K. Howard; W. R. Marcum

    2014-07-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or generic test plate assembly (GTPA), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates onset by hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Fuels Development Program. This study’s focus supports the ongoing collaborative effort by detailing the derivation of an analytic solution for deflection of a heterogeneous plate under a uniform, distributed load in order to predict the deflection of test plates in the GTPA. The resulting analytical solutions for three specific boundary condition sets are then presented against several test cases of a homogeneous plate. In all test cases considered, the results for both homogeneous and heterogeneous plates are numerically identical to one another, demonstrating correct derivation of the heterogeneous solution. Two additional problems are presents herein that provide a representative deflection profile for the plates under consideration within the GTPA. Furthermore, qualitative observations are made about the influence of a more-rigid internal fuel-meat region and its influence on the overall deflection profile of a plate. Present work is being directed to experimentally confirm the analytical solution’s results using select materials.

  19. Systematic characterization of optical beam deflection measurement system for micro and nanomechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Klop, W.A.; Eschen, M.; Dool, T.C. van den; Koster, N.B.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement method is very popular in various types of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and micro/nanomechanical sensors to measure a mechanical motion. This paper reports the detail design and implementation of a very low drift (2 nm over 1000 s), high bandwidth (40 MHz

  20. Experimental and numerical study on vibrations and static deflection of a thin hyperelastic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabili, Marco; Balasubramanian, Prabakaran; Breslavsky, Ivan D.; Ferrari, Giovanni; Garziera, Rinaldo; Riabova, Kseniia

    2016-12-01

    The hyperelastic behavior of a thin square silicone rubber plate has been investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally; the case of small-amplitude vibrations has been considered, as well as the case of large static deflection under aerostatic pressure. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model has been chosen to describe the material nonlinear elasticity. The material parameters have been identified by a fitting procedure on the results of a uniaxial traction test. For the analytical model, the equations of motion have been obtained by a unified energy approach, and geometrical nonlinearities are modeled according to the Novozhilov nonlinear shell theory. A numerical model has also been developed by using a commercial Finite-Element code. In the experiments, the silicone rubber plate has been fixed to a heavy metal frame; a certain in-plane pre-load, applied by stretching the plate, has been given in order to ensure a flatness of the surface. An experimental modal analysis has been conducted; results have been used to identify the applied in-plane loads by optimization procedure with two different models: a numerical and an analytical one. The first four experimental and numerical natural modes and frequencies are in good agreement with the experiments after the pre-load identification. The static deflection has been measured experimentally for different pressures. Results have been compared to those obtained by analytical and numerical models. The static deflections are also satisfactorily compared, up to a deflection 50 times larger than the plate thickness, corresponding to a 30 percent strain.

  1. Large-deflection statics analysis of active cardiac catheters through co-rotational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng Qi; Chen Qiu; Mehndiratta, Aadarsh; I-Ming Chen; Haoyong Yu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a co-rotational concept for large-deflection formulation of cardiac catheters. Using this approach, the catheter is first discretized with a number of equal length beam elements and nodes, and the rigid body motions of an individual beam element are separated from its deformations. Therefore, it is adequate for modelling arbitrarily large deflections of a catheter with linear elastic analysis at the local element level. A novel design of active cardiac catheter of 9 Fr in diameter at the beginning of the paper is proposed, which is based on the contra-rotating double helix patterns and is improved from the previous prototypes. The modelling section is followed by MATLAB simulations of various deflections when the catheter is exerted different types of loads. This proves the feasibility of the presented modelling approach. To the best knowledge of the authors, it is the first to utilize this methodology for large-deflection static analysis of the catheter, which will enable more accurate control of robot-assisted cardiac catheterization procedures. Future work would include further experimental validations.

  2. Deflection-based method for seismic response analysis of concrete walls: Benchmarking of CAMUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Prabir C. [Civil and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (India)]. E-mail: pcb@aerb.gov.in; Roshan, A.D. [Civil and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (India)

    2007-07-15

    A number of shake table tests had been conducted on the scaled down model of a concrete wall as part of CAMUS experiment. The experiments were conducted between 1996 and 1998 in the CEA facilities in Saclay, France. Benchmarking of CAMUS experiments was undertaken as a part of the coordinated research program on 'Safety Significance of Near-Field Earthquakes' organised by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Technique of deflection-based method was adopted for benchmarking exercise. Non-linear static procedure of deflection-based method has two basic steps: pushover analysis, and determination of target displacement or performance point. Pushover analysis is an analytical procedure to assess the capacity to withstand seismic loading effect that a structural system can offer considering the redundancies and inelastic deformation. Outcome of a pushover analysis is the plot of force-displacement (base shear-top/roof displacement) curve of the structure. This is obtained by step-by-step non-linear static analysis of the structure with increasing value of load. The second step is to determine target displacement, which is also known as performance point. The target displacement is the likely maximum displacement of the structure due to a specified seismic input motion. Established procedures, FEMA-273 and ATC-40, are available to determine this maximum deflection. The responses of CAMUS test specimen are determined by deflection-based method and analytically calculated values compare well with the test results.

  3. Temperature- and deflection- dependences of orthodontic force with Ni-Ti wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaru, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio

    2003-06-01

    Orthodontic forces of Ni-Ti wires examined under the retrained condition on the dental arch model were evaluated with the changes in temperature and deflection. The tested specimens were a commercially available superelastic (W1) wire and two shape memory wires with their nominal A(f) points were 35 degrees C (W2) and 40 degrees C (W3), respectively. They showed typical superelastic hysteresis loops under the restraint condition at 40 degrees C. The force levels were significantly larger than those generally obtained by simple three-bending test. The recovery forces in the plateau region at 1.0 mm deflection were much larger than desired in the clinical guidelines around oral temperatures. In the shape memory wire W3, the recovery force rapidly decreased to zero by a small reduction of the deflection from its maximum. However, the wire again exerted the force with the remaining permanent deflection by temperature rising. It was small compared to the guidelines of desirable orthodontic force and seemed to be useful especially for the hypersensitive patients.

  4. Deflection of a vibrissa leads to a gradient of strain across mechanoreceptors in a mystacial follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Samuel J; Knutsen, Per M; Matthews, David W; Kleinfeld, David

    2015-07-01

    Rodents use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate tactile features during active exploration. The site of mechanical transduction in the vibrissa sensorimotor system is the follicle sinus complex and its associated vibrissa. We study the mechanics within the ring sinus (RS) of the follicle in an ex vivo preparation of the mouse mystacial pad. The sinus region has a relatively dense representation of Merkel mechanoreceptors and longitudinal lanceolate endings. Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy was used to visualize labeled cell nuclei in an ∼ 100-nl vol before and after passive deflection of a vibrissa, which results in localized displacements of the mechanoreceptor cells, primarily in the radial and polar directions about the vibrissa. These displacements are used to compute the strain field across the follicle in response to the deflection. We observe compression in the lower region of the RS, whereas dilation, with lower magnitude, occurs in the upper region, with volumetric strain ΔV/V ∼ 0.01 for a 10° deflection. The extrapolated strain for a 0.1° deflection, the minimum angle that is reported to initiate a spike by primary neurons, corresponds to the minimum strain that activates Piezo2 mechanoreceptor channels.

  5. A load balancing bufferless deflection router for network-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Zhou; Zhangming, Zhu; Duan, Zhou

    2016-07-01

    The bufferless router emerges as an interesting option for cost-efficient in network-on-chip (NoC) design. However, the bufferless router only works well under low network load because deflection more easily occurs as the injection rate increases. In this paper, we propose a load balancing bufferless deflection router (LBBDR) for NoC that relieves the effect of deflection in bufferless NoC. The proposed LBBDR employs a balance toggle identifier in the source router to control the initial routing direction of X or Y for a flit in the network. Based on this mechanism, the flit is routed according to XY or YX routing in the network afterward. When two or more flits contend the same one desired output port a priority policy called nearer-first is used to address output ports allocation contention. Simulation results show that the proposed LBBDR yields an improvement of routing performance over the reported bufferless routing in the flit deflection rate, average packet latency and throughput by up to 13%, 10% and 6% respectively. The layout area and power consumption compared with the reported schemes are 12% and 7% less respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474087, 61322405, 61376039).

  6. Systematic characterization of optical beam deflection measurement system for micro and nanomechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Klop, W.A.; Eschen, M.; Dool, T.C. van den; Koster, N.B.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement method is very popular in various types of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and micro/nanomechanical sensors to measure a mechanical motion. This paper reports the detail design and implementation of a very low drift (2 nm over 1000 s), high bandwidth (40

  7. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  8. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  9. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy J.; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  10. Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huashun; Jiang, Jiasheng

    2017-02-01

    Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode in a two grid electron gun is presented theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation based on the theoretical equations. The influences upon performance and design of electron gun with linear filament cathode, which is used broadly in electrocurtain accelerators, are discussed in detail.

  11. Dealing with Uncertainties in Asteroid Deflection Demonstration Missions: NEOTwIST

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Cano, Juan L; Avila, Javier Martin; Drube, Line; Harris, Alan W; Falke, Albert; Johann, Ulrich; Engel, Kilian; Schwartz, Stephen R; Michel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Deflection missions to near-Earth asteroids will encounter non-negligible uncertainties in the physical and orbital parameters of the target object. In order to reliably assess future impact threat mitigation operations such uncertainties have to be quantified and incorporated into the mission design. The implementation of deflection demonstration missions offers the great opportunity to test our current understanding of deflection relevant uncertainties and their consequences, e.g., regarding kinetic impacts on asteroid surfaces. In this contribution, we discuss the role of uncertainties in the NEOTwIST asteroid deflection demonstration concept, a low-cost kinetic impactor design elaborated in the framework of the NEOShield project. The aim of NEOTwIST is to change the spin state of a known and well characterized near-Earth object, in this case the asteroid (25143) Itokawa. Fast events such as the production of the impact crater and ejecta are studied via cube-sat chasers and a flyby vehicle. Long term chang...

  12. Crack deflection in brittle media with heterogeneous interfaces and its application in shale fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaguang; Wei, Yujie

    Driven by the rapid progress in exploiting unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, there is growing interest in hydraulic fracture of brittle yet heterogeneous shales. In particular, how hydraulic cracks interact with natural weak zones in sedimentary rocks to form permeable cracking networks is of significance in engineering practice. Such a process is typically influenced by crack deflection, material anisotropy, crack-surface friction, crustal stresses, and so on. In this work, we extend the He-Hutchinson theory (He and Hutchinson, 1989) to give the closed-form formulae of the strain energy release rate of a hydraulic crack with arbitrary angles with respect to the crustal stress. The critical conditions in which the hydraulic crack deflects into weak interfaces and exhibits a dependence on crack-surface friction and crustal stress anisotropy are given in explicit formulae. We reveal analytically that, with increasing pressure, hydraulic fracture in shales may sequentially undergo friction locking, mode II fracture, and mixed mode fracture. Mode II fracture dominates the hydraulic fracturing process and the impinging angle between the hydraulic crack and the weak interface is the determining factor that accounts for crack deflection; the lower friction coefficient between cracked planes and the greater crustal stress difference favor hydraulic fracturing. In addition to shale fracking, the analytical solution of crack deflection could be used in failure analysis of other brittle media.

  13. Hydroelastic analysis of a very large floating plate with large deflections in stochastic seaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The hydroelasticity of a very large floating plate with large deflections in multidirectional irregular waves is discussed. After a brief introduction on wave loads on a flexible structure, the paper derives the generalised fluid force acting on a floating structure in multidirectional irregular ...

  14. Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission: the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A.; Michel, P.

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor. AIDA is a joint ESA-NASA cooperative project, which includes the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous spacecraft and the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission. The AIDA target is the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos, which will make an unusually close approach to Earth in October, 2022. The ~300-kg DART spacecraft is designed to impact the Didymos secondary at 6.5 km/s and demonstrate the ability to modify its trajectory through momentum transfer. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to investigate the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, (ii) to demonstrate asteroid deflection by kinetic impact and to characterize the deflection. The primary DART objectives are to demonstrate a hypervelocity impact on the Didymos moon and to determine the resulting deflection from ground-based observatories. The DART impact on the Didymos secondary will cause a measurable change in the orbital period of the binary.

  15. Wide-Band Optical Fibre System for Investigation of MEMS and NEMS Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowska Karolina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the construction of experimental setup for MEMS/NEMS deflection measurements is presented. The system is based on intensity fibre optic detector for linear displacement sensing. Furthermore the electronic devices: current source for driving the light source and photodetector with wide-band preamplifier are presented.

  16. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  17. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  18. ON THE EVALUATION OF DEFLECTIONS OF THE VERTICAL USING FFT TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There exist three types of convolution formulae for the efficientevaluation of gravity field convolution integrals,i.e.,the planar 2D convolution,the spherical 2D convolution and the spherical 1D convolution.The largest drawback of both the planar and the spherical 2D FFT methods is that,due to the approximations in the kernel function,only inexact results can be achieved.Apparently,the reason is the meridian convergence at higher latitudes.As the meridians converge,the Δφ,Δλ blocks do not form a rectangular grid,as is assumed in 2D FFT methods.It should be pointed out that the meridian convergence not only leads to an approximation error in the kernel function,but also causes an approximation error during the implementation of 2D FFT in computer.In order to meet the increasing need for precise determination of the vertical deflections,this paper derives a more precise planar 2D FFT formula for the computation of the vertical deflections.After having made a detailed comparison between the planar and the spherical 2D FFT formulae,we find out the main source of errors causing the loss in accuracy by applying the conventional spherical 2D FFT method.And then,a modified spherical 2D FFT formula for the computation of the vertical deflections is developed in this paper.A series of numerical tests have been carried out to illustrate the improvement made upon the old spherical 2D FFT.The second part of this paper is to discuss the influences of the spherical harmonic reference field,the limited capsize,and the singular integral on the computation of the vertical deflections.The results of the vertical deflections over China by applying the spherical 1D FFT formula with different integration radii have been compared to the astro-observed vertical deflections in the South China Sea to obtain a set of optimum deflection computation parameters.

  19. Comparison of the Load Deflection Characteristics of Esthetic and Metal Orthodontic Wires on Ceramic Brackets using Three Point Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal Hiralal Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Steel wires showed highest strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load/deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced more deflection at low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  20. Cuspal deflection and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with bulk-fill flowable resin-based composite base materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moorthy, A; Hogg, C H; Dowling, A H;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases.......To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases....

  1. A geometrically non-linear formulation of a three-dimensional beam element for solving large deflection multibody system problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.B.; Meijaard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A beam finite element formulation for large deflection problems in the analysis of flexible multibody systems has been proposed. In this formulation, a set of independent discrete deformation modes are defined for each element which are related to conventional small deflection beam theory in a co-ro

  2. Application of artificial neural networks to predict the deflections of reinforced concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Mateusz; Szymańska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear structural mechanics should be taken into account in the practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Cracking is one of the major sources of nonlinearity. Description of deflection of reinforced concrete elements is a computational problem, mainly because of the difficulties in modelling the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of concrete and steel. In design practise, in accordance with technical rules (e.g., Eurocode 2), a simplified approach for reinforced concrete is used, but the results of simplified calculations differ from the results of experimental studies. Artificial neural network is a versatile modelling tool capable of making predictions of values that are difficult to obtain in numerical analysis. This paper describes the creation and operation of a neural network for making predictions of deflections of reinforced concrete beams at different load levels. In order to obtain a database of results, that is necessary for training and testing the neural network, a research on measurement of deflections in reinforced concrete beams was conducted by the authors in the Certified Research Laboratory of the Building Engineering Institute at Wrocław University of Science and Technology. The use of artificial neural networks is an innovation and an alternative to traditional methods of solving the problem of calculating the deflections of reinforced concrete elements. The results show the effectiveness of using artificial neural network for predicting the deflection of reinforced concrete beams, compared with the results of calculations conducted in accordance with Eurocode 2. The neural network model presented in this paper can acquire new data and be used for further analysis, with availability of more research results.

  3. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  4. Nonlinear Coupled Dynamics of a Rod Fastening Rotor under Rub-Impact and Initial Permanent Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear coupled dynamic model of a rod fastening rotor under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection was developed in this paper. The governing motion equation was derived by the D’Alembert principle considering the contact characteristic between disks, nonlinear oil-film force, rub-impact force, unbalance mass, etc. The contact effects between disks was modeled as a flexural spring with cubical nonlinear stiffness. The coupled nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the rub-impact rod fastening rotor bearing system with initial permanent deflection were investigated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Bifurcation diagram, vibration waveform, frequency spectrum, shaft orbit and Poincaré map are used to illustrate the rich diversity of the system response with complicated dynamics. The studies indicate that the coupled dynamic responses of the rod fastening rotor bearing system under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection exhibit a rich nonlinear dynamic diversity, synchronous periodic-1 motion, multiple periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion can be observed under certain conditions. Larger radial stiffness of the stator will simplify the system motion and make the oil whirl weaker or even disappear at a certain rotating speed. With the increase of initial permanent deflection length, the instability speed of the system gradually rises, and the chaotic motion region gets smaller and smaller. The corresponding results can provide guidance for the fault diagnosis of a rub-impact rod fastening rotor with initial permanent deflection and contribute to the further understanding of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the rod fastening rotor bearing system.

  5. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Elda; Matarese, Giovanni; Di Bella, Guido; Nucera, Riccardo; Borsellino, Chiara; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires for correct selection of orthodontic wires. Seven different NiTi wires of two different sizes (0.014 and 0.016 inches), commonly used during the alignment phase, were tested. A three-point bending test was carried out to evaluate the load-deflection characteristics. The archwires were subjected to bending at a constant temperature of 37°C and deflections of 2 and 4 mm. Analysis of variance showed that thermal NiTi wires exerted significantly lower working forces than superelastic wires of the same size in all experimental tests (P Wire size had a significant effect on the forces produced: with an increase in archwire dimension, the released strength increased for both thermal and superelastic wires. Superelastic wires showed, at a deflection of 2 mm, narrow and steep hysteresis curves in comparison with the corresponding thermal wires, which presented a wide interval between loading and unloading forces. During unloading at 4 mm of deflection, all wires showed curves with a wider plateau when compared with 2 mm deflection. Such a difference for the superelastic wires was caused by the martensite stress induced at higher deformation levels. A comprehensive understanding of mechanical characteristics of orthodontic wires is essential and selection should be undertaken in accordance with the behaviour of the different wires. It is also necessary to take into account the biomechanics used. In low-friction mechanics, thermal NiTi wires are to be preferred to superelastic wires, during the alignment phase due to their lower working forces. In conventional straightwire mechanics, a low force archwire would be unable to overcome the resistance to sliding.

  6. A Kinematic Model for Vertical Axis Rotation within the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, T.; Pluhar, C. J.; Johnson, S. A.; Lindeman, J. R.; Petronis, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Mina Deflection, at the boundary between the Central and Southern Walker Lane, spans the California-Nevada border and includes a heavily-faulted Pliocene volcanic field overlying Miocene ignimbrites. The dextral Walker Lane accommodates 25% of relative Pacific-North America plate motion and steps right across the sinistral Mina deflection. Ours and previous work shows that the Mina Deflection partially accommodates deformation by vertical-axis rotation of up to 99.9o ± 6.1o rotation since 11 Ma. This rotation is evident in latite ignimbrite of Gilbert et al. (1971), which we have formalized as three members of Tuff of Huntoon Creek (THC). The welded, basal, normal-polarity Huntoon Valley Member of THC is overlain by the unwelded to partially-welded, reversed-polarity Adobe Hills Mbr. This member includes internal breaks suggesting multiple eruptive phases, but the paleomagnetic results from each are statistically indistinguishable, meaning that they were likely erupted in rapid succession (within a few centuries of one another). THC ends with a welded member exhibiting very shallow inclination and south declination that we call Excursional Mbr. One of the upper members has been dated at 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma. These Miocene units are overlain by Pliocene basalts, Quaternary alluvium, and lacustrine deposits. Our paleomagnetic results show a gradient between the zero rotation domain and high rotation across a 20km baseline. A micropolar model, based on 25 years of earthquake data from the Northern and Southern California Seismic Network, suggest the Mina Deflection is currently experiencing transpressional seismogenic deformation (Unruh et al., 2003). Accepting Unruh's model and assuming continuous rotation since 11 Ma, we propose a kinematic model for the western Mina Deflection that accommodates 90o of vertical axis rotation from N-S to ENE-WSW oriented blocks.

  7. Experimental Study of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Aeroshell with Axisymmetric Surface Deflection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was conducted to obtain aeroheating environment data on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator aeroshells with flexible thermal protection systems. Data were obtained on a set of rigid wind tunnel models with surface deflection patterns of various heights that simulated a range of potential in-flight aeroshell deformations. Wind tunnel testing was conducted at Mach 6 at unit Reynolds numbers from 2.1 × 10(exp 6)/ft to 8.3 × 10(exp 6)/ft and angles of attack from 0 deg to 18 deg. Boundary-layer transition onset and global surface heating distribution measurements were performed using phosphor thermography and flow field images were obtained through schlieren photography. Surface deflections were found to both promote early transition of the boundary layer and to augment heating levels for both laminar and turbulent flows. A complimentary computational flow field study was also performed to provide heating predictions for comparison with the measurements as well as boundary layer flow field properties for use in correlating the data. Correlations of the wind tunnel data were developed to predict deflection effects on boundary layer transition and surface heating and were applied to both the wind tunnel test conditions and to the trajectory of NASA's successful IRVE-3 flight test. In general, the correlations produced at least qualitative agreement with the wind tunnel data, although the heating levels were underpredicted for some of the larger surface deflections. For the flight conditions, the correlations suggested that peak heating levels on the leeward side conical flank of the IRVE-3 vehicle may have exceeded those at nose for times late in the trajectory after the peak heating time point. However, the flight estimates were based on a conservative assumption of surface deflection magnitude (i.e., larger) than likely was produced in flight.

  8. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1-10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He-Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm-2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  9. The Deflector Selector: A Machine Learning Framework for Prioritizing Deflection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerden, Elmarie; Erasmus, Nicolas; Greenberg, Adam; Nesvold, Erika; Galache, Jose Luis; Dahlstrom, Eric; Marchis, Franck

    2016-10-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a ~15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred ~33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found?To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  10. The adhesive potential of dentin bonding systems assessed using cuspal deflection measurements and cervical microleakage scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ahmed; Moorthy, Advan; Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-10-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardized mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities restored with a dimethacrylate resin-based-composite (RBC) placed with one 3-step, one 2-step and three 1-step bonding systems and compared with the unbound condition. Forty-eight sound maxillary premolar teeth with standardized MOD cavities were randomly allocated to six groups. Restoration was performed in eight oblique increments using a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light curing unit (LCU) with the bonding condition as the dependent variable. Buccal and palatal cuspal deflections were recorded post-irradiation using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge at 0, 30, 60 and 180s. Following restoration, the teeth were thermocycled, immersed in a 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage assessment. The mean total cuspal deflection measurements with the one 3-step, one 2-step and three 1-step bonding systems were 11.26 (2.56), 10.95 (2.16), 10.03 (2.05) (Futurabond(®) DC SingleDose), 6.37 (1.37) (Adper™ Prompt™ L-Pop™), 8.98 (1.34) μm (All-Bond SE(®)), respectively when compared with the unbound condition (6.46 (1.88) μm) The one-way ANOVA of the total cuspal deflection measurements identified statistical differences (pbonding system although differences between the bonding systems were evident (pbonding technologies available to practitioners for RBCs. Poorly performing adhesives can be identified which indicated the technique may be useful as a screening tool for assessing existing and new bonding technologies which offers the potential to limit complications routinely encountered with Class II RBC restorations. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrostatic deflection of a molecular beam of massive neutral particles: Fully field-oriented polar molecules within superfluid nanodroplets

    CERN Document Server

    Merthe, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Electric deflection measurements on liquid helium nanodroplets doped with individual polar molecules demonstrate that the cold superfluid matrix enables full orientation of the molecular dipole along the external field. This translates into a deflection force which is increased enormously by comparison with typical deflection experiments, and it becomes possible to measurably deflect neutral doped droplets with masses of tens to hundreds of thousands of Daltons. This approach permits preparation and study of continuous fluxes of fully oriented polar molecules and is broadly and generally applicable, including to complex and biological molecules. It is shown that the dipole moments of internally cryogenically cold molecules can be directly determined from a deflection measurement on the doped nanodroplet beam.

  12. Orbital deflection of fragments produced through peripheral reactions of heavy nuclei at 290 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.

    2017-02-01

    The orbital deflection phenomenon of reaction products formed through peripheral reactions of heavy nuclei at intermediate energy is studied to examine the contributions of the Coulomb potential and nuclear potential that act between the projectile and target nuclei. The angular distributions of fragments produced in 1-nucleon removal and exchange reactions of 40Ar and 84Kr beams with C, Al, Nb, Tb, and Au targets at 290 MeV/nucleon were observed. A significant deflection effect was successfully identified in observed angular distributions at energies as low as Ei = 100 MeV/nucleon. The deflection effect increases with the atomic number of the target nuclei. The observed deflection effect is consistently explainable using the classical deflection angle, which is obtained with respect to a simple framework of the Coulomb potential and the real part of the energy-dependent nuclear potential, and the characteristic impact parameter between the projectile and target nuclei.

  13. Effect of deflecting ring on noise generated by outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Junwei; Ding, Guoliang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-05-15

    In order to analyze the influence of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner, the flow field in the outdoor set is simulated with the CFD software STAR-CD, the relative turbulent intensities are computed and the influence of the width and contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed. The results of computation and experiment show that there is an optimal width of the deflecting ring, corresponding to the minimum noise generated by the outdoor set. In addition, the influence of the contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed and a double contoured duct is designed. The results of computation and experiment verify that the deflecting ring with double contoured duct can improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the noise generated by the outdoor set. (author)

  14. Transverse C-band deflecting structure for longitudinal electron-bunch-diagnosis in XFEL “SACLA”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ego, H., E-mail: ego@spring8.or.jp [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Maesaka, H.; Sakurai, T.; Otake, Y. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Hashirano, T.; Miura, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI), Itozaki, Mihara, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    In the 8 GeV compact X-ray FEL “SACLA,” a single bunch of electrons is compressed to a duration of approximately 30 fs to yield a peak current of 3 kA, which creates brilliant self-amplified spontaneous emission. To measure the longitudinal profile of an ultrashort electron bunch and verify the compression, we developed a high-gradient C-band RF deflecting structure 1.8 m long and periodically loaded with racetrack-shaped irises. The irises generated a high deflection gradient for the vertically deflecting HEM11-5π/6 dipole mode and suppressed rotation of the deflection plane. The two structures were fabricated and generated a stable total deflecting voltage exceeding 60 MV and revealed the longitudinal electron-bunch profile with an effective time resolution of approximately 10 fs.

  15. Viscoelastic Modelling of Road Deflections for use with the Traffic Speed Deflectometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louis

    This Ph.D. study is at its core about how asphalt and road structures responds to dynamic loads. Existing models for the deflections under a moving load using beam equations are revisited and it is concluded they leave room for improvement for the particular setup and problem at hand. Then a diff......This Ph.D. study is at its core about how asphalt and road structures responds to dynamic loads. Existing models for the deflections under a moving load using beam equations are revisited and it is concluded they leave room for improvement for the particular setup and problem at hand...... of a generalized Maxwell model. Validations by comparison to ViscoRoute simulations are also made. This justifies the use of the Laplace FEM for generating simulated data using a Huet-Sayegh model for the visco-elastic behaviour of asphalt. These simulated data, along with measured data, are then used to suggest...

  16. Principle and Feasibility of Electric or Magnetic Field Deflection-Projection Based Rapid Prototyping Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连洪; 李双义; 张宝峰; 熊晓明

    2003-01-01

    Rapid prototype manufacturing(RPM) is a new advanced manufacturing technology, which is based on the philosophy of materials increasing of lay by lay forming. Zero adventure rapid design/manufacturing can be realized with rapid prototypes of 3D CAD of products. Rapid prototyping has been an effective tool of R&D of new products. A novel rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP&M) technique is brought forward. The principle of the process is to form layered sections and to make the prototype or part layer-by-layer by deflection-projection of electric charged powder granules passing through electric or magnetic field and by controllable line and field scan of the powder granule beam. The feasibility issue of the process is theoretically and experimentally investigated.It shows that deflection-projection of electric charged powder granules beam passing through electric field can be significant and feasible to the rapid prototyping technique.

  17. Evaluating Loading Deflection of Distraction Osteogenic Rib in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weimin; Tang, Chenlu; Yang, Junyi; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of patients with partially atrophic rib and rib defects requires an ideal arc of the rib that has adequate bone length and width. To design and assemble a distraction device with a strain gauge, we need to establish an animal model for testing it during rib distraction osteogenesis. Osteotomies were performed at the same position in the fifth rib in 8 rabbits. Customized distraction devices attached to strain gauges were used to distract the ribs. After a month of distraction and consolidation, loading deflection gauges were used, and specimens were examined histologically to record bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis was carried out successfully in all rabbits when the device used to distract the rib up to 4 cm. The device can be used for strain testing during rib distraction osteogenesis performed in a rabbit model. There was no significant difference in the loading deflection gauges of the bone between osteogenic and contralateral ribs. This animal model of costal distraction osteogenesis is successful.

  18. The impact of galaxy cluster environment on the deflection properties of extragalactic gravitational lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Poplavsky, Alexander L

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the influence of a galaxy cluster halo on the deflection properties of its galaxies is investigated. For this purpose triaxial cluster halo models are developed based on the Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White density profiles. Applying Monte-Carlo technique external shear and convergence are modelled for random positions of a test galaxy within the cluster. In the simulations the following parameters of the cluster and galaxies are varied: density profile, its slope, mass, characteristic and outer radii. Also, galaxies in the close vicinity are treated separately, whereas distant objects are contributed to the smooth mass distribution. As a result of the multiple simulations robust estimations of external shear and convergence as well as their constraints relatively to variable cluster parameters and observer location effects are derived. It is demonstrated that the external deflection by the cluster mass strongly depends on the applied density profile.

  19. Deflected Pathways: Becoming Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, or Prosocial with Peers During the Transition to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2014-01-01

    Although research has suggested strong continuity in children's adaptive or maladaptive behavior with peers across the transition to adolescence, less is known about deflected developmental pathways of peer social competence across this transition. This study investigates how mother-child and best friend relationship quality predict the deflection of youth from adaptive to maladaptive behavior with peers or the reverse. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=1055), high-quality friendships were associated with changes in peer social competence from 3rd to 6th grade. More positive and fewer negative interactions with a friend were linked with becoming more prosocial with peers, whereas less positive interactions with a friend were linked to becoming aggressive or withdrawn. PMID:27231420

  20. Improvement on straightness of metal bar based on straightening stroke-deflection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEOPOLD; Juergen

    2009-01-01

    The straightening technics is one of important means to improve the straightness of metal bar. A nove way of predicting the straightening stroke is proposed based on mathematical methods and bending experimental and numerical simulation. The experimental and numerical simulation is conducted by following the mathematical load-stroke model of press straightening process under the elastic-plastic theory. For the linear guide rails, as an example, the stroke-deflection model focusing on the straight-ening stroke prediction can be achieved by contrasting and integrating the bending experimental results and finite element methods (FEM) simulation data. And then the formula for predicting the straightening stroke is presented based on the precise straightening stroke-deflection model. The stroke prediction formula with high precision can be applied to the straightening stroke prediction in the high straightness metal bar manufacturing process and automatic straightening machine conveniently.

  1. Improvement on straightness of metal bar based on straightening stroke-deflection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; LING He; LEOPOLD Juergen; ZHANG Xiao; GUO ChangQiao

    2009-01-01

    The straightening technics is one of important means to improve the straightness of metal bar. A novel way of predicting the straightening stroke is proposed based on mathematical methods and bending experimental and numerical simulation. The experimental and numerical simulation is conducted by following the mathematical load-stroke model of press straightening process under the elastic-plastic theory. For the linear guide rails, as an example, the stroke-deflection model focusing on the straightening stroke prediction can be achieved by contrasting and integrating the bending experimental results and finite element methods (FEM) simulation data. And then the formula for predicting the straightening stroke is presented based on the precise straightening stroke-deflection model. The stroke prediction formula with high precision can be applied to the straightening stroke prediction in the high straightness metal bar manufacturing process and automatic straightening machine conveniently.

  2. Deflection tomography of a complex flow field based on the visualization of projection array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Bin; Miao Zhanli, E-mail: zb-sh@163.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266061 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Tomographic techniques are used for the investigation of complex flow fields by means of deflectometric methods. A new deflection tomographic setup for obtaining an array of multidirectional deflectograms is presented. Deflection projections in different angles of view can be captured synchronously in same optical path condition and arranged on the camera in two rows with three views in each row. Tikhonov regularization method is used to reconstruct temperature distribution from deflectometric projection data. The conjugate gradient method is used to compute the regularized solution for the least-square equations. The asymmetric flame temperature distribution in the horizontal section was reconstructed from limited view angle projections. The experimental results of reconstruction from real projection data were satisfactory when compared with the direct thermocouple measurements.

  3. Fiber optic system for deflection and damage detection in morphing wing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerer, M.; Djinovic, Z.; Schüller, M.

    2013-04-01

    Within the EC Clean Sky - Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft initiative concepts for actuating morphing wing structures are under development. In order for developing a complete integrated system including the actuation, the structure to be actuated and the closed loop control unit a hybrid deflection and damage monitoring system is required. The aim of the project "FOS3D" is to develop and validate a fiber optic sensing system based on low-coherence interferometry for simultaneous deflection and damage monitoring. The proposed system uses several distributed and multiplexed fiber optic Michelson interferometers to monitor the strain distribution over the actuated part. In addition the same sensor principle will be used to acquire and locate the acoustic emission signals originated from the onset and growth of defects like impact damages, cracks and delamination's. Within this paper the authors present the concept, analyses and first experimental results of the mentioned system.

  4. Post-post-Newtonian deflection of light ray in multiple systems with PPN parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yan-Xiang; Wu Xiao-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The post-Newtonian scheme in multiple systems with post-Newtonian parameters presented by Klioner and Soffel is extended to the post-post-Newtonian (PPN) order for light propagation problem in the solar system. Under considering the solar system experiment requirement, a new parameter e is introduced. This extension does not change the virtue of the scheme on the linear partial differential equations of the potential and vector potential mentioned in previous work. Furthermore, this extension is based on the former work done by Richter and Matzner in one global system theory. As an application, we also consider the deflection of light ray in the global coordinates. And the deflection angle of light ray is obtained with post-Newtonian parameters.

  5. Wrinkling of extensional thin films through modified large deflection equations analytically and experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-H. R. Jen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stretch-induced wrinkling of thin films is solved through the modified von Kármán large deflection equations by first selecting the suitable deformation expressions that satisfy boundary conditions. Then, adopting the principle of minimum potential energy we obtain the deformations of simply supported rectangular thin films. The obtained significant deflections are nonlinearly elastic and of the lowest order of infinite solutions. The parameters of aspect ratio, the thickness and material of thin films are studied analytically and numerically. The highlighted results of wrinkle amplitude and load are in good agreement with experiments. The methodology also indicates the limit load impending plasticity and predicts the applied load precisely for each wrinkle. Further, it can be extended to the variety of multifunctional orthotropic and multi-layered thin films.

  6. Study on precision processing of L-form ZnSe deflect prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sizhe; Hui, Changshun; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Yongbin

    2016-10-01

    As the core component of optical system of Roll-Pitch seekers, the L-form ZnSe deflect prism is directly affecting the imaging quality of optical. For L-form defect prism's complex polyhedron plane structure and the feature of CVD ZnSe polycrystalline material, this paper propose one processing of single point diamond fly-cutting, analyze the transformation calculation method of each plane's coordinate. A kind of special clamp which ensure that all working surface of prism could be cut by once clamping is designed. Base on parameters of turning for CVD ZnSe , the deflect prisms are been processed, the measure result of angle error is below 12", the surface error (rms) reach 0.022λ, which satisfies the demand of manufacturing accuracy. It provide effective processing methods for optical parts with complex space.

  7. Analytical Approach to Predict Pre–Camber Deflection of the Pre-stressed Glulam Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshari B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to reinforce glulam timber beams using compressed wood (CW has been developed by the Author. The compressed wood blocks are inserted into pre-cut holes on the top of glulam beams to produce pre-camber and to generate initial tensile and compressive stresses on the top and on the bottom extreme fiber of the glulam beam, respectively. A simple analytical approach has been developed to predict pre-camber deflections of the beams reinforced with three CW blocks. Assuming that moisture-dependent expansion of the CW block creates an interactive linear pressure between the glulam beam and the CW block, this would generate a pair of eccentric force away from the neutral axis of the beam. It is shown that the pre-camber deflection predicted at midspan of the short beams with various reinforcing arrangements give good agreement with the measured pre-camber from previous experimental results.

  8. Direct measurement of the beam deflection angle using the axial B-dot field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhong He

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam position monitors are an important diagnostics tool for particle accelerator operation and related beam dynamics research. The measurement of the beam deflection angle, or moving direction of a charged particle beam with respect to the beam pipe axis, can provide useful additional information. Beam monitors sensitive to the beam’s azimuthal B-dot field (sometimes referred as B dots are used to measure the displacement (position of the beam centroid, as the beam generates a dipole term of the azimuthal magnetic field. Similarly, a dipole term of the axial magnetic field will be generated by the beam moving in a direction not parallel to the axis of the beam pipe. In this paper, a new method using the axial B-dot field is presented to measure the beam deflection angle directly, including the theoretical background. Simulations using the MAFIA numerical code have been performed, demonstrating a good agreement to the new established analytical model.

  9. Development and testing of a fracture energy-based model of explosive asteroid deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerkamp, James A.

    While asteroid deflection has been studied for the past half century, efforts have generally been directed towards methods that attempt to minimize disruption of the rock body. In order to widen the base of research, a fracture energy-based model of asteroid fragmentation was developed and applied to both asteroid scale and lab testable scale cases. Modeling of the orbital case suggests the capability to deflect a 100 meter diameter asteroid on a 10 year timescale. The model's predicted energy transfer is then compared to laboratory testing using a ballistic pendulum. The results of this testing suggest that the model as described overestimates the efficiency of energy transfer into momentum. However, further approaches are suggested that might improve model accuracy as well as energy transfer efficiency.

  10. Characterization of acoustic effects on flame structures by beam deflection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedat, B.; Kostiuk, L.W.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-10-01

    This work shows that the acoustic effects are the causes of the small amplitude flame wrinkling and movements seen in all the different gravitational conditions. The comparison between the acoustic velocity and beam deflection spectra for the two conditions studied (glass beads and fiber glass) demonstrates clearly this flame/acoustic coupling. This acoustic study shows that the burner behaves like a Helmholtz resonator. The estimated resonance frequency corresponds well to the experimental measurements. The fiber glass damps the level of the resonance frequency and the flame motion. The changes shown in normalized beam deflection spectra give further support of this damping. This work demonstrates that the acoustics has a direct influence on flame structure in the laminar case and the preliminary results in turbulent case also show a strong coupling. The nature of this flame/acoustic coupling are still not well understood. Further investigation should include determining the frequency limits and the sensitivity of the flame to acoustic perturbations.

  11. Deflecting Easy-axis of Fe304 Single Crystal Nanowires by Magnetic-field-induced Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Wang; S. Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    In order to control the orientation of easy-axis of magnetic nanowires, FesO4 single crystal nanowires with easy-axis perpendicular to wire-axis were prepared successfully by means of a magnetic-field-induced method. Analysis of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction pattern showed that there was a wide-angle deflection of easy-axis in the prepared Fe304 nanowires. A high saturation magnetization (82 emu/g) of the FesO4 nanowires was achieved at room temperature. The benefits and mechanism of the deflection of easy-axis from its wire-axis in FesO4 single crystal nanowires were discussed. The results are expected to broaden the magnetic properties of traditional ferrite nanowires.

  12. Nanoscale deflection detection of a cantilever-based biosensor using MOSFET structure: A theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryavi, Mohsen; Montazeri, Abbas; Tekieh, Tahereh; Sasanpour, Pezhman

    2016-10-01

    A novel method for detection of biological species based on measurement of cantilever deflection has been proposed and numerically evaluated. Employing the cantilever as a moving gate of a MOSFET structure, its deflection can be analyzed via current characterization of the MOSFET consequently. Locating the cantilever as a suspended gate of a MOSFET on a substrate, the distance between cantilever and oxide layer will change the carrier concentration. Accordingly, it will be resulted in different current voltage characteristics of the device which can be easily measured using simple apparatuses. In order to verify the proposed method, the performance of system has been theoretically analyzed using COMSOL platform. The simulation results have confirmed the performance and sensitivity of the proposed method.

  13. Roll and Bank Estimation Using GPS/INS and Suspension Deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell S. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method that provides an estimate of road bank by decoupling the vehicle roll due to the dynamics and the roll due to the road bank. Suspension deflection measurements were used to provide a measurement of the relative roll between the vehicle body frame and the axle frame or between the sprung mass and the unsprung mass, respectively. A deflection scaling parameter was found via suspension geometry and dynamic analysis. The relative roll measurement was then incorporated into two different kinematic navigation models based on extended Kalman filter (EKF architectures. Each algorithm was tested and then verified on the Prowler ATV experimental platform at the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT. Experimental data showed that both the cascaded and coupled approach performed well in providing estimates of the current vehicle roll and instantaneous road bank.

  14. Design and studies on the traveling wave transverse RF deflecting structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Ru; HOU Mi; DAI Jian-Ping; PEI Shi-Lun; PEI Guo-Xi

    2008-01-01

    With the development of free electron laser (FEL) and the international linear collider (ILC), the electron bunch length is getting smaller and smaller. The traveling-wave transverse RF deflecting structure is an important part of the RF deflecting method for bunch length measurement and phase space diagnostics.The operation mode in RF deflector is the "TM11-like" mode. Since the TM11-like mode in this structure has a pair of degenerate dipole modes, two additional holes are provided on either side of each iris to stabilize the mode. The simulation and optimization have been done. A prototype has been fabricated and tested. The cold test results have been compared with the simulations of the first three modes.

  15. Deflection of Light and Shapiro Delay: An Equivalent Medium Theory Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Khorasani, Sina Ataollah

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the deflection of light and Shapiro delay under the influence of gravity as described by Schwarzschild metric. We obtain an exact expression based on the coordinate velocity, as first set forth by Einstein, and present a discussion on the effect of velocity anisotropy. We conclude that the anisotropy in the coordinate velocity, as the velocity apparent to a distant observer, gives rise to a third order error in the deflection angle, so that the practical astronomical observations from gravitational lensing data remain inconclusive on the anisotropy. However, measurement of Shapiro delay provides a fairly convenient way to determine whether the spacetime is optically anisotropic for a distant observer or not. We calculate the Shapiro delay for a round trip path between Earth and Venus and observe excellent agreement to two experimentally reported values measured during a time span of six months in 1967, without any need to extra fitting parameters. This is while the expected delay obtained from an i...

  16. Multi-beamlet investigation of the deflection compensation methods of SPIDER beamlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltador, C., E-mail: carlo.baltador@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Chitarin, G.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A), Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from a Rf plasma) is an ion source test bed designed to extract and accelerate a negative ion current up to 40 A and 100 kV whose first beam is expected by the end of 2016. Two main effects perturb beamlet optics during the acceleration stage: space charge repulsion and the deflection induced by the permanent magnets (called co-extracted electron suppression magnets) embedded in the EG. The purpose of this work is to evaluate and compare benefits, collateral effects, and limitations of electrical and magnetic compensation methods for beamlet deflection. The study of these methods has been carried out by means of numerical modeling tools: multi-beamlet simulations have been performed for the first time.

  17. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  18. Deflection Determination of Reinforced Concrete Support Poles for Overhead Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains values of torque magnification ratio while shifting vertical loads due to horizontal wind forces affecting on supports of overhead transmission lines of 35 kV and higher. These values pertain to various types of unified reinforced concrete conic and cylindrical supports while changing climatic conditions. The values make it possible to exclude rather complicated calculations in respect of support deflection in the case when there is uncertainty in initial data.

  19. Route Height Connection Across the Sea by Using the Vertical Deflections and Ellipsoidal Height Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-yun; CHEN Yong-ning; LIU Xin; ZHONG Shi-xia; MAI Zhao-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Distance between the main land and island is so long that it is very difficult to precisely connect the height datum across the sea with the traditional method like the trigonometric leveling,or it is very expensive and takes long time to implement the height transfer with the geopotential technique.We combine the data of GPS surveying,astro-geodesy and EGM2008 to precisely connect the orthometric height across the sea with the improved astronomical leveling method in the paper.The Qiongzhou Strait is selected as the test area for the height connection over the sea.We precisely determine the geodetic latitudes,longitudes,heights and deflections of the vertical for four points on both sides across the strait.Modeled deflections of the vertical along the height connecting routes over the sea are determined with EGM2008 model based on the geodetic positions and heights of the sea segmentation points from DNSC08MSS model.Differences of the measured and modeled deflections of the vertical are calculated at four points on both sides and linearly change along the route.So the deflections of the vertical along the route over the sea can be improved by the linear interpolation model.The results are also in accord with those of trigonometirc levelings.The practical case shows that we can precisely connect the orthometric height across the Qiongzhou Strait to satisfy the requirement of order 3 leveling network of China.The method is very efficient to precisely connect the height datum across the sea along the route up to 80 km.

  20. Picoradian deflection measurement with an interferometric quasi-autocollimator using weak value amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew D; Hagedorn, Charles A; Schlamminger, Stephan; Gundlach, Jens H

    2011-04-15

    We present an "interferometric quasi-autocollimator" that employs weak value amplification to measure angular deflections of a target mirror. The device has been designed to be insensitive to all translations of the target. We present a conceptual explanation of the amplification effect used by the device. An implementation of the device demonstrates sensitivities better than 10 picoradians per root hertz between 10 and 200 Hz.

  1. Shape Tracking of a Dexterous Continuum Manipulator Utilizing Two Large Deflection Shape Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvardin, Amirhossein; Grupp, Robert; Murphy, Ryan J.; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous continuum manipulators (DCMs) can largely increase the reachable region and steerability for minimally and less invasive surgery. Many such procedures require the DCM to be capable of producing large deflections. The real-time control of the DCM shape requires sensors that accurately detect and report large deflections. We propose a novel, large deflection, shape sensor to track the shape of a 35 mm DCM designed for a less invasive treatment of osteolysis. Two shape sensors, each with three fiber Bragg grating sensing nodes is embedded within the DCM, and the sensors’ distal ends fixed to the DCM. The DCM centerline is computed using the centerlines of each sensor curve. An experimental platform was built and different groups of experiments were carried out, including free bending and three cases of bending with obstacles. For each experiment, the DCM drive cable was pulled with a precise linear slide stage, the DCM centerline was calculated, and a 2D camera image was captured for verification. The reconstructed shape created with the shape sensors is compared with the ground truth generated by executing a 2D–3D registration between the camera image and 3D DCM model. Results show that the distal tip tracking accuracy is 0.40 ± 0.30 mm for the free bending and 0.61 ± 0.15 mm, 0.93 ± 0.05 mm and 0.23 ± 0.10 mm for three cases of bending with obstacles. The data suggest FBG arrays can accurately characterize the shape of large-deflection DCMs.

  2. Flow visualization and interpretation of visualization data for deflected thrust V/STOL nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H. C.; Burstadt, P. L.; Johns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were made for four deflected thrust nozzle models at subsonic speeds. Based on topological rules and the assumption that observed streaks constitute continuous vector fields, available visualization pictures are interpreted and flow patterns on interior surfaces of the nozzles are synthesized. In particular, three dimensional flow structure and separations are discussed. From the synthesized patterns, the overall features of the flow field in a given nozzle can be approximately perceived. Previously announced in STAR as N84-14147

  3. Acousto-optic modulation and deflection of terahertz electromagnetic radiation in nonpolar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, P. A.; Voloshinov, V. B.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Knyazev, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The results of a series of experiments on controlled deflection of electromagnetic radiation of a free-electron laser upon diffraction by an acoustic wave in nonpolar liquids are presented. Acoustic and optical properties of liquids that are transparent in the terahertz range are discussed. It is demonstrated that nonpolar liquids may turn out to be a more efficient acousto-optic interaction medium than dielectric crystals or semiconductors.

  4. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy system based on probe beam deflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M.; Tsyboulskic, Dmitri; Roth, Caleb C.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Beier, Hope T.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2016-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve sub-micron resolution in backward mode OA microscopy using conventional piezoelectric detectors, because of wavefront distortions caused by components placed in the optical path, between the sample and the objective lens, that are required to separate the acoustic wave from the optical beam. As an alternate approach, an optoacoustic microscope (OAM) was constructed using the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) to detect laserinduced acoustic signals. The all-optical OAM detects laser-generated pressure waves using a probe beam passing through a coupling medium, such as water, filling the space between the microscope objective lens and sample. The acoustic waves generated in the sample propagate through the coupling medium, causing transient changes in the refractive index that deflect the probe beam. These deflections are measured with a high-speed, balanced photodiode position detector. The deflection amplitude is directly proportional to the magnitude of the acoustic pressure wave, and provides the data required for image reconstruction. The sensitivity of the PBDT detector expressed as noise equivalent pressure was 12 Pa, comparable to that of existing high-performance ultrasound detectors. Because of the unimpeded working distance, a high numerical aperture objective lens, i.e. NA = 1, was employed in the OAM to achieve near diffraction-limited lateral resolution of 0.5 μm at 532nm. The all-optical OAM provides several benefits over current piezoelectric detector-based systems, such as increased lateral and axial resolution, higher sensitivity, robustness, and potentially more compatibility with multimodal instruments.

  5. Development of Experimental Device for Compression Load Deflection of Car Door Seals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建才; 朱训生; 万德安

    2003-01-01

    A new experimental device has been developed for analyzing compression load deflection of the door seal by using stereovision theory. Precision instruments of optical grating and force sensor are also integrated in this device. Force-displacement response characteristics of compression at varied speed can be controlled. Solid foundations for characteristic and structure as well as optimization design of the car door seal are elucidated.

  6. Applicability valuation for evaluation of surface deflection in automotive outer panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Park

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Upon unloading in a forming process there is elastic recovery, which is the release of the elasticstrains and the redistribution of the residual stresses through the thickness direction, thus producing surfacedeflection. It causes changes in shape and dimensions that can create major problem in the external appearanceof outer panels. Thus surface deflection prediction is an important issue in sheet metal forming industry. Manyfactors could affect surface deflection in the process, such as material variations in mechanical properties, sheetthickness, tool geometry, processing parameters and lubricant condition.Design/methodology/approach: Numerical simulation of process was performed by the use of finite elementmethod, paying attention particularly to the thickness distribution and surface deflection of the drawn outerpanel and the outline flange during forming. Simulation procedures of automotive outer panel as large size shapeare as follows; 1 Acquisition of drawing parts 2 Laser scanning for generating CAD model 3 CAD modelgeneration 4 Simulation model operation 5 Simulation execution and analyses of simulation results.Findings: The development of automation in stamping and assembly processes of automobile manufacture willrequire an excellent surface quality of formed panels and also their accurate dimensions.Practical implications: The use of high strength steel sheets in the manufacturing of automobile outer panels hasincreased in the automotive industry over the years because of its lightweight and fuel-efficient improvement.But one of the major concerns of stamping is surface deflection in the formed outer panels. Hence, to be costeffective, accurate prediction must be made of its formability. The automotive industry places rigid constraintson final shape and dimensional tolerances as well as external appearance quality of outer panels. The numericalsimulation makes it possible to design and optimize the total process to a level

  7. Deflection measurement system for the hybrid iii six-year-old biofidelic abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, T Stan; Howes, Meghan K; Rouhana, Stephen W; Hardy, Warren N

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for children ages 5 to 14. Enhancement of child occupant protection is partly dependent on the ability to accurately assess the interaction of child-size occupants with restraint systems. Booster seat design and belt fit are evaluated using child anthropomorphic test devices, such as the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy., A biofidelic abdomen for the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy is being developed by the Ford Motor Company to enhance the dummy’s ability to assess injury risk and further quantify submarining risk by measuring abdominal deflection. A practical measurement system for the biofidelic abdominal insert has been developed and demonstrated for three dimensional determination of abdominal deflection. Quantification of insert deflection is achieved via differential signal measurement using electrodes mounted within a conductive medium. Signal amplitude is proportional to the distance between the electrodes. A microcontroller is used to calculate distances between ventral electrodes and a dorsal electrode in three dimensions. This system has been calibrated statically, and its performance demonstrated in a series of sled tests. Deflection measurements from the instrumented abdominal insert indicate performance differences between two booster seat designs, yielding an average peak anterior to posterior displacement of the abdomen of 1.0 ± 3.4 mm and 31.2 ± 7.2 mm for the seats, respectively. Implementation of a 6-year-old abdominal insert with the ability to evaluate submarining potential will likely help safety researchers further enhance booster seat design and interaction with vehicle restraint systems , and help to further understand child occupant injury risk in automobile collisions.

  8. Deflecting cavity dynamics for time-resolved machine studies of SXFEL user facility

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Minghao; Liu, Bo; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency deflectors are widely used for time-resolved electron beam energy, emittance and radiation profile measurements in modern free electron laser facilities. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics aspects of the deflecting cavity of SXFEL user facility, which is located at the exit of the undulator. With a targeted time resolution around 10 fs, it is expected to be an important tool for time-resolved commissioning and machine studies for SXFEL user facility.

  9. Deflection and focusing of charged particles by cavities of general shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, G.

    1991-04-01

    The integrated transverse momentum change of a charged particle in the rf field of a cavity can be related to the change of its voltage gain due to a virtual transverse displacement of its orbit. Formulas for the particle deflection are derived, which are a generalisation of the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem to an arbitrary cavity shape and to curved orbits through the cavity. In addition, some useful formulas for the transverse and longitudinal focusing are presented.

  10. Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2013-06-21

    A broadband terahertz wave deflector based on metasurface induced phase discontinuities is reported. Various frequency components ranging from 0.43 to 1.0 THz with polarization orthogonal to the incidence are deflected into a broad range of angles from 25° to 84°. A Fresnel zone plate consequently developed from the beam deflector is capable of focusing a broadband terahertz radiation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F

    2006-11-17

    Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stresses, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed into a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to asses the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.

  12. Toward Identifying Needed Investments in Modeling and Simulation Tools for NEO Deflection Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Its time: a) To bring planetary scientists, deflection system investigators and vehicle designers together on the characterization/mitigation problem. b) To develop a comprehensive trade space of options. c) To trade options under a common set of assumptions and see what comparisons on effectiveness can be made. d) To explore the synergy that can be had with proposed scientific and exploration architectures while interest in NEO's are at an all time high.

  13. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... containing systems and are characterized using techniques in optical spectroscopy. Of the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy, particular attention has been paid to those based on time-resolved measurements and polarization, which is reflected in the experiment design in the projects. Not all...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  14. Detecting Local Deflection Patterns of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays using the Principal Axes of the Directional Energy Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Erdmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From deflections in galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields energy dependent structures in the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are expected. We propose to characterize these structures by the strength of collimation of energy along the principal axes in selected regions in the sky. While the strength of collimation are indicators of anisotropy in the arrival distribution of UHECR, the orientation of the principal system holds information about the direction of the deflections of UHECR. We discuss the method and present expected limits on the strength of deflection and density of sources using simulated scenarios of UHECR proton propagation.

  15. Diffusion-induced deflection and the effect of two-wave mixing gain on dissipative photovoltaic solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shi-Xiong; Liu Jin-Song; Zhang Hui-Lan; Zhang Guang-Yong; Wang Cheng

    2007-01-01

    In an open-circuit dissipative photovoltaic (PV) crystal, by considering the diffusion effect, the deflection of bright dissipative photovoltaic (DPV) solitons has been investigated by employing numerical technique and perturbational procedure. The relevant results show that the centre of the optical beam moves along a parabolic trajectory, while the central spatial-frequency component shifts linearly with the propagation distance; furthermore, both the spatial deflection and the angular derivation are associated with the photovoltaic field. Such DPV solitons have a fixed deflection degree completely determined by the parameters of the dissipative system. The small bending cannot affect the formation of the DPV soliton via two-wave mixing.

  16. The Influence of Radiation Damage on the Deflection of High-Energy Beams in Bent Silicon Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Biino, C; Doble, Niels T; Elsener, K; Gatignon, L; Grafström, P; Mikkelsen, U; Kirsebom, K; Møller, S P; Uggerhøj, Erik; Worm, T

    1996-01-01

    Experimental results obtained for deflection of 450 GeV/c protons channeling along the {111} planes in a bent, strongly irradiated silicon crystal are presented. A comparison between the deflection efficiencies in irradiated areas and non-irradiated areas in the crystal shows that irradiation by 2.4 · 1020 protons/cm2 leads to a reduction of around 30 % in deflection efficiency. As a consequence, beam-splitting and extraction from an accelerator by means of a bent crystal are feasible solutions at high energies even for intense beams and during long periods.

  17. High-efficiency deflection of high energy protons due to channeling along the axis of a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Masi, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Smirnov, G.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Chaumat, V.; Dubos, S.; Maalmi, J.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Addesa, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Denisov, A. S.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Malyarenko, L. G.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; James, T.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2016-09-01

    A deflection efficiency of about 61% was observed for 400 GeV/c protons due to channeling, most strongly along the axis of a bent silicon crystal. It is comparable with the deflection efficiency in planar channeling and considerably larger than in the case of the axis. The measured probability of inelastic nuclear interactions of protons in channeling along the axis is only about 10% of its amorphous level whereas in channeling along the (110) planes it is about 25%. High efficiency deflection and small beam losses make this axial orientation of a silicon crystal a useful tool for the beam steering of high energy charged particles.

  18. A Modified Model for Deflection Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Deformed GFRP Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experimental and analytical research to evaluate the flexural capacity and the moment-deflection relationship of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars. The proposed model to predict the effective moment of inertia for R/C beam with GFRP bars was developed empirically, based on Branson’s equation to have better accuracy and a familiar approach to a structural engineer. For better prediction of the moment-deflection relationship until the ultimate strength is reached, a nonlinear parameter (k was also considered. This parameter was introduced to reduce the effect of the cracked moment of inertia for the reinforced concrete member, including a lower reinforcement ratio and modulus of elasticity of the GFRP bar. In a comparative study using six equations suggested by others, the proposed model showed better agreement with the experimental test results. It was confirmed that the empirical modification based on Branson’s equation was valid for predicting the effective moment of inertia of R/C beams with GFRP bar in this study. To evaluate the generality of the proposed model, a comparative study using previous test results from the literature and the results from this study was carried out. It was found that the proposed model had better accuracy and was a familiar approach to structural engineers to predict and evaluate the deflection behavior.

  19. On Possibility of Direct Asteroid Deflection by Electric Solar Wind Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikallio, Sini; Janhunen, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    The Electric Solar Wind Sail (E-sail) is a new propulsion method for interplanetary travel which was invented in 2006 and is currently under development. The E-sail uses charged tethers to extract momentum from the solar wind particles to obtain propulsive thrust. According to current estimates, the E-sail is 2-3 orders of magnitude better than traditional propulsion methods (chemical rockets and ion engines) in terms of produced lifetime-integrated impulse per propulsion system mass. Here we analyze the problem of using the E-sail for directly deflecting an Earth-threatening asteroid. The problem then culminates into how to attach the E-sail device to the asteroid. We assess a number of alternative attachment strategies and arrive at a recommendation of using the gravity tractor method because of its workability for a wide variety of asteroid types. We also consider possible techniques to scale up the E-sail force beyond the baseline one Newton level to deal with more imminent or larger asteroid or cometary threats. As a baseline case we consider a 3 million ton asteroid which can be deflected with a baseline 1 N E-sail in 5-10 years. Once developed, the E-sail would appear to provide a safe and reasonably low-cost way of deflecting dangerous asteroids and other heavenly bodies in cases where the collision threat becomes known several years in advance.

  20. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  1. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Material and Methods: Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s tests. Results: Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Conclusions: Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces. PMID:28125144

  2. Effects of salicylate on sound-evoked outer hair cell stereocilia deflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakizimana, Pierre; Fridberger, Anders

    2015-09-01

    Hearing depends on sound-evoked deflections of the stereocilia that protrude from the sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Although sound provides an important force driving stereocilia, forces generated through mechanically sensitive ion channels and through the motor protein prestin have been shown to influence stereocilia motion in solitary hair cells. While a possible influence of prestin on mechanically sensitive ion channels has not been systematically investigated, a decrease in transducer currents is evident in solitary hair cells when prestin is blocked with salicylate, raising the question of whether a reduced prestin activity or salicylate itself affected the mechanotransduction apparatus. We used two- and three-dimensional time-resolved confocal imaging to visualize outer hair cell stereocilia during sound stimulation in the apical turn of cochlear explant preparations from the guinea pig. Surprisingly, following application of salicylate, outer hair cell stereocilia deflections increased, while cochlear microphonic potentials decreased. However, when prestin activity was altered with the chloride ionophore tributyltin, both the cochlear microphonic potential and the stereocilia deflection amplitude decreased. Neither positive nor negative current stimulation abolished the bundle movements in the presence of salicylate, indicating that the observed effects did not depend on the endocochlear potential. These data suggest that salicylate may alter the mechanical properties of stereocilia, decreasing their bending stiffness.

  3. A note on the deflection of a baroclinic current by a continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Y.; Zhong, Liejun

    2003-05-01

    The deflection, at a step-shelf fronted coast, of a constant potential vorticity current in a reduced-gravity, inviscid model ocean is studied theoretically. The step shelf, with a depth smaller than the reservoir depth, forces the uplifting of the approaching current and causes water column foreshortening, leading to relative vorticity generation that enhances current deflection to the right (facing the coast). As a consequence, in comparison to the case of a vertical wall coast, the proportion of the transport to the right is increased. For normal incidence for a shelf-depth/reservoir-depth ratio of 0.3 and shelf width to deformation radius ratio of 1.5, more than 90% of the approaching current transport goes to the right and less than 10% to the left. In addition, the (barotropic) dynamic pressure at the coast is low to the right and high to the left (with the highest pressure at the stagnation point). In the vertical wall case, the wall pressures on the flank are equal. For oblique incidence from the left, the deflection to the left is drastically reduced. In fact, there is practically no steady-state flow diverted to the left (less than 2%) when the approach angle is greater than 60° to the left of normal. In the vertical wall case, the same angle would have to be 90° for the flow to the left to vanish, namely only when the approach current is parallel to the coast to the right.

  4. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM, active (In-Ovation RTM and passive (Damon 3MXTM self-ligating brackets. Material and Methods: Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi wires (MorelliTM and GACTM, in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s tests. Results: Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Conclusions: Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  5. Analysis of the deflection of a strut-type lattice girder truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Kirsanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical dependence of the deflection of a statically determinate plane elastic truss with a uniform loading of the upper zone has been found. Forces in rods were determined using the joint isolation method. A system of equilibrium equations has been compiled in matrix form. Midspan deflection has been calculated based on the Maxwell-Mohr formula. All character conversion has been executed in the Maple computer algebra system. The method of induction on the number of panels in the truss was used. Recurrent equations for general members of the sequences of coefficients were obtained and solved using the genfunc operators package from the Maple system. The dependencies of the forces in the rods of the truss and of its deflection on the number of panels are non-monotonic, which is generally characteristic of lattice struts. We have also shown that for an odd number of panels the truss is instantaneously variable. The distribution of possible nodal velocities is given for this case.

  6. North-South asymmetry in the magnetic deflection of polar coronal hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nistico', Giuseppe; Patsourakos, Spiros; Bothmer, Volker; Nakariakov, Valery M

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field in the interplanetary medium, of the sunspots area, and of the heliospheric current sheet position, reveal a possible North-South asymmetry in the magnetic field of the Sun. We study the North-South asymmetry as inferred from measurements of the deflection of polar coronal hole jets when they propagate throughout the corona. Since the corona is an environment where the magnetic pressure is greater than the kinetic pressure, we can assume that magnetic field controls the dynamics of plasma. On average, jets during their propagation follow the magnetic field lines, highlighting its local direction. The average jet deflection is studied both in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight, and, for a reduced number of jets, in three dimensional space. The observed jet deflection is studied in terms of an axisymmetric magnetic field model comprising dipole We measured the position angles at 1 rs and at 2 rs of the 79 jets from the catalogue of Nistico et al 2009., based on the S...

  7. Challenges of deflecting an asteroid or comet nucleus with a nuclear burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Cathy S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clement, Ryan R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Le Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, Joyce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pritchett - Sheets, Lori A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [SWRI

    2009-01-01

    There are many natural disasters that humanity has to deal with over time. These include earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, asteroid strikes, and so on. Some of these disasters occur slowly enough that some advance warning is possible for affected areas. In this case, the response is to evacuate the affected area and deal wilh the damage later. The Katrina and Rita hurricane evacuations on the U.S. Gulf Coasl in 2005 demonstrated the chaos that can result from such a response. In contrast with other natural disasters, it is likely that an asteroid or comet nucleus on a collision course with Earth will be detected with enough warning time to possibly deflect it away. Thanks to Near-Earth Object (NED) surveys, people are working towards a goal of cataloging at least 90% of all near-Earth objects with diameters larger than {approx} 140 meters in the next fifteen years. The important question then, is how to mitigate the threat from an asteroid or comet nucleus found to be on a collision course with Earth. In this paper. we briefly review some possible deflection methods, describe their good and bad points, and then embark on a more detailed description of using nuclear munitions in a standoff mode to deflect the asteroid or comet nucleus before it can hit Earth.

  8. Dynamics and control of a solar collector system for near Earth object deflection *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-Ping Gong; Jun-Feng Li; Yun-Feng Gao

    2011-01-01

    A solar collector system is a possible method using solar energy to deflect Earth-threatening near-Earth objects. We investigate the dynamics and control of a solar collector system including a main collector (MC) and secondary collector (SC).The MC is used to collect the sunlight to its focal point, where the SC is placed and directs the collected light to an asteroid. Both the relative position and attitude of the two collectors should be accurately controlled to achieve the desired optical path. First,the dynamical equation of the relative motion of the two collectors in the vicinity of the asteroid is modeled. Secondly, the nonlinear sliding-mode method is employed to design a control law to achieve the desired configuration of the two collectors. Finally,the deflection capability of this solar collector system is compared with those of the gravitational tractor and solar sail gravitational tractor. The results show that the solar collector is much more efficient with respect to deflection capability.

  9. Eddies and a mesoscale deflection of the slope current in the Faroe Shetland Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Turrell, W. R.; Jeans, D. R. G.; Dye, S.

    1999-03-01

    The mesoscale dynamics of the Scottish side of the Faroe-Shetland Channel have been investigated using synoptic in situ and remote sensing observations. A cold core cyclonic eddy, identified from an AVHRR image, had a diameter of about 50 km and surface current speeds of up to 50 cm s -1; it appeared to be attached to the 800 m isobath as it moved north-eastward along the edge of the channel at about 8 cm s -1. Speeds in the slope current were about 50 cm s -1 but increased to 70 cm s -1 where the current was compressed by the eddy. Offshore, over the 1000 m isobath in the cooler water, speeds in the current were slower (ca. 20 cm s -1). North-west of the Shetlands the offshore edge of the slope current was deflected across the channel for a distance of about 70 km from the shelf edge. The speed of drifters in the slope current increased to over 60 cm s -1 as they moved anti-cyclonically around this deflection. CTD profiles suggest that the movement of the surface waters was mirrored in the deep water of the channel. The deflection carried a very large quantity of North Atlantic Water into the central part of the channel; its cause and ultimate fate are not known, although it is likely to have had a significant impact on the dynamics of the channel.

  10. A Two-Dimensional Deflection Sensor Based on Force Sensing Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangqiang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible deflection sensor for elastic shaft with the capability of measuring the amplitude and direction of bending is introduced in this paper. A thin force sensing resistors (FSR film is taken as its basic material, which is sandwiched by an elastomer layer and a printed circuit board (PCB with detecting electrode grids. Two fix rings are used to fix the three thin components perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the flexible shaft. When the shaft bends under forces, the fix rings will generate a normal pressure on FSR, which will cause the change of the resistance. Therefore, the amplitude of bending can be got based on the value of resistance. The electrode grid on the PCB is divided into four detection areas used to estimate the distribution of normal pressure on the FSR; thus the bending direction of shaft can also be obtained. Test results of a prototype (140 mm in length show that the amplitude of deflection can reach 30 mm and the sensitivities of sensor are 40.37, 32.8, 37.77, and 39.47 mV/mm in the four directions, respectively. The proposed flexible deflection sensor can be applied in continuum robots or other applications, which require rapid measurement of bending amplitude and direction.

  11. Cupula displacement, hair bundle deflection, and physiological responses in the transparent semicircular canal of young eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, A; Thurm, U

    1989-03-01

    The transparent labyrinth of young eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) was used in toto for studying the configuration of cupula displacement, deflection of the hair bundle, and correlated changes in transepithelial voltage (delta TEV) and nerve activity (delta NA) in the semicircular canal. Microcapillaries were introduced into the canal through holes produced by a microthermocauter. Mechanical stimulation was applied either by injection of fluid into the ampulla or by electromagnetically displacing ferrofluid as a piston within the canal. Motion of individual kinocilia, stained cupulae or the ferrofluid piston was analysed by double-exposed microphotographs, photodiodes, or a video-system. The three-dimensional cupula displacement configuration was found to be piston- to diaphragm-like. Hair bundles at different sites on the crista exhibit differences in amplitude and time course of deflection. The transfer factor between shifts of the canal fluid and the tips of the kinocilia is 0.4-0.6. Displacements in opposite directions induce delta TEV and delta NA of opposite sign. Various tests confirmed delta TEV to reflect receptor potential responses. Nerve activity adapts to a tonic response with a time constant of 6.4 s. No similar adaptation occurred in delta TEV. Stimulus-response curves of TEV- and NA-responses are similar and sigmoid in shape with saturation at ciliary deflections of roughly +6 degrees and -3 degrees.

  12. RF deflecting cavity design for Berkeley ultrafast X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Corlett, J.

    2002-05-01

    Our proposed source for production of ultra-short (less than 100 fs FWHM) x-ray pulses utilizes a scheme for manipulation of the relatively long (2 ps) electron bunch in transverse phase-space, followed by compression of the emitted x-ray pulse in crystal optics. In order to compress the x-ray pulses, RF cavities operating in a dipole mode (TM110-like) are required to deflect the head and tail of a 2.5 GeV bunch in opposite directions. For a 2 ps duration electron bunch, an 8.5 MV deflecting voltage is required at a RF frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper, we will present a preliminary cavity design based on numerical simulations performed by MAFIA and URMEL codes. Seven-cell superconducting p mode dipole RF cavities are proposed to provide the necessary deflecting voltage. Due to the presence of beam iris, the mavities operate in a hybrid mode where TM and TE like modes co-exist. Even on mhe beam axis, both magnetic and electric fields contribute to the transverse mick. Lower order monopole modes (LOMs) in the cavities may cause energy spread of the electron beam and need to be damped. The effects of the LOMs on beam dynamics are estimated. Possible damping schemes will be discussed.

  13. RF deflecting cavity design for Berkeley ultrafast X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Derun; Corlett, J.

    2002-05-30

    Our proposed source for production of ultra-short (less than 100 fs FWHM) x-ray pulses utilizes a scheme for manipulation of the relatively long ({approx}2 ps) electron bunch in transverse phase-space, followed by compression of the emitted x-ray pulse in crystal optics [1]. In order to compress the x-ray pulses, RF cavities operating in a dipole mode (TM{sub 110}-like) are required to deflect the head and tail of a 2.5 GeV bunch in opposite directions. For a 2 ps duration electron bunch, an 8.5 MV deflecting voltage is required at a RF frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper, we will present a preliminary cavity design based on numerical simulations performed by MAFIA and URMEL codes. Seven-cell superconducting {pi} mode dipole RF cavities are proposed to provide the necessary deflecting voltage. Due to the presence of beam iris, the cavities operate in a hybrid mode where TM and TE like modes co-exist. Even on the beam axis, both magnetic and electric fields contribute to the transverse kick. Lower order monopole modes (LOMs) in the cavities may cause energy spread of the electron beam and need to be damped. The effects of the LOMs on beam dynamics are estimated. Possible damping schemes will be discussed.

  14. Smart earthquake-resistant materials: using time-released adhesives for damping, stiffening, and deflection control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    1996-04-01

    Preventing buildings and bridges from damage from severe dynamic loading events is a primary goal of civil infrastructure. Present designs attempt to control structural response by making the structures more massive, by increasing lateral stiffness through bracing, and by damping technology such as mass damping and base-isolation. These attempts affect portions of the governing equation: for an idealized building frame or bridge, the free vibrational behavior is described by Mu + cu + ku equals -mug(t) where m equals mass, c equals damping coefficient, k equals lateral stiffness, u equals deflection, and ug(t) equals ground acceleration. The use of adhesive released internally in a material based way of addressing the problem. The time release of low modulus adhesive chemicals would assist the damping characteristics of the structure, use of a stiffer adhesive would allow the damaged structure to regain some lateral stiffness (k) and adjustment of the set times of the adhesives would act to control the deflection. These can be thought of as potential new method of controlling vibration of behavior in case of a dynamic loading event. In past experiments, self-healing concrete matrices were shown to increase post-yield deflection and load carrying capability by the release and setting of adhesives. The results were promising in resisting damage of dynamic loads applied to frames. This indicates that self-healing concrete would be extremely valuable in civil engineering structures that were subjected to failure-inducing loads such as earthquakes.

  15. Rotational and translational considerations in kinetic impact deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Xu, Bo; Circi, Christian; Zhang, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Kinetic impact may be the most reliable and easily implemented method to deflect hazardous asteroids using current technology. Depending on warning time, it can be effective on asteroids with diameters of a few hundred meters. Current impact deflection research often focuses on the orbital dynamics of asteroids. In this paper, we use the ejection outcome of a general oblique impact to calculate how an asteroid's rotational and translational state changes after impact. The results demonstrate how small impactors affect the dynamical state of small asteroids having a diameter of about 100 m. According to these consequences, we propose using several small impactors to hit an asteroid continuously and gently, making the deflection mission relatively flexible. After calculating the rotational variation, we find that the rotational state, especially of slender non-porous asteroids, can be changed significantly. This gives the possibility of using multiple small impactors to mitigate a potentially hazardous asteroid by spinning it up into pieces, or to despin one for future in-situ investigation (e.g., asteroid retrieval or mining).

  16. Study of Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Subang Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizhah, R.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of eco-friendly composites has been increasing in the past four decades because the requirement of eco-friendly materials has been increasing. Indonesia has a lot of natural fiber resources and, pineapple leaf fiber is one of those fibers. This study aimed to determine the influence of weight fraction of pineapple leaf fibers, that were grown at Subang, to the tensile properties and the deflection temperature of polypropylene/Subang pineapple leaf fiber composites. Pineapple leaf fibers were pretreated by alkalization, while polypropylene pellets, as the matrix, were extruded into sheets. Hot press method was used to fabricate the composites. The results of the tensile test and Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) test showed that the composites that contained of 30 wt.% pineapple leaf fiber was the best composite. The values of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and deflection temperature were (64.04 ± 3.91) MPa; (3.98 ± 0.55) GPa and (156.05 ± 1.77) °C respectively, in which increased 187.36%, 198.60%, 264.72% respectively from the pristine polypropylene. The results of the observation on the fracture surfaces showed that the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failure.

  17. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  18. Self-deflection of bright soliton in a separate bright-dark screening soliton pair based on higher-order space charge field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghua Hao(郝中华); Jinsong Liu(刘劲松)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the interaction of the separate soliton pair, the self-deflection of the bright screening soliton in a bright-dark pair is studied by taking the higher order space charge field into account. Both numerical and analytical methods are adopted to obtain the result that the higher order of space charge field can enhance the deflection process of the bright soliton and varying the peak intensity of the dark soliton can influence the self-deflection strongly. The expression of the deflection distance with the dark soliton's peak intensity is derived, and some corresponding properties of the self-deflection process are figured out.

  19. The Significance of the Influence of the CME Deflection in Interplanetary Space on the CME Arrival at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Siqing; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Zonghao; Li, Huimin; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    As one of the most violent astrophysical phenomena, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have strong potential space weather effects. However, not all Earth-directed CMEs encounter the Earth and produce geo-effects. One reason is the deflected propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space. Although there have been several case studies clearly showing such deflections, it has not yet been statistically assessed how significantly the deflected propagation would influence the CME’s arrival at Earth. We develop an integrated CME-arrival forecasting (iCAF) system, assembling the modules of CME detection, three-dimensional (3D) parameter derivation, and trajectory reconstruction to predict whether or not a CME arrives at Earth, and we assess the deflection influence on the CME-arrival forecasting. The performance of iCAF is tested by comparing the two-dimensional (2D) parameters with those in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center catalog, comparing the 3D parameters with those of the gradual cylindrical shell model, and estimating the success rate of the CME Earth-arrival predictions. It is found that the 2D parameters provided by iCAF and the CDAW catalog are consistent with each other, and the 3D parameters derived by the ice cream cone model based on single-view observations are acceptable. The success rate of the CME-arrival predictions by iCAF with deflection considered is about 82%, which is 19% higher than that without deflection, indicating the importance of the CME deflection for providing a reliable forecasting. Furthermore, iCAF is a worthwhile project since it is a completely automatic system with deflection taken into account.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  1. Analysis on the Deflection Angle of Columnar Dendrites of Continuous Casting Steel Billets Under the Influence of Mold Electromagnetic Stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xincheng; Wang, Shengqian; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Conejo, Alberto; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-11-01

    In the current study, the deflection angle of columnar dendrites on the cross section of steel billets under mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS) was observed. A mathematical model was developed to define the effect of M-EMS on fluid flow and then to analyze the relationship between flow velocities and deflection angle. The model was validated using experimental data that was measured with a Tesla meter on magnetic intensity. By coupling the numerical results with the experimental data, it was possible to define a relationship between the velocities of the fluid with the deflection angle of high-carbon steel. The deflection angle of high-carbon steel reached maximum values from 18 to 23 deg for a velocity from 0.35 to 0.40 m/s. The deflection angles of low-carbon steel under different EM parameters were discussed. The deflection angle of low-carbon steel was increased as the magnetic intensity, EM force, and velocity of molten steel increased.

  2. MODELING SUPERSONIC-JET DEFLECTION IN THE HERBIG–HARO 110-270 SYSTEM WITH HIGH-POWER LASERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Dawei; Li, Yutong; Lu, Xin; Yin, Chuanlei; Su, Luning; Liao, Guoqian; Zhang, Jie [National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wu, Junfeng; Wang, Lifeng; He, Xiantu [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhong, Jiayong; Wei, Huigang; Zhang, Kai; Han, Bo; Zhao, Gang [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Jiang, Shaoen; Du, Kai; Ding, Yongkun [Research Center for Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhu, Jianqiang, E-mail: ytli@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: jzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [National Laboratory on High Power Lasers and Physics, Shanghai, 201800 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Herbig–Haro (HH) objects associated with newly born stars are typically characterized by two high Mach number jets ejected in opposite directions. However, HH 110 appears to only have a single jet instead of two. Recently, Kajdi et al. measured the proper motions of knots in the whole system and noted that HH 110 is a continuation of the nearby HH 270. It has been proved that the HH 270 collides with the surrounding mediums and is deflected by 58°, reshaping itself as HH 110. Although the scales of the astrophysical objects are very different from the plasmas created in the laboratory, similarity criteria of physical processes allow us to simulate the jet deflection in the HH 110/270 system in the laboratory with high power lasers. A controllable and repeatable laboratory experiment could give us insight into the deflection behavior. Here we show a well downscaled experiment in which a laser-produced supersonic-jet is deflected by 55° when colliding with a nearby orthogonal side-flow. We also present a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation with the Euler program, LARED-S, to reproduce the deflection. Both are in good agreement. Our results show that the large deflection angle formed in the HH 110/270 system is probably due to the ram pressure from a flow–flow collision model.

  3. 一种基于PDS、TIE和PMI的快速PAM聚类算法%AN EFFICIENT PAM CLUSTERING ALGORITHM BASED ON PDS,TIE AND PMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建仁; 陆佩忠

    2008-01-01

    PAM(Partitioning Around Medoids)是一种基于k-中心点的聚类算法,在处理数据集聚类时,具有较强的鲁棒性和准确性.但是,PAM算法的主要缺点是确定聚类中心点集所需的计算代价太高.对于大数据集,PAM聚类过程缓慢.提出一种利用部分距离搜索(PDS),先前中心点标号(PMI),以及三角不等式消除(TIE)准则等搜索策略来降低中心点迭代所需计算复杂性,实现快速PAM聚类的新算法.实验结果表明,相对于基本PAM聚类算法,在保持相同聚类效果的情况下,快速PAM聚类新算法能够减少70%~90%的乘法计算量,并可节省约1/3以上的计算时间.

  4. Original article The structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and assessed by PDS-5 – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Zawadzki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms has been studied and discussed since the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic entity in the DSM-III (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III in 1980. Many studies supported a four-factor or a five-factor models, both inconsistent with DSM-IV. It is unclear whether current DSM-5 criteria appropriately reflect the empirical structure of PTSD symptoms. Participants and procedure In this study the structure of PTSD symptoms was examined by confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the data obtained from 388 individuals (150 males and 239 females aged 18-83 who experienced a traumatic event and completed the PDS-5 (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale-5, a self-report scale according to the DSM-5 criteria. Results Fitting of different models based on DSM-IV, DSM-5 and other the most common four- and five-factor conceptualizations of PTSD symptoms structure was examined. The data analyses demonstrated the best fit of the six-factor model based on the conceptualization of Elhai et al. (2011 with the additional factor of negative cognitions and mood. Conclusions The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria do not reflect the empirical PTSD symptom structure. The data suggest also that it is reasonable to separate the core PTSD symptoms from broad PTSD symptomatology.

  5. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, K M; Bissell, M L; Budincevic, I; Cocolios, T E; De Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly-sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of $^{202,204}$Fr performed at the CRIS experiment.

  6. Proton beam deflection in MRI fields: Implications for MRI-guided proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, B M; Dowdell, S; Metcalfe, P E; Crozier, S; Mohan, R; Keall, P J

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates, via magnetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, the ability to deliver proton beams to the treatment zone inside a split-bore MRI-guided proton therapy system. Field maps from a split-bore 1 T MRI-Linac system are used as input to geant4 Monte Carlo simulations which model the trajectory of proton beams during their paths to the isocenter of the treatment area. Both inline (along the MRI bore) and perpendicular (through the split-bore gap) orientations are simulated. Monoenergetic parallel and diverging beams of energy 90, 195, and 300 MeV starting from 1.5 and 5 m above isocenter are modeled. A phase space file detailing a 2D calibration pattern is used to set the particle starting positions, and their spatial location as they cross isocenter is recorded. No beam scattering, collimation, or modulation of the proton beams is modeled. In the inline orientation, the radial symmetry of the solenoidal style fringe field acts to rotate the protons around the beam's central axis. For protons starting at 1.5 m from isocenter, this rotation is 19° (90 MeV) and 9.8° (300 MeV). A minor focusing toward the beam's central axis is also seen, but only significant, i.e., 2 mm shift at 150 mm off-axis, for 90 MeV protons. For the perpendicular orientation, the main MRI field and near fringe field act as the strongest to deflect the protons in a consistent direction. When starting from 1.5 m above isocenter shifts of 135 mm (90 MeV) and 65 mm (300 MeV) were observed. Further to this, off-axis protons are slightly deflected toward or away from the central axis in the direction perpendicular to the main deflection direction. This leads to a distortion of the phase space pattern, not just a shift. This distortion increases from zero at the central axis to 10 mm (90 MeV) and 5 mm (300 MeV) for a proton 150 mm off-axis. In both orientations, there is a small but subtle difference in the deflection and distortion pattern between protons fired parallel to the

  7. Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Pellicer, Eva; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Williams, Iwan P.; Blum, Jürgen; Michel, Patrick; Küppers, Michael; Martínez-Jiménez, Marina; Lloro, Ivan; Sort, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is a highly shocked, low porosity, ordinary chondrite, probably similar to S- or Q-type asteroids. Therefore, nanoindentation experiments on this meteorite allow us to obtain key data to understand the physical properties of near-Earth asteroids. Tests at different length scales provide information about the local mechanical properties of the minerals forming this meteorite: reduced Young’s modulus, hardness, elastic recovery, and fracture toughness. Those tests are also useful to understand the potential to deflect threatening asteroids using a kinetic projectile. We found that the differences in mechanical properties between regions of the meteorite, which increase or reduce the efficiency of impacts, are not a result of compositional differences. A low mean particle size, attributed to repetitive shock, can increase hardness, while low porosity promotes a higher momentum multiplication. Momentum multiplication is the ratio between the change in momentum of a target due to an impact, and the momentum of the projectile, and therefore, higher values imply more efficient impacts. In the Chelyabinsk meteorite, the properties of the light-colored lithology materials facilitate obtaining higher momentum multiplication values, compared to the other regions described for this meteorite. Also, we found a low value of fracture toughness in the shock-melt veins of Chelyabinsk, which would promote the ejection of material after an impact and therefore increase the momentum multiplication. These results are relevant to the growing interest in missions to test asteroid deflection, such as the recent collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA, known as the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission.

  8. A real-time, nonintrusive trace gas detector based on laser photothermal deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, H. S. M.; Dam, N.; van Lieshout, M. R.; Sikkens, C.; Harren, F. J. M.; Reuss, J.

    1995-09-01

    We present the layout and technical details of a trace gas monitor based on photothermal deflection. The operating principle of this instrument, i.e., the deflection of a (weak) probe laser beam by the thermal refractive index gradient induced by trace gas absorption of an intense pump laser beam, allows nonintrusive measurements with good space and time resolution. An intra-cavity CO2 laser is used as the pump beam and a red HeNe laser as the probe. The latter runs perpendicular to the pump beam to optimize spatial resolution. To increase sensitivity, the probe laser is incorporated in a multipass setup. The instrument is demonstrated by the localization of ethylene emission sites on a cherry tomato and by monitoring ammonia production due to nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria. Both C2H4 and NH3 can be detected at the 1-3 ppb level, at a spatial resolution of 2 mm (along the pump laser)×0.6 mm (perpendicular to it), and a response time of 0.1 s (without background correction) or 15 s (including background correction). Sensitivity can be increased at the expense of spatial resolution, and vice versa. In principle, this instrument is applicable to all those gases possessing a characteristic (``fingerprint'') spectrum in the CO2 laser range. The great advantage of the photothermal deflection technique with respect to other trace gas detection schemes lies in the nonintrusive character of the measurements. There is no need to enclose the sample in a vessel or to suck large volumes of air into the detector; measurements can be performed in open air and in real time. This should prove especially useful where sticky (polar) gases, like H2O, NH3, CH3OH, etc., are to be detected quantitatively. Main applications include air quality monitoring, especially concerning dry deposition rate measurements using the eddy correlation technique, and the study of volatile metabolite emission of biological samples.

  9. THE EFFECT OF CORRUGATED ELEMENTS THICKNESS ON THE DEFLECTED MODE OF CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kovalchuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides research the deflected mode and calculation the relative deformation of vertical and horizontal diameters of corrugated metal structures (CMS, horizontal ellipse type, and cross section in their interaction with soil backfill depending on the thickness of corrugated metal pipe. Such studies are required for optimal design of CMS, establishing the causes of defects timely, appropriate engineering solutions to improve the bearing capacity of the CMS and reasonable use of funds for their construction or rehabilitation of existing transportation facilities using corrugated metal pipes. Methodology. Stresses and stability calculations of CMS form are conducted using the developed mathematical algorithm in program environment Mathcad 14. In these studies different thickness of corrugated metal pipe were assigned, and further calculations were carried out at the design value of backfill soil compaction degree and magnitude of dynamic loading of railway transport. Findings. From the calculations is determined that the most influence the thickness of the corrugated metal pipe has on the strength in the calculation of the normal stresses and value of the vertical pipe strains. Therefore, the calculated parameters in the design of corrugated metal structures with small filling heights (from 1.2 m to 3 m above its peak is calculation of the strength by the normal stresses and determination of the vertical deformation of the pipe. Originality. For the first time, calculations of the deflected mode and relative deformations of vertical and horizontal cross-sectional diameters of CMS, horizontal ellipse type in the interaction with soil backfill. The factors complex was taken into account the backfill soil compaction degree, the value of dynamic loading of railway transport and different thickness of corrugated metal pipe. Practical value. The results of the deflected mode of corrugated metal structures such as horizontal ellipse of

  10. Linearized gravity, Newtonian limit and light deflection in RS1 model

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, M N; Smolyakov, Mikhail N.; Volobuev, Igor P.

    2002-01-01

    We solve exactly the equations of motion for linearized gravity in the Randall-Sundrum model with matter on the branes and calculate the Newtonian limit in it. The result contains contributions of the radion and of the massive modes, which change considerably Newton's law at small distances. The effects of "shadow" matter, which lives on the other brane, are considered and compared with those of ordinary matter for both positive and negative tension branes. We also calculate light deflection and Newton's law in the zero mode approximation and explicitly distinguish the contribution of the radion field.

  11. A Transverse Dynamic Deflection Model for Thin Plate Made of Saturated Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng-xi, Zhou; Xiao-lin, Cao

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a transverse dynamic deflection model is established for thin plate made of saturated porous materials. Based on the Biot's model for fluid-saturated porous media, using the Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing equations of transverse vibrations of fluid-saturated poroelastic plates are derived in detail, which take the inertial, fluid viscous, mechanical couplings, compressibility of solid, and fluid into account. The free vibration and forced vibration response of a simply supported poroelastic rectangular plate is obtained by Fourier series expansion method. Through numerical examples, the effect of porosity and permeability on the dynamic response, including the natural frequency, amplitude response, and the resonance areas is assessed.

  12. Application of engineering models to predict wake deflection due to a tilted wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Troldborg, Niels; Gaunaa, Mac

    It is a known fact that the power produced by wind turbines operating inside an array decreases due to the wake effects of the upstream turbines. It has been proposed previously to use the yaw mechanism as a potential means to steer the upstream wake away from downstream turbines, however...... such a mechanism introduces control complications due to changing wind directions. Deflecting the wake in the vertical direction using tilt, on the other hand, overcomes this challenge. In this paper, the feasibility of steering wake is explored in a simple uniform inflow case. This is done by trying to model...

  13. Application of engineering models to predict wake deflection due to a tilted wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Troldborg, Niels; Gaunaa, Mac

    2012-01-01

    It is a known fact that the power produced by wind turbines operating inside an array decreases due to the wake effects of the upstream turbines. It has been proposed previously to use the yaw mechanism as a potential means to steer the upstream wake away from downstream turbines, however...... such a mechanism introduces control complications due to changing wind directions. Deflecting the wake in the vertical direction using tilt, on the other hand, overcomes this challenge. In this paper, the feasibility of steering wake is explored in a simple uniform inflow case. This is done by trying to model...

  14. Gregory Bateson's lost world: the anthropology of Haddon and Rivers continued and deflected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, H

    1999-01-01

    Gregory Bateson was one of the last and most distinguished products of the school of anthropology that Haddon and Rivers created in Cambridge after the Torres Strait Expedition. Beginning his career shortly after Rivers' death, Bateson used the interwar years to create a theoretical approach that continued and deflected that of Haddon and Rivers. His major ethnography from this period, Naven, evidenced his complex academic positioning between the legacy of Rivers and the new paradigm emerging around Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown. After the Second World War, Bateson's intellectual project emerged as even closer to Rivers' in both psychological and evolutionary dimensions.

  15. Classical and tree-level approaches to gravitational deflection in higher-derivative gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Accioly, Antonio; Giacchini, Breno; Herdy, Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Among the so-called classical tests of general relativity (GR), light bending has been confirmed with an accuracy that increases as times goes by. Here we study the gravitational deflection of photons within the framework of classical and semiclassical higher-derivative gravity (HDG) -- the only version of GR that is known up to now to be renormalizable along with its matter couplings. Since our computations are restricted to scales much below the Planck cut-off we need not be afraid of the massive spin-2 ghost that haunts HDG. An upper bound on the constant related to the $R^2_{\\mu \

  16. On-line monitoring of poly dimethylsiloxane surface modification using the photothermal deflection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najmoddin, Najmeh, E-mail: najmoddin@iust.ac.ir; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E.

    2015-02-21

    Over the last decade, there has been particular interest in surface modification of biomaterials with regard to understanding the importance of surface characterization. This paper reports the use of photothermal deflection (PTD) technique to monitor modifications in poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface induced following laser treatments. The FTIR results are in agreement with PTD results, indicating that no structural changes occurred using Argon laser up to 180 s and 200 mW at 454, 488 and 514 nm wavelengths. However, with CO{sub 2} laser some physical and chemical changes occurred which are monitored by PTD technique and proved by SEM images.

  17. A New Four States High Deflection Low Actuation Voltage Electrostatic Mems Switch for RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Robin, Renaud; Segueni, Karim; Millet, Olivier; Buchaillot, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new electrostatic MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical System) based on a single high reliability totally free flexible membrane. Using four electrodes, this structure enables four states which allowed large deflections (4$\\mu$m) with low actuation voltage (7,5V). This design presents also a good contact force and improve the restoring force of the structure. As an example of application, a Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) for 24GHz applications, based on this design, has been simulated.

  18. Generation of Picosecond X-Ray Pulses in the ALS Using RF Orbit Deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Robin, David; Fischer, Peter; Heimann, Philip; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Li, Derun; Sannibale, Fernando; Steier, Christoph; Wan, Weishi; Wittmer, Walter; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is studied for producing ps length pulses of x-ray radiation from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using two RF deflecting cavities. The cavities create vertical displacements of electrons correlated with their longitudinal position in the bunch. The two cavities separated by 180 degrees of vertical phase advance. This allows the vertical kick from one cavity to be compensated by the vertical kick of the other. The location of the cavities corresponds to the end of one straight section and the beginning of the following straight section. Halfway between the cavities a bending magnet source is located. The radiation from the bend can be compressed to ~1 ps in duration.

  19. WEIGHTED SOLUTION OF SMALL-DEFLECTION BUCKLING EQUATION OF THIN SHELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗利; 王熙; 郝文华

    2001-01-01

    Based on small-deflection buckling equation, a weighted solution for critical load is presented. Usually, it is very difficult to solve the equation for general problems,especially those with complicated boundary conditions. Axisymmetric problem was studied as an example. Influencing factors were found from the equation and averaged as the buckling load by introducing weights. To determine those weights, some special known results were applied. This method solves general complicated problems by using the solutions of special simple problems, simplifies the solving procedure and expands the scope of solvable problem. Compared with numerical solution, it also has fine precision.

  20. Slice emittance measurement for photocathode RF gun with solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Huang, WenHui; Du, YingChao; Yan, LiXin; Tang, ChuanXiang

    2011-12-01

    The radiation of high-gain short-wavelength free-electron laser depends on the slice transverse emittance of the electron bunch. This essay introduces the method of slice emittance measurement, and shows the brief setup of this experiment using the solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity at Tsinghua University. The preliminary experimental results show that the slice rms emittance of the electron bunch generated by photocathode RF gun has considerable variations along the bunch and is typically less than 0.55 mm mrad for the laser rms radius of 0.4 mm.

  1. Slice emittance measurement for photocathode RF gun with solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The radiation of high-gain short-wavelength free-electron laser depends on the slice transverse emittance of the electron bunch. This essay introduces the method of slice emittance measurement, and shows the brief setup of this experiment using the solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity at Tsinghua University. The preliminary experimental results show that the slice rms emittance of the electron bunch generated by photocathode RF gun has considerable variations along the bunch and is typically less than 0.55 mm mrad for the laser rms radius of 0.4 mm.

  2. Invariant electro-optical system for deflection measurement of floating docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Hoang, Anh Phuong

    2017-06-01

    An electro-optical system for deflection measurement of floating docks is represented in this paper. This system contains a base unit with two measurement channels observing opposite directions of the dock. It also includes a set of reference marks and an industrial computer. The measurement unit contains of a camera with long focal-length lens and a beam splitter. The effect of the beam splitter turning point on the image position of the reference mark on the camera is analyzed as well in this paper.

  3. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  4. The role of Ca2+ in deflection-induced excitation of motile, mechanoresponsive balancer cilia in the ctenophore statocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B

    1997-06-01

    Motile, mechanoresponsive cilia (balancers) in ctenophore statocysts, like vertebrate hair cells, are excited or inhibited depending upon the direction in which they are deflected. Balancers, however, may become either excited (beat rapidly) or inhibited (beat slowly) by deflection in the same direction, depending on the sign of ctenophore geotaxis (positive or negative). The beat frequency of many cilia is controlled by concentrations of Ca2+, membrane potential and neural input. How these factors affect deflection-induced ciliary beating in balancers was investigated. Deflection-induced excitation of balancers in whole Mnemiopsis leidyi larvae and dissected adult (Mnemiopsis leidyi, Pleurobrachia pileus) statocysts was reversibly inhibited by the Ca2+ channel inhibitors Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, and Mn2+. Deflection-induced excitation in balancers of isolated adult M. leidyi balancer groups was also inhibited by Co2+ or by Ca(2+)-free medium. Isolated balancer group cilia, like balancer cilia of intact ctenophores, exhibited responses to either sign of geotaxis and graded responses to deflection. Isolated balancers that were chemically depolarized in high-[K+], Ca(2+)-free medium were excited by local application of Ca2+ onto the ciliary bases, but not onto the cell bases or the ciliary tips. It is proposed that deflection-induced excitation of balancers is due to influx of Ca2+ through stretch- and voltage-activated channel activity. The sign of geotaxis of whole larvae and dissected adult statocysts was switched by electrical stimulation. Thus, neural input may participate in reversing the directional sensitivity of balancer cells.

  5. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  6. The Multichannel Deflection Plates Control System for the ALF Facility at the APS

    CERN Document Server

    Deriy, Boris

    2005-01-01

    A deflection plate control system was developed as part of SPIRIT (Single Photon Ionization / Resonant Ionization to Threshold), a new secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instrument that uses tunable vacuum ultraviolet light from the ALF (Argonne Linear Free-electron laser) facility at the APS for postionization. The system comprises a crate controller with PC104 embedded computer, 32 amplifiers, and two 1-kV power supplies. Thirty-two D/A converters are used to control voltages at the deflection plates within ± 400 V with 100-mV resolution. An algorithm of simultaneous sweeping of up to 16 XY areas with 10-μs time resolution also has been implemented in the embedded computer. The purpose of the system is to supply potentials to various ion optical elements for electrostatic control of keV primary and secondary ion beams in this SNMS instrument. The control system is of particular value in supplying (1) bipolar potentials for steering ions, (2) multiple potentials for octupole lenses...

  7. Coherent control of double deflected anomalous modes in ultrathin trapezoid-shaped slit metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Liu, H.; Wang, D.; Li, Y. X.; Guan, C. Y.; Zhang, H.; Shi, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Coherent light-matter interaction in ultrathin metamaterials has been demonstrated to dynamically modulate intensity, polarization and propagation direction of light. The gradient metasurface with a transverse phase variation usually exhibits an anomalous refracted beam of light dictated by so-called generalized Snell’s law. However, less attention has been paid to coherent control of the metasurface with multiple anomalous refracted beams. Here we propose an ultrathin gradient metasurface with single trapezoid-shaped slot antenna as its building block that allows one normal and two deflected transmitted beams. It is numerically demonstrated that such metasurface with multiple scattering modes can be coherently controlled to modulate output intensities by changing the relative phase difference between two counterpropagating coherent beams. Each mode can be coherently switched on/off and two deflected anomalous beams can be synchronously dictated by the phase difference. The coherent control effect in the trapezoid-shaped slit metasurface will offer a promising opportunity for multichannel signals modulation, multichannel sensing and wave front shaping.

  8. Linear Analytical Solutions of Mechanical Sensitivity in Large Deflection of Unsymmetrically Layered Piezoelectric Plate under Pretension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear analytical study on the mechanical sensitivity in large deflection of unsymmetrically layered and laterally loaded piezoelectric plate under pretension is conducted. von Karman plate theory for large deflection is utilized but extended to the case of an unsymmetrically layered plate embedded with a piezoelectric layer. The governing equations thus obtained are simplified by omitting the arising nonlinear terms, yielding a Bessel or modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. Depending on the relative magnitude of the piezoelectric effect, for both cases, analytical solutions of various geometrical responses are developed and formulated via Bessel and modified Bessel functions. The associated ultimate radial stresses are further derived following lamina constitutive law to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity of the considered plate. For a nearly monolithic plate under a very low applied voltage, the results are in good agreement with those for a single-layered case due to pure mechanical load available in literature, and thus the present approach is checked. For a two-layered unsymmetric plate made of typical silicon-based materials, a sound piezoelectric effect is illustrated particularly in a low pretension condition.

  9. Thermal deflection analysis of the solidified shell in continuous casting of slab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongzhao; WANG Zhongmin

    2007-01-01

    The thermal deformation problem in the continuous casting of a slab subjected to thermal loading because of the temperature gradient along the solidified shell thickness is investigated.On the basis of the reciprocal theorem of work or Betti-MaxweU's reciprocal theorem and the superposition principle,the deflection expressions for a rectangular plate with the two opposite edges simply supported,and the other two opposite edges clamped under the action of the uniformly distributed load and nonuniform temperature field are derived respectively.The meaning of each term in the deflection expression obtained by the reciprocal theorem of work is explained.Then the practical example is given to calculate the thermal deformation and the bulging deformation of the solidified shell under three tension speeds.This research is useful for analyzing the bulging deformation in the continuous casting of a slab under the static pressure of the molten steel and the thermal loading because of the temperature gradient along the solidified shell thickness.

  10. Discourses of Deflection: The Politics of Framing China’s South-North Water Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Crow-Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant financial, ecological and social trade-offs, China has moved forward with constructing and operationalising the world’s largest interbasin water transfer project to date, the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP. While it is fundamentally linked to broader political-economic goals within the context of China’s post-Mao development agenda, the SNWTP is frequently discussed in apolitical terms. Based on extensive discourse analysis and interviews with government officials across North China, I argue that the Chinese government is using "discourses of deflection" to present the project as politically neutral in order to serve its ultimate goal of maintaining the high economic growth rates that underpin its continued legitimacy. These discourses, which replace concerns with human-exacerbated water stress with naturalised narratives about water scarcity and the ecological benefits of water transfer, serve to deflect attention away from anthropogenic sources of water stress in the North China Plain and serve as apolitical justifications for pursuing a short-term supply-side approach rather than the more politically challenging and longer-term course of dealing with the underlying drivers of water stress in the region.

  11. Detection without deflection? A hypothesis for direct sensing of sound pressure by hair cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrew Bell

    2007-03-01

    It is widely thought that organisms detect sound by sensing the deflection of hair-like projections, the stereocilia, at the apex of hair cells. In the case of mammals, the standard interpretation is that hair cells in the cochlea respond to deflection of stereocilia induced by motion generated by a hydrodynamic travelling wave. But in the light of persistent anomalies, an alternative hypothesis seems to have some merit: that sensing cells (in particular the outer hair cells) may, at least at low intensities, be reacting to a different stimulus – the rapid pressure wave that sweeps through the cochlear fluids at the speed of sound in water. This would explain why fast responses are sometimes seen before the peak of the travelling wave. Yet how could cells directly sense fluid pressure? Here, a model is constructed of the outer hair cell as a pressure vessel able to sense pressure variations across its cuticular pore, and this ‘fontanelle’ model, based on the sensing action of the basal body at this compliant spot, could explain the observed anomalies. Moreover, the fontanelle model can be applied to a wide range of other organisms, suggesting that direct pressure detection is a general mode of sensing complementary to stereociliar displacement.

  12. Small-body deflection techniques using spacecraft: techniques in simulating the fate of ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Stephen R; Michel, Patrick; Jutzi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We define a set of procedures to numerically study the fate of ejecta produced by the impact of an artificial projectile with the aim of deflecting an asteroid. Here we develop a simplified, idealized model of impact conditions that can be adapted to fit the details of specific deflection-test scenarios, such as what is being proposed for the AIDA project. Ongoing studies based upon the methodology described here can be used to inform observational strategies and safety conditions for an observing spacecraft. To account for ejecta evolution, the numerical strategies we are employing are varied and include a large N-Body component, a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) component, and an application of impactor scaling laws. Simulations that use SPH-derived initial conditions show high-speed ejecta escaping at low angles of inclination, and very slowly moving ejecta lofting off the surface at higher inclination angles, some of which re-impacts the small-body surface. We are currently investigating the realism...

  13. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  14. ESTIMATION OF VERTICAL DEFLECTIONS IN CONCRETE BEAMS THROUGH DIGITAL CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Detchev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deformation monitoring, and in general structural health monitoring, of civil infrastructure systems is important in terms of both safety and serviceability. Traditionally, large structures have been monitored using surveying techniques, while fine-scale monitoring of structural components has been done with geotechnical instrumentation. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of using remote sensing methods, such as terrestrial laser scanning and digital close range photogrammetry, for the purposes of precise 3D reconstruction and the estimation of deflections in structural materials. It is also shown how a low-cost setup of multiple digital cameras and projectors can be used for the monitoring of concrete beams subjected to different loading conditions by a hydraulic actuator. The photogrammetric system used does not require any physical targets other than for the purposes of establishing the relative orientation between the involved cameras. The setup was tested in two experiments, and the beam deflections resulted from the photogrammetric system were compared to the ones from a set of one-dimensional laser transducers and a terrestrial laser scanner. The experiments proved that it was possible to detect sub-millimetre level deformations given the used equipment and the geometry of the setup.

  15. An improved small-deflection electromechanical model for piezoelectric bending beam actuators and energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ahmadreza; Fréchette, Luc G.

    2008-10-01

    The analytical model presented in this paper describes the energy conversion mechanism of a piezoelectric beam (bimorph) under small-deflection static and vibrating conditions. The model provides an improved approach to design and analyze the performance of piezoelectric actuators and energy harvesters (sensors). Conventional models assume a linear voltage distribution over the piezoelectric beam thickness, which is shown here to be invalid. The proposed modeling method improves accuracy by using a quadratic voltage distribution. The equivalent capacitance of a beam shows a 40% discrepancy between a conventional model and the proposed model for PZT5A material. This inaccuracy level is not negligible, especially when the design of micro-power electrical energy harvesting is concerned. The method solves simultaneously the solid mechanics and Maxwell's equations with the constitutive equations for piezoelectric materials. The paper also proposes a phasor-based procedure for measuring the damping of a piezoelectric beam. An experimental setup is developed to verify the validity of the model. The experimental results confirm the accuracy of the improved model and also reveal limitations in using models for small deflections.

  16. Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan R; Hu, Weisheng; Noh, Jong Wook; Dahlquist, William C; Ness, Stanley J; Gustafson, Timothy M; Richards, Danny C; Kim, Seunghyun; Mazzeo, Brian A; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2011-06-21

    We report the integration of a nanomechanical sensor consisting of 16 silicon microcantilevers with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics. For microcantilevers positioned near the bottom of a microfluidic flow channel, a transient differential analyte concentration for the top versus bottom surface of each microcantilever is created when an analyte-bearing fluid is introduced into the flow channel (which is initially filled with a non-analyte containing solution). We use this effect to characterize a bare (nonfunctionalized) microcantilever array in which the microcantilevers are simultaneously read out with our recently developed high sensitivity in-plane photonic transduction method. We first examine the case of non-specific binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to silicon. The average maximum transient microcantilever deflection in the array is -1.6 nm, which corresponds to a differential surface stress of only -0.23 mN m(-1). This is in excellent agreement with the maximum differential surface stress calculated based on a modified rate equation in conjunction with finite element simulation. Following BSA adsorption, buffer solutions with different pH are introduced to further study microcantilever array transient response. Deflections of 20-100 nm are observed (2-14 mN m(-1) differential surface stress). At a flow rate of 5 μL min(-1), the average measured temporal width (FWHM) of the transient response is 5.3 s for BSA non-specific binding and 0.74 s for pH changes.

  17. Realization of Deflection-type Bridge instruments to determine soil moisture using Research-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliza, E.; Munir, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    It is clear that the quality of education is directly related to the quality of teachers and the teaching methods. One of the teaching methods that can improve the quality of education is research-based learning (RBL) method. In this method, students act as the center of learning while teachers become the guides that provide direction and advice. RBL is a learning method that combines cooperative learning, problem solving, authentic learning, contextual case study and inquiry approach discovery. The main goal of this method is to construct a student that can think critically, analyze and evaluate problems, and find a new science from these problems (learning by doing). In this paper, RBL is used to improve the understanding about measurement using deflection-type Bridge that is implemented in the determination of ground water changes. In general, there are three stages that have been done. Firstly the exposure stage, then the experience stage and lastly the capstone stage. The exposure stage aims to increase the knowledge and the comprehension of student about the topic through understanding the basics concepts, reviewing the literature and others. The understanding gained in the exposure stage is being used for application and analysis at the experience stage. While the final stage is the publication of research results both verbally and in writing. Based on the steps that have been conducted, it can be showed that deflection-type Bridge can be utilized in soil moisture meter.

  18. Beam steering and deflecting device using step-based micro-blazed grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junbo; Su, Xianyu; Xu, Ping; Gu, Zheng

    2008-08-01

    The rapidly evolving demands of optical communications and optical switching systems have created a new market for high capacity all-optical beam steering and deflecting techniques. One technology potentially capable of realizing such systems uses the multistep micro-blazed grating optical beam deflectors based on binary and multiple-phase modulation methods. The micro-optical element has been fabricated by introducing very large scale integration (VLSI), stepping photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE), which can realize beam steering, deflecting, splitting, and switching in free space, and its diffraction properties are determined by the blazed-grating parameters, such as the number of steps, grating depth, grating period, as well as blazed profile. The theoretical analysis and primarily experimental result show that this phase-type element has the advantages of high diffractive efficiency, low cross talk, small feature size, and high reliability due to nonmechanical beam steering without any moving parts. Hence it is ideally suited to applications in optical communication and optical interconnection network.

  19. A model to predict deflection of bevel-tipped active needle advancing in soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Naresh V; Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Podder, Tarun K; Dicker, Adam P; Yu, Yan; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2014-03-01

    Active needles are recently being developed to improve steerability and placement accuracy for various medical applications. These active needles can bend during insertion by actuators attached to their bodies. The bending of active needles enables them to be steered away from the critical organs on the way to target and accurately reach target locations previously unachievable with conventional rigid needles. These active needles combined with an asymmetric bevel-tip can further improve their steerability. To optimize the design and to develop accurate path planning and control algorithms, there is a need to develop a tissue-needle interaction model. This work presents an energy-based model that predicts needle deflection of active bevel-tipped needles when inserted into the tissue. This current model was based on an existing energy-based model for bevel-tipped needles, to which work of actuation was included in calculating the system energy. The developed model was validated with needle insertion experiments with a phantom material. The model predicts needle deflection reasonably for higher diameter needles (11.6% error), whereas largest error was observed for the smallest needle diameter (24.7% error).

  20. ABRUPT DEFLECTED SUPERCRITICAL WATER FLOW-REVISED THEORY OF SHOCK WAVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The shock wave angle and depth ratio of the abrupt deflected supercritical water flow due to deflector was investigated experimentally and theoretically. A correction coefficient of the hydro-dynamic pressure ξ was introduced to generalize the momentum equation in the perpendicular direction to the shock front. An extensive series of tests were conducted in a 1 m wide flume with the Froude number ranging from 1.70 to 8.37, the deflection angle ranging from 5° to 40° and the length of deflector ranging from 0.28 m to 1 m. A dimensionless parameter K was defined to depict the ratio of the flow height to flow thickness. Test results show that the value of ξ, the correction coefficient of the non-hydrostatic pressure distribution, decreases with the increase of the value of K. An empirical relationship between the value of ξ and the value of K was proposed. It is indicated that the relative errors of the results calculated by the revised theory is much smaller than that obtained from the Ippen theory. Finally, a simple explicit expression was suggested to calculate the shock wave height ratio in consideration of the effect of the non-hydrostatic pressure distribution.