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Sample records for deflect magnetic noise

  1. Jet deflection by very weak guide fields during magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M V; Lapenta, G; Newman, D L; Markidis, S; Che, H

    2011-09-23

    Previous 2D simulations of reconnection using a standard model of initially antiparallel magnetic fields have detected electron jets outflowing from the x point into the ion outflow exhausts. Associated with these jets are extended "outer electron diffusion regions." New PIC simulations with an ion to electron mass ratio as large as 1836 (an H(+) plasma) now show that the jets are strongly deflected and the outer electron diffusion region is broken up by a very weak out-of-plane magnetic guide field, even though the diffusion rate itself is unchanged. Jet outflow and deflection are interpreted in terms of electron dynamics and are compared to recent measurements of jets in the presence of a small guide field in Earth's magnetosheath.

  2. Theory of using magnetic deflections to combine charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckbeck, Mackenzie K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Several radiation effects projects in the Ion Beam Lab (IBL) have recently required two disparate charged particle beams to simultaneously strike a single sample through a single port of the target chamber. Because these beams have vastly different mass–energy products (MEP), the low-MEP beam requires a large angle of deflection toward the sample by a bending electromagnet. A second electromagnet located further upstream provides a means to compensate for the small angle deflection experienced by the high-MEP beam during its path through the bending magnet. This paper derives the equations used to select the magnetic fields required by these two magnets to achieve uniting both beams at the target sample. A simple result was obtained when the separation of the two magnets was equivalent to the distance from the bending magnet to the sample, and the equation is given by: Bs= 1/2(rc/rs) Bc, where Bs and Bc are the magnetic fields in the steering and bending magnet and rc/rs is the ratio of the radii of the bending magnet to that of the steering magnet. This result is not dependent upon the parameters of the high MEP beam, i.e. energy, mass, charge state. Therefore, once the field of the bending magnet is set for the low-MEP beam, and the field in the steering magnet is set as indicted in the equation, the trajectory path of any high-MEP beam will be directed into the sample.

  3. Effect of deflecting ring on noise generated by outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Junwei; Ding, Guoliang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-05-15

    In order to analyze the influence of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner, the flow field in the outdoor set is simulated with the CFD software STAR-CD, the relative turbulent intensities are computed and the influence of the width and contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed. The results of computation and experiment show that there is an optimal width of the deflecting ring, corresponding to the minimum noise generated by the outdoor set. In addition, the influence of the contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed and a double contoured duct is designed. The results of computation and experiment verify that the deflecting ring with double contoured duct can improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the noise generated by the outdoor set. (author)

  4. UHECR correlations taking account of composition and Galactic magnetic deflections

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, J

    2013-01-01

    We predict the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays including their deflection in the Galactic magnetic field, for several combinations of source and composition hypotheses: the sources are hard X-ray AGNs or uniformly sample the matter distribution of galaxies, and the composition at the source is pure proton or is the Galactic cosmic ray composition measured by CREAM. We use the regular component of the Jansson-Farrar 2012 model for the GMF and allow for rigidities as low as 2 EeV. We report the correlations of published UHECRs, rescaling event energies so as to reconcile the spectra of the different experiments and taking the overall energy uncertainty into account; different composition hypotheses are considered. This work demonstrates the feasibility of calculating GMF deflections to low enough rigidities to allow for heavy composition in correlation studies, and that non-trivial arrival direction structure should be expected even for mixed or heavy composition, as long as UHECRs come from the l...

  5. Arc Deflection Length Affected by Transverse Rotating Magnetic Field with Lateral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru; High Current Energy Laboratory (HiCEL) Team

    2016-10-01

    Gas metal arc welding using shielding gas is often used in the welding industry. However, the arc deflection affected by lateral gas is problem because of inappropriate heat transfer. Shielding gas is used in order to prevent the instability affected by the arc deflection. However, the shielding gas causes turbulence, then blowhole of weld defect occurs because the arc affected by the instability is contaminated by the air. Thus, the magnetic field is applied to the arc in order to stabilize the arc using low amount of shielding gas. The method of applying the transverse rotating magnetic field (RMF) to the arc is one of the methods to prevent the arc instability. The RMF drives the arc because of electromagnetic force. The driven arc is considered to be prevented to arc deflection of lateral gas because the arc is restrained by the magnetic field because of the driven arc. In addition, it is assume the RMF prevented to the arc deflection of lateral gas from the multiple directions. In this paper, the arc deflection length affected by the RMF with lateral gas was elucidated in order to know the effect of the RMF for arc stabilization. Specifically, the arc deflection length affected by the magnetic frequency and the magnetic flux density is measured by high speed video camera. As a result, the arc deflection length decreases with increasing magnetic frequency, and the arc deflection length increases with increasing the magnetic flux density.

  6. Comparing deflection measurements of a magnetically steerable catheter using optical imaging and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillaney, Prasheel, E-mail: Prasheel.Lillaney@ucsf.edu; Caton, Curtis; Martin, Alastair J.; Losey, Aaron D.; Evans, Leland; Saeed, Maythem; Cooke, Daniel L.; Wilson, Mark W.; Hetts, Steven W. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging modality for interventional radiology, giving clinicians another tool for minimally invasive image-guided interventional procedures. Difficulties associated with endovascular catheter navigation using MRI guidance led to the development of a magnetically steerable catheter. The focus of this study was to mechanically characterize deflections of two different prototypes of the magnetically steerable catheterin vitro to better understand their efficacy. Methods: A mathematical model for deflection of the magnetically steerable catheter is formulated based on the principle that at equilibrium the mechanical and magnetic torques are equal to each other. Furthermore, two different image based methods for empirically measuring the catheter deflection angle are presented. The first, referred to as the absolute tip method, measures the angle of the line that is tangential to the catheter tip. The second, referred to the base to tip method, is an approximation that is used when it is not possible to measure the angle of the tangent line. Optical images of the catheter deflection are analyzed using the absolute tip method to quantitatively validate the predicted deflections from the mathematical model. Optical images of the catheter deflection are also analyzed using the base to tip method to quantitatively determine the differences between the absolute tip and base to tip methods. Finally, the optical images are compared to MR images using the base to tip method to determine the accuracy of measuring the catheter deflection using MR. Results: The optical catheter deflection angles measured for both catheter prototypes using the absolute tip method fit very well to the mathematical model (R{sup 2} = 0.91 and 0.86 for each prototype, respectively). It was found that the angles measured using the base to tip method were consistently smaller than those measured using the absolute tip method. The deflection angles measured

  7. Dichotomous-noise-induced chaos in a generalized Duffing-type oscillator with fractional-order deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Youming; Fu, Rui; Yang, Yong; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The chaotic behavior of a generalized Duffing-type oscillator with fractional-order deflection under dichotomous noise excitation is discussed in detail. Using the Melnikov method together with mean-square criterion, necessary conditions for the onsets of chaos are derived. It is shown that with the increase of noise transition rate, the threshold of noise amplitude for chaos firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases. The effects of dichotomous noise on the Duffing-type oscillator are also obtained by vanishing the mean largest Lyapunov exponent of the oscillator. This is further verified by phase portraits and time histories with numerical simulations.

  8. Features of the galactic magnetic field regarding deflections of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Marcus; Erdmann, Martin; Mueller, Gero; Urban, Martin [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Most recent models of the galactic magnetic field have been derived from Faraday rotation measurements and imply strong deflections even for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We investigate the characteristics of the different field parametrizations and point out similarities and interesting features. Among them are extragalactic regions which are invisible for an Earth bound observation and the transition from diffuse to ballistic behaviour in the 1 EeV energy regime. Applying this knowledge to a directional analysis, there are indications for deflection patterns by the galactic magnetic field in cosmic ray arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. Deflecting Easy-axis of Fe304 Single Crystal Nanowires by Magnetic-field-induced Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Wang; S. Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    In order to control the orientation of easy-axis of magnetic nanowires, FesO4 single crystal nanowires with easy-axis perpendicular to wire-axis were prepared successfully by means of a magnetic-field-induced method. Analysis of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction pattern showed that there was a wide-angle deflection of easy-axis in the prepared Fe304 nanowires. A high saturation magnetization (82 emu/g) of the FesO4 nanowires was achieved at room temperature. The benefits and mechanism of the deflection of easy-axis from its wire-axis in FesO4 single crystal nanowires were discussed. The results are expected to broaden the magnetic properties of traditional ferrite nanowires.

  10. North-South asymmetry in the magnetic deflection of polar coronal hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nistico', Giuseppe; Patsourakos, Spiros; Bothmer, Volker; Nakariakov, Valery M

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field in the interplanetary medium, of the sunspots area, and of the heliospheric current sheet position, reveal a possible North-South asymmetry in the magnetic field of the Sun. We study the North-South asymmetry as inferred from measurements of the deflection of polar coronal hole jets when they propagate throughout the corona. Since the corona is an environment where the magnetic pressure is greater than the kinetic pressure, we can assume that magnetic field controls the dynamics of plasma. On average, jets during their propagation follow the magnetic field lines, highlighting its local direction. The average jet deflection is studied both in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight, and, for a reduced number of jets, in three dimensional space. The observed jet deflection is studied in terms of an axisymmetric magnetic field model comprising dipole We measured the position angles at 1 rs and at 2 rs of the 79 jets from the catalogue of Nistico et al 2009., based on the S...

  11. Principle and Feasibility of Electric or Magnetic Field Deflection-Projection Based Rapid Prototyping Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连洪; 李双义; 张宝峰; 熊晓明

    2003-01-01

    Rapid prototype manufacturing(RPM) is a new advanced manufacturing technology, which is based on the philosophy of materials increasing of lay by lay forming. Zero adventure rapid design/manufacturing can be realized with rapid prototypes of 3D CAD of products. Rapid prototyping has been an effective tool of R&D of new products. A novel rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP&M) technique is brought forward. The principle of the process is to form layered sections and to make the prototype or part layer-by-layer by deflection-projection of electric charged powder granules passing through electric or magnetic field and by controllable line and field scan of the powder granule beam. The feasibility issue of the process is theoretically and experimentally investigated.It shows that deflection-projection of electric charged powder granules beam passing through electric field can be significant and feasible to the rapid prototyping technique.

  12. Noise in raw data from magnetic observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Khomutov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of significant progress in the development of new devices for magnetic measurements, mathematical and computational technologies for data processing and means of communication, the quality of magnetic data accessible through the data centres (for example, World Data Centres or INTERMAGNET still largely depends on the actual conditions in which observation of the Earth's magnetic field is performed at observatories. Processing of raw data of magnetic measurements by observatory staff plays an important role. It includes effective identification of noise and elimination of its influence on final data. In this paper, on the basis of the experience gained during long-term magnetic monitoring carried out at the observatories of IKIR FEB RAS (Russia and CSIR-NGRI (India, we present a review of methods commonly encountered in actual practice for noise identification and the possibility of reducing noise influence.

  13. Noise in raw data from magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, Sergey Y.; Mandrikova, Oksana V.; Budilova, Ekaterina A.; Arora, Kusumita; Manjula, Lingala

    2017-09-01

    In spite of significant progress in the development of new devices for magnetic measurements, mathematical and computational technologies for data processing and means of communication, the quality of magnetic data accessible through the data centres (for example, World Data Centres or INTERMAGNET) still largely depends on the actual conditions in which observation of the Earth's magnetic field is performed at observatories. Processing of raw data of magnetic measurements by observatory staff plays an important role. It includes effective identification of noise and elimination of its influence on final data. In this paper, on the basis of the experience gained during long-term magnetic monitoring carried out at the observatories of IKIR FEB RAS (Russia) and CSIR-NGRI (India), we present a review of methods commonly encountered in actual practice for noise identification and the possibility of reducing noise influence.

  14. Reduction of Thermal Loss in HTS Windings by Using Magnetic Flux Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Koshiba, Y.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yanamoto, T.

    Efforts on the generation of intensified magnetic flux have been made for the optimized shape of HTS winding applications. This contributes to the high efficiency of the rotating machines using HTS windings. Heat generation from the HTS windings requires to be suppressed as much as possible, when those coils are under operation with either direct or alternative currents. Presently, the reduction of such thermal loss generated by the applied currents on the HTS coils is reported with a magnetic flux deflection system. The HTS coils are fixed together with flattened magnetic materials to realize a kind of redirection of the flux pathway. Eventually, the magnetic flux density perpendicular to the tape surface (equivalent to the a-b plane) of the HTS tape materials is reduced to the proximity of the HTS coil. To verify the new geometry of the surroundings of the HTS coils with magnetic materials, a comparative study of the DC coil voltage was done for different applied currents in prototype field-pole coils of a ship propulsion motor.

  15. Analytical and Numerical Deflection Study on the Structure of 10 kW Low Speed Permanent Magnet Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman Syaeful Alam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical studies of the deflection in the structure of 10 kW low speed permanent magnet generator (PMG have been discussed in this paper. This study is intended to prevent failure of the structure when the prototype is made. Numerical analysis was performed with the finite-element method (FEM. Flux density, weight and temperature of the components are the required input parameters. Deflection observed were the movements of the two main rotor components, namely the rim and shaft, where the maximum deflection allowed at the air gap between rotor and stator should be between 10% to 20% of the air gap clearance or 0.1000 mm to 0.2000 mm. Base on the analysis, total deflection of the analytic calculation was 0.0553 mm, and numerical simulation was 0.0314 mm. Both values were in the acceptable level because it was still below the maximum allowed deflection. These results indicate that the structure of a permanent magnet generator (rim and shaft can be used safely.

  16. Low-noise Magnetic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-03-27

    Magnetic sensors are disclosed, as well as methods for fabricating and using the same. In some embodiments, an EMR effect sensor includes a semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a conductive layer substantially coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a voltage lead coupled to the conductive layer. In some embodiments, the voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a second voltage lead coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the second voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. Embodiments of a Hall effect sensor having the same or similar structure are also disclosed.

  17. Magnetic flux noise in copper oxide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    Magnetic flux noise and flux creep in thin films and single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x}, Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, and TlCa{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are measured with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The noise power spectrum generally scales as 1/f (f is frequency) from 1 Hz to 1 kHz, increases with temperature, and decreases in higher-quality films. It is proportional to the magnetic field B in which the sample is cooled, at least in the range 0.1 mT < B < 3 mT. A model of thermally activated vortex motion is developed which explains the dependence of the noise on frequency, temperature, current, and applied magnetic field. The pinning potential is idealized as an ensemble of double wells, each with a different activation energy separating the two states. From the noise measurements, this model yields the distribution of pinning energies in the samples, the vortex hopping distance, the number density of mobile vortices, and the restoring force on a vortex at a typical pinning site. The distribution of pinning energies in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} shows a broad peak below 0.1 eV. The small ambient magnetic field, and the detection of noise even in the absence of a driving force, insure that the measured pinning energies are characteristic of isolated vortices near thermal equilibrium. The observed vortex density in fields much less than 0.1 mT is too large to be explained by the ambient field, suggesting a mechanism intrinsic to the sample which produces trapped vortices.

  18. Magnetic flux noise in copper oxide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Mark Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Magnetic flux noise and flux creep in thin films and single crystals of YBa2Cu3O7-x, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Ox, and TlCa2Ba2Cu3Ox are measured with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The noise power spectrum generally scales as 1/f (f is frequency) from 1 Hz to 1 kHz, increases with temperature, and decreases in higher-quality films. It is proportional to the magnetic field B in which the sample is cooled, at least in the range 0.1 mT < B < 3 mT. A model of thermally activated vortex motion is developed which explains the dependence of the noise on frequency, temperature, current, and applied magnetic field. The pinning potential is idealized as an ensemble of double wells, each with a different activation energy separating the two states. From the noise measurements, this model yields the distribution of pinning energies in the samples, the vortex hopping distance, the number density of mobile vortices, and the restoring force on a vortex at a typical pinning site. The distribution of pinning energies in YBa2Cu3O7-x shows a broad peak below 0.1 eV. The small ambient magnetic field, and the detection of noise even in the absence of a driving force, insure that the measured pinning energies are characteristic of isolated vortices near thermal equilibrium. The observed vortex density in fields much less than 0.1 mT is too large to be explained by the ambient field, suggesting a mechanism intrinsic to the sample which produces trapped vortices.

  19. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in quenched carburized steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Campos, M F; Santos, R; Da Silva, F S; Lins, J F C [PUVR- Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av dos Trabalhadores 420, Vila Santa Cecilia, Volta Redonda, RJ, 27255-125 (Brazil); Franco, F A; Ribeiro, S B; Padovese, L R, E-mail: mcampos@metal.eeimvr.uff.br, E-mail: mfdcampo@uol.com.br [Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-06

    Steels with different carbon content, 0.11%C and 0.48%C were submitted to a heat treatment for carburization in the surface. The samples were analyzed after several types of heat treatment, including quenching for producing martensite. The Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) is directly related to the microstructure. Samples with lower carbon content, have ferrite, a constituent where domain walls can move freely and present higher amplitude in the envelope of MBN. It is also found that the MBN peaks are quite distinct for the samples with martensite, which have lower permeability, and the results suggest that domain rotation contributes as mechanism for reversal of magnetization in martensite. The results also indicate that MBN is very suitable for monitoring the carburizing heat treatment.

  20. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in quenched carburized steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, M. F.; Franco, F. A.; Santos, R.; da Silva, F. S.; Ribeiro, S. B.; Lins, J. F. C.; Padovese, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    Steels with different carbon content, 0.11%C and 0.48%C were submitted to a heat treatment for carburization in the surface. The samples were analyzed after several types of heat treatment, including quenching for producing martensite. The Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) is directly related to the microstructure. Samples with lower carbon content, have ferrite, a constituent where domain walls can move freely and present higher amplitude in the envelope of MBN. It is also found that the MBN peaks are quite distinct for the samples with martensite, which have lower permeability, and the results suggest that domain rotation contributes as mechanism for reversal of magnetization in martensite. The results also indicate that MBN is very suitable for monitoring the carburizing heat treatment.

  1. Deflection and Distortion of CME internal magnetic flux rope due to the interaction with a structured solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, D.; Iju, T.; Hayashi, K.; Fujiki, K.; Tokumaru, M.; Kusano, K.

    2016-12-01

    CMEs are the most violent driver of geospace disturbances, and therefore their arrival to the Earth position is an important factor in space weather forecast. The dynamics of CME propagation is strongly affected by the interaction with background solar wind. To understand the interaction between a CME and background solar wind, we performed three-dimensional MHD simulations of the propagation of a CME with internal twisted magnetic flux rope into a structured bimodal solar wind. We compared three different cases in which an identical CME is launched into an identical bimodal solar wind but the launch dates of the CME are different. Each position relative to the boundary between slow and fast solar winds becomes almost in the slow wind stream region, almost in the fast wind stream region, or in vicinity of the boundary of the fast and slow solar wind stream (that grows to CIR). It is found that the CME is most distorted and deflected eastward in the case near the CIR, in contrast to the other two cases. The maximum strength of southward magnetic field at the Earth position is also highest in the case near CIR. The results are interpreted that the dynamic pressure gradient due to the back reaction from pushing the ahead slow wind stream and due to the collision behind fast wind stream hinders the expansion of the CME internal flux rope into the direction of the solar wind velocity gradient. As a result, the expansion into the direction to the velocity gradient is slightly enhanced and results in the enhanced deflection and distortion of the CME and its internal flux rope. These results support the pileup accident hypothesis proposed by Kataoka et al. (2015) to form unexpectedly geoeffective solar wind structure.

  2. Takeoff and landing performance and noise measurements of a deflected slipstream STOL airplane with interconnected propellers and rotating cylinder flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiberg, J. A.; Giulianetti, D.; Gambucci, B.; Innis, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    A YOV-10A aircraft was modified to incorporate rotating cylinder flaps and interconnected propellers with Lycoming T-53-L11 engines. Flight tests were made to evaluate the low speed handling qualities and performance characteristics. The flight test results indicated that landings could be made with approach speeds of 55 to 65 knots (CL = 4.5) and descent angles of 6 deg to 8 deg for total flap angles of 60 deg to 75 deg. At higher flap angles, deterioration of stability and control characteristics precluded attempts at landing. The noise level on the ground under an 8 deg landing approach path was below 86 PNdB at distances beyond 1 nautical mile from touchdown. Takeoffs were made with 30 deg to 45 deg flaps at lift off speeds of 75 to 80 knots and climb angles of 4 deg to 8 deg. Noise levels were below 83 PNdB at 3.5 nautical miles from the start of ground roll.

  3. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  4. Analysis of Vibration and Acoustic Noise in Permanent Magnet Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangmoon

    The drive motor is a frequent source of vibration and acoustic noise in many precision spindle motors. One of the electromagnetic sources of vibration in permanent magnet motors is the torque ripple, consisting of the reluctance torque and electromagnetic torque fluctuation. This type of vibration is becoming more serious with the advent of new high-grade magnets with increased flux density. Acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin is difficult to predict and its exact mechanism is unclear. The mechanism of noise generation should be revealed to design a quieter motor which is the modern customer's demand. For motor operation at low speeds and loads, torque ripple due to the reluctance torque is often a source of vibration and control difficulty. The reluctance torque in a motor was calculated from the flux density by a finite element method and the Maxwell stress method. Effects of design parameters, such as stator slot width, permanent slot width, airgap length and magnetization direction, were investigated. Magnet pole shaping, by gradually decreasing the magnet thickness toward edges, yields a sinusoidal shape of the reluctance torque with reduced harmonics, thus reducing the vibration. This dissertation also presents two motor design techniques: stator tooth notching and rotor pole skewing with magnet pole shaping, and the effect of each method on the output torque. The analysis shows that the reluctance torque can be nearly eliminated by the suggested designs, with minimal sacrifice of the output torque. In permanent magnet DC motors, the most popular design type is the trapezoidal back electro-motive force (BEMF), for switched DC controllers. It is demonstrated that the output torque profile of one phase energized is qualitatively equivalent to the BEMF profile for motors with reduced reluctance torque. It implies that design of BEMF profile is possible by magnetic modeling of a motor, without expensive and time-consuming experiments for different designs

  5. Disentangling the magnetic force noise contribution in LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetically-induced forces on the inertial masses on-board LISA Pathfinder are expected to be one of the dominant contributions to the mission noise budget, accounting for up to 40%. The origin of this disturbance is the coupling of the residual magnetization and susceptibility of the test masses with the environmental magnetic field. In order to fully understand this important part of the noise model, a set of coils and magnetometers are integrated as a part of the diagnostics subsystem. During operations a sequence of magnetic excitations will be applied to precisely determine the coupling of the magnetic environment to the test mass displacement using the on-board magnetometers. Since no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the test mass position will be available, an extrapolation of the magnetic measurements to the test mass position will be carried out as a part of the data analysis activities. In this paper we show the first results on the magnetic experiments during an end- to-end LISA Pathfinder simulation, and we describe the methods under development to map the magnetic field on-board.

  6. Superpoissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Martinez, Isidoro; Aliev, Farkhad G., E-mail: farkhad.aliev@uam.es [Dpto. Fisica Materia Condensada C3, Instituto Nicolas Cabrera (INC), Condensed Matter Physics Institute (IFIMAC), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong, E-mail: mtlin@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Szczepański, Tomasz; Dugaev, Vitalii K. [Department of Physics, Rzeszów University of Technology, al. Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Barnaś, Józef [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań, Poland and Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2014-12-08

    Organic molecules have recently revolutionized ways to create new spintronic devices. Despite intense studies, the statistics of tunneling electrons through organic barriers remains unclear. Here, we investigate conductance and shot noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) barriers a few nm thick. For junctions in the electron tunneling regime, with magnetoresistance ratios between 10% and 40%, we observe superpoissonian shot noise. The Fano factor exceeds in 1.5–2 times the maximum values reported for magnetic tunnel junctions with inorganic barriers, indicating spin dependent bunching in tunneling. We explain our main findings in terms of a model which includes tunneling through a two level (or multilevel) system, originated from interfacial bonds of the PTCDA molecules. Our results suggest that interfaces play an important role in the control of shot noise when electrons tunnel through organic barriers.

  7. The complementarity and similarity of magnetorelaxometry and thermal magnetic noise spectroscopy for magnetic nanoparticle characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliaert, J.; Eberbeck, D.; Liebl, M.; Coene, A.; Steinhoff, U.; Wiekhorst, F.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Dupré, L.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetorelaxometry and thermal magnetic noise spectroscopy are two magnetic characterization techniques enabling one to estimate the magnetic nanoparticle hydrodynamic size distribution. Both techniques are based on the same physical principle, i.e. the thermal fluctuations of the magnetic moment. In the case of magnetorelaxometry these fluctuations give rise to a relaxing magnetic moment after an externally applied magnetic field is switched off, whereas thermal magnetic noise spectra are measured in the absence of any external excitation. Hence, thermal magnetic noise spectroscopy is an equilibrium measurement technique. Here, we compare the similarity and complementarity of both methods and conclude that, for particles within both methods’ sensitivity range, they give the same estimate for the size distribution. For small particles (or samples with low viscosities), the used setup is not sufficiently sensitive to accurately estimate the size distribution from the relaxometry signal whereas this is still possible with thermal magnetic noise spectroscopy. For larger particles, however, magnetorelaxometry is the preferred method because of its higher signal to noise ratio and faster measurement time.

  8. Relativistic Stern-Gerlach Deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Modern advances in polarized beam control should make it possible to accurately measure Stern-Gerlach (S-G) deflection of relativistic beams. Toward this end a relativistically covariant S-G formalism is developed that respects the opposite behavior under inversion of electric and magnetic fields. Not at all radical, or even new, this introduces a distinction between electric and magnetic fields that is not otherwise present in pure Maxwell theory. Experimental configurations (mainly using polarized electron beams passing through magnetic or electric quadrupoles) are described. Electron beam preparation and experimental methods needed to detect the extremely small deflections are discussed.

  9. Magnetic noise measurements using cross-correlated Hall sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, G.; Ocio, M.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental technique for measuring magnetic fluctuations by means of a double-layer Hall sensor array is described. The technique relies on cross-correlating Hall signals from two independent sensors positioned one above the other in two separate two-dimensional-electron-gas layers of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by a reduction of the magnitude of the background noise floor of the correlated sensors with respect to the noise level of the best single sensor.

  10. Complex inductance, excess noise, and surface magnetism in dc SQUIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, S; Hover, D; Mück, M; McDermott, R

    2009-09-11

    We have characterized the complex inductance of dc SQUIDs cooled to millikelvin temperatures. The SQUID inductance displays a rich, history-dependent structure as a function of temperature, with fluctuations of order 1 fH. At a fixed temperature, the SQUID inductance fluctuates with a 1/f power spectrum; the inductance noise is highly correlated with the conventional 1/f flux noise. The data are interpreted in terms of the reconfiguration of clusters of surface spins, with correlated fluctuations of effective magnetic moments and relaxation times.

  11. Prediction and compensation of magnetic beam deflection in MR-integrated proton therapy: a method optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Sonja M.; Hoffmann, Aswin L.

    2017-02-01

    The integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton therapy for on-line image-guidance is expected to reduce dose delivery uncertainties during treatment. Yet, the proton beam experiences a Lorentz force induced deflection inside the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, and several methods have been proposed to quantify this effect. We analyze their structural differences and compare results of both analytical and Monte Carlo models. We find that existing analytical models are limited in accuracy and applicability due to critical approximations, especially including the assumption of a uniform magnetic field. As Monte Carlo simulations are too time-consuming for routine treatment planning and on-line plan adaption, we introduce a new method to quantify and correct for the beam deflection, which is optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed. We use it to predict the trajectory of a mono-energetic proton beam of energy E 0 traversing a water phantom behind an air gap within an omnipresent uniform transverse magnetic flux density B 0. The magnetic field induced dislocation of the Bragg peak is calculated as function of E 0 and B 0 and compared to results obtained with existing analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The deviation from the Bragg peak position predicted by Monte Carlo simulations is smaller for the new model than for the analytical models by up to 2 cm. The model is faster than Monte Carlo methods, less assumptive than the analytical models and applicable to realistic magnetic fields. To compensate for the predicted Bragg peak dislocation, a numerical optimization strategy is introduced and evaluated. It includes an adjustment of both the proton beam entrance angle and energy of up to 25° and 5 MeV, depending on E 0 and B 0. This strategy is shown to effectively reposition the Bragg peak to its intended location in the presence of a magnetic field.

  12. Prediction and compensation of magnetic beam deflection in MR-integrated proton therapy: a method optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Sonja M; Hoffmann, Aswin L

    2017-02-21

    The integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton therapy for on-line image-guidance is expected to reduce dose delivery uncertainties during treatment. Yet, the proton beam experiences a Lorentz force induced deflection inside the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, and several methods have been proposed to quantify this effect. We analyze their structural differences and compare results of both analytical and Monte Carlo models. We find that existing analytical models are limited in accuracy and applicability due to critical approximations, especially including the assumption of a uniform magnetic field. As Monte Carlo simulations are too time-consuming for routine treatment planning and on-line plan adaption, we introduce a new method to quantify and correct for the beam deflection, which is optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed. We use it to predict the trajectory of a mono-energetic proton beam of energy E 0 traversing a water phantom behind an air gap within an omnipresent uniform transverse magnetic flux density B 0. The magnetic field induced dislocation of the Bragg peak is calculated as function of E 0 and B 0 and compared to results obtained with existing analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The deviation from the Bragg peak position predicted by Monte Carlo simulations is smaller for the new model than for the analytical models by up to 2 cm. The model is faster than Monte Carlo methods, less assumptive than the analytical models and applicable to realistic magnetic fields. To compensate for the predicted Bragg peak dislocation, a numerical optimization strategy is introduced and evaluated. It includes an adjustment of both the proton beam entrance angle and energy of up to 25° and 5 MeV, depending on E 0 and B 0. This strategy is shown to effectively reposition the Bragg peak to its intended location in the presence of a magnetic field.

  13. Electron/ion whistler instabilities and magnetic noise bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, K.; Gary, S. Peter; Omidi, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two whistler instabilities are investigated by means of the linear Vlasov dispersion equation. They are called the electron/ion parallel and oblique whistler instabilities, and are driven by electron/ion relative drifts along the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the enhanced fluctuations from these instabilities can explain several properties of magnetic noise bursts in and near the plasma sheet in the presence of ion beams and/or field-aligned currents. At sufficiently high plasma beta, these instabilities may affect the current system in the magnetotail.

  14. Sagnac interferometer for photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Harumasa; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2012-07-01

    Photothermal deflection spectroscopy is combined with a Sagnac interferometer to enhance the sensitivity of the absorption measurement by converting the photothermal beam deflection effect into the light intensity change by the interference effect. Because of stable light interference due to the common path, the signal intensity can be amplified without increasing the noise by extending the optical path length between a sample and a photodetector. The sensitivity is further improved by the use of focusing optics and double-pass geometry. This makes photothermal deflection spectroscopy applicable to any kind of material in the whole visible region with a xenon lamp for excitation and water or air as a deflection medium.

  15. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Measurements Using Tetrapole Probe Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairnay, Paul

    A magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) testing system was developed for Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) to perform MBN measurements on the Royal Canadian Navy's Victoria class submarine hulls that can be correlated with material properties, including residual stress. The DRDC system was based on the design of a MBN system developed by Steven White at Queen's University, which was capable of performing rapid angular dependent measurements through the implementation of a flux controlled tetrapole probe. In tetrapole probe designs, the magnetic excitation field is rotated in the surface plane of the sample under the assumption of linear superposition of two orthogonal magnetic fields. During the course of this work, however, the validity of flux superposition in ferromagnetic materials, for the purpose of measuring MBN, was brought into question. Consequently, a study of MBN anisotropy using tetrapole probes was performed. Results indicate that MBN anisotropy measured under flux superposition does not simulate MBN anisotropy data obtained through manual rotation of a single dipole excitation field. It is inferred that MBN anisotropy data obtained with tetrapole probes is the result of the magnetic domain structure's response to an orthogonal magnetization condition and not necessarily to any bulk superposition magnetization in the sample. A qualitative model for the domain configuration under two orthogonal magnetic fields is proposed to describe the results. An empirically derived fitting equation, that describes tetrapole MBN anisotropy data, is presented. The equation describes results in terms of two largely independent orthogonal fields, and includes interaction terms arising due to competing orthogonally magnetized domain structures and interactions with the sample's magnetic easy axis. The equation is used to fit results obtained from a number of samples and tetrapole orientations and in each case correctly identifies the samples' magnetic easy axis.

  16. Noise-induced bifurcations in magnetization dynamics of uniaxial nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpico, C., E-mail: serpico@unina.it; Perna, S.; Quercia, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell' Informazione, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, I-10135 Torino (Italy); D' Aquino, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Napoli “Parthenope,” I-80143 Napoli (Italy); Mayergoyz, I. D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Stochastic magnetization dynamics in uniformly magnetized nanomagnets is considered. The system is assumed to have rotational symmetry as the anisotropy axis, the applied field, and the spin polarization are all aligned along an axis of symmetry. By appropriate integration of the Fokker-Planck equation associated to the problem, the stochastic differential equation governing the evolution of the angle between the magnetization orientation and the symmetry axis is derived. The drift terms present in this equation contain a noise-induced drift term, which, in combination with drift terms of deterministic origin, can be written as the derivative of an effective potential. Superparamagnetic-like transitions are studied in connections with the bifurcations of the effective potential as temperature and excitation conditions are varied.

  17. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  18. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Xu, Ben [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan [Energy Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.

  19. Reducing Magnetic Noise of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for High-Quality Magnetic Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sterligov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of light and ultralight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for magnetic data acquisition can be efficient for resolving multiple geological and engineering tasks including geological mapping, ore deposits’ prospecting, and pipelines’ monitoring. The accuracy of the aeromagnetic data acquired using UAV depends mainly on deviation noise of electric devices (engine, servos, etc.. The goal of this research is to develop a nonmagnetic unmanned aerial platform (NUAP for high-quality magnetic surveys. Considering parameters of regional and local magnetic survey, a fixed-wing UAV suits geological tasks better for plain area and copter type for hills and mountains. Analysis of the experimental magnetic anomalies produced by a serial light fixed-wing UAV and subsequent magnetic and aerodynamic modeling demonstrates a capacity of NUAP with internal combustion engine carrying an atomic magnetic sensor mounted on the UAV wings to facilitate a high-quality magnetic survey.

  20. Low magnetic Johnson noise electric field plates for precision measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Rabey, I M; Hinds, E A; Sauer, B E

    2016-01-01

    We describe a parallel pair of high voltage electric field plates designed and constructed to minimise magnetic Johnson noise. They are formed by laminating glass substrates with commercially available polyimide (Kapton) tape, covered with a thin gold film. Tested in vacuum, the outgassing rate is less than $5\\times10^{-5}$ mbar.l/s. The plates have been operated at electric fields up to 8.3 kV/cm, when the leakage current is at most a few hundred pA. The design is discussed in the context of a molecular spin precession experiment to measure the permanent electric dipole moment of the electron.

  1. Coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform for magnetic flux leakage data obtained from oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Wenhua; Que Peiwen

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of noise cancellation for the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data obtained from the inspection of oil pipelines. MFL data is contaminated by various sources of noise, and the noise can considerably reduce the detectability of flaw signals in MFL data. This paper presents a new de-noising approach for removing the system noise contained in the MFL data by using the coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of this de-noising approach over the conventional wavelet de-noising method.

  2. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Veer Chand Rakhecha

    2004-08-01

    While studying neutron deflections produced by a magnetic prism, we have stumbled upon a simple `geometric' formula. For a prism of refractive index close to unity, the deflection simply equals the product of the refractive power − 1 and the base-to-height ratio of the prism, regardless of the apex angle. The base and height of the prism are measured respectively along and perpendicular to the direction of beam propagation within the prism. The geometric formula greatly simplifies the optimisation of prism parameters to suit any specific experiment.

  3. Magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise emission analysis of magnetic materials and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, Neelam

    specialchapt{ABSTRACT}. Barkhausen emission studies have been used to analyze the effect of residual stresses in ferromagnetic materials. The stresses generated due to mechanical wear and tear, abrasion and prolonged use can also lead to phase changes within the material. These phase changes can cause damage to the structural parts and should be prevented. In this study we analyze the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise profile of materials with more than one ferromagnetic phase. The correlation between the hysteresis and Barkhausen noise profiles for such materials is studied. Secondary Barkhausen emission peaks can be simulated for such materials. Experimental observations are compared with simulation measurements. Drawing a correlation between the secondary emergent peaks and the composition of each secondary phase should lead to an improved technique for non-destructive characterization of ferromagnetic materials. . Improved sensor-to-specimen coupling is also essential for conducting Barkhausen noise measurements of multiphase materials which may also have different surface geometries. A finite element study was conducted to optimize the design parameters of the magnetizing core in a Barkhausen noise sensor. Several sensor parameters inclusive of core material, core-tip curvature, core length and pole spacing were studied. A procedure for developing a high sensitivity Barkhausen noise sensor by design optimization based on finite element simulations has been demonstrated. The study also shows the applicability of Barkhausen emission and magnetic hysteresis analysis as advanced tools of non-destructive characterization of ferromagnetic materials.

  4. Shot noise of the spin inelastic tunneling through a quantum dot with single molecule-magnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Bo; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the quantum fluctuations of inelastic spin-electron scattering in quantum dot with an embedded biaxial single molecule-magnet and particularly investigated the zero-frequency shot noise and Fano factor in different magnetic fields. It is found that the shot noise and Fano factor exhibit a stepwise behaviour as bias increases in the presence of interaction between the electron and molecule-magnet for a weak magnetic field. As magnetic field becomes strong, a dip is displayed in the shot-noise-bias curve due to the suppression of inelastic shot noise caused by the quantum tunneling of magnetisation. Because of the spontaneous inelastic tunneling at zero bias, a small shot noise occurs, which results in the case of Fano factor F > 1. Moreover, our results show that the sweeping speed can also influence the shot noise and Fano factor obviously.

  5. Low-frequency noise characterization of a magnetic field monitoring system using an anisotropic magnetoresistance

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, I; Lobo, A

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study about magnetic sensing techniques based on anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors shows that the technology is suitable for low-frequency space applications like the eLISA mission. Low noise magnetic measurements at the sub-millihertz frequencies were taken by using different electronic noise reduction techniques in the signal conditioning circuit. We found that conventional modulation techniques reversing the sensor bridge excitation do not reduce the potential $1/f$ noise of the magnetoresistors, so alternative methods such as flipping and electro-magnetic feedback are necessary. In addition, a low-frequency noise analysis of the signal conditioning circuits has been performed in order to identify and minimize the different main contributions from the overall noise. The results for chip-scale magnetoresistances exhibit similar noise along the eLISA bandwidth ($0.1\\,{\\rm mHz}-1\\,{\\rm Hz}$) to the noise measured by means of the voluminous fluxgate magnetometers used in its precursor mission, kn...

  6. Low-noise pulsed current source for magnetic-field measurements of magnets for accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelyanenko, M. M.; Borisov, V. V.; Donyagin, A. M.; Khodzhibagiyan, H. G.; Kostromin, S. A.; Makarov, A. A.; Shemchuk, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The schematic diagram, design, and technical characteristics of the pulsed current source developed and produced for the magnetic-field measurement system of superconducting magnets for accelerators are described. The current source is based on the current regulator with pass transistor bank in the linear mode. Output current pulses (0-100 A) are produced by utilizing the energy of the preliminarily charged capacitor bank (5-40 V), which is additionally charged between pulses. The output current does not have the mains frequency and harmonics ripple. The relative noise level is less than-100 dB (or 10-5) of RMS value (it is defined as the ratio of output RMS noise current to a maximal output current of 100 A within the operating bandwidth, expressed in dB). The work was performed at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).

  7. Application of magnetic Barkhausen noise in non-destructive testing fields of residual stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Hechi; Zhang Guangye; Chen Ligong; Ni Chunzhen

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) is a phenomenon of electromagnetic energy due to the movement of magnetic domain walls inside ferromagnetic materials when they are locally magnetized by an alternating magnetic fields. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, the noise can be received by the coil attached to the surface of the material being magnetized and the noise carries the message of the characteristics of the material such as stresses, hardness, phase content, etc. Based on the characteristic of the noise, researching about the relationship between the residual stress in the welding assembly and the noise are carried out. Furthermore, data process is performed by RMS (Root Mean Square) equation and Power Spectrum analysis.

  8. Deflection of high-intensity pulsed ion beam in focusing magnetically insulated ion diode with a passive anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. P.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, L.; Zhang, Z. C.; Yu, N.; Pushkarev, A.; Lei, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The focused high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) of 100 ns order pulse is generated with respect to its spatial stability in two types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with geometrical focusing configuration using the passive anode, i.e., insulation of electrons with an external magnetic-field and a self-magnetic field, respectively. Anode plasma formation for the ion beam generation is based on different processes in the two types of MIDs, as the surface breakdown on the polymer-coated anode operated in the unipolar pulse mode for the external-magnetic field MID and the explosive electron emission on the graphite anode in the bipolar-pulse mode for the self-magnetic field MID. Typical energy density per pulse is in the range of 3-6 J/cm2, at an accelerating voltage of 200-300 kV with a pulse duration of 120-150 ns. The spatial deviations of the HIPIB is evaluated by measuring the energy density distribution by using an infrared diagnostic method considering neutralizing during the ion beam propagation to the focal plane with a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The ion beam deviation is about ±1.5 mm for the external-magnetic field MID and ±2.5 mm for the self-magnetic field MID, leading to a fluctuation in the energy density of 1%-12%, and 9%-27% within a 10 mm range at the focal point, respectively. It is revealed that the displacement of different parts of a beam spot occurs nonsynchronously, mainly attributable to the intrinsic diode processes of plasma generation and expansion, and ion beam extraction from the anode-cathode gap, while the influence of magnetic field in the transportation region is negligible. The ion beam spatial deviation has a major influence on the shot-to-shot stability of ion beam, and it is suggested that the stability can be enhanced via diode process improvement.

  9. Investigation of the influence of magnetostriction and magnetic forces on transformer core noise and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phophongviwat, Teeraphon

    Transformer noise is of increasing environmental concern so continued efforts are being made by electrical steel and transformer producers to satisfy users by reducing the noise. Magnetostriction and magnetic forces are the main causes of transformer core noise and vibration. Understanding of the relationship from the core material to core structure and core vibration to core noise can help the design of low noise transformer cores. The most appropriate parameter for investigating the relationship between noise and vibration is sound pressure (in the unit of Pascals) in the frequency domain because it is not A-weighted. In this study, the side surfaces of transformer cores were found to emit higher noise than front and top surfaces at low magnetic induction. When the magnetic induction was increased, the effect of magnetic force increased and caused the front surfaces to emit higher noise. For three phase three limb transformer cores, the front surface of the middle limb generated higher noise than the outer limbs due to the effect of T-joint. However this does not translate higher noise level because of the phase difference of the vibration between the limbs. Due to this A-weighted sound power level of three phase, three limb transformer cores were shown to be lower than single phase transformer cores, although at the same cross sectional area and core window size the three phase cores has larger size.. A model, developed to separate the effects of magnetostriction and magnetic forces on transformer core vibration, showed that at low induction, magnetostriction is more significant than magnetic forces. The magnetic forces become more significant than magnetostriction when the induction is increased. Magnetostriction primarily depends on material and stress but magnetic forces principally depend on core building. Louder noise can be generated from a core built with low magnetostriction material than higher magnetostriction if the building tolerances are worse. The

  10. Testing the intrinsic noise of a coil-magnet actuator for cryogenic gravitational wave interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falferi, Paolo, E-mail: falferi@science.unitn.it [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Sezione di Padova, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2011-07-21

    The third generation gravitational wave interferometers that will operate underground and at cryogenic temperatures will need a complex and sophisticated control system to satisfy the requirements on the alignment and position of its optics and keep the detector at its working point. The force actuators of the control systems of the present interferometers are for the most part coil-magnet actuators. To check the possibility of using these actuators also at low temperature we have tested the magnetization and the magnetization noise of an SmCo magnet at 4.2 K. The magnetization loss, measured with a fluxgate magnetometer, is 7%. The magnetization noise has been measured with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The application of dc and ac (0.1 Hz) magnetic fields of an amplitude comparable to that needed to produce on the magnet a force large enough for the control system does not change the measured noise. The equivalent maximum force noise produced by the actuator as a result of the magnetization noise of the magnet has been evaluated. Its effect on the sensitivity of a third generation interferometer (Einstein Telescope) is negligible with respect to the most relevant fundamental noise contributions.

  11. Magnetic Properties of Metric Noise Storms Associated with Coronal Mass Ejections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Yuan Wen; Jing-Xiu Wang; Yu-Zong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Using Nan(c)ay Radioheliograph (NRH) imaging observations, combined with SOHO/Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetogram observations and coronal magnetic field extrapolation, we studied the magnetic nature of metric noise storms that are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Four events are selected: the events of 2000 July 14,2001 April 26, 2002 August 16 and 2001 March 28. The identified noise storm sources cover or partially cover the active regions (ARs), but the centers of storm sources are offset from the ARs. Using extrapolated magnetic field lines, we find that the noise storm sources trace the boundary between the open and closed field lines. We demonstrate that the disappearance of noise storm source is followed by the appearance of the burst source. The burst sources spread on the solar disk and their distributions correspond to the extent of the CME in LASCO C2 field of view. All the SOHO/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) dimmings associated with noise storm sources are located at the periphery of noise storms where the magnetic lines of force were previously closed and low-lying. When the closed field becomes partially or fully open, the basic configurations of noise storm sources are changed, then the noise storm sources are no longer observed. These observations provide the information that the variations of noise storms manifest the restructuring or reconfiguring of the coronal magnetic field.

  12. Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Svenja; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Lefeldt, Nele; Hein, Christine Maira; Zapka, Manuela; Michalik, Andreas; Elbers, Dana; Kittel, Achim; Hore, P J; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic noise is emitted everywhere humans use electronic devices. For decades, it has been hotly debated whether man-made electric and magnetic fields affect biological processes, including human health. So far, no putative effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at intensities below the guidelines adopted by the World Health Organization has withstood the test of independent replication under truly blinded experimental conditions. No effect has therefore been widely accepted as scientifically proven. Here we show that migratory birds are unable to use their magnetic compass in the presence of urban electromagnetic noise. When European robins, Erithacus rubecula, were exposed to the background electromagnetic noise present in unscreened wooden huts at the University of Oldenburg campus, they could not orient using their magnetic compass. Their magnetic orientation capabilities reappeared in electrically grounded, aluminium-screened huts, which attenuated electromagnetic noise in the frequency range from 50 kHz to 5 MHz by approximately two orders of magnitude. When the grounding was removed or when broadband electromagnetic noise was deliberately generated inside the screened and grounded huts, the birds again lost their magnetic orientation capabilities. The disruptive effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is not confined to a narrow frequency band and birds tested far from sources of electromagnetic noise required no screening to orient with their magnetic compass. These fully double-blinded tests document a reproducible effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise on the behaviour of an intact vertebrate.

  13. Spin torque antiferromagnetic nanooscillator in the presence of magnetic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gomonay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spin-torque effects in antiferromagnetic (AFM materials are of great interest due to the possible applications as high-speed spintronic devices. In the present paper we analyze the statistical properties of the current-driven AFM nanooscillator that result from the white Gaussian noise of magnetic nature. According to the peculiarities of deterministic dynamics, we derive the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations in the energy representation of two normal modes. We find the stationary distribution function in the subcritical and overcritical regimes and calculate the current dependence of the average energy, energy fluctuation and their ratio (quality factor. The noncritical mode shows the Boltzmann statistics with the current-dependent effective temperature in the whole range of the current values. The effective temperature of the other, i.e., soft, mode critically depends on the current in the subcritical region. Distribution function of the soft mode follows the Gaussian law above the generation threshold. In the overcritical regime, the total average energy and the quality factor grow with the current value. This raises the AFM nanooscillators to the promising candidates for active spintronic components.

  14. Relationship between magnetic Barkhausen noise and the stresses, the hardness and the phase content of ferromagnetic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xin; HOU Zhi-ling; TIAN Jian-long

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) is a phenomenon of electromagnetic energy emission due to the movement of magnetic domain walls inside ferromagnetic materials when they are locally magnetized by an altercoil attached to the surface of the material being magnetized and the noise carries the message of the characteristics of the material such as stresses, hardness, phase content, etc. Based on the characteristic of the noise, research about the relationship between the welding stresses in the welding assembly and the noise, the fatigue damage of the plate structure and the noise, and the influence of heat treatment and the variation of phase content to the noise are carried out in this paper.

  15. Magnetic Flux Fluctuations Due to Eddy Currents and Thermal Noise in Metallic Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunbajakau, S.; Rijpma, A.P.; Dolfsma, J.; Krooshoop, H.J.G.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Peters, M.J.; Rogalla, H.

    2003-01-01

    We derive expressions for the magnetic flux in a circular loop due to eddy currents and thermal noise in coaxial metallic disks. The eddy currents are induced by an applied field that changes sinusoidally in time. We give expressions for the eddy current noise when the frequency of the applied field

  16. Magnetic Flux Fluctuations Due to Eddy Currents and Thermal Noise in Metallic Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunbajakau, S.; Rijpma, A.P.; Dolfsma, J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Peters, M.J.; Rogalla, Horst

    2003-01-01

    We derive expressions for the magnetic flux in a circular loop due to eddy currents and thermal noise in coaxial metallic disks. The eddy currents are induced by an applied field that changes sinusoidally in time. We give expressions for the eddy current noise when the frequency of the applied field

  17. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  18. Ising-Glauber Spin Cluster Model for Temperature-Dependent Magnetization Noise in SQUIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Amrit

    2014-11-01

    Clusters of interacting two-level-systems, likely due to Farbe+(F+) centers at the metal-insulator interface, are shown to self-consistently lead to 1 /fα magnetization noise [with α (T )≲1 ] in SQUIDs. Model calculations, based on a new method of obtaining correlation functions, explains various puzzling experimental features. It is shown why the inductance noise is inherently temperature dependent while the flux noise is not, despite the same underlying microscopics. Magnetic ordering in these systems, established by three-point correlation functions, explains the observed flux- inductance-noise cross correlations. Since long-range ferromagnetic interactions are shown to lead to a more weakly temperature dependent flux noise when compared to short-range interactions, the time reversal symmetry of the clusters is also not likely broken by the same mechanism which mediates surface ferromagnetism in nanoparticles and thin films of the same insulator materials.

  19. Low frequency noise peak near magnon emission energy in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the low frequency (LF noise measurements in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs below 4 K and at low bias, where the transport is strongly affected by scattering with magnons emitted by hot tunnelling electrons, as thermal activation of magnons from the environment is suppressed. For both CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB and CoFeB/AlOx/CoFeB MTJs, enhanced LF noise is observed at bias voltage around magnon emission energy, forming a peak in the bias dependence of noise power spectra density, independent of magnetic configurations. The noise peak is much higher and broader for unannealed AlOx-based MTJ, and besides Lorentzian shape noise spectra in the frequency domain, random telegraph noise (RTN is visible in the time traces. During repeated measurements the noise peak reduces and the RTN becomes difficult to resolve, suggesting defects being annealed. The Lorentzian shape noise spectra can be fitted with bias-dependent activation of RTN, with the attempt frequency in the MHz range, consistent with magnon dynamics. These findings suggest magnon-assisted activation of defects as the origin of the enhanced LF noise.

  20. Low frequency noise peak near magnon emission energy in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang; Xiang, Li; Guo, Huiqiang; Wei, Jian, E-mail: weijian6791@pku.edu.cn [International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Li, D. L.; Yuan, Z. H.; Feng, J. F., E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Han, X. F. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the low frequency (LF) noise measurements in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) below 4 K and at low bias, where the transport is strongly affected by scattering with magnons emitted by hot tunnelling electrons, as thermal activation of magnons from the environment is suppressed. For both CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB and CoFeB/AlO{sub x}/CoFeB MTJs, enhanced LF noise is observed at bias voltage around magnon emission energy, forming a peak in the bias dependence of noise power spectra density, independent of magnetic configurations. The noise peak is much higher and broader for unannealed AlO{sub x}-based MTJ, and besides Lorentzian shape noise spectra in the frequency domain, random telegraph noise (RTN) is visible in the time traces. During repeated measurements the noise peak reduces and the RTN becomes difficult to resolve, suggesting defects being annealed. The Lorentzian shape noise spectra can be fitted with bias-dependent activation of RTN, with the attempt frequency in the MHz range, consistent with magnon dynamics. These findings suggest magnon-assisted activation of defects as the origin of the enhanced LF noise.

  1. Magnetic field induced random pulse trains of magnetic and acoustic noises in martensitic single-crystal Ni2MnGa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daróczi, Lajos; Piros, Eszter; Tóth, László Z.; Beke, Dezső L.

    2017-07-01

    Jerky magnetic and acoustic noises were evoked in a single variant martensitic Ni2MnGa single crystal (produced by uniaxial compression) by application of an external magnetic field along the hard magnetization direction. It is shown that after reaching the detwinning threshold, spontaneous reorientation of martensite variants (twins) leads not only to acoustic emission but magnetic two-directional noises as well. At small magnetic fields, below the above threshold, unidirectional magnetic emission is also observed and attributed to a Barkhausen-type noise due to magnetic domain wall motions during magnetization along the hard direction. After the above first run, in cycles of decreasing and increasing magnetic field, at low-field values, weak, unidirectional Barkhausen noise is detected and attributed to the discontinuous motion of domain walls during magnetization along the easy magnetization direction. The magnetic noise is also measured by constraining the sample in the same initial variant state along the hard direction and, after the unidirectional noise (as obtained also in the first run), a two-directional noise package is developed and it is attributed to domain rotations. From the statistical analysis of the above noises, the critical exponents, characterizing the power-law behavior, are calculated and compared with each other and with the literature data. Time correlations within the magnetic as well as acoustic signals lead to a common scaled power function (with β =-1.25 exponent) for both types of signals.

  2. Case of electro-magnetic shielding building. Pt. 2. Reduction method of magnetic noise due to microtremor in magnetically shielded room; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru denji shield no jitsurei. 2. Shield room no bishindo ni kiinsuru jiki noise taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Abe, T.; Kamei, Y. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    Magnetic sensitivity can be limited by microtremor of magnetically shielded room (MSR) used for the measurements of extremely magnetic fields such as biomagnetic measurements as well as environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies caused by trains, motorcars traffics and elevators but each of which can be reduced by MSR. The relation between the vibration of MSR and magnetic noise, and the reduction method of the magnetic noise due to microtremor of MSR are discussed experimentally. The correlations were high between acceleration in horizontal direction of ceiling panel and magnetic signal in horizontal and vertical directions. The magnetic noises were almost proportional to the displacement on the ceiling panel of MSR. Further an active isolation system was installed as a base of MSR to reduce the microtremor of the MSR. We also measured reduction effect of vibration and magnetic noise in an MSR actually mounted on TACMI by experiment when artificial vibrations were applied to the MSR by means of heal impacts and by a truck which run over a wood panel (height is 50 mm) on the road nearby at a speed of 20km per hour. (author)

  3. Small angle electron diffraction and deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electron optical system is constructed in order to obtain small angle diffraction and Lorentz deflection of electrons at the order of down to 10-6 radian in the reciprocal space. Long-distance camera length up to 3000 m is achieved in a conventional transmission electron microscope with LaB6 thermal emission type. The diffraction pattern at 5 × 10-6 radian is presented in a carbon replica grating with 500 nm lattice spacing while the magnetic deflection pattern at 2 × 10-5 radian is exhibited in Permalloy elements. A simultaneous recording of electron diffraction and Lorentz deflection is also demonstrated in 180 degree striped magnetic domains of La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  4. Detecting the presence of a magnetic field under Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise by adaptive measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang, E-mail: jungl@bit.edu.cn; Zou, Jian

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Adaptive measurement strategy is used to detect the presence of a magnetic field. • Gaussian Ornstein–Uhlenbeck noise and non-Gaussian noise have been considered. • Weaker magnetic fields may be more easily detected than some stronger ones. - Abstract: By using the adaptive measurement method we study how to detect whether a weak magnetic field is actually present or not under Gaussian noise and non-Gaussian noise. We find that the adaptive measurement method can effectively improve the detection accuracy. For the case of Gaussian noise, we find the stronger the magnetic field strength, the easier for us to detect the magnetic field. Counterintuitively, for non-Gaussian noise, some weaker magnetic fields are more likely to be detected rather than some stronger ones. Finally, we give a reasonable physical interpretation.

  5. Noise-Produced Patterns in Images Constructed from Magnetic Flux Leakage Data

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V; Levesley, Jeremy; Elkington, Peter; Bacciarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage measurements help identify the position, size and shape of corrosion-related defects in steel casings used to protect boreholes drilled into oil and gas reservoirs. Images constructed from magnetic flux leakage data contain patterns related to noise inherent in the method. We investigate the patterns and their scaling properties for the case of delta-correlated input noise, and consider the implications for the method's ability to resolve defects. The analytical evaluation of the noise-produced patterns is made possible by model reduction facilitated by large-scale approximation. With appropriate modification, the approach can be employed to analyze noise-produced patterns in other situations where the data of interest are not measured directly, but are related to the measured data by a complex linear transform involving integrations with respect to spatial coordinates.

  6. Removal of correlated noise online for in situ measurements by using multichannel magnetic resonance sounding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ling; Lin, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the other geophysical approaches, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) technique is direct and nondestructive in subsurface water exploration. It provides water content distribution and estimates hydrogeological properties. The biggest challenge is that MRS measurement always suffers bad signal-to-noise ratio, and it can be carried out only far from sources of noise. To solve this problem, a series of de-noising methods are developed. However, most of them are post-processing, leading the data quality uncontrolled for in situ measurements. In the present study, a new approach that removal of correlated noise online is found to overcome the restriction. Based on LabVIEW, a method is provided to enable online data quality control by the way of realizing signal acquisition and noise filtering simultaneously. Using one or more reference coils, adaptive noise cancellation based on LabVIEW to eliminate the correlated noise is available for in situ measurements. The approach was examined through numerical simulation and field measurements. The correlated noise is mitigated effectively and the application of MRS measurements is feasible in high-level noise environment. The method shortens the measurement time and improves the measurement efficiency.

  7. The Deflection Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  8. Development of a low noise induction magnetic sensor using magnetic flux negative feedback in the time domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G; Shang, X L; Lin, J

    2016-05-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic system can implement great depth detection. As for the electromagnetic system, the receiver utilized an air coil sensor, and the matching mode of the sensor employed the resistance matching method. By using the resistance matching method, the vibration of the coil in the time domain can be effectively controlled. However, the noise of the sensor, especially the noise at the resonance frequency, will be increased as well. In this paper, a novel design of a low noise induction coil sensor is proposed, and the experimental data and noise characteristics are provided. The sensor is designed based on the principle that the amplified voltage will be converted to current under the influence of the feedback resistance of the coil. The feedback loop around the induction coil exerts a magnetic field and sends the negative feedback signal to the sensor. The paper analyses the influence of the closed magnetic feedback loop on both the bandwidth and the noise of the sensor. The signal-to-noise ratio is improved dramatically.

  9. Detection of a milling-induced surface damage by the magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, A.; Neslušan, M.; Perevertov, O.

    2016-07-01

    The potential of the magnetic Barkhausen noise method for a non-destructive evaluation of the steel surface damage cased by milling was comprehensively investigated. A typical bearing steel was heat treated to three different hardnesses and then machined using the cutting tools with different degrees of the flank wear. The magnetic low-frequency measurements with a high reading depth were performed using a unique laboratory system providing a full control of the magnetization process. The high-frequency measurements were performed using a commercial Rollscan device. To study the induced magnetic anisotropy, the measurements were performed in two magnetization directions. In the feeding direction, the Barkhausen noise profiles showed a second high-field peak ascribed to an induced hardened surface layer, a so-called white layer. The most reliable results were obtained with the controlled waveform of the surface magnetic field measured directly by Hall sensors. In the perpendicular rotation direction, formation of the preferentially oriented matrix resulted in an enormously high Barkhausen noise activity. Based on these results, new magnetic parameters were proposed for the non-destructive evaluation of the white layer formation.

  10. Results of using permanent magnets to suppress Josephson noise in the KAPPa SIS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Neric, Marko; Groppi, Christopher E.; Underhill, Matthew; Mani, Hamdi; Weinreb, Sander; Russell, Damon S.; Kooi, Jacob W.; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Walker, Christopher K.; Kulesa, Craig

    2016-07-01

    We present the results from the magnetic field generation within the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) instrument. The KAPPa instrument is a terahertz heterodyne receiver using a Superconducting-Insulating- Superconducting (SIS) mixers. To improve performance, SIS mixers require a magnetic field to suppress Josephson noise. The KAPPa test receiver can house a tunable electromagnet used to optimize the applied magnetic field. The receiver is also capable of accommodating a permanent magnet that applies a fixed field. Our permanent magnet design uses off-the-shelf neodymium permanent magnets and then reshapes the magnetic field using machined steel concentrators. These concentrators allow the use of an unmachined permanent magnet in the back of the detector block while two small posts provide the required magnetic field across the SIS junction in the detector cavity. The KAPPa test receiver is uniquely suited to compare the permanent magnet and electromagnet receiver performance. The current work includes our design of a `U' shaped permanent magnet, the testing and calibration procedure for the permanent magnet, and the overall results of the performance comparison between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet counterpart.

  11. Investigation of Surface Magnetic Noise by Shallow Spins in Diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosskopf, T; Dussaux, A; Ohashi, K; Loretz, M; Schirhagl, R; Watanabe, H; Shikata, S; Itoh, KM; Degen, CL

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of spin relaxation times (T1, T1ρ, T2) on very shallow (≲5  nm) nitrogen-vacancy centers in high-purity diamond single crystals. We find a reduction of spin relaxation times up to 30 times compared to bulk values, indicating the presence of ubiquitous magnetic impurities asso

  12. Noise removal in magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Hsu, Edward W

    2005-08-01

    Although promising for visualizing the structure of ordered tissues, MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been hampered by long acquisition time and low spatial resolution associated with its inherently low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, the uncertainty in the DTI measurements has a direct impact on the accuracy of structural renderings such as fiber streamline tracking. Noise removal techniques can be used to improve the SNR of DTI without requiring additional acquisitions, albeit most low-pass filtering methods are accompanied by undesirable image blurring. In the present study, a modified vector-based partial-differential-equation (PDE) filtering formalism was implemented for smoothing DTI vector fields. Using an image residual-energy criterion to equate the degree of smoothing and error metrics empirically derived from DTI data to quantify the relative performances, the effectiveness in denoising DTI data is compared among image-based and vector-based PDE and fixed and adaptive low-pass k-space filtering. The results demonstrate that the edge-preservation feature of the PDE approach can be highly advantageous in enhancing DTI measurements, particularly for vector-based PDE filtering in applications relying on DTI directional information. These findings suggest a potential role for the postprocessing enhancement technique to improve the practical utility of DTI.

  13. Noise suppression during the electro-magnetic acoustic detection of wheels tread defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Dai, Lixin; Yang, Kai; Wang, Li

    2010-08-01

    Electro-magnetic acoustic detection technique has become a new development trend of nondestructive testing because of its high detection efficiency, accurate detection results, etc, so it now has been widely adopted in the railway department of our country. When the signal is detected using electro-magnetic acoustic detection technique, the influence of the poor condition of wheel surface, the existing electromagnetic interference and other factors will enable different levels of noise to exist in the detected signal, which will affect the signal quality, thereby reducing the detection accuracy. After introducing the structure and principle of electro-magnetic acoustic detection system, this paper has put forward two noise suppression algorithms for the noise problem of the detection signal, namely, phase difference algorithm and adaptive filtering algorithm. On the premise of reserving the necessary signal waveform of system, the algorithms can effectively suppress the noise of a detected signal, improve the quality of a data waveform, and obtain good detection results. The paper also compares two algorithms and points out that the better detection accuracy can be obtained if combining the two algorithms. This work has certain inspiration to raise the accuracy of electro-magnetic acoustic detection results.

  14. Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hong-Kang, E-mail: zhaohonk@yahoo.com; Zou, Wei-Ke [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Qiao [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China)

    2014-09-07

    We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.

  15. Magnetic Barkhausen noise measurement by resonant coil method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capo-Sanchez, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, Av. Patricio Lumumba s/n, 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)], E-mail: jcapo@usp.br; Padovese, L. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes a powerful new technique for nondestructive evaluation of ferromagnetic material. A method has been developed for measuring magnetic Barkhausen signals under different coil resonance frequencies. The measurements allow one to establish the behavior relating the power spectral density maximum and the resonant coil frequency. Time-frequency analysis of Barkhausen signals puts in evidence the tuning regions for each coil, and allows clear identification of each contribution to the Barkhausen signal spectrum. This concept was used in order to evaluate the relation between the degree of plastic deformation in carbon steel samples, and the power spectral density maximum at different resonance frequencies. This result also makes it possible to the selectively modify measurement sensibility to the magnetic Barkhausen signal by using different resonance frequencies.

  16. Flicker noise and magnetic resolution of graphene hall sensors at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilong; Huang, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Bingyan; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2013-09-01

    Hall elements fabricated on chemical vapor deposited graphene exhibited high current- and voltage-related sensitivities due to its low intrinsic carrier density and high mobility about 5000 cm2/V s. Electric noise of the Hall elements was measured at room temperature and found to be largely Flicker noise at low frequency which can be well described by Hooge's empirical relation with a low noise parameter of about 1.8 × 10-4. The combination of high sensitivity and low noise in graphene Hall elements leads to a high room temperature magnetic resolution of about 5 × 10-3 G/Hz0.5 at 3 kHz.

  17. Symmetry based frequency domain processing to remove harmonic noise from surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annette; Larsen, Jakob Juul; Parsekian, Andrew D.

    2017-02-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a unique geophysical method due to its direct sensitivity to water. A key limitation to overcome is the difficulty of making surface NMR measurements in environments with anthropogenic electromagnetic noise, particularly constant frequency sources such as powerlines. Here we present a method of removing harmonic noise by utilizing frequency domain symmetry of surface NMR signals to reconstruct portions of the spectrum corrupted by frequency-domain noise peaks. This method supplements the existing NMR processing workflow and is applicable after despiking, coherent noise cancellation, and stacking. The symmetry based correction is simple, grounded in mathematical theory describing NMR signals, does not introduce errors into the data set, and requires no prior knowledge about the harmonics. Modelling and field examples show that symmetry based noise removal reduces the effects of harmonics. In one modelling example, symmetry based noise removal improved signal-to-noise ratio in the data by 10 per cent. This improvement had noticeable effects on inversion parameters including water content and the decay constant T2*. Within water content profiles, aquifer boundaries and water content are more accurate after harmonics are removed. Fewer spurious water content spikes appear within aquifers, which is especially useful for resolving multilayered structures. Within T2* profiles, estimates are more accurate after harmonics are removed, especially in the lower half of profiles.

  18. Investigation of Surface Magnetic Noise by Shallow Spins in Diamond

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of spin relaxation times (T1, T1ρ, T2) on very shallow (≲5  nm) nitrogen-vacancy centers in high-purity diamond single crystals. We find a reduction of spin relaxation times up to 30 times compared to bulk values, indicating the presence of ubiquitous magnetic impurities associated with the surface. Our measurements yield a density of 0.01–0.1μB/nm2 and a characteristic correlation time of 0.28(3) ns of surface states, with little variation between samples and chemical...

  19. Exact scattering matrix of graphs in magnetic field and quantum noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudrelier, Vincent, E-mail: v.caudrelier@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematical Science, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mintchev, Mihail, E-mail: mintchev@df.unipi.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ragoucy, Eric, E-mail: eric.ragoucy@lapth.cnrs.fr [LAPTh, Laboratoire d’Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Université de Savoie, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    We consider arbitrary quantum wire networks modelled by finite, noncompact, connected quantum graphs in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find a general formula for the total scattering matrix of the network in terms of its local scattering properties and its metric structure. This is applied to a quantum ring with N external edges. Connecting the external edges of the ring to heat reservoirs, we study the quantum transport on the graph in ambient magnetic field. We consider two types of dynamics on the ring: the free Schrödinger and the free massless Dirac equations. For each case, a detailed study of the thermal noise is performed analytically. Interestingly enough, in presence of a magnetic field, the standard linear Johnson-Nyquist law for the low temperature behaviour of the thermal noise becomes nonlinear. The precise regime of validity of this effect is discussed and a typical signature of the underlying dynamics is observed.

  20. Methods and apparatuses for low-noise magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2015-10-20

    Magnetic sensors are disclosed, as well as methods for fabricating and using the same. In some embodiments, an EMR effect sensor includes a semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a conductive layer substantially coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a first voltage lead coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the first voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a second voltage lead coupled to the conductive layer. In some embodiments, the second voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. Embodiments of a Hall effect sensor having the same or similar structure are also disclosed.

  1. Investigation of surface magnetic noise by shallow spins in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, T; Dussaux, A; Ohashi, K; Loretz, M; Schirhagl, R; Watanabe, H; Shikata, S; Itoh, K M; Degen, C L

    2014-04-11

    We present measurements of spin relaxation times (T1, T1ρ, T2) on very shallow (≲5  nm) nitrogen-vacancy centers in high-purity diamond single crystals. We find a reduction of spin relaxation times up to 30 times compared to bulk values, indicating the presence of ubiquitous magnetic impurities associated with the surface. Our measurements yield a density of 0.01-0.1μB/nm2 and a characteristic correlation time of 0.28(3) ns of surface states, with little variation between samples and chemical surface terminations. A low temperature measurement further confirms that fluctuations are thermally activated. The data support the atomistic picture where impurities are associated with the top carbon layers, and not with terminating surface atoms or adsorbate molecules. The low spin density implies that the presence of a single surface impurity is sufficient to cause spin relaxation of a shallow nitrogen-vacancy center.

  2. Low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference device operating in Tesla magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Tobias; Nagel, Joachim; Wölbing, Roman; Kemmler, Matthias; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter

    2013-01-22

    Superconductivity in the cuprate YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) persists up to huge magnetic fields (B) up to several tens of Teslas, and sensitive direct current (dc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be realized in epitaxially grown YBCO films by using grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJs). Here we present the realization of high-quality YBCO nanoSQUIDs, patterned by focused ion beam milling. We demonstrate low-noise performance of such a SQUID up to B = 1 T applied parallel to the plane of the SQUID loop at the temperature T = 4.2 K. The GBJs are shunted by a thin Au layer to provide nonhysteretic current voltage characteristics, and the SQUID incorporates a 90 nm wide constriction which is used for on-chip modulation of the magnetic flux through the SQUID loop. The white flux noise of the device increases only slightly from 1.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz)(1/2) at B = 0 to 2.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. Assuming that a point-like magnetic particle with magnetization in the plane of the SQUID loop is placed directly on top of the constriction and taking into account the geometry of the SQUID, we calculate a spin sensitivity S(μ)(1/2) = 62 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at B = 0 and 110 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. The demonstration of low noise of such a SQUID in Tesla fields is a decisive step toward utilizing the full potential of ultrasensitive nanoSQUIDs for direct measurements of magnetic hysteresis curves of magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets.

  3. Suppression method of low-frequency noise for two-dimensional integrated magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takayuki; Sakairi, Yusuke; Mori, Akihiro; Masuzawa, Toru

    2017-04-01

    A new correlated double sampling method for two-dimensional magnetic sensors was proposed. In this method, output from a magnetic sensor is controlled by adjusting the drain bias of a MOSFET used as a Hall element. The two-dimensional integrated magnetic sensor used for the demonstration of correlated double sampling was composed of a 64 × 64 array of Hall sensors and fabricated by a 0.18 µm CMOS standard process. The size of a Hall element was 2.7 × 2.7 µm2. The dimensions of one pixel in which a Hall element was embedded were 7 × 7 µm2. The magnitude of residual noise after correlated double sampling with drain bias control was 0.81 mVp–p. This value is 16% of the original low-frequency noise. From the experimental results, the proposed correlated double sampling method is found to be suitable for low-frequency noise suppression in the two-dimensional magnetic sensors.

  4. Noise annoyance caused by magnetic levitation train passbys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Joos

    2001-05-01

    In a laboratory study, the annoyance caused by the passby sounds from a magnetic levitation (maglev) train was investigated. The outdoor A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL) of the maglev sounds varied from 65 to 90 dB. The driving speed of the maglev train varied from 100 to 400 km/h. Four important results were obtained. Provided that the outdoor ASELs were the same, (1) the annoyance was independent of the driving speed of the maglev train, (2) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was considerably higher than that caused by intercity trains, (3) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was hardly different from that caused by road traffic (passenger cars and trucks), and (4) the results (1)-(3) held true both for open or closed windows. On the basis of the present results, it might be expected that the sounds are equally annoying if the ASELs of the maglev-train passbys are at least 5 dB lower than those of the intercity train passbys. Consequently, the results of the present experiment do not support application of a railway bonus to the maglev-train sounds. Issues for future research, such as exploring further contributions of nonacoustic factors, will be discussed.

  5. Experiments on Deflecting & Oscillating Waterjet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new type jet,the oscillating & deflecting jet ,is put forward and its oscillating and deflecting characteristics are investigated.The nozzle of the self-oscillating & deflecting water jet consists of an upstream nozzle,a downstream nozzle,an oscillating chamber and two switches,It is experimentally shown that the deflective angle may reach 9.53 degeree,the generated pressure fluctuation is very regular and the jet can efficiently increase the ability for bradking and cutting by eliminating the water cushion effect associated with a continuous jet.

  6. Manufacturing inspection of electrical steels using Magnetic Barkhausen Noise: residual stress detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samimi, A.A., E-mail: 9aa8@queensu.ca [Queen' s Univ., Applied Magnetics Group, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Krause, T.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, NDE Lab., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Clapham, L. [Queen' s Univ., Applied Magnetics Group, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Gallaugher, M.; Ding, Y.; Chromik, R. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Non-oriented Electrical Steel (NOES) is the magnetic core lamination material used for flux transfer in rotary machines. The presence of residual stress associated with material processing may be detrimental to magnetic domain structure refinement and as a result, magnetic performance of NOES. Therefore, manufacturing inspection of NOES that identifies the presence of residual stress could contribute to the production of more energy efficient cores. However, standard materials evaluation is limited to destructive and off-line techniques. The present work employed Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) for nondestructive identification of local residual stress associated with stages in material processing. Analysis of MBN from single strips of NOES demonstrated clear response to applied tensile stress, mechanical shearing, the presence of an insulating coating and punching. The results establish the potential of MBN as a nondestructive testing technology for quality control of electrical steels at various stages of manufacture. (author)

  7. Use of Nuclear Spin Noise Spectroscopy to Monitor Slow Magnetization Buildup at Millikelvin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Peat, David; Owers‐Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At ultralow temperatures, longitudinal nuclear magnetic relaxation times become exceedingly long and spectral lines are very broad. These facts pose particular challenges for the measurement of NMR spectra and spin relaxation phenomena. Nuclear spin noise spectroscopy is used to monitor proton spin polarization buildup to thermal equilibrium of a mixture of glycerol, water, and copper oxide nanoparticles at 17.5 mK in a static magnetic field of 2.5 T. Relaxation times determined in such a way are essentially free from perturbations caused by excitation radiofrequency pulses, radiation damping, and insufficient excitation bandwidth. The experimental spin‐lattice relaxation times determined on resonance by saturation recovery with spin noise detection are consistently longer than those determined by using pulse excitation. These longer values are in better accordance with the expected field dependence trend than those obtained by on‐resonance experiments with pulsed excitation. PMID:27305629

  8. A measure of acoustic noise generated from transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Kothare, Raveena S; Yu, Camilla; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Anastasio, Elana M; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of sound emanating from the discharge of magnetic coils used in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can potentially cause acoustic trauma. Per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for safety of noise exposure, hearing protection is recommended beyond restricted levels of noise and time limits. We measured the sound pressure levels (SPLs) from four rTMS coils with the goal of assessing if the acoustic artifact levels are of sufficient amplitude to warrant protection from acoustic trauma per OSHA standards. We studied the SPLs at two frequencies (5 and 10 Hz), three machine outputs (MO) (60, 80 and 100%), and two distances from the coil (5 and 10 cm). We found that the SPLs were louder at closer proximity from the coil and directly dependent on the MO. We also found that in all studied conditions, SPLs were lower than the OSHA permissible thresholds for short (8 h) exposure.

  9. Detection of stress concentrations around a defect by magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, K.; Dufour, D.; Sabet-Sharghi, R.; Sijgers, B.; Micke, D.; Krause, T.W.; Clapham, L.; Atherton, D.L. [Applied Magnetics Group, Department of Physics, Queen`s University, Kingston, K7L 3N6, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    The stress distribution around a 50{percent} blind-hole pit in a steel pipe with a 9 mm wall has been studied using high-resolution magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurements. A magnetic disk read-head is used as the pick up coil in the MBN probe. The study shows a stress concentration factor of {approximately}2 at the defect edge perpendicular to the direction of applied stress and {approximately}{minus}0.6 at the edge parallel to the same. The experimental results are consistent with the analytical solutions obtained by the Airy{close_quote}s stress function approach. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Equivalent magnetic noise in multi- push-pull configuration magnetoelectric composites: model and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaojin; Hasanyan, Davresh; Li, Menghui; Gao, Junqi; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical model for the multi-push-pull configuration of magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composites comprising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers with interdigitated electrodes encapsulated in polyimide film is presented. Analytical solutions for the ME voltage coefficient αE, ME charge coefficient αQ, noise charge density and equivalent magnetic noise were derived. Parametric studies are presented to evaluate the influence of material properties and polyimide film geometries. The results show that the value of αE was determined by the parameters of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases, and that the values of αQ and noise charge density were determined not only by the component parameters, but also by the volume fraction of the piezoelectric phase and polyimide film geometry. The equivalent magnetic noise had no dependence on the polyimide film geometry, but rather was determined by the component parameters and the volume fraction of the piezoelectric phase. Theoretical and experimental results are compared and shown to have good agreement with each other.

  11. On the role of crystal and stress anisotropy in magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh Amiri, Meisam, E-mail: Meisam.SheikhAmiri@izfp-extern.fraunhofer.de [Saarland University, Chair in Nondestructive Testing and Quality Assurance, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Thielen, Matthias [Saarland University, MWW, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Rabung, Madalina [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marx, Michael [Saarland University, MWW, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Szielasko, Klaus [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Boller, Christian [Saarland University, Chair in Nondestructive Testing and Quality Assurance, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The article describes the micromagnetic behavior of non- and pre-plastically deformed high strength steel samples under applied stress using different magnetic nondestructive methods such as magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis and hysteresis measurements. It was found that the maximum amplitude of Barkhausen noise (M{sub MAX}) increases with applied stress up to a certain point and then decreases again (so-called M{sub MAX}(σ)-curve). Changes of magnetostriction, hysteresis curves and magnetic domain structures have been measured and have been further investigated to find out the reasons with respect to macro- and microscopic material behavior. The results obtained are mainly discussed on the basis of the Villari effect and the relation between applied stress and the Barkhausen noise parameters is described. It is concluded that the interaction between crystal and stress anisotropy is the main reason of the specific M{sub MAX}(σ)-curve observed. - Highlights: • The effect of applied and residual stresses on MBN has been deeply investigated. • The maximum amplitude of MBN rises with applied stress and then falls again. • Magnetostriction, B–H and MFM measurements have been done to find out the reason. • Interaction between crystal and stress anisotropy is the reason of MBN behavior.

  12. Noise in small magnetic systems-applications to very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannetier, M. [CAPMAG/DRECAM, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: mpannetier@cea.fr; Fermon, C. [CAPMAG/DRECAM, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Le Goff, G. [CAPMAG/DRECAM, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Simola, J. [Elekta Neuromag Oy, P.O. Box 68, FIN-00511 Helsinki (Finland); Kerr, E. [SFI-Nanosciences Laboratory, Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Coey, J.M.D. [SFI-Nanosciences Laboratory, Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-04-15

    Reduction for 1/f noise (or random telegraph noise) is a crucial issue for small magnetic sensors which is strongly related to structural properties and magnetic configuration. We show how it is possible to eliminate magnetic noise at low frequency in GMR/TMR sensors by a combination of cross anisotropies, window frame shapes and suitably designed magnetoresisitive stack. These sensors are superior to almost all existing field and flux sensors. Results are presented on a mixed sensor, where a superconducting loop acts as a flux-to-field transformer to the GMR sensor. This device is suitable for detection of biomagnetic signals, such as in magnetocardiography or in magnetoencephalography. Measurements on niobium-based and YBCO-based sensors are presented, leading to sensitivity of 30 fT/{radical}Hz at 77 K for small samples. Sensitivity lower than 1 fT/{radical}(Hz) is expected with appropriate design and use of TMR or CMR layers, which makes these a powerful alternative to SQUIDs.

  13. Analytical computation of process noise matrix in Kalman filter for fitting curved tracks in magnetic field within dense, thick scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kolahal; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Mondal, Naba K.

    2016-07-01

    In the context of track fitting problems by a Kalman filter, the appropriate functional forms of the elements of the random process noise matrix are derived for tracking through thick layers of dense materials and magnetic field. This work complements the form of the process noise matrix obtained by Mankel [1].

  14. Electric Deflection of Rotating Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gershnabel, E

    2010-01-01

    We provide a theory of the deflection of polar and non-polar rotating molecules by inhomogeneous static electric field. Rainbow-like features in the angular distribution of the scattered molecules are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one may efficiently control the deflection process with the help of short and strong femtosecond laser pulses. In particular the deflection process may by turned-off by a proper excitation, and the angular dispersion of the deflected molecules can be substantially reduced. We study the problem both classically and quantum mechanically, taking into account the effects of strong deflecting field on the molecular rotations. In both treatments we arrive at the same conclusions. The suggested control scheme paves the way for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping by inhomogeneous fields.

  15. Correlation of magnetostriction variation on magnetic loss and noise for power transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shan-Jen; Liu, Jui-Jung; Chang, Yeong-Hwa; Fu, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Chang-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yao; Chang, Chia-Wen

    2015-05-01

    Magnetostriction (MS)-caused strain in single-phase three-legged cores with different core cutting forms, which suffer from induced magnetic loss and noise, was studied. It is found that adopting each different core form types induces magnetostriction ɛ variation in a transformer core operating with a high-frequency AC signal. The results are compared with finite element analysis simulations. It is also indicated that magnetostriction ɛ variations are significant in the rolling direction and along limbs and yokes. In this paper, it is proposed that core corner sides and T-joint parts without cutting structure, the core exhibits lower core loss and lower heat dissipation due to the fact that the magnetic flux that passes through corner sides shows lower magnetostriction variation. The magnetic properties resulting from magnetostriction variation in core loss and heat dissipation phenomena are significantly different from other core forms because of stronger contributions from magnetostatic forces. The main contribution for reducing core loss and noise, making them much less in corner numbers and cutting-fabricated forms, can be expected to come from lower magnetic flux and magnetostriction variation.

  16. THE HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCE WHERE THE DEFLECTIONS AND ROTATIONS OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS OCCUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, C.; Opher, M., E-mail: ckay@bu.edu [Astronomy Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the trajectory of a coronal mass ejection (CME), including any deflection from a radial path, and the orientation of its magnetic field is essential for space weather predictions. Kay et al. developed a model, Forecasting a CME’s Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), of CME deflections and rotation due to magnetic forces, not including the effects of reconnection. ForeCAT is able to reproduce the deflection of observed CMEs. The deflecting CMEs tend to show a rapid increase of their angular momentum close to the Sun, followed by little to no increase at farther distances. Here we quantify the distance at which the CME deflection is “determined,” which we define as the distance after which the background solar wind has negligible influence on the total deflection. We consider a wide range in CME masses and radial speeds and determine that the deflection and rotation of these CMEs can be well-described by assuming they propagate with constant angular momentum beyond 10 R{sub ⊙}. The assumption of constant angular momentum beyond 10 R{sub ⊙} yields underestimates of the total deflection at 1 AU of only 1%–5% and underestimates of the rotation of 10%. Since the deflection from magnetic forces is determined by 10 R{sub ⊙}, non-magnetic forces must be responsible for any observed interplanetary deflections or rotations where the CME has increasing angular momentum.

  17. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Yoon Lee; Jong-Mun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved condu...

  18. Reducing the Effects of Background Noise during Auditory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Speech Processing: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparisons between Two Image Acquisition Schemes and Noise Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Graham A.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The intense sound generated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) complicates studies of speech and hearing. This experiment evaluated the benefits of using active noise cancellation (ANC), which attenuates the level of the scanner sound at the participant's ear by up to 35 dB around the peak at 600 Hz. Method: Speech and…

  19. Reducing the Effects of Background Noise during Auditory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Speech Processing: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparisons between Two Image Acquisition Schemes and Noise Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Graham A.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The intense sound generated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) complicates studies of speech and hearing. This experiment evaluated the benefits of using active noise cancellation (ANC), which attenuates the level of the scanner sound at the participant's ear by up to 35 dB around the peak at 600 Hz. Method: Speech and…

  20. Tunneling magnetoresistance sensor with pT level 1/f magnetic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Deak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresistive devices are important components in a large number of commercial electronic products in a wide range of applications including industrial position sensors, automotive sensors, hard disk read heads, cell phone compasses, and solid state memories. These devices are commonly based on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, but over the past few years tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR has been emerging in more applications. Here we focus on recent work that has enabled the development of TMR magnetic field sensors with 1/f noise of less than 100 pT/rtHz at 1 Hz. Of the commercially available sensors, the lowest noise devices have typically been AMR, but they generally have the largest die size. Based on this observation and modeling of experimental data size and geometry dependence, we find that there is an optimal design rule that produces minimum 1/f noise. This design rule requires maximizing the areal coverage of an on-chip flux concentrator, providing it with a minimum possible total gap width, and tightly packing the gaps with MTJ elements, which increases the effective volume and decreases the saturation field of the MTJ freelayers. When properly optimized using this rule, these sensors have noise below 60 pT/rtHz, and could possibly replace fluxgate magnetometers in some applications.

  1. Tunneling magnetoresistance sensor with pT level 1/f magnetic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, James G.; Zhou, Zhimin; Shen, Weifeng

    2017-05-01

    Magnetoresistive devices are important components in a large number of commercial electronic products in a wide range of applications including industrial position sensors, automotive sensors, hard disk read heads, cell phone compasses, and solid state memories. These devices are commonly based on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), but over the past few years tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) has been emerging in more applications. Here we focus on recent work that has enabled the development of TMR magnetic field sensors with 1/f noise of less than 100 pT/rtHz at 1 Hz. Of the commercially available sensors, the lowest noise devices have typically been AMR, but they generally have the largest die size. Based on this observation and modeling of experimental data size and geometry dependence, we find that there is an optimal design rule that produces minimum 1/f noise. This design rule requires maximizing the areal coverage of an on-chip flux concentrator, providing it with a minimum possible total gap width, and tightly packing the gaps with MTJ elements, which increases the effective volume and decreases the saturation field of the MTJ freelayers. When properly optimized using this rule, these sensors have noise below 60 pT/rtHz, and could possibly replace fluxgate magnetometers in some applications.

  2. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T{sub e} and n{sub e} fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ∼60 000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50–75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60 000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained.

  3. Noise-sustained convective instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  4. Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  5. Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Liu

    2009-02-20

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  6. Defeating radiation damping and magnetic field inhomogeneity with spatially encoded noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Carl A

    2010-11-15

    A simple NMR experiment capable of providing well resolved spectra under conditions where either radiation damping or static magnetic field inhomogeneity would broaden otherwise high-resolution NMR spectra is introduced. The approach involves using a strong pulsed magnetic field gradient and a selective radio-frequency pulse to encode a predetermined noise pattern into the spatial distribution of magnetization. Following readout in a much smaller field gradient, the noise sequence may be deconvolved from the acquired data and a high-resolution spectrum is obtained, eliminating the effects of either radiation damping or the static field inhomogeneity. In the presence of field inhomogeneity a field map is also obtained from the same single transient. A quasi-two-dimensional version of the experiment eliminates the need for deconvolution and produces improved results with simplified processing, but without requiring a full two-dimensional experiment. Example spectra are shown for both radiation damping and one-dimensional field inhomogeneity with improvement in linewidths of more than a factor of 40.

  7. Global Trends of CME Deflections Based on CME and Solar Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, C; Evans, R M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate space weather forecasting requires knowledge of the trajectory of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), including any deflections close to the Sun or through interplanetary space. Kay et al. 2013 introduced ForeCAT, a model of CME deflection resulting from the background solar magnetic field. For a magnetic field solution corresponding to Carrington Rotation (CR) 2029 (declining phase, April-May 2005), the majority of the CMEs deflected to the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS), the minimum in magnetic pressure on global scales. Most of the deflection occurred below 4 Rs. Here we extend ForeCAT to include a three dimensional description of the deflecting CME. We attempt to answer the following questions: a) Do all CMEs deflect to the magnetic minimum? and b) Does most deflection occur within the first few solar radii (~4 Rs)? Results for solar minimum and declining phase CMEs show that not every CME deflects to the magnetic minimum and that typically about half of the deflection occurs below 10 Rs. Slow, narr...

  8. Analysis of domain wall dynamics based on skewness of magnetic Barkhausen noise for applied stress determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song; Tian, GuiYun; Dobmann, Gerd; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Skewness of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) signal is used as a new feature for applied stress determination. After experimental studies, skewness presents its ability for measuring applied tensile stress compared with conventional feature, meanwhile, a non-linear behavior of this new feature and an independence of the excitation conditions under compressive stress are found and discussed. Effective damping during domain wall motion influencing the asymmetric shape of the MBN statistical distribution function is discussed under compressive and tensile stress variation. Domain wall (DW) energy and distance between pinning edges of the DW are considered altering the characteristic relaxation time, which is the reason for the non-linear phenomenon of skewness.

  9. The effect of the disk magnetic element profile on the saturation field and noise of a magneto-modulation magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetoshko, P. M.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Skidanov, V. A.; Syvorotka, I. I.; Syvorotka, I. M.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2015-05-01

    Using the finite element method, it was shown by simulations that the approximation of a semielliptic thickness profile of magnetic disk by a stepped profile reduces the saturation field. Reducing the saturation field improves the sensitivity of magneto-modulation sensors, which is confirmed by experiments in the measurements of noise using magnetic field sensors that have a core with a stepped profile. The obtained level of magnetic sensor noise with a four-stage-core profile (1.5 × 10-9 Oe/Hz1/2) is more than an order of magnitude lower than in the known modern counterparts.

  10. Multiplexed Force and Deflection Sensing Shell Membranes for Robotic Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Black, Richard; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark; Chau, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation, e.g., for extravehicular robots making vehicle repairs. Although strain gauges have been widely used, a new sensing approach is desirable for applications that require greater robustness, design flexibility including a high degree of multiplexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic noise. This invention is a force and deflection sensor a flexible shell formed with an elastomer having passageways formed by apertures in the shell, with an optical fiber having one or more Bragg gratings positioned in the passageways for the measurement of force and deflection.

  11. Estimation of sufficient signal to noise ratio for texture analysis of magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Sami; Harrison, Lara; Ryymin, Pertti; Dastidar, Prasun; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we have studied the effect of background noise on the texture analysis of muscle, bone marrow and fat tissues in 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) images using different statistical methods. Variable levels of noise were first added on 3-mm thick T2 weighted image slices of voluntary subjects to simulate several signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. For each original and simulated image, the values for 264 texture parameters were calculated using MaZda, a texture analysis toolkit. We also determined Fisher coefficients based on the texture parameter values in order to enable high discrimination between different tissues. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and two different nearest neighbour (NN) methods were then applied for the texture parameters with the highest Fisher coefficient values. Several training and test sets were used to approximate the variation in the classification results. All the above-mentioned methods had the same classification accuracy, which in turn depended on the image SNR. We conclude that these tissues can be detected by texture analysis methods with a sufficient accuracy (90%) especially if SNR is at least 30-40 dB, even though the separation of different muscles remains a very challenging task.

  12. Deflection and Rotation of CMEs from Active Region 11158

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Christina; Gopalswamy, Nat; Xie, Hong; Yashiro, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    Between 13 and 16 February 2011, a series of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupted from multiple polarity inversion lines within active region 11158. For seven of these CMEs we employ the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) flux rope model to determine the CME trajectory using both Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and coronagraph images. We then use the model called Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT) for nonradial CME dynamics driven by magnetic forces to simulate the deflection and rotation of the seven CMEs. We find good agreement between ForeCAT results and reconstructed CME positions and orientations. The CME deflections range in magnitude between 10^{circ } and 30^{circ}. All CMEs are deflected to the north, but we find variations in the direction of the longitudinal deflection. The rotations range between 5^{circ} and 50^{circ} with both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations. Three of the CMEs begin with initial positions within 2^{circ} from one another. These three CMEs are all deflected primarily northward, with some minor eastward deflection, and rotate counterclockwise. Their final positions and orientations, however, differ by 20^{circ} and 30^{circ}, respectively. This variation in deflection and rotation results from differences in the CME expansion and radial propagation close to the Sun, as well as from the CME mass. Ultimately, only one of these seven CMEs yielded discernible in situ signatures near Earth, although the active region faced toward Earth throughout the eruptions. We suggest that the differences in the deflection and rotation of the CMEs can explain whether each CME impacted or missed Earth.

  13. Shipboard magnetic field "noise" reveals shallow heavy mineral sediment concentrations in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjana K.; Vogt, Peter R.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Newell, Wayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Willard, Debra A.; Hagen, Rick A.; Brozena, John; Hofstra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Shipboard magnetic field data collected over Chesapeake Bay exhibit low-amplitude, short-wavelength anomalies that most likely indicate shallow concentrations of heavy mineral sediments. Piston core layers and black sand beach samples exhibit enhanced magnetic susceptibilities and carry remanent magnetization, with mineralogical analyses indicating ilmenite and trace magnetite and/or maghemite and hematite. The anomalies are subtle and would be filtered as noise using traditional approaches, but can instead be highlighted using spectral methods, thus providing nearly continuous coverage along survey tracks. The distribution of the anomalies provides constraints on relevant sorting mechanisms. Comparisons to sonar data and previous grab samples show that two of three areas surveyed exhibit short-wavelength anomalies that are clustered over sand-covered areas, suggesting initial sorting through settling mechanisms. This is supported by a correlation between core magnetic susceptibility and grain size. Near the Choptank River, where sediment resuspension is wave-dominated, anomalies show a sharp decrease with seafloor depth that cannot be explained by signal attenuation alone. In Pocomoke Sound, where both tidal currents and wave-action impact sediment resuspension, anomalies show a more gradual decrease with depth. Near the mouth of the bay, where there is a higher influx of sediments from the continental shelf, short-wavelength anomalies are isolated and do not appear to represent heavy mineral sand concentrations. These combined observations suggest the importance of further sorting by erosional processes in certain parts of the bay. Additionally, comparisons of these data to cores sampling pre-Holocene sediments suggest that the sorting of heavy minerals in higher energy, shallow water environments provides a mechanism for correlations between core magnetic susceptibility and sea-level changes.

  14. Impact of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner noise on affective state and attentional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Shawna N; Shear, Paula K; Norris, Matthew; Smith, Matthew; Osterhage, Jeff; Strakowski, Stephen M; Cerullo, Michael; Fleck, David E; Lee, Jing-Huei; Eliassen, James C

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks administered in the scanner can be altered by the scanner environment. There are no previous studies that have investigated the impact of scanner noise using a well-validated measure of affective change. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance on an affective attentional task or emotional response to the task would change in the presence of distracting acoustic noise, such as that encountered in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. Thirty-four young adults with no self-reported history of neurologic disorder or mental illness completed three blocks of the affective Posner task outside of the scanner. The task was meant to induce frustration through monetary contingencies and rigged feedback. Participants completed a Self-Assessment Manikin at the end of each block to rate their mood, arousal level, and sense of dominance. During the task, half of the participants heard noise (recorded from a 4T MRI system), and half heard no noise. The affective Posner task led to significant reductions in mood and increases in arousal in healthy participants. The presence of scanner noise did not impact task performance; however, individuals in the noise group did report significantly poorer mood throughout the task. The results of the present study suggest that the acoustic qualities of MRI enhance frustration effects on an affective attentional task and that scanner noise may influence mood during similar functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks.

  15. Benchmarking Asteroid-Deflection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Tane; Bruck Syal, Megan; Owen, John Michael; Miller, Paul L.

    2016-10-01

    An asteroid impacting Earth could have devastating consequences. In preparation to deflect or disrupt one before it reaches Earth, it is imperative to have modeling capabilities that adequately simulate the deflection actions. Code validation is key to ensuring full confidence in simulation results used in an asteroid-mitigation plan. We are benchmarking well-known impact experiments using Spheral, an adaptive smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code, to validate our modeling of asteroid deflection. We describe our simulation results, compare them with experimental data, and discuss what we have learned from our work. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-695540

  16. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (test platform for acoustic noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  17. Determining Ms temperature on a AISI D2 cold work tool steel using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huallpa, Edgar Apaza, E-mail: gared1@gmail.com [Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes 2463, 05508-030 SP (Brazil); Sánchez, J. Capó, E-mail: jcapo@usp.br [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, Av. Patricio Lumumba s/n 90500, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Padovese, L.R., E-mail: lrpadove@usp.br [Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes 2463, 05508-030 SP (Brazil); Goldenstein, Hélio, E-mail: hgoldens@usp.br [Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes 2463, 05508-030 SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► MBN was used to follow the martensite transformation in a tool steel. ► The results were compared with resistivity experiments. ► The Ms was estimated with Andrews equation coupled to ThermoCalc calculations. The experimental results showed good agreement. -- Abstract: The use of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) as a experimental method for measuring the martensite start (Ms) temperature was explored, using as model system a cold-work tool steel (AISI D2) austenitized at a very high temperature (1473 K), so as to transform in sub-zero temperatures. The progress of the transformation was also followed with electrical resistance measurements, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both MBN and resistivity measurements showed a change near 230 K during cooling, corresponding to the Ms temperature, as compared with 245 K, estimated with Andrews empirical equation applied to the austenite composition calculated using ThermoCalc.

  18. Variations of the ionospheric parameters obtained from ground based measurements of ULF magnetic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Elena; Kotik, Dmitry; Bösinger, Tilmann

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of the amplitude spectra and polarization parameter (epsilon)[1] of magnetic ULF noise were investigated during different seasons and high geomagnetic activity time using the data on the horizontal magnetic components monitoring at mid-latitude (New Life, Russia, 56 N, 46 E) and low-latitude stations (Crete, 35.15 N, 25.20 E). It was found that abrupt changes in the spectral polarization parameters can be linked as with variation of height of maximum and the electron density of the F-layer, and with a change in ionospheric parameters profiles at lower altitudes, for example, with the appearance of sporadic Es-layers and intermediate layers, located between the E and F-layers. It was detected the peculiarities in the daily dynamics of the epsilon parameter at low latitudes: a) the appearance in some cases more complicated than in the mid-latitudes, epsilon structure of the spectrum associated with the presence of two different values of the boundary frequency fB [2]; b) a decreasing of fB near local midnight observed in 70% of cases; c) observation of typical for dark time epsilon spectra after sunrise in the winter season. The numerical calculations of epsilon parameter were made using the IRI-2012 model with setting the models of sporadic and intermediate layers. The results revealed the dependence of the polarization spectra of the intensity and height of such thin layers. The specific changes in the electron density at altitudes of 80-350 km during the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms were defined basing on a comparative analysis of the experimental spectra and the results of the numerical calculations. References. 1. E. N. Ermakova, D. S. Kotik, A. V.Ryabov, A. V.Pershin, T. B.osinger, and Q. Zhou, Studying the variation of the broadband spectral maximum parameters in the natural ULF fields, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 10-11, March, 2013 p. 605-615. 2. T. Bosinger, A. G. Demekhov, E. N. Ermakova, C. Haldoupis and Q

  19. Adaptation to Cortical Noise Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Occipital Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heslip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is increasingly used as a method to modify and study functional brain activity. However, results from various studies have produced conflicting theories on how TMS of cortical tissue influences ongoing visual processing. To investigate this issue, single pulse TMS was applied over left V1 in five healthy subjects during an orientation discrimination task (vertical vs. horizontal using a Gabor patch (2 c/deg, presented 6° in the right visual field. Stimulus contrast was set to each individual's threshold, measured in the absence of TMS. When TMS was applied over V1 performance decreased in all observers (by 1.2–8.7% compared to accuracy levels obtained during stimulation of a control site (Cz. Crucially, accuracy levels during V1 stimulation gradually improved across blocks of 200 trials in some subjects, whereas performance remained stable during control site stimulation. In contrast, this pattern of recovery was not found in an analogous backward masking paradigm, using a brief visual noise mask instead of a TMS pulse. These results show that that the magnitude of TMS disruption can dissipate with repeated stimulation. This suggests that future studies using this technique should minimise the length of TMS exposure within each session to maximise its effectiveness. Our results show that the visual system can adapt dynamically to increased internal noise levels, minimising the impact of TMS induced cortical activity on sensory judgments.

  20. Color of postponed magnetic noise in K0.4[Cr (CN) 6 ] [Mn (R /S )-pn ] (R /S ) -pn H0.6 molecular ferrimagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, R. B.; Talantsev, A. D.

    2016-10-01

    Exotic conditions for the existence and evolution of nonlinear spin ensembles (domain walls, spin solitons, skyrmions) in molecular-based magnets are incarnated in the macroscopic response of magnetization corresponding to collective stochastic behavior. The molecular ferrimagnet K0.4[Cr (CN) 6 ] [Mn (R /S )-pn ] (R /S ) -pn H0.6 manifests three types of magnetic relaxation: (a) continuous decay of magnetic moment, (b) stepwise relaxation by stochastic magnetization jumps, and (c) a single jump of magnetization in threshold magnetic field. Continuous relaxation at 20-50 K is provided by domain wall movement described in the frames of a strong pinning model, while a low-temperature continuous component of relaxation does not follow this model. Stepwise stochastic relaxation was observed below 8 K in both a sweeping reverse magnetic field and a stationary reverse magnetic field. Statistical treatment of the postponed magnetization jumps revealed a multimodal amplitude distribution of stochastic magnetization jumps corresponding to magnetic moment transitions between few clear distinguishable levels. Spectral density of magnetization jumps in a stationary magnetic field corresponds to white noise, while spectral density in a sweeping magnetic field manifests pink noise ˜1 /f provided by self-organized criticality. Postponed emission of magnetic noise in the 10-6-5 ×10-1Hz frequency range was observed in stationary conditions in contrast to Barkhausen noise.

  1. Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60. PMID:27623048

  2. Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60.

  3. Radio-frequency shot-noise measurement in a magnetic tunnel junction with a MgO barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Mushtaq; Park, Junghwan; Song, Woon; Chong, Yonuk [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeonsub; Min, Byoungchul; Shin, Kyungho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sangwan [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Zheong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    We measured the noise power of a magnetic tunnel junction in the frequency range of 710 {approx} 1200 MHz. A low-noise cryogenic HEMT amplifier was used to measure the small noise signal at a high frequency with wide bandwidth. The MgO-barrier tunnel junction showed large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of 215% at low temperature, which indicates electronic transport through the tunnel barrier without any significant spin-flip scattering. In the bias-dependent noise measurement, however, the zero-bias shot noise was enhanced compared to the value expected from a perfect tunnel barrier or the value observed from a good Al-AlO{sub x}-Al tunnel junction. We assume that this enhanced noise comes from inelastic tunneling processes through the barrier, which may be related to the observed zero-bias anomaly in the differential resistance of the tunnel junctions. We present a simple phenomenological model for how the inelastic scattering process can enhance the zero-bias noise in a tunnel junction.

  4. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  5. Improvements of the undulator spectral performance by compensating the backing beam deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C; Chang, L H; Chang, C H; Fan, T C; Bach, H; Blomqvist, I

    2002-01-01

    This study thoroughly examines how the backing beam deflection affects the undulator spectral performance. Reduction of the undulator spectral intensity owing to backing beam deflection is analytically evaluated based on plane-wave approximation. The results reveal that the amplitude and the slope of the backing beam deflection affect the undulator spectral performance. Provided is a novel figure-of-merit, rms of the regressed accumulated gap deviation, to determine the backing beam deflection budget. An example of a 3.9 m undulator supporting carriage mounted with 50-mm period length undulator magnet (U5) under a maximum magnetic loading of 5 metric tons at a minimum operating gap of 14 mm, is provided. Its mechanical features are first examined via 3D commercial finite element code ANSYS that concludes the backing beam deflection is influenced heavily by the rigidity of the undulator support frames. Examining the corresponding spectral performance shows that significantly diminishing the undulator spectral ...

  6. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  7. SVD-Based Technique for Interference Cancellation and Noise Reduction in NMR Measurement of Time-Dependent Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Zhang, Hua

    2016-03-04

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment for measurement of time-dependent magnetic fields was introduced. To improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of NMR data, a new method for interference cancellation and noise reduction (ICNR) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was proposed. The singular values corresponding to the radio frequency interference (RFI) signal were identified in terms of the correlation between the FID data and the reference data, and then the RFI and noise were suppressed by setting the corresponding singular values to zero. The validity of the algorithm was verified by processing the measured NMR data. The results indicated that, this method has a significantly suppression of RFI and random noise, and can well preserve the FID signal. At present, the major limitation of the proposed SVD-based ICNR technique is that the threshold value for interference cancellation needs to be manually selected. Finally, the inversion waveform of the applied alternating magnetic field was given by fitting the processed experimental data.

  8. New parameters in adaptive testing of ferromagnetic materials utilizing magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'a, Jozef; Ušák, Elemír

    2016-03-01

    A new method of magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurement and optimization of the measured data processing with respect to non-destructive evaluation of ferromagnetic materials was tested. Using this method we tried to found, if it is possible to enhance sensitivity and stability of measurement results by replacing the traditional MBN parameter (root mean square) with some new parameter. In the tested method, a complex set of the MBN from minor hysteresis loops is measured. Afterward, the MBN data are collected into suitably designed matrices and optimal parameters of MBN with respect to maximum sensitivity to the evaluated variable are searched. The method was verified on plastically deformed steel samples. It was shown that the proposed measuring method and measured data processing bring an improvement of the sensitivity to the evaluated variable when comparing with measuring traditional MBN parameter. Moreover, we found a parameter of MBN, which is highly resistant to the changes of applied field amplitude and at the same time it is noticeably more sensitive to the evaluated variable.

  9. Calculation of shear stiffness in noise dominated magnetic resonance elastography data based on principal frequency estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, K P; Lake, D; Mariappan, Y; Manduca, A; Ehman, R L [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Hubmayr, R D [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ansell, K, E-mail: mcgee.kiaran@mayo.edu [Schaeffer Academy, 2700 Schaeffer Lane NE, Rochester, MN 55906 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive phase-contrast-based method for quantifying the shear stiffness of biological tissues. Synchronous application of a shear wave source and motion encoding gradient waveforms within the MRE pulse sequence enable visualization of the propagating shear wave throughout the medium under investigation. Encoded shear wave-induced displacements are then processed to calculate the local shear stiffness of each voxel. An important consideration in local shear stiffness estimates is that the algorithms employed typically calculate shear stiffness using relatively high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) MRE images and have difficulties at an extremely low SNR. A new method of estimating shear stiffness based on the principal spatial frequency of the shear wave displacement map is presented. Finite element simulations were performed to assess the relative insensitivity of this approach to decreases in SNR. Additionally, ex vivo experiments were conducted on normal rat lungs to assess the robustness of this approach in low SNR biological tissue. Simulation and experimental results indicate that calculation of shear stiffness by the principal frequency method is less sensitive to extremely low SNR than previously reported MRE inversion methods but at the expense of loss of spatial information within the region of interest from which the principal frequency estimate is derived.

  10. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A ``secondary gradient technique`` is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  11. Sensitivity and noise of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on InGaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenaud, B.; Segovia-Mera, A.; Delgard, A.; Feltin, N.; Hoffmann, A.; Pascal, F.; Zawadzki, W.; Mailly, D.; Chaubet, C.

    2016-01-01

    We study the room-temperature performance of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum wells. Active areas of our sensors range from 1 to 80 μm. We focus on the smallest detectable magnetic fields in small sensors and perform a systematic study of noise at room temperature in the frequency range between 1 Hz and 100 kHz. Our data are interpreted by the mobility fluctuation model. The Hooge parameter is determined for the applied technology. We show that, independently of the experimental frequency, the ratio of sensitivity to noise is proportional to characteristic length of the sensor. The resolution of 1 mG/√{Hz } is achievable in a 3 μm sensor at room temperature.

  12. A map of UHECRs deflections through the turbulent GMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pshirkov, M.S. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetsky Prospekt 13, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, 142290 Pushchino (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tinyakov, P.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Théorique, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Urban, F.R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Théorique, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of the random part of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF) on the propagation of ultra high-energy cosmic rays. We are able to derive a clear and direct relation between the observed variance of rotation measures and the predicted cosmic ray deflections, which puts a solid upper limit of the experimentally observed displacements. Remarkably, this is obtained bypassing entirely the detailed knowledge of the magnetic properties of the turbulent plasma, and that of the electron density variance. Over most of the sky the random deflections for 40 EeV protons do not exceed 1–2°, and can be as large as 5° close to the Galactic plane.

  13. Field distribution analysis in deflecting structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Deflecting structures are used now manly for bunch rotation in emittance exchange concepts, bunch diagnostics and to increase the luminosity. The bunch rotation is a transformation of a particles distribution in the six dimensional phase space. Together with the expected transformations, deflecting structures introduce distortions due to particularities - aberrations - in the deflecting field distribution. The distributions of deflecting fields are considered with respect to non linear additions, which provide emittance deteriorations during a transformation. The deflecting field is treated as combination of hybrid waves HE{sub 1} and HM{sub 1}. The criteria for selection and formation of deflecting structures with minimized level of aberrations are formulated and applied to known structures. Results of the study are confirmed by comparison with results of numerical simulations.

  14. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  15. Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and pharmacokinetic modeling considerations in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Huang, Wei; Rooney, William D

    2012-11-01

    With advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI is approaching the capability to simultaneously deliver both high spatial and high temporal resolutions for clinical applications. However, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) considerations and their impacts regarding pharmacokinetic modeling of the time-course data continue to represent challenges in the design of DCE-MRI acquisitions. Given that many acquisition parameters can affect the nature of DCE-MRI data, minimizing tissue-specific data acquisition discrepancy (among sites and scanner models) is as important as synchronizing pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. For cancer-related DCE-MRI studies where rapid contrast reagent (CR) extravasation is expected, current DCE-MRI protocols often adopt a three-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence to achieve spatial-temporal resolution requirements. Based on breast and prostate DCE-MRI data acquired with different FLASH sequence parameters, this paper elucidates a number of SNR and CNR considerations for acquisition optimization and pharmacokinetic modeling implications therein. Simulations based on region of interest data further indicate that the effects of intercompartmental water exchange often play an important role in DCE time-course data modeling, especially for protocols optimized for post-CR SNR.

  16. Deflection Control in Rigid Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varunkrishna, Nulu; Jayasankar, R.

    2017-07-01

    The need for modern transportation systems together with the high demand for perpetual pavements under the drastically increasing applied loads has led to a great deal of research on concrete as a pavement material worldwide. This research indeed instigated many modifications in concrete aiming for improving the concrete properties. Pavement Quality Concrete requires higher flexural strength and fewer deflections in hardened state. Fiber reinforcement and latex modification are two reliable approaches serving the required purposes. The concrete made with these two modifications is called Polymer-modified Fiber-reinforced concrete. The present study deals with the usage of polypropylene as fiber and SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) Latex as polymer. M30 grade concrete was modified by replacing cement with two different percentages of fiber (0.5%, 1.0% of weight of cement) and with three different percentages of SBR latex (10%, 15% & 20% of weight of cement).

  17. 纵向磁场和外部横向磁场共同作用下真空电弧偏移与阳极偏烧现象的仿真研究%Simulation Research of Deflection Phenomenon of Vacuum Arc and Anode Erosion Under the Combined Action of Axial Magnetic Field and External Transverse Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小龙; 王立军; 贾申利; 王海靖; 胡丽兰; 史宗谦

    2014-01-01

    在真空开关的开断过程中,外部母线和导电杆所形成的“U”型回路会在极间电弧区域产生横向磁场(transverse magnetic field,TMF)。横向磁场的存在会影响真空开关的开断性能,通过仿真对这一影响进行了初步的探索。基于真空电弧二维磁流体动力学模型及阳极熔化凝固模型,大电流真空电弧(high current vacuum arc,HCVA)在TMF和电极系统自生纵向磁场共同作用下的电弧参数分布及阳极温度分布得到了揭示。仿真结果中,HCVA在TMF的影响下会产生明显的偏移,并且各项参数都有所变化;阳极温度分布也会产生同样的偏移,最终使得阳极熔化也发生偏移。这些变化会对真空开关的开断产生不利影响,特别是离子密度的增大使得电流过零时极间残留等离子体增多,降低开关的开断性能。%In the breaking process of vacuum switch, “U”type loop formed by external bus bar and conducting rod will generate a transverse magnetic field (TMF) in interelectrode zone. The existence of TMF has influence on interruption ability of vacuum switch, this article concentrates on the influence and carries on a preliminary simulation research. Based on 2D magnetro-hydrodynamics (MHD) model of vacuum arc and anode melting and solidification model, plasma parameter distribution and anode temperature distribution of high current vacuum arc (HCVA) under combined action of TMF and axial magnetic field (AMF) are obtained. In the simulation results, HCVA under the influence of TMF has an obvious deflection, and plasma parameters have some changes; anode temperature generates the same deflection, and so do anode melting area. Those changes have bad influence on interruption of vacuum switch, especially the rising of ion density will cause the increasing of residual plasma density when the current crosses zero, this will decrease the interruption ability of vacuum switch.

  18. The Heliocentric Distance Where the Deflections and Rotations of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections Occur

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the trajectory of a coronal mass ejection (CME), including any deflection from a radial path, and the orientation of its magnetic field is essential for space weather predictions. Kay et al. (2015b) developed a model, Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), of CME deflections and rotation due to magnetic forces, not including the effects of reconnection. ForeCAT is able to reproduce the deflection of observed CMEs (Kay et al. 2015a). The deflecting CMEs tend to show a rapid increase of their angular momentum close to the Sun, followed by little to no increase at farther distances. Here we quantify the distance at which the CME deflection is "determined," which we define as the distance after which the background solar wind has negligible influence on the total deflection. We consider a wide range in CME masses and radial speeds and determine that the deflection and rotation of these CMEs can be well-described by assuming they propagate with constant angular momentum beyond 10 Rs. The a...

  19. Synchronization of electrically coupled stochastic magnetic oscillators induced by thermal and electrical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, A.; Locatelli, N.; Grollier, J.; Querlioz, D.

    2016-08-01

    Superparamagnetic tunnel junctions are nanostructures that auto-oscillate stochastically under the effect of thermal noise. Recent works showed that despite their stochasticity, such junctions possess a capability to synchronize to subthreshold voltage drives, in a way that can be enhanced or controlled by adding noise. In this work, we investigate a system composed of two electrically coupled junctions, connected in series to a periodic voltage source. We make use of numerical simulations and of an analytical model to demonstrate that both junctions can be phase locked to the drive, in phase or in antiphase. This synchronization phenomenon can be controlled by both thermal and electrical noises, although the two types of noises induce qualitatively different behaviors. Namely, thermal noise can stabilize a regime where one junction is phase locked to the drive voltage while the other is blocked in one state; on the contrary, electrical noise causes the junctions to have highly correlated behaviors and thus cannot induce the latter. These results open the way for the design of superparamagnetic tunnel junctions that can perform computation through synchronization, and which harvest the largest part of their energy consumption from thermal noise.

  20. Rician noise reduction in magnetic resonance images using adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; Chu, Yeon-Ho; Choi, Young-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a Rician noise reduction method for magnetic resonance (MR) images. The proposed method is based on adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering techniques. In the first phase, a guidance image is obtained from the noisy image through an adaptive non-local mean filter. Sobel operators are applied to compute the strength of edges which is further used to control the spread of the kernel in non-local mean filtering. In the second phase, the noisy and the guidance images are provided to the guided image filter as input to restore the noise-free image. The improved performance of the proposed method is investigated using the simulated and real data sets of MR images. Its performance is also compared with the previously proposed state-of-the art methods. Comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of the proposed scheme over the existing approaches.

  1. Mechanical radiation detection via sub-Brownian lever deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammig, Mark David

    2005-07-01

    A micromechanical lever that deflects in response to the impacts of charged particles is proposed as a means of improving upon the capabilities of existing radiation detection technology. When a particle strikes an object, momentum is transferred to the impacted body. The resulting body motion can be correlated to the energy of the incident particle. The momentum detector offers promise as a highly discriminating, high-resolution tool for ion sensing. Advances required to successfully realize a spectroscopic capability have been completed; specifically, techniques for reproducibly fabricating micromechanical structures have been optimized, and an instrument that measures miniscule deflections has been developed. Even absent substantial refinement efforts, the novel coupled-cavity optical detector can resolve lever motions on the order of 1--10 picometers. A method by which the Brownian motion of the lever can be stilled has been proven which elicits reductions sufficient to measure heavy-ion impact, the deflections from which may be several orders of magnitude below the thermal vibration amplitude. Using active forcing techniques, the Brownian vibration of the microlevers has been reduced from room temperature (288 K) to sub-Kelvin temperatures, for levers vibrating in air. The mechanical factors that limit the noise reduction magnitude are discussed and methods of surmounting those limitations are identified.

  2. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Phillip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Griswold, Janelle; Kangas, Miikka; Johansson, Isbella; Alnawakhtha, Yusuf; Prater, Kenyon; Lang, Alex; Madajian, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DESTAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR [1][5][6] and DE-STARLITE [2][5][6] are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In the DE-STAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds an "asteroid" sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed.

  3. The evolution of the magnetic inclination angle as an explanation of the long term red timing-noise of pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Shu-Xu

    2015-01-01

    We study the possibility that the long term red timing-noise in pulsars originates from the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle $\\chi$. The braking torque under consideration is a combination of the dipole radiation and the current loss. We find that the evolution of $\\chi$ can give rise to extra cubic and fourth-order polynomial terms in the timing residuals. These two terms are determined by the efficiency of the dipole radiation, the relative electric-current density in the pulsar tube and $\\chi$. The following observation facts can be explained with this model: a) young pulsars have positive $\\ddot{\

  4. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A secondary gradient technique'' is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  5. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  6. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  7. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yoon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  8. Ion Beam Shepherd for Asteroid Deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Bombardelli, C

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel concept to impart a continuous thrust to an Earth threatening asteroid from a hovering spacecraft without need for physical attachment nor gravitational interaction with the asteroid. The concept involves an ion thruster placed at a distance of a few asteroid diameters directing a stream of quasi-neutral plasma against the asteroid surface resulting into a net transferred momentum. As the transmitted force is independent of the asteroid mass and size the method allows deflecting subkilometer asteroids with a spacecraft much lighter when compared to a gravity tractor spacecraft of equal deflection capability. The finding could make low-cost asteroid deflection missions possible in the coming years.

  9. On the shape of the magnetic Barkhausen noise profile for better revelation of the effect of microstructures on the magnetisation process in ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashista, M., E-mail: mvashista.mec@iitbhu.ac.in [Design Unit, School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University (United Kingdom); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, BHU, Varanasi (India); Moorthy, V., E-mail: v.moorthy@ncl.ac.uk [Design Unit, School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-01

    The shape of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) profiles has been compared for two different methods of MBN measurements in order to reveal the true extent of the influence of different carbon-content related microstructures on the magnetisation process. The MBN profiles were measured using high frequency and low frequency MBN measurement systems on samples from low carbon 18CrNiMo5 steel and high carbon 42CrMo4 steel heat treated by isothermal annealing, spheroidising annealing and quenching and tempering processes. The high frequency MBN (HFMBN) profile shows only a single peak for all the samples due to insufficient applied magnetic field strength and shallow skin-depth of detection of HFMBN signals. The low frequency MBN (LFMBN) profile shows two peaks for all the samples due to larger magnetisation range revealing the difference in the interaction of domain walls with different microstructural features such as ferrite, pearlite, martensite and carbides. The shape of the LFMBN profile shows systematic and distinct variation in the magnetisation process with respect to carbon content and different microstructures. This study shows that the LFMBN profile reveals distinct changes in shape which could be successfully used for characterisation of different microstructural phases in ferritic steels. - Highlights: • Shape of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Profile reveals the variation in magnetisation process. • Optimising the magnetic barkhausen noise profile for better evaluation of microstructures. • Effect of measurement parameters on the shape of the magnetic barkhausen noise profile. • Comparison of high frequency and low frequency magnetic barkhausen noise profiles. • More detailed microstructural information from the shape of the magnetic barkhausen noise profile.

  10. Using ForeCAT Deflections and Rotations to Constrain the Early Evolution of CMEs

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, C; Colaninno, R C; Vourlidas, A

    2016-01-01

    To accurately predict the space weather effects of coronal mass ejection (CME) impacts at Earth one must know if and when a CME will impact Earth, and the CME parameters upon impact. Kay et al. (2015b) presents Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), a model for CME deflections based on the magnetic forces from the background solar magnetic field. Knowing the deflection and rotation of a CME enables prediction of Earth impacts, and the CME orientation upon impact. We first reconstruct the positions of the 2008 April 10 and the 2012 July 12 CMEs from the observations. The first of these CMEs exhibits significant deflection and rotation (34 degrees deflection and 58 degrees rotation), while the second shows almost no deflection or rotation (<3 degrees each). Using ForeCAT, we explore a range of initial parameters, such as the CME location and size, and find parameters that can successfully reproduce the behavior for each CME. Additionally, since the deflection depends strongly on the behavior of a ...

  11. Alaska North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  12. Mexico East-West Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  13. Alaska East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 millionterrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  14. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  15. Theoretical signal-to-noise ratio of a slotted surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ocegueda, K; Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O

    2011-01-01

    The analytical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio of a slotted surface coil with an arbitrary number of slots was derived using the quasi-static approach. This surface coil based on the vane-type magnetron tube. To study the coil perfomance, the theoretical signal-to-noise ratio predictions of this coil design were computed using a different number of slots. Results were also compared with theoretical results obtained for a circular coil with similar dimensions. It can be appreciated that slotted surface coil performance improves as the number of coils increases and, outperformed the circular-shaped coil. This makes it a good candidate for other MRI applications involving coil array techniques.

  16. Stern-Gerlach deflection of field-free aligned paramagnetic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gershnabel, E; Averbukh, I Sh

    2011-01-01

    The effects of laser-induced prealignment on the deflection of paramagnetic molecules by inhomogeneous static magnetic field are studied. Depending on the relevant Hund's coupling case of the molecule, two different effects were identified: either suppression of the deflection by laser pulses (Hund's coupling case (a) molecules, such as ClO), or a dramatic reconstruction of the broad distribution of the scattering angles into several narrow peaks (for Hund's coupling case (b) molecules, such as O2 or NH). These findings are important for various applications using molecular guiding, focusing and trapping with the help of magnetic fields.

  17. Two-level noise and stochastic resonance in individual permalloy nanoscale magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Bern Willem

    We present the results of a study on stochastic resonance in individual magnetic random telegraph oscillators. We have fabricated sub-micron magnetic samples, which have multiple stable magnetic states. We are able to observe random telegraph switching between magnetic states and tune the energetics by varying the temperature and applied external field. If a small AC field is applied to the system, it will modulate the energy well depth for the two states and the system shows stochastic resonance near the matching condition 2fA = oD, where o D is the drive frequency and fA is the characteristic frequency of magnetic transitions. We fit our measured data for the resonance amplitude and phase of the particle as a function of temperature to a linear-response model and obtain good agreement. At low temperatures we observe a peak in the phase lag of the returned signal, which is consistent with linear-response theories. At higher temperatures, our fitted model parameters suggest that the particle has an energy surface that is not sinusoidal. This contradicts our initial approximation for the energy surface, but it is consistent with a model for magnetic energy that takes into account the magnetization dynamics near the conditions for random telegraph switching. Our work is the first clear observation of stochastic resonance in a single superparamagnetic particle where the energetics are modulated by an applied field. In addition, our work is the first physical system where stochastic resonance has been characterized with sufficient detail to allow for comparison to linear-response models.

  18. An Anisotropic Model for Magnetostriction and Magnetization Computing for Noise Generation in Electric Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Serigne Saliou; Buiron, Nicolas; Lanfranchi, Vincent

    2016-04-16

    During the manufacturing process and use of ferromagnetic sheets, operations such as rolling, cutting, and tightening induce anisotropy that changes the material's behavior. Consequently for more accuracy in magnetization and magnetostriction calculations in electric devices such as transformers, anisotropic effects should be considered. In the following sections, we give an overview of a macroscopic model which takes into account the magnetic and magnetoelastic anisotropy of the material for both magnetization and magnetostriction computing. Firstly, a comparison between the model results and measurements from a Single Sheet Tester (SST) and values will be shown. Secondly, the model is integrated in a finite elements code to predict magnetostrictive deformation of an in-house test bench which is a stack of 40 sheets glued together by the Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation (VPI) method. Measurements on the test bench and Finite Elements results are presented.

  19. An Anisotropic Model for Magnetostriction and Magnetization Computing for Noise Generation in Electric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Serigne Saliou; Buiron, Nicolas; Lanfranchi, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    During the manufacturing process and use of ferromagnetic sheets, operations such as rolling, cutting, and tightening induce anisotropy that changes the material’s behavior. Consequently for more accuracy in magnetization and magnetostriction calculations in electric devices such as transformers, anisotropic effects should be considered. In the following sections, we give an overview of a macroscopic model which takes into account the magnetic and magnetoelastic anisotropy of the material for both magnetization and magnetostriction computing. Firstly, a comparison between the model results and measurements from a Single Sheet Tester (SST) and values will be shown. Secondly, the model is integrated in a finite elements code to predict magnetostrictive deformation of an in-house test bench which is a stack of 40 sheets glued together by the Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation (VPI) method. Measurements on the test bench and Finite Elements results are presented. PMID:27092513

  20. An Anisotropic Model for Magnetostriction and Magnetization Computing for Noise Generation in Electric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serigne Saliou Mbengue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process and use of ferromagnetic sheets, operations such as rolling, cutting, and tightening induce anisotropy that changes the material’s behavior. Consequently for more accuracy in magnetization and magnetostriction calculations in electric devices such as transformers, anisotropic effects should be considered. In the following sections, we give an overview of a macroscopic model which takes into account the magnetic and magnetoelastic anisotropy of the material for both magnetization and magnetostriction computing. Firstly, a comparison between the model results and measurements from a Single Sheet Tester (SST and values will be shown. Secondly, the model is integrated in a finite elements code to predict magnetostrictive deformation of an in-house test bench which is a stack of 40 sheets glued together by the Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation (VPI method. Measurements on the test bench and Finite Elements results are presented.

  1. Evaluation of the carburized surface of steels with Magnetic Barkhausen Noise; Avaliacao de superficie cementada de acos com efeito Barkhausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, M.F. de; Santos, R.; Silva, F.S. da; Ribeiro, S.B.; Lins, J.F.C., E-mail: mcampos@metal.eeimvr.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PUVR/UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda; Franco, F.A.; Padovese, L.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    Steels with different carbon content, 0.11%C and 0.48%C were submitted to a heat treatment for carburization in the surface. The samples were analyzed in the conditions: normalized, only carburized and carburized and quenched as received. The Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) was measured in all samples. A better understanding of the relation between microstructure and MBN is of large interest for nondestructive characterization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has revealed large peak broadening for the samples carburized and quenched, which have martensite. This is due to the high density of dislocations and high internal stress in the martensite. It is also found that the MBN peaks are quite distinct for the samples with martensite, which present nanocrystalline structure. When martensite is present, domain rotation occurs more significantly, reducing the permeability and the MBN envelope signal intensity. MBN is a suitable method for non-destructive evaluation of the quality of the carburization process. (author)

  2. Improved signal-to-noise ratio in parallel coronary artery magnetic resonance angiography using graph cuts based Bayesian reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Nguyen, Thanh; Kressler, Bryan; Spincemaille, Pascal; Raj, Ashish; Zabih, Ramin; Wang, Yi

    2006-01-01

    High resolution 3D coronary artery MR angiography is time-consuming and can benefit from accelerated data acquisition provided by parallel imaging techniques without sacrificing spatial resolution. Currently, popular maximum likelihood based parallel imaging reconstruction techniques such as the SENSE algorithm offer this advantage at the cost of reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction techniques that incorporate globally smooth priors have been developed to recover this SNR loss, but they tend to blur sharp edges in the target image. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of employing edge-preserving Markov random field priors in a MAP reconstruction framework, which can be solved efficiently using a graph cuts based optimization algorithm. The preliminary human study shows that our reconstruction provides significantly better SNR than the SENSE reconstruction performed by a commercially available scanner for navigator gated steady state free precession 3D coronary magnetic resonance angiography images (n = 4).

  3. Wavelet domain adaptive filtering algorithm for removing the seamless pipe noise contained in the magnetic flux leakage data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Wenhua; Que Peiwen

    2006-01-01

    With the widespread application and fast development of gas and oil pipeline network in China, the pipeline inspection technology has been used more extensively. The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method has established itself as the most widely used in-line inspection technique for the evaluation of gas and oil pipelines. The MFL data obtained from seamless pipeline inspection is usually contaminated by the seamless pipe noise (SPN). SPN can in some cases completely mask MFL signals from certain type of defects,and therefore considerably reduces the detectability of the defect signals. In this paper, a new de-noising algorithm called wavelet domain adaptive filtering is proposed for removing the SPN contained in the MFL data. The new algorithm results from combining the wavelet transform with the adaptive filtering technique. Results from application of the proposed algorithm to the MFL data from field tests show that the proposed algorithm has good performance and considerably improves the detectability of the defect signals in the MFL data.

  4. Base deflection and microleakage of composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulillo, L A; de Goes, M F; Consani, S

    1994-06-01

    The flexural deflections of human dentin, Herculite XR, Dycal, Vidrion F, zinc phosphate base, and combinations of composite-base were determined. The influence of the flexural deflections in the marginal microleakage was also determined for the composite-base combinations. The flexural deflection test for dentin showed no statistically significant differences between the two floor cavity depths studied. There were significant differences among cements when the thickness of the base was 1 mm whereas no differences occurred at 2 mm. The composite-base combinations did not present statistical differences. There were no statistically significant differences in the microleakage levels among loaded and non-loaded specimens; however, dye penetration was visually greater in loaded samples.

  5. Soft Magnetic Thin Films FeCoHfO for High-Frequency Noise Suppression Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-Duo; ZHANG Huai-Wu; TANG Xiao-Li

    2010-01-01

    @@ A series of FeCoHfO films were fabricated by dc magnetron reactive sputtering at varying partial pressure of oxygen(Po2)from 0 to 11.7%,and the electrical and magnetic properties of films have been studied.It is shown that optimal Fe43.29 Co19.51 Hf7.49O29.71 films with desired properties can be obtained when the films were prepared under Po2 = 5.1%.

  6. Script Controlled Modeling of Low Noise Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines by using JMAG Designer

    OpenAIRE

    RUSU Tiberiu; BÎRTE Ovidiu; SZABÓ Loránd; MARŢIŞ Claudia Steluţa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the parameterizedmodeling of permanent magnet synchronous machines(PMSM) by means of JMAG Designer, an advancedsimulation software for electromechanical design. Thismethod enables the designer to simulate diverse topologies ofthe machines by only changing some basic parameters of thescript controlling the preprocessing phase of the simulations.For this purpose a graphical user interface for modeling themachine was built up in Visual Basic. Thru it the users canenter the ...

  7. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  8. Compensations of beamlet deflections for 1 MeV accelerator of ITER NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; de Esch, H. P. L.; Grisham, Larry R.; Boilson, Deirdre; Hemsworth, Ronald S.; Tanaka, Masanobu

    2013-02-01

    Compensation methods of beamlet deflections have been studied in a three dimensional (3D) beam analysis using OPERA-3d code for 1 MeV accelerator of the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI). The beamlet deflection is caused by i) magnetic field generated by permanent magnets embedded in the extraction grid (EXG) for electron suppression and ii) space charge repulsion between the beamlets and beam groups. Moreover, the beamlet deflection is caused due to electric field distortion formed by a grid support structure. In order to compensate the beamlet deflections due to i) and ii), an aperture offset of 0.6 mm was applied in the electron suppression grid (ESG) and a metal bar with 3 mm in thickness, so-called a kerb, was attached around the aperture area at the back side of the ESG, respectively. Detailed configuration of the compensation methods was also considered so as to suppress the beam spread due to the electric field distortion and to lower electric field concentrations at the edge of the kerb. For the beamlets near the grid support structure, the beamlet deflection due to the space charge repulsion could be negated due to the electric field distortion formed by the grid support structure.

  9. Magnetic properties of cobalt microwires measured by piezoresistive cantilever magnetometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosolini G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the magnetic characterization of cobalt wires grown by focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID and studied using static piezoresistive cantilever magnetometry. We have used previously developed high force sensitive submicron-thick silicon piezoresistive cantilevers. High quality polycrystalline cobalt microwires have been grown by FEBID onto the free end of the cantilevers using dual beam equipment. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the magnetic cobalt wires become magnetized, which leads to the magnetic field dependent static deflection of the cantilevers. We show that the piezoresistive signal from the cantilevers, corresponding to a maximum force of about 1 nN, can be measured as a function of the applied magnetic field with a good signal to noise ratio at room temperature. The results highlight the flexibility of the FEBID technique for the growth of magnetic structures on specific substrates, in this case piezoresistive cantilevers.

  10. Effects of aging time and temperature of Fe-1wt.%Cu on magnetic Barkhausen noise and FORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muad Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN, hysteresis measurements, first order reversal curves (FORC, Vickers microhardness, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM analyses were performed on Fe-1wt.%Cu (Fe-Cu samples isothermally aged at 700°C for 0.5 – 25 hours to obtain samples with different sized Cu precipitates and dislocation structures. Fe-Cu is used to simulate the thermal and irradiation-induced defects in copper-containing nuclear reactor materials such as cooling system pipes and pressure vessel materials. The sample series showed an initial increase followed by a decrease in hardness and coercivity with aging time, which is explained by Cu precipitates formation and growth as observed by TEM measurements. Further, the MBN envelope showed a continuous decrease in its magnitude and the appearance of a second peak with aging. Also, FORC diagrams showed multiple peaks whose intensity and location changed for different aging time. The changes in FORC diagrams are attributed to combined changes of the magnetic behavior due to Cu precipitate characteristics and dislocation structure. A second series of samples aged at 850°C, which is above the solid solution temperature of Fe-Cu, was studied to isolate the effects of dislocations. These samples showed a continuous decrease in MBN amplitude with aging time although the coercivity and hardness did not change significantly. The decrease of MBN amplitude and the appearance of the second MBN envelope peak are attributed to the changes in dislocation density and structure. This study shows that the effect of dislocations on MBN and FORC of Fe-Cu materials can vary significantly and should be considered in interpreting magnetic signatures.

  11. Effects of aging time and temperature of Fe-1wt.%Cu on magnetic Barkhausen noise and FORC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muad; Cao, Yue; Edwards, Danny J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN), hysteresis measurements, first order reversal curves (FORC), Vickers microhardness, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed on Fe-1wt.%Cu (Fe-Cu) samples isothermally aged at 700°C for 0.5 - 25 hours to obtain samples with different sized Cu precipitates and dislocation structures. Fe-Cu is used to simulate the thermal and irradiation-induced defects in copper-containing nuclear reactor materials such as cooling system pipes and pressure vessel materials. The sample series showed an initial increase followed by a decrease in hardness and coercivity with aging time, which is explained by Cu precipitates formation and growth as observed by TEM measurements. Further, the MBN envelope showed a continuous decrease in its magnitude and the appearance of a second peak with aging. Also, FORC diagrams showed multiple peaks whose intensity and location changed for different aging time. The changes in FORC diagrams are attributed to combined changes of the magnetic behavior due to Cu precipitate characteristics and dislocation structure. A second series of samples aged at 850°C, which is above the solid solution temperature of Fe-Cu, was studied to isolate the effects of dislocations. These samples showed a continuous decrease in MBN amplitude with aging time although the coercivity and hardness did not change significantly. The decrease of MBN amplitude and the appearance of the second MBN envelope peak are attributed to the changes in dislocation density and structure. This study shows that the effect of dislocations on MBN and FORC of Fe-Cu materials can vary significantly and should be considered in interpreting magnetic signatures.

  12. Detecting Local Deflection Patterns of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays using the Principal Axes of the Directional Energy Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Erdmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From deflections in galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields energy dependent structures in the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are expected. We propose to characterize these structures by the strength of collimation of energy along the principal axes in selected regions in the sky. While the strength of collimation are indicators of anisotropy in the arrival distribution of UHECR, the orientation of the principal system holds information about the direction of the deflections of UHECR. We discuss the method and present expected limits on the strength of deflection and density of sources using simulated scenarios of UHECR proton propagation.

  13. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  14. Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Nathan A.

    2013-10-01

    Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

  15. Deflection of uncooperative targets using laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Nicolas; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2015-09-01

    Owing to their ability to move a target in space without requiring propellant, laser-based deflection methods have gained attention among the research community in the recent years. With laser ablation, the vaporized material is used to push the target itself allowing for a significant reduction in the mass requirement for a space mission. Specifically, this paper addresses two important issues which are thought to limit seriously the potential efficiency of a laser-deflection method: the impact of the tumbling motion of the target as well as the impact of the finite thickness of the material ablated in the case of a space debris. In this paper, we developed a steady-state analytical model based on energetic considerations in order to predict the efficiency range theoretically allowed by a laser deflection system in absence of the two aforementioned issues. A numerical model was then implemented to solve the transient heat equation in presence of vaporization and melting and account for the tumbling rate of the target. This model was also translated to the case where the target is a space debris by considering material properties of an aluminium 6061-T6 alloy and adapting at every time-step the size of the computational domain along with the recession speed of the interface in order to account for the finite thickness of the debris component. The comparison between the numerical results and the analytical predictions allow us to draw interesting conclusions regarding the momentum coupling achievable by a given laser deflection system both for asteroids and space debris in function of the flux, the rotation rate of the target and its material properties. In the last section of this paper, we show how a reasonably small spacecraft could deflect a 56m asteroid with a laser system requiring less than 5kW of input power.

  16. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G.; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  17. Study of the noise in the magnetization data across the second magnetization peak and peak effect region in Ca{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh Babu, M.; Pal, D., E-mail: dpal@iitg.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We observe second magnetization peak (SMP) and peak effect (PE) in Ca{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13}. • First measurement of noise in magnetization data across the SMP and the PE regions. • 1/f Nature of the noise is observed deep inside the Bragg glass phase. • One low resonant frequency is observed across the SMP region. • Two sets of resonant frequencies are observed in the PE region. - Abstract: In this report we make an attempt to understand the spectral fluctuations in noise in magnetization data for a single crystal of Ca{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13}, which exhibit both the phenomena of second magnetization peak (SMP) and peak effect (PE). We find the signatures of 1/f{sup 1.8} noise deep inside the mixed phase of this superconductor. Further across the SMP region a single resonance frequency appears in the power spectra and it persists till the superconducting to normal phase boundary. While crossing the PE anomaly another set of resonance peaks in the low frequency range emerges which is distinctly different from the one which appeared in the SMP, indicating the underlying difference in the origin and nature of the SMP and PE phenomenon.

  18. Dark matter prospects in deflected mirage mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Michael; Nelson, Brent D., E-mail: holmes.mi@neu.edu, E-mail: b.nelson@neu.edu [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The recently introduced deflected mirage mediation (DMM) model is a string-motivated paradigm in which all three of the major supersymmetry-breaking transmission mechanisms are operative. We begin a systematic exploration of the parameter space of this rich model context, paying special attention to the pattern of gaugino masses which arise. In this work we focus on the dark matter phenomenology of the DMM model as such signals are the least influenced by the model-dependent scalar masses. We find that a large portion of the parameter space in which the three mediation mechanisms have a similar effective mass scale of 1 TeV or less will be probed by future direct and indirect detection experiments. Distinguishing deflected mirage mediation from the mirage model without gauge mediation will prove difficult without collider input, though we indicate how gamma ray signals may provide an opportunity for distinguishing between the two paradigms.

  19. Surface effects on large deflection of nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2015-01-01

    Surface effects play an important role in the mechanical behavior of nanosized structural elements owing to the increased ratio of surface area to volume. The surface effects on the large deflection of nanowires were considered. Both geometric nonlinearity in finite deformation and surface effects at nanoscale were taken into account to analyze the bending of nanowires subjected to a concentrated force. For simply supported beams and clamped-clamped beams, the influence of surface effects and geometric nonlinearity were discussed in detail. It is found that both surface effects and geometric nonlinearity tend to decrease the deflection of bending nanowires and thus increase the effective elastic modulus of nanowires. Surface effects yield the size dependent behavior of nanowires.

  20. Optical forces through guided light deflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton;

    2013-01-01

    Optical trapping and manipulation typically relies on shaping focused light to control the optical force, usually on spherical objects. However, one can also shape the object to control the light deflection arising from the light-matter interaction and, hence, achieve desired optomechanical effects....... In this work we look into the object shaping aspect and its potential for controlled optical manipulation. Using a simple bent waveguide as example, our numerical simulations show that the guided deflection of light efficiently converts incident light momentum into optical force with one order...... show that the force on the waveguide exceeds the combined forces on spherical trapping handles. Furthermore, it shows that static illumination can exert a constant force on a moving structure, unlike the position-dependent forces from harmonic potentials in conventional trapping....

  1. Deflection analysis of rectangular spatial coverage truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Kirsanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An elastic spatial statically determinate truss of regular type, simulating the rectangular in plan coverage was considered. In the plane of the base the truss has two axes of symmetry. Four support structures (spherical hinge, cylindrical hinge and two vertical rods are located at its corners. An analytic solution was found for forces in the rods of the truss. Using the Maxwell-Mohr’s formula, the dependence of the deflection of the center was discovered in the truss under the influence of the concentrated force. There are five parameters of the problem in this formula: three linear dimensions, and the numbers of hinges on its lateral sides. To determine the desired patterns by means of the computer mathematics system Maple the recursion task by two parameters was solved. It was shown that dependence of the deflection on the number of panels and height of the truss detects a minimum, allowing optimizing the size of the structure.

  2. Deflection of proton beams by crystal miscut surface

    CERN Document Server

    Babaev, A A; Dabagov, S B

    2014-01-01

    First computer experiment results on proton beam deflection by the crystal miscut surface are presented. The phenomenology of proton channeling and quasichanneling has been applied to describe new features of the beam deflection. The analysis predicts efficient beam deflection by the acute crystal end due to repelling miscut potential.

  3. Deflection rheoevolution of lithosphere under subduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉英; 王维襄

    1997-01-01

    Along the continental margin, the tectonic system consisting of trench, island arc, back arc basin and outer rise is often known as a convergent transitional belt between the oceanic lithosphere and the continental litho-sphere. The occurrence, development and activity of trench and outer rise bear closely on the underthrusting process of the oceanic lithosphere. A generalized analytical theory of deflection rheoevolution of lithosphere under subduction is established, and solutions with universal significance have been obtained.

  4. Multi-beamlet investigation of the deflection compensation methods of SPIDER beamlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltador, C., E-mail: carlo.baltador@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Chitarin, G.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A), Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from a Rf plasma) is an ion source test bed designed to extract and accelerate a negative ion current up to 40 A and 100 kV whose first beam is expected by the end of 2016. Two main effects perturb beamlet optics during the acceleration stage: space charge repulsion and the deflection induced by the permanent magnets (called co-extracted electron suppression magnets) embedded in the EG. The purpose of this work is to evaluate and compare benefits, collateral effects, and limitations of electrical and magnetic compensation methods for beamlet deflection. The study of these methods has been carried out by means of numerical modeling tools: multi-beamlet simulations have been performed for the first time.

  5. Noise-Compensated, Bias-Corrected Diffusion Weighted Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging via a Stochastically Fully-Connected Joint Conditional Random Field Model

    CERN Document Server

    Boroomand, Ameneh; Khalvati, Farzad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a powerful tool in imaging-based prostate cancer (PCa) screening and detection. Endorectal coils are commonly used in DW-MRI to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acquisition, at the expense of significant intensity inhomogeneities (bias field) that worsens as we move away from the endorectal coil. The presence of bias field can have a significant negative impact on the accuracy of different image analysis tasks, as well as the accuracy of PCa tumor localization, thus leading to increased inter- and intra-observer variability. The previously proposed bias field correction methods often suffer from undesired noise amplification that can reduce the image quality of the resulting bias-corrected DW-MRI data. Here, we propose a unified data reconstruction approach that enables joint compensation of bias field as well as data noise in diffusion weighted endorectal magnetic resonance (DW-EMR) imaging. The proposed noise-compensated, bias-corrected...

  6. Noise spectroscopy of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebing, N. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, d-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Serrano-Guisan, S., E-mail: santiago.serrano-guisan@inl.int [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Avenida Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Rott, K.; Reiss, G. [University of Bielefeld, Department of Physics, Univesitätesstr. 25, d-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Schumacher, H.W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, d-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present experimental data of the precessional dynamics of the free layer of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) in the presence of thermal gradients across the MTJ. The free layer precession is investigated by noise spectroscopy. Thermal gradients of the order of tens of mK/nm across the MTJ are generated by electrical heating. Without applied thermal gradients we find spin transfer torque modified magnetization precession. With increasing thermal gradients we generally observe a decrease of the precession frequency which could be related to an increasing overall free layer temperature. However an asymmetry of the line width behavior for parallel and antiparallel orientation points towards additional effects beyond thermal activation. This could be a hint for the modification of the precessional dynamics in magnetic tunnel junctions by thermal spin torques. - Highlights: • Thermal gradients induced magnetization dynamics on MTJ structures are explored. • Magnetic noise spectroscopy is carried out to study the efficiency of such effects. • A decrease of resonance frequency is observed at both MTJ states for large ∇T. • An asymmetric linewidth behavior is observed for both MTJ states under ∇T. • Additional thermal effects beyond thermal activation must be considered.

  7. [Pliability and deflection of diagnostic catheters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelyhe, Liza; Bognár, Eszter

    2014-09-28

    The cardiac catheter is an intravascular catheter, which is introduced or implanted into the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The catheters may break or king during their introduction and/or removal. The aim of the authors was to study the pliability of two catheters with the same material but different diameters according to the Food and Drug Administration's recommendation. The bending points, diameter decrease, deflection, and their correlation and dependence on the distance from the tip, as well as the influence of the initial diameter of the catheters were determined. The bending of catheters was performed on 9 bending points (120-280 mm from the tip by 20 mm) on 16 gauges with different radius (10-2.5 mm by 0.5 mm). A linear dependency between the diameter decrease and deflection was observed, which was independent from the placement of the measurement in both catheters examined. The larger initial diameter had significant (p = 0.05) greater diameter decrease than the smaller, but the curves characteristic of the diameter decrease and deflection were similar. The applied method seems to be useful for the examination of weak points of cardiac catheters.

  8. Analysis on the Deflection Angle of Columnar Dendrites of Continuous Casting Steel Billets Under the Influence of Mold Electromagnetic Stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xincheng; Wang, Shengqian; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Conejo, Alberto; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-11-01

    In the current study, the deflection angle of columnar dendrites on the cross section of steel billets under mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS) was observed. A mathematical model was developed to define the effect of M-EMS on fluid flow and then to analyze the relationship between flow velocities and deflection angle. The model was validated using experimental data that was measured with a Tesla meter on magnetic intensity. By coupling the numerical results with the experimental data, it was possible to define a relationship between the velocities of the fluid with the deflection angle of high-carbon steel. The deflection angle of high-carbon steel reached maximum values from 18 to 23 deg for a velocity from 0.35 to 0.40 m/s. The deflection angles of low-carbon steel under different EM parameters were discussed. The deflection angle of low-carbon steel was increased as the magnetic intensity, EM force, and velocity of molten steel increased.

  9. Simultaneous seismic and magnetic measurements in the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB) of Rustrel, France, during the 2001 January 26 Indian earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffet, S.; Guglielmi, Y.; Virieux, J.; Waysand, G.; Chwala, A.; Stolz, R.; Emblanch, C.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.

    2003-12-01

    Since the decommission of the underground launching control room of the ground-based component of the French nuclear missile system, the whole installation has been turned into a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory. The LSBB is a unique low-noise underground laboratory because of its initial military conception and its location in the regional park of Luberon far from large cities, industry and heavy traffic. The deepest point is 500 m below the surface. At this depth a huge and non-conventional shielded cylindrical capsule is installed with no μ-metal, 1268 m3 in volume, with a residual electromagnetic noise lower than 2 fT Hz-1/2 above 10 Hz. As a result, fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field under 10 Hz can be recorded at a very low-noise level with a low-Tc SQUID 3-D magnetometer. Taking advantage of the main gallery topology, a broad-band underground seismic array has been deployed since 2001. An analysis of data recorded simultaneously by the seismic underground array and by the magnetometer sensors during the Indian earthquake of 2001 January 26 is presented. Evidence of a magnetic field perturbation induced by the seismic waves at teleseismic distance (6250 km) is supported by a polarization analysis of seismic and magnetic signals. Spectral analysis shows specific frequency bands of perturbation related to physical processes such as ground water flow acceleration within the mountain structure.

  10. Comparative research on the methods for measuring the mode deflection angle of cylindrical resonator gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Fan, Zhenfang; Wang, Dongya; Wang, Yanyan; Pan, Yao; Qu, Tianliang; Xu, Guangming

    2016-10-01

    The existence of mode deflection angle in the cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) leads to the signal drift on the detecting nodes of the gyro vibration and significantly decreases the performance of the CRG. Measuring the mode deflection angle efficiently is the foundation of tuning for the imperfect cylindrical shell resonator. In this paper, an optical method based on the measuring gyroscopic resonator's vibration amplitude with the laser Doppler vibrometer and an electrical method based on measuring the output voltage of the electrodes on the resonator are both presented to measure the mode deflection angle. Comparative experiments were implemented to verify the methodology and the results show that both of the two methods could recognize the mode deflection angle efficiently. The precision of the optical method relies on the number and position of testing points distributed on the resonator. The electrical method with simple circuit shows high accuracy of measuring in a less time compared to the optical method and its error source arises from the influence of circuit noise as well as the inconsistent distribution of the piezoelectric electrodes.

  11. Deflection of a liquid metal jet/drop in a tokamak environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelekasis, Nikos, E-mail: pel@uth.gr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Benos, Lefteris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Gomes, Rui [Associação EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We model steady flow of a liquid metal jet inside an electromagnetic field in the presence of inertia and capillary forces. • Similar analysis is performed for the motion of a liquid metal spherical drop. • The deflection of the trajectory is predicted as a function of the intensity of the externally imposed magnetic and electric fields. • The analysis is used as a proof of principle study in reference to experimental observations of jet/drop deflection due to j{sup →}×B{sup →} effects in the ISTTOK tokamak. • We discuss the possibility of using liquid metal flows as an alternative approach toward enhancing power exhaust in tokamak facilities. - Abstract: The interaction of a liquid gallium jet with plasma has been investigated in the ISTTOK tokamak. The jet was observed to remain intact during its interaction with plasma, within a certain length beyond which drop formation was observed. Significant deflection of the jet was detected as soon as plasma production was started. Furthermore, a strong dependency of the deflection magnitude on plasma position was observed that could be correlated with plasma potential gradients. As a means to capture and, possibly, quantify this effect, a preliminary magnetohydrodynamic analysis was performed in order to predict the trajectory of a jet that is traveling inside an electromagnetic field. The effect of Lorentz forces, gravity and pressure drop are accounted for in a unidirectional model that assumes a small jet radius in comparison with the trajectory length. The effect of external electric potential gradients on jet deflection was ascertained in conjunction with the importance of electric stresses in modulating the jet speed and radius. Analysis of the results reported in the ISTTOK experiments identifies the process of jet break-up as a capillary instability. The trajectory of the ensuing droplets is modeled and intensification of the deflection process is predicted in the presence of Lorentz

  12. Characterisation of a Mechanical Deflection Sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Miyambo, M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ). REFERENCES Snyman, I.M. and Reinecke, J.D. 2006. Measuring the impulse from an explosive charge, Ballistics Symposium South Africa, Denel-OTB, Bredasdorp, 15?16 Aug 2006. Miyambo, M.E. and Pandelani, T. 2012. The Mechanical Deflection Sensor Test... Mechanical Defl ection Sensor M MIYAMBO AND T PANDELANI CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: mmiyambo@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS...

  13. A Bridge Deflection Monitoring System Based on CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-term monitoring of the midspan deflection of Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction on 309 national roads in Zibo city, this paper proposes Zhang’s calibration-based DIC deflection monitoring method. CCD cameras are used to track the change of targets’ position, Zhang’s calibration algorithm is introduced to acquire the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of CCD cameras, and the DIC method is combined with Zhang’s calibration algorithm to measure bridge deflection. The comparative test between Zhang’s calibration and scale calibration is conducted in lab, and experimental results indicate that the proposed method has higher precision. According to the deflection monitoring scheme, the deflection monitoring software for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is developed by MATLAB, and a 4-channel CCD deflection monitoring system for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is integrated in this paper. This deflection monitoring system includes functions such as image preview, simultaneous collection, camera calibration, deflection display, and data storage. In situ deflection curves show a consistent trend; this suggests that the proposed method is reliable and is suitable for the long-term monitoring of bridge deflection.

  14. Direct measurement of the beam deflection angle using the axial B-dot field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhong He

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam position monitors are an important diagnostics tool for particle accelerator operation and related beam dynamics research. The measurement of the beam deflection angle, or moving direction of a charged particle beam with respect to the beam pipe axis, can provide useful additional information. Beam monitors sensitive to the beam’s azimuthal B-dot field (sometimes referred as B dots are used to measure the displacement (position of the beam centroid, as the beam generates a dipole term of the azimuthal magnetic field. Similarly, a dipole term of the axial magnetic field will be generated by the beam moving in a direction not parallel to the axis of the beam pipe. In this paper, a new method using the axial B-dot field is presented to measure the beam deflection angle directly, including the theoretical background. Simulations using the MAFIA numerical code have been performed, demonstrating a good agreement to the new established analytical model.

  15. Quasi first-order Hermite Gaussian beam for enhanced sensitivity in Sagnac interferometer photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Naoyuki; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2016-05-30

    The detection sensitivity of a Sagnac interferometer photothermal deflection spectroscopy was enhanced by changing the probe beam pattern from zero-order to a quasi-first-order Hermite Gaussian (QHG) beam. The nature of the higher order HG mode, where the beam pattern is preserved during propagation with an increased field gradient, is utilized to enhance the measurement sensitivity. In this spectroscopy, the lateral beam deflection due to the photothermal effect is sensitively detected as a change in the interference light intensity. The change in intensity is amplified due to the higher field gradient of the QHG(1,0) beam at the photodetector. This amplification effect was both numerically and experimentally demonstrated to obtain twofold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Processes of structural relaxation in the amorphous alloy Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12.5B11 with a near-zero magnetostriction and their effect on the magnetic properties and the characteristics of magnetic noise caused by Barkhausen jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekalo, I. B.; Lubyanyi, D. Z.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.; Chichibaba, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of hysteretic magnetic properties and the characteristics of magnetic noise caused by Barkhausen jumps have been studied in different ranges of annealing temperature where different processes of structural relaxation develop. It has been shown that the amorphous cobalt-based alloy under study is characterized by a high (in comparison with the iron-based alloys) spatial homogeneity of magnetic noise. The stabilization of domain walls was caused by directional ordering (at annealing temperatures T a T C) fixed by the method of small-angle X-ray scattering not only affect the level of hysteretic magnetic properties, but also determine the magnetic-noise characteristics of the alloy. A comparison of the dynamics of magnetic-noise behavior with changes in the saturation magnetostriction λs made it possible to conclude that the magnetic-noise characteristics depend not only on the directional, but also on the isotropic short-range ordering. The ranges of annealing temperature that ensure acceptable values of hysteretic magnetic properties and, simultaneously, a low level of magnetic noise have been established. This situation takes place at a certain optimum concentration of clusters arising in the alloy studied.

  17. Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F

    2006-11-17

    Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stresses, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed into a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to asses the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.

  18. Improved signal-to-noise ratio performance in magnetic resonance imaging by using a multilayered surface coil array--a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dandan; Hui, Hon Tat; Yeo, Tat Soon

    2013-05-01

    A multilayered surface coil array for magnetic resonance imaging with an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is introduced and investigated by a simulation study. By using an effective decoupling method, the strong mutual coupling effect between the coil layers can be accurately removed, leading to a coherent combination of the signals of the individual coils. This results in a much stronger received signal power which increases with the number of coil layers in the array. This, together with a smaller rate of increase of noise power with the number of coil layers, leads to a net increase in the SNR of array output with the number of coil layers in the array. Rigorous numerical simulation examples have been carried out to confirm and verify the performance of the new array.

  19. String formulation of space charge forces in a deflecting bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The force between two moving point charges, because of its inverse square law singularity, cannot be applied directly in the numerical simulation of bunch dynamics; radiative effects make this especially true for short bunches being deflected by magnets. This paper describes a formalism circumventing this restriction in which the basic ingredient is the total force on a point charge comoving with a longitudinally aligned, uniformly charged string. Bunch evolution can then be treated using direct particle-to-particle, intrabeam scattering, with no need for an intermediate, particle-in-cell, step. Electric and magnetic fields do not appear individually in the theory. Since the basic formulas are both exact (in paraxial approximation) and fully relativistic, they are applicable to beams of all particle types and all energies. But the theory is expected to be especially useful for calculating the emittance growth of the ultrashort electron bunches of current interest for energy recovery linacs and free-electron lasers. The theory subsumes coherent synchrotron radiation and centrifugal space charge force. Renormalized, on-axis, longitudinal field components are in excellent agreement with values from Saldin et al. [DESY Report No. DESY-TESLA-FEL-96-14, 1995; Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. ANIMAER0168-9002 417, 158 (1998).10.1016/S0168-9002(98)00623-8

  20. String formulation of space charge forces in a deflecting bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Talman

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The force between two moving point charges, because of its inverse square law singularity, cannot be applied directly in the numerical simulation of bunch dynamics; radiative effects make this especially true for short bunches being deflected by magnets. This paper describes a formalism circumventing this restriction in which the basic ingredient is the total force on a point charge comoving with a longitudinally aligned, uniformly charged string. Bunch evolution can then be treated using direct particle-to-particle, intrabeam scattering, with no need for an intermediate, particle-in-cell, step. Electric and magnetic fields do not appear individually in the theory. Since the basic formulas are both exact (in paraxial approximation and fully relativistic, they are applicable to beams of all particle types and all energies. But the theory is expected to be especially useful for calculating the emittance growth of the ultrashort electron bunches of current interest for energy recovery linacs and free-electron lasers. The theory subsumes coherent synchrotron radiation and centrifugal space charge force. Renormalized, on-axis, longitudinal field components are in excellent agreement with values from Saldin et al. [DESY Report No. DESY-TESLA-FEL-96-14, 1995; Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 417, 158 (1998.NIMAER0168-900210.1016/S0168-9002(9800623-8

  1. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  2. A Limited Deflection Routing Algorithm Based on Burst Loss Threshold in OBS Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ru-yan; LONG Ke-ping; WU Wei; YANG Xiao-long; ZHU Wei-le

    2005-01-01

    The deflection routing protocol is an effective contention resolution in Optical Burst Switching network. However, it can worsen loss performance of non-deflected burst on the deflection route. To improve the burst loss performance, a limited deflection routing scheme based on burst loss threshold is proposed to prevent injudicious deflection routing. By using threshold check function, it restrainedly allows the deflected burst to preemptive network resource, consequently, improve the QoS performance of non-deflected burst. Simulation results show that the scheme can efficiently prevent deflected burst contending with non-deflected burst on deflection route, and effectively improve the burst loss performance of entire networks.

  3. Deflections of Nanowires with Consideration of Surface Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI He; YANG Zhou; ZHANG Yi-Min; WEN Bang-Chun

    2010-01-01

    @@ The elementary beam model is modified to include the surface effects and used to analyze the deflections of nanowires under different boundary conditions.The results show that compared to deflections of nanowires without consideration of surface effects,the surface effects can enlarge or reduce deflections of nanowires,and nanowire buckling occurs under certaJn conditions.This study might be helpful for design of nanowire-based nanoelectromechanical systems.

  4. Deflection of elastic beam with SMA wires eccentrically inserted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamian, S.; Nik Mohamed, N. A.; Ihsan, A. K. A. Mohd; Ismail, A. E.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Kamarudin, K. A.; Nor, N. H. Muhd

    2017-08-01

    This research is intended to investigate the ability of shape memory alloys (SMA), through its activation, in generating loads to control beam deflection. An elastic beam is formed by sandwiching eccentrically SMA wires between two elastic plates. SMA wires are activated by electrical current from the power supply. Laser displacement meter (LDM) is used to measures deflection of sample. Results show that the deflection of the beam is dependent on the temperature change. The temperature-deflection response also shows the existence of hysteresis.

  5. Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, C A de S [Departamento de FIsica, Universidade Federal da ParaIba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2004-12-01

    In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be undoubted evidence of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive a general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field. (brief report)

  6. Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED

    CERN Document Server

    De Pires, C A S

    2004-01-01

    In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be an undoubted signal of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive the general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field.

  7. Teach Deflection Concepts with Hacksaw Blades and Rubber Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology and engineering educators can use a simple hacksaw blade to help students learn about deflection, as that which occurs in a beam. Here the beam is fixed at one end and allowed to deflect in a manner that is easy to see and measure--the hacksaw blade represents a cantilever, an overhanging structure. This simple and very inexpensive…

  8. High Sensitivity deflection detection of nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanii, Babak; Ashby, Paul

    2009-10-28

    A critical limitation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is the lack of a high-sensitivity position detection mechanism. We introduce a noninterferometric optical approach to determine the position of nanowires with a high sensitivity and bandwidth. Its physical origins and limitations are determined by Mie scattering analysis. This enables a dramatic miniaturization of detectable cantilevers, with attendant reductions to the fundamental minimum force noise in highly damping environments. We measure the force noise of an 81{+-}9??nm radius Ag{sub 2}Ga nanowire cantilever in water at 6{+-}3??fN/{radical}Hz.

  9. A low noise all-fiber interferometer for high resolution frequency modulated atomic force microscopy imaging in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Haider I; Wilkinson, Paul R; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a low noise all-fiber interferometer for use as the deflection sensor in liquid environment frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). A detailed description and rationale for the choice of the critical components are provided along with the design of a simple alignment assembly. The optimization of the deflection sensor toward achieving the highest possible sensitivity and lowest deflection noise density is discussed in the context of an ideal interference cavity. Based on the provided analysis we have achieved deflection noise densities of 2 fm/square root(Hz) on commercially available cantilevers in both ambient and liquid environments. The low noise interferometer works without the need for differential detection, special focusing lenses, or polarization sensitive optics, dramatically simplifying measurements. True atomic resolution imaging of muscovite mica by FM-AFM in water is demonstrated using the developed deflection sensor.

  10. Study on the causes and methods of influencing concrete deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Xiang; Tang, Jinyu

    2017-09-01

    Under the long-term effect of static load on reinforced concrete beam, the stiffness decreases and the deformation increases with time. Therefore, the calculation of deflection is more complicated. According to the domestic and foreign research results by experiment the flexural deflection of reinforced concrete, creep, age, the thickness of the protective layer, the relative slip, the combination of steel yielding factors of reinforced concrete deflection are summarized, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional direct measurement of deflection, that by increasing the beam height, increasing the moment of inertia, ncrease prestressed reinforcement ratio, arching, reduce the load, and other measures to reduce the deflection of prestressed construction, improve the reliability of structure.

  11. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  12. Modeling and Simulating Dynamics of Missiles with Deflectable Nose Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Gu Liangxian; Pan Lei

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the dynamic characteristics of deflectable nose missiles with rotary single-channel control. After introduction of effective attack and sideslip angles as well as quasi-body coordinates based on the spin characteristics of the missile's body, an integrated rigid kinetic model of missile with deflectable nose control is set up in the quasi-body coordinates considering the interaction between the missile's nose and body by using rootless multi-rigid-body system dynamics and is linearized. Then an analysis with simulation is conducted to investigate the coupling characteristics between the channels, the influences of nose deflection on the body and the dynamic characteristics of missile's body. The results indicate that various channels of missiles with deflectable nose control are coupled cross-linked; the nose deflection tends to make the body move in the opposite direction and, finally, evidences the correctness and reasonability of the kinetic model proposed by this article.

  13. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  14. Novel phase-based noise reduction strategy for quantification of left ventricular function and mass assessment by cardiac CT: Comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Bryan, E-mail: bwai@partners.org [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thai, Wai-ee [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brown, Heather [Qi Imaging, Redwood City, California (United States); Truong, Quynh A. [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Background: Tube current modulation in retrospective ECG gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) results in increased image noise and may reduce the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and mass assessment. Objective: To examine the effects of a novel CT phase-based noise reduction (NR) algorithm on LV EF and mass quantification as compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: In 40 subjects, we compared the LV EF and mass between CT and CMR. In a subset of 24 subjects with tube current modulated CT, the effect of phase-based noise reduction strategies on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the assessment of LV EF and mass was compared to CMR. Results: There was excellent correlation between CT and CMR for EF (r = 0.94) and mass (r = 0.97). As compared to CMR, the limits of agreement improved with increasing strength of NR strategy. There was a systematic underestimation of LV mass by CT compared to CMR with no NR (−10.3 ± 10.1 g) and low NR (−10.3 ± 12.5 g), but was attenuated with high NR (−0.5 ± 8.3 g). Studies without NR had lower CNR compared to low and high NR at both the ES phase and ED phase (all p < 0.01). Conclusions: A high NR strategy on tube current modulated functional cardiac CT improves correlation of EF compared to CMR and reduces variability of EF and mass evaluation by increasing the CNR. In an effort to reduce radiation dose with tube current modulation, this strategy provides better image quality when LV function and mass quantification is needed.

  15. Novel phase-based noise reduction strategy for quantification of left ventricular function and mass assessment by cardiac CT: comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Bryan; Thai, Wai-Ee; Brown, Heather; Truong, Quynh A

    2013-08-01

    Tube current modulation in retrospective ECG gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) results in increased image noise and may reduce the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and mass assessment. To examine the effects of a novel CT phase-based noise reduction (NR) algorithm on LV EF and mass quantification as compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). In 40 subjects, we compared the LV EF and mass between CT and CMR. In a subset of 24 subjects with tube current modulated CT, the effect of phase-based noise reduction strategies on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the assessment of LV EF and mass was compared to CMR. There was excellent correlation between CT and CMR for EF (r=0.94) and mass (r=0.97). As compared to CMR, the limits of agreement improved with increasing strength of NR strategy. There was a systematic underestimation of LV mass by CT compared to CMR with no NR (-10.3±10.1g) and low NR (-10.3±12.5g), but was attenuated with high NR (-0.5±8.3g). Studies without NR had lower CNR compared to low and high NR at both the ES phase and ED phase (all p<0.01). A high NR strategy on tube current modulated functional cardiac CT improves correlation of EF compared to CMR and reduces variability of EF and mass evaluation by increasing the CNR. In an effort to reduce radiation dose with tube current modulation, this strategy provides better image quality when LV function and mass quantification is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Load Deflection Characteristics of Nickel Titanium Initial Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the characteristics of commonly used initial archwires by their load deflection graphs.Materials and Methods: This study tested three wire designs namely copper nickel titanium (CNT, nickel titanium (NiTi, and multi-strand NiTi (MSNT archwires engaged in passive self-ligating (PSL brackets, active self-ligating (ASL brackets or conventional brackets. To evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the specimens, a three-point bending test was performed. The testing machine vertically applied force on the midpoint of the wire between the central incisor and canine teeth to obtain 2 and 4mm of deflection. The force level at maximum deflection and characteristics of plateau (the average plateau load and the plateau length were recorded. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used at P <0.05 level of significance.Results: Force level at maximum deflection and plateau length were significantly affected by the amount of deflection. The type of archwires and brackets had significant effects on force level at maximum deflection, and plateau length. However, the bracket type had no significant effect on the average plateau force.Conclusion: With any type of brackets in deflections of 2 and 4mm, MSNT wire exerted the lowest while NiTi wire exerted the highest force level at maximum deflection and plateau phase. The force level at maximum deflection and the plateau length increased with raising the amount of primary deflection; however the average plateau force did not change significantly.

  17. Optimized frequency dependent photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, D.; Cabrera, H.; Toro, J.; Grima, P.; Leal, C.; Villabona, A.; Franko, M.

    2016-12-01

    In the letter the optimization of the experimental setup for photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy is performed by analyzing the influence of its geometrical parameters (detector and sample position, probe beam radius and its waist position etc) on the detected signal. Furthermore, the effects of the fluid’s thermo-optical properties, for optimized geometrical configuration, on the measurement sensitivity and uncertainty determination of sample thermal properties is also studied. The examined sample is a recently developed CuFeInTe3 material. It is seen from the obtained results, that it is a complex problem to choose the proper geometrical configuration as well as sensing fluid to enhance the sensitivity of the method. A signal enhancement is observed at low modulation frequencies by placing the sample in acetonitrile (ACN), while at high modulation frequencies the sensitivity is higher for measurements made in air. For both, detection in air and acetonitrile the determination of CuFeInTe3 thermal properties is performed. The determined values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are (0.048  ±  0.002)  ×  10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.6  ±  0.2 W m-1 K-1 and (0.056  ±  0.005)  ×  10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.8  ±  0.4 W m-1 K-1 for ACN and air, respectively. It is seen, that the determined values agree well within the range of their measurement uncertainties for both cases, although the measurement uncertainty is two times lower for the measurements in ACN providing more accurate results. The analysis is performed by the use of recently developed theoretical description based on the complex geometrical optics. It is also shown, how the presented work fits into the current status of photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy.

  18. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy system based on probe beam deflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M.; Tsyboulskic, Dmitri; Roth, Caleb C.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Beier, Hope T.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2016-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve sub-micron resolution in backward mode OA microscopy using conventional piezoelectric detectors, because of wavefront distortions caused by components placed in the optical path, between the sample and the objective lens, that are required to separate the acoustic wave from the optical beam. As an alternate approach, an optoacoustic microscope (OAM) was constructed using the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) to detect laserinduced acoustic signals. The all-optical OAM detects laser-generated pressure waves using a probe beam passing through a coupling medium, such as water, filling the space between the microscope objective lens and sample. The acoustic waves generated in the sample propagate through the coupling medium, causing transient changes in the refractive index that deflect the probe beam. These deflections are measured with a high-speed, balanced photodiode position detector. The deflection amplitude is directly proportional to the magnitude of the acoustic pressure wave, and provides the data required for image reconstruction. The sensitivity of the PBDT detector expressed as noise equivalent pressure was 12 Pa, comparable to that of existing high-performance ultrasound detectors. Because of the unimpeded working distance, a high numerical aperture objective lens, i.e. NA = 1, was employed in the OAM to achieve near diffraction-limited lateral resolution of 0.5 μm at 532nm. The all-optical OAM provides several benefits over current piezoelectric detector-based systems, such as increased lateral and axial resolution, higher sensitivity, robustness, and potentially more compatibility with multimodal instruments.

  19. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  20. Coupler induced monopole component and its minimization in deflecting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ambattu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflecting cavities are used in particle accelerators for the manipulation of charged particles by deflecting or crabbing (rotating them. For short deflectors, the effect of the power coupler on the deflecting field can become significant. The particular power coupler type can introduce multipole rf field components and coupler-specific wakefields. Coupler types that would normally be considered like standard on-cell coupler, waveguide coupler, or mode-launcher coupler could have one or two rf feeds. The major advantage of a dual-feed coupler is the absence of monopole and quadrupole rf field components in the deflecting structure. However, a dual-feed coupler is mechanically more complex than a typical single-feed coupler and needs a splitter. For most applications, deflecting structures are placed in regions where there is small space hence reducing the size of the structure is very desirable. This paper investigates the multipole field components of the deflecting mode in single-feed couplers and ways to overcome the effect of the monopole component on the beam. Significant advances in performance have been demonstrated. Additionally, a novel coupler design is introduced which has no monopole field component to the deflecting mode and is more compact than the conventional dual-feed coupler.

  1. Heavy colored SUSY partners from deflected anomaly mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a deflected anomaly mediation scenario from SUSY QCD which can lead to both positive and negative deflection parameters (there is a smooth transition between these two deflection parameter regions by adjusting certain couplings). Such a scenario can naturally give a SUSY spectrum in which all the colored sparticles are heavy while the sleptons are light. As a result, the discrepancy between the Brookheaven $g_\\mu-2$ experiment and LHC data can be reconciled in this scenario. We also find that the parameter space for explaining the $g_\\mu-2$ anomaly at $1\\sigma$ level can be fully covered by the future LUX-ZEPLIN 7.2 Ton experiment.

  2. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  3. Simulations of directed energy comet deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Lubin, Philip M.; Hughes, Gary B.

    2016-09-01

    Earth-crossing asteroids and comets pose a long-term hazard to life and property on Earth. Schemes to mitigate the impact threat have been studied extensively but tend to focus on asteroid diversion while neglecting the possibility of a comet threat. Such schemes often demand physically intercepting the target by spacecraft, a task feasible only for targets identified decades in advance in a restricted range of orbits. A threatening comet is unlikely to satisfy these criteria and so necessitates a fundamentally different approach for diversion. Comets are naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar heating of their surfaces which activates sublimation-driven jets. Artificial heating of a comet, such as by a high-powered laser array in Earth orbit, may supplement natural heating by the Sun to purposefully manipulate its path to avoid an impact. The effectiveness of any particular laser array for a given comet depends on the comet's heating response which varies dramatically depending on factors including nucleus size, orbit and dynamical history. These factors are incorporated into a numerical orbital model using established models of nongravitational perturbations to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of using high-powered laser arrays in Earth orbit or on the ground to deflect a variety of comets. Simulation results suggest that orbital arrays of 500m and 10GW operating for 10 min=d over 1 yr may be adequate for mitigating impacts by comets up to 500m in diameter. Continuously operating ground-based arrays of 100m and 10GW may be similarly effective when appropriately located.

  4. RF deflecting cavity design for Berkeley ultrafast X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Corlett, J.

    2002-05-01

    Our proposed source for production of ultra-short (less than 100 fs FWHM) x-ray pulses utilizes a scheme for manipulation of the relatively long (2 ps) electron bunch in transverse phase-space, followed by compression of the emitted x-ray pulse in crystal optics. In order to compress the x-ray pulses, RF cavities operating in a dipole mode (TM110-like) are required to deflect the head and tail of a 2.5 GeV bunch in opposite directions. For a 2 ps duration electron bunch, an 8.5 MV deflecting voltage is required at a RF frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper, we will present a preliminary cavity design based on numerical simulations performed by MAFIA and URMEL codes. Seven-cell superconducting p mode dipole RF cavities are proposed to provide the necessary deflecting voltage. Due to the presence of beam iris, the mavities operate in a hybrid mode where TM and TE like modes co-exist. Even on mhe beam axis, both magnetic and electric fields contribute to the transverse mick. Lower order monopole modes (LOMs) in the cavities may cause energy spread of the electron beam and need to be damped. The effects of the LOMs on beam dynamics are estimated. Possible damping schemes will be discussed.

  5. RF deflecting cavity design for Berkeley ultrafast X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Derun; Corlett, J.

    2002-05-30

    Our proposed source for production of ultra-short (less than 100 fs FWHM) x-ray pulses utilizes a scheme for manipulation of the relatively long ({approx}2 ps) electron bunch in transverse phase-space, followed by compression of the emitted x-ray pulse in crystal optics [1]. In order to compress the x-ray pulses, RF cavities operating in a dipole mode (TM{sub 110}-like) are required to deflect the head and tail of a 2.5 GeV bunch in opposite directions. For a 2 ps duration electron bunch, an 8.5 MV deflecting voltage is required at a RF frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper, we will present a preliminary cavity design based on numerical simulations performed by MAFIA and URMEL codes. Seven-cell superconducting {pi} mode dipole RF cavities are proposed to provide the necessary deflecting voltage. Due to the presence of beam iris, the cavities operate in a hybrid mode where TM and TE like modes co-exist. Even on the beam axis, both magnetic and electric fields contribute to the transverse kick. Lower order monopole modes (LOMs) in the cavities may cause energy spread of the electron beam and need to be damped. The effects of the LOMs on beam dynamics are estimated. Possible damping schemes will be discussed.

  6. Geoid Height and Deflection of the Vertical Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of the National Geodetic Survey has produced a series of high-resolution gravimetric geoid models, hybrid geoid models, and associated deflection of the...

  7. Deflection measurements of LABAN canister sections in horizontal attitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeman, W.

    1985-01-08

    Deflection measurements made on the LABAN canister sections indicate that the apparent stiffness of its frames, with all the diagnostics experiments installed, is not significantly different from the stiffness of the bare frames.

  8. U.S. East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the conterminous United States is the DEFLEC96 model. The computationused about 1.8 million terrestrial and...

  9. U.S. North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the conterminous United States is the DEFLEC96 model. The computationused about 1.8 million terrestrial and...

  10. Hawaiian Islands North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  11. Hawaiian Islands East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  12. PR/VI North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 26,000...

  13. Possible influences on bullet trajectory deflection in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabiano; Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects. A surprisingly consistent 6.5° absolute deflection angle was found when these bullets passed through 22.5 to 23.5cm of ballistic gelatine. The projection angle, determined by the direction of the deflection, appeared to be random. The consistent absolute angle, in combination with the random projection angle, resulted in a cone-like deflection pattern.

  14. PR/VI East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 26,000...

  15. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... and June 2010. Retain current deflection standards for six more months and enlist the assistance of a Lean Six-Sigma group. Response to Comments The prices proposed in our December 2009 proposal...

  16. Magnetic field dependence of the internal quality factor and noise performance of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Daniel; Abitbol, Maximilian H; Bryan, Sean; Cantor, Robin; Day, Peter K; Jones, Glenn; Mauskopf, Philip; McCarrick, Heather; Miller, Amber; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    We present a technique for increasing the internal quality factor of kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) by nulling ambient magnetic fields with a properly applied magnetic field. The KIDs used in this study are made from thin-film aluminum, they are mounted inside a light-tight package made from bulk aluminum, and they are operated near $150 \\, \\mathrm{mK}$. Since the thin-film aluminum has a slightly elevated critical temperature ($T_\\mathrm{c} = 1.4 \\, \\mathrm{K}$), it therefore transitions before the package ($T_\\mathrm{c} = 1.2 \\, \\mathrm{K}$), which also serves as a magnetic shield. On cooldown, ambient magnetic fields as small as approximately $30 \\, \\mathrm{\\mu T}$ can produce vortices in the thin-film aluminum as it transitions because the bulk aluminum package has not yet transitioned and therefore is not yet shielding. These vortices become trapped inside the aluminum package below $1.2 \\, \\mathrm{K}$ and ultimately produce low internal quality factors in the thin-film superconducting resonators. W...

  17. Relativistic Stern-Gerlach Deflection: Hamiltonian Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mane, S R

    2016-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formalism is employed to elucidate the effects of the Stern-Gerlach force on beams of relativistic spin-polarized particles, for passage through a localized region with a static magnetic or electric field gradient. The problem of the spin-orbit coupling for nonrelativistic bounded motion in a central potential (hydrogen-like atoms, in particular) is also briefly studied.

  18. NOISE AND SENSITIVITY IN POLYSILICON PIEZORESISTIVE CANTILEVERS*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓梅; 江兴流; J.THAYSEN; O.HANSEN; A.BOISEN

    2001-01-01

    Piezoresistive cantilevers with dimensions of 200 × 50 × 1.8μm3 have been fabricated from polycrystalline silicon using reactive ion etching (RIE) and back etching processes. Full Wheatstone bridges have been designed symmetrically on-chip, with two resistors placed on the cantilevers and two resistors on the substrate. The differential measurements of the two cantilevers can reduce the thermal shift of the signal in the system and the external noise in the laboratory.The characteristics of the fabricated cantilevers have been analysed by measuring the noise and the sensitivity. The measured noise spectra show that the 1/f noise is the dominant noise source at low frequencies. With the linear relation between 1/f noise and bias voltages, the Hooge factor (c) was calculated to be 0.0067. The 1/f noise was explained in terms of a lattice scattering model, which occurs in the depletion region of the grains. The displacement sensitivity of the cantilevers was calculated to be 1× 10-6nm-1 by measuring the resistance change and the vertical deflection of the cantilever. The gauge factor of the piezoresistive cantilever was calculated to be 19. At a 3V bias voltage and 1000 Hz measurement bandwidth, 1 nm of minimum detectable deflection has been obtained.

  19. Generation of Picosecond X-Ray Pulses in the ALS Using RF Orbit Deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Robin, David; Fischer, Peter; Heimann, Philip; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Li, Derun; Sannibale, Fernando; Steier, Christoph; Wan, Weishi; Wittmer, Walter; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is studied for producing ps length pulses of x-ray radiation from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using two RF deflecting cavities. The cavities create vertical displacements of electrons correlated with their longitudinal position in the bunch. The two cavities separated by 180 degrees of vertical phase advance. This allows the vertical kick from one cavity to be compensated by the vertical kick of the other. The location of the cavities corresponds to the end of one straight section and the beginning of the following straight section. Halfway between the cavities a bending magnet source is located. The radiation from the bend can be compressed to ~1 ps in duration.

  20. Deflection of light in equatorial plane due to Kerr-Taub-NUT body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Sarani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to General Relativity, there are factors like mass, rotation, charge and presence of Cosmological constant that can influence the path of light ray. Apart from these factors, many authors have also reported the influence of gravitomagnetism on the path of light ray. In this study we have discussed the effect of a rotating Kerr-Taub-NUT body where the strength of the gravitomagnetic monopole is represented by the NUT factor or magnetic mass. We use the null geodesic of photon method to obtain the deflection angle of light ray for a Kerr-Taub-NUT body in equatorial plane upto the fourth order term. Our study shows that the NUT factor has a noticeable effect on the path of the light ray. By considering the magnetism to be zero, the expression of bending angle gets reduced to the Kerr bending angle. However, we obtained a non-zero bending angle for a hypothetical massless, magnetic body.

  1. An aerodynamic noise propagation model for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2005-01-01

    A model based on 2-D sound ray theory for aerodynamic noise propagation from wind turbine rotating blades is introduced. The model includes attenuation factors from geometric spreading, sound directivity of source, air absorption, ground deflection and reflection, as well as effects from temperat......A model based on 2-D sound ray theory for aerodynamic noise propagation from wind turbine rotating blades is introduced. The model includes attenuation factors from geometric spreading, sound directivity of source, air absorption, ground deflection and reflection, as well as effects from...

  2. 3Dwheel: 3-axis low-noise, high-bandwidth attitude actuation from a single momentum wheel using magnetic bearings.

    OpenAIRE

    Seddon, Jon; Pechev, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new concept for attitude actuation for small satellites that uses active magnetic bearings to support and tilt a spinning rotor to provide 3-axis attitude control of the satellite using a single actuator. A controlled 3D motion in the spinning rotor provides a conventional torque output about the momentum axis and a gyroscopic torque output about any direction in the plane normal to the spinning axis. Therefore, a single tilting momentum-wheel can generate torque along t...

  3. Deflection load characteristics of laser-welded orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Etsuko; Stigall, Garrett; Elshahawy, Waleed; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2012-07-01

    To compare the deflection load characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous joints made by laser welding using various types of orthodontic wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 inch × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel (Co-Cr-Ni), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (12 mm long each) were made by Nd:YAG laser welding. Two types of welding methods were used: two-point welding and four-point welding. Nonwelded wires were also used as a control. Deflection load (N) was measured by conducting the three-point bending test. The data (n  =  5) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P welded specimens showed lower deflection loads compared to corresponding control wires and exhibited higher deflection loads compared to heterogeneously welded combinations. For homogeneous combinations, Co-Cr-Ni/Co-Cr-Ni showed a significantly (P welded groups. In heterogeneous combinations, SS/Co-Cr-Ni and β-Ti/Ni-Ti showed higher deflection loads than those of the remaining heterogeneously welded combinations (significantly higher for SS/Co-Cr-Ni). Significance (P welding method). However, no significant difference in deflection load was found between four-point and two-point welding in each homogeneous or heterogeneous combination. Heterogeneously laser-welded SS/Co-Cr-Ni and β-Ti/Ni-Ti wires provide a deflection load that is comparable to that of homogeneously welded orthodontic wires.

  4. Large deflection analysis of cantilever beam under end point and distributed load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Tolou, N; Barari, Amin;

    2014-01-01

    Although the deflection of beams has been studied for decades, the solutions were either linearized (i.e. small deflection) or based on elliptic integrals or functions (large deflection). The latter one includes the geometric nonlinearity but calculation of the deflection along the beam length re...

  5. Comparison of Ising spin glass noise to flux and inductance noise in SQUIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C

    2010-06-18

    Recent experiments implicate spins on the surface of metals as the source of flux and inductance noise in SQUIDs. We present Monte Carlo simulations of 2D and 3D Ising spin glasses that produce magnetization noise S(M) consistent with flux noise. At low frequencies S(M) is a maximum at the critical temperature T(C) in three dimensions, implying that flux noise should be a maximum at T(C). The second spectra of the magnetization noise and the noise in the susceptibility are consistent with experimentally measured SQUID inductance noise.

  6. Study on Theory of Electro-Magnetic Vibration and Noise of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor%永磁同步电动机电磁振动噪声机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋明; 陈勇

    2013-01-01

    Resolution method was employed to deduce the expressions of magnetic field and force wave of a threephase PM powered by a PWM convertor.The frequency of main vibration was analyzed,which was come from low-rank or big-amplitude force wave.The spectrum of vibration and noise of the PM with load or no load were measured.The results of analysis and measurement were basically coincident with each other.The suggestions that can reduce the electro-magnetec vibration and noise of a PM were proposed.%利用解析法推导了PWM变频器供电的三相永磁同步电动机的气隙磁场和力波的表达式,重点分析了其中幅值大、阶数低的力波及其所产生的电磁振动的特征频率.还实测了永磁同步电动机在负载和空载情况下的振动、噪声频谱,经过对比,理论分析和实验结果相吻合.最后提出了从根源上降低永磁同步电动机电磁振动、噪声的实际措施.

  7. Needle deflection estimation using fusion of electromagnetic trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, H; Hashtrudi-Zaad, K; Fichtinger, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a needle deflection estimation method to compensate for needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. We combine a kinematic needle deflection estimation model, electromagnetic (EM) trackers, and a Kalman filter (KF). We reduce the impact of error from the needle deflection estimation model by using the fusion of two EM trackers to report the approximate needle tip position in real-time. One reliable EM tracker is installed on the needle base, and estimates the needle tip position using the kinematic needle deflection model. A smaller but much less reliable EM tracker is installed on the needle tip, and estimates the needle tip position through direct noisy measurements. Using a KF, the sensory information from both EM trackers is fused to provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position with much reduced variance in the estimation error. We then implement this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated prostate cancer brachytherapy needle insertion. At a typical maximum insertion depth of 15 cm, needle tip mean estimation error was reduced from 2.39 mm to 0.31 mm, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution.

  8. Equivalent magnetic noise reduction at high frequency range due to polarized direction optimization in Terfenol-D/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 magnetoelectric laminate sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cong; Ma, Jiashuai; Yao, Meng; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Xu, Haiqing; Wang, Wei; Luo, Haosu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the responsivities and output voltage noise power spectral densities of magnetoelectric (ME) laminate sensors, consisting of length magnetized Terfenol-D alloys and transverse/width poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystals (i.e. L-T mode and L-W mode respectively), which are directly integrated with custom-build low noise charge amplifier circuits. Both the theoretical analyses and experimental results prove that the L-W mode sensor with the optimized polarized direction of the PMNT plate possesses lower magnetic detection limit at the interested high frequency range of 10 kHz≤f≤50 kHz. The equivalent magnetic noise (EMN) of the L-W mode sensor is 0.78 pT/Hz1/2 at 30 kHz, which is about 1.7 times lower than the 1.35 pT/Hz1/2 for conventional L-T mode sensor. Furthermore, an effective method of using operational amplifiers with low equivalent input noise voltage and employing ME laminate composites with high voltage coefficient to reduce the EMNs of the ME laminate sensors at high frequency range has been established.

  9. Proton beam deflection in MRI fields: Implications for MRI-guided proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, B M; Dowdell, S; Metcalfe, P E; Crozier, S; Mohan, R; Keall, P J

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates, via magnetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, the ability to deliver proton beams to the treatment zone inside a split-bore MRI-guided proton therapy system. Field maps from a split-bore 1 T MRI-Linac system are used as input to geant4 Monte Carlo simulations which model the trajectory of proton beams during their paths to the isocenter of the treatment area. Both inline (along the MRI bore) and perpendicular (through the split-bore gap) orientations are simulated. Monoenergetic parallel and diverging beams of energy 90, 195, and 300 MeV starting from 1.5 and 5 m above isocenter are modeled. A phase space file detailing a 2D calibration pattern is used to set the particle starting positions, and their spatial location as they cross isocenter is recorded. No beam scattering, collimation, or modulation of the proton beams is modeled. In the inline orientation, the radial symmetry of the solenoidal style fringe field acts to rotate the protons around the beam's central axis. For protons starting at 1.5 m from isocenter, this rotation is 19° (90 MeV) and 9.8° (300 MeV). A minor focusing toward the beam's central axis is also seen, but only significant, i.e., 2 mm shift at 150 mm off-axis, for 90 MeV protons. For the perpendicular orientation, the main MRI field and near fringe field act as the strongest to deflect the protons in a consistent direction. When starting from 1.5 m above isocenter shifts of 135 mm (90 MeV) and 65 mm (300 MeV) were observed. Further to this, off-axis protons are slightly deflected toward or away from the central axis in the direction perpendicular to the main deflection direction. This leads to a distortion of the phase space pattern, not just a shift. This distortion increases from zero at the central axis to 10 mm (90 MeV) and 5 mm (300 MeV) for a proton 150 mm off-axis. In both orientations, there is a small but subtle difference in the deflection and distortion pattern between protons fired parallel to the

  10. Ultrafast optical beam deflection in a pump probe configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lingliang; Tian, Jinshou; Wang, Tao; Wu, Shengli; Li, Fuli; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Guilong

    2016-09-01

    Propagation of a signal beam in an AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide multiple-prism light deflector is theoretically investigated by solving the scalar Helmholtz equation to obtain the dependences of the temporal and spatial resolvable characteristics of the ultrafast deflector on the material dispersion of GaAs including group velocity dispersion and angular dispersion, interface reflection, and interface scattering of multiple-prism deflector. Furthermore, we experimentally confirm that, in this ultrafast beam deflection device, the deflecting angle of the signal light beam is linear with the pump fluence and the temporal resolution of the ultrafast deflection is 10 ps. Our results show that the improvement of the temporal and spatial resolvable performances is possible by properly choosing the structural parameters and enhancing the quality of the device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274377 and 61176006) and the State Major Research Equipment Project, China (Grant No. ZDY2011-2).

  11. ABRUPT DEFLECTED SUPERCRITICAL WATER FLOW IN SLOPED CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-kun; NI Han-gen

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the bottom slope on abrupt deflected supercritical water flow was experimentally and theoretically studied. Model tests were conducted in a flume of 1.2 m wide and 2.6 m long with sloped bottom at an angle 35.54o, its length of deflector was 0.2 m and the deflection angles were 15o and 30o. An approximate method for calculatjng the shock wave angle and depth ratio of the abrupt deflected supercritical water flow was suggested, and a correction coefficient for the hydrodynamic pressure was introduced to generalize the momentum equation in the direction perpendicular to the shock front. It must be noticed that in the sloped channel the shock wave angle and the depth ratio are no longer constant as those in the horizontal channels, but slowly change along the shock front. The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data.

  12. Linearizing Intra-Train Beam-Beam Deflection Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.R.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    Beam-beam deflection feedback acting within the crossing time of a single bunch train may be needed to keep linear collider beams colliding at high luminosity. In a short-pulse machine such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) this feedback must converge quickly to be useful. The non-linear nature of beam-beam deflection vs. beam-beam offset in these machines precludes obtaining both rapid convergence and a stable steady-state lock to beam offsets with a linear feedback algorithm. We show that a simply realizable programmable non-linear amplifier in the feedback loop can linearize the feedback loop, approximately compensating the beam-beam deflection non-linearity. Performance of a prototype non-linear amplifier is shown. Improvement of convergence and stability of the beam-beam feedback loop is simulated.

  13. Novel deflecting cavity design for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2011-07-25

    To prevent significant loss of the luminosity due to large crossing angle in the future ERL based Electron Ion Collider at BNL (eRHIC), there is a demand for crab cavities. In this article, we will present a novel design of the deflecting/crabbing 181 MHz superconducting RF cavity that will fulfil the requirements of eRHIC. The quarter-wave resonator structure of the new cavity possesses many advantages, such as compact size, high R{sub t}/Q, the absence of the same order mode and lower order mode, and easy higher order mode damping. We will present the properties and characteristics of the new cavity in detail. As the accelerator systems grow in complexity, developing compact and efficient deflecting cavities is of great interest. Such cavities will benefit situations where the beam line space is limited. The future linac-ring type electron-ion collider requires implementation of a crab-crossing scheme for both beams at the interaction region. The ion beam has a long bunches and high rigidity. Therefore, it requires a low frequency, large kicking angle deflector. The frequency of the deflecting mode for the current collider design is 181 MHz, and the deflecting angle is {approx}5 mrad for each beam. At such low frequency, the previous designs of the crab cavities will have very large dimensions, and also will be confronted by typical problems of damping the Lower Order Mode (LOM), the Same Order Mode (SOM), and as usual, the Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this paper we describe how one can use the concept of a quarter-wave (QW) resonator for a deflecting/crabbing cavity, and use its fundamental mode to deflect the beam. The simplicity of the cavity geometry and the large separation between its fundamental mode and the first HOM make it very attractive.

  14. Two-mode polarized traveling wave deflecting structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建豪; 顾强; 方文程; 童德春; 赵振堂

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-mode polarizable deflecting structure, as a new concept for bunch measure-ment and beam control. With two modes of HEM11 and HEM12 operating in the same structure on horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, the operation status can be switched between the two polarization modes. They can be operated simultaneously with two independent input power sources. With two-mode deflecting structure, the bunch distortion caused by the geometric wake-fields in the accelerating structure can be mea-sured by one structure.

  15. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  16. Research on network failure handling technology based on deflection routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YU; Shanzhi CHEN; Xin LI; Zhen QIN

    2008-01-01

    A new deflection routing scheme is proposed to overcome the drawback of existing deflection routing scheme that cannot handle node failure and suffer from routing loops.A new algorithm for computing the backup shortest path tree(SPT)is proposed and a set of procedures are defined for utilizing the backup SPT in case of node or link failure.The failure can be handled swiftly and the backup routes are guaranteed to be loop-free.Experimental results show that the backup routes calculated by proposed scheme are close to the optimal routes by totally re-computing.

  17. The 1919 measurement of the deflection of light

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Clifford M

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the deflection of starlight during a total solar eclipse on May 29, 1919 was the first verification of general relativity by an external team of scientists, brought Einstein and his theory to the attention of the general public, and left a legacy of experimental testing that continues today. The discovery of gravitational lenses turned Einstein's deflection into an important tool for astronomy and cosmology. This article reviews the history of the 1919 measurement and other eclipse measurements, describes modern measurements of the effect using radio astronomy, and of its cousin, the Shapiro time delay, and discusses gravitational lenses.

  18. An Application of Two Experimental Modal Analysis Methods for the Determination of Operational Deflection Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromulski, J.; Hojan, E.

    1996-10-01

    Two methods are presented for the determination of operational deflection shapes (ODSs). The first method allows one to determine the ODSs by measuring mechanical vibrations at test points of the operating machine (created by the forces occurring in the actual work cycle). The second method is based on the modal model of the machine, including the forces which occur in the operation process, and yields the operational modes of vibration. The forces introduced into the model are determined by methods of pseudo-inversion of the matrix of the spectral transmissibility functions of the mechanical system and the vector of operating vibrations. The determination of the forces involved is necessary for the definition of the paths of energy transfer and the analysis of the noise emitted by the mechanical system (machine).

  19. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Hoof, Sebastian; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here we show that a high-quality resonance (Q>20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity --- as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient --- is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Via the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up which includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and which can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  20. The effect of asteroid topography on surface ablation deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Ablation techniques for deflecting hazardous asteroids deposit energy into the asteroid's surface, causing an effective thrust on the asteroid as the ablating material leaves normal to the surface. Although it has long been recognized that surface topography plays an important role in determining the deflection capabilities, most studies to date have ignored this aspect of the model. This paper focuses on understanding the topography for real asteroid shapes, and how this topography can change the deflection performance of an ablation technique. The near Earth asteroids Golevka, Bennu, and Itokawa are used as the basis for this study, as all three have high-resolution shape models available. This paper shows that naive targeting of an ablation method without accounting for the surface topography can lower the deflection performance by up to 20% in the cases studied in terms of the amount of acceleration applied in the desired direction. If the ablation thrust level is assumed to be 100 N, as used elsewhere in the literature, this misapplication of thrust translates to tens of kilometers per year in decreased semimajor axis change. However, if the ablation method can freely target any visible point on the surface of the asteroid, almost all of this performance can be recovered.

  1. Deflection of Light by Gravity: A Physical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Joshua B.

    1982-01-01

    Einstein's equivalence principle relates effects seen by an accelerating observer to those experienced by an observer in a gravitational field, providing an explanation of bending of a light beam by gravity. Because the calculations lead to results one-half the value found experimentally, obtaining the correct light deflection is discussed.…

  2. On guided versus deflected fields in controlled-source electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    The detection of electrically resistive targets in applied geophysics is of interest to the hydrocarbon, mining and geotechnical industries. Elongated thin resistive bodies have been extensively studied in the context of offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Such targets guide electromagnetic fields in a process which superficially resembles seismic refraction. On the other hand, compact resistive bodies deflect current in a process which has more similarities to diffraction and scattering. The response of a real geological structure is a non-trivial combination of these elements-guiding along the target and deflection around its edges. In this note the electromagnetic responses of two end-member models are compared: a resistive layer, which guides the electromagnetic signal, and a resistive cylinder, which deflects the fields. Results show that the response of a finite resistive target tends to saturate at a much lower resistivity than a resistive layer, under identical survey configurations. Furthermore, while the guided electromagnetic fields generated by a buried resistive layer contain both anomalous horizontal and vertical components, the process of electromagnetic deflection from a buried resistive cylinder creates mainly anomalous vertical fields. Finally, the transmitter orientation with respect to the position of a finite body is an important survey parameter: when the distance to the target is much less than the host skin depth, a transmitter pointing towards the resistive cylinder will produce a stronger signal than a transmitter oriented azimuthally with respect to the cylinder surface. The opposite situation is observed when the distance to the target is greater than the host skin depth.

  3. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022''. However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission?s preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  4. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022". However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission's preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  5. Large deflection analysis of skew plates under uniformly distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    load-deflection plane to show the effect of skew angle, aspect ratio and boundary condition. ... by edge 1, 2, 3 and 4 on the plate boundaries in Figures 1(a)-1(d). ... one-dimensional coordinate functions along normalized coordinate are shown ...

  6. An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the re

  7. Deflection routing scheme for GMPLS-based OBS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Arafat; Mahmood, Waqar; Alomar, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    is not applicable in such an integrated solution. This is due to the existence of already established Label Switched Paths (LSPs) between edge nodes in a GMPLS-based OBS network which guide the Data Burst Headers (DBHs) through the network. In this paper we propose a novel deflection routing scheme which can...

  8. Towards a mechanistic analysis of Benkelman beam deflection measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.F.H.M.; Priambodo Koesrindartono, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces and describes the Benkelman beam deflection test. Furthermore Benkelman beam tests are simulated using two multi-layer programs, based on an elastic and visco-elastic material model for asphalt. The results of these two programs are compared with each other. Finally, using the

  9. Cantilever deflection measurement and actuation by an nterdigitated transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strambini, E.; Piazza, V.; Pingue, P.; Biasiol, G.; Sorba, L.; Beltram, F.

    2010-01-01

    A scheme that allows all-electrical high-bandwidth readout of a cantilever deflection by means of an integrated interdigitated transducer is presented. The present approach takes advantage of the piezoelectricity of the chosen cantilever substrate material to generate and detect surface-acoustic-wav

  10. Electro-optical approach to pavement deflection management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rish, Jeff W., III; Adcock, Avery D.; Tuan, Christopher Y.; Baker, Samuel L.; Welker, Hugh W., II; Johnson, Roger F.

    1995-07-01

    A prototype continuous deflection device, referred to as a rolling weight deflectometer (RWD), has been developed as a nondestructive evaluation tool for airfield pavements. The system consists of a rigid trailer equipped with specially designed optical triangulation pavement sensors, a high-speed data acquisition system, and a high-pressure tire/load platform assembly. Pavement sensors are mounted on a rigid box beam equipped with an internal sensor system that corrects, in real time, the relative pavement height position measurements for displacements induced in the beam by mechanical vibrations, changes in temperature, or nonuniform dynamic loads at points where the beam attaches to the frame. The device produces continuous deflection profiles that show pavement response to a moving loaded wheel along the path of travel. These deflection profiles, combined with multiple passes along a lane, provide a far more detailed picture of the pavement structural integrity than has ever before been possible, because existing evaluation tools only produce response information at discrete points. Preliminary results show deflections measured by the RWD are in general agreement with the expected pavement response for various loads. A discussion of the device configuration, preliminary data, and potential as a pavement management tool is presented.

  11. Observation of Beam-beam Deflections with LHC Orbit Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kozanecki, W; Wenninger, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHC luminosity is calibrated in dedicated fills with van der Meer scans (vdM) of the beams that are performed repeatedly in both planes. During vdM scans the relative separation of the two LHC beams is scanned in a range of ±6 sigma , where sigma is the single beam size, probing the beam-beam deflection over a relatively large range. Orbit data logged parasitically during those scans were analysed and the beam-beam deflections at the IP being scanned could be reconstructed from orbit fits in the LHC arcs surrounding the IP. Despite the small size of the kicks (≤ 1μrad) the coherent beam-beam deflections are clearly resolved. The beam parameters that are extracted from the fit to the beam-beam deflection data were compared to luminosity data fits and they were found to be in good agreement. The closed orbit shift due to the beam-beam kick is also clearly observed in the beam position interpolation at the collision point.

  12. Assessment of fatigue crack length via plastic deformation in compact tension specimens using magnetic Barkhausen noise; Evaluacion de la longitud de grietas por fatiga mediante la deformacion plastica en muestras compactas de traccion empleando el ruido magnetico de Barkhausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Rodriguez, F. de los; Diego-Velasco, G. de; Capo-Sanchez, J.; Franco-Fidalgo, E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the influence of different parameters on crack length is determined via plastic deformation using magnetic Barkhausen noise; the compact specimens steel used in this study were 12Cr1MoV and 11Cr1Mo, which are used for steam transportation on power plants. The main objective of this paper is to determine the crack length and its incubation time using magnetic Barkhausen noise, which lets to improve the pre-cracking process prior creep crack growth rate test simulating the real conditions of high pressure and temperature of main steam lines. Results showed that mean root square and maximum pick of voltage decrease with plastic deformation for each steel analyzed in this work, on the other hand, with the increasing of plastic deformation, a logic relationship between plastic deformation and spectrum density is observed for mid frequencies values, as well as, a variation of the amplitude, width and shape of the Barkhausen signal envelope. (Author)

  13. Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Orthotropic Membranes in Large Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhou-Lian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the research on the vibration of orthotropic membrane, which commonly applied in the membrane structural engineering. We applied the large deflection theory of membrane to derive the governing vibration equations of orthotropic membrane, solved it, and obtained the power series formula of nonlinear vibration frequency of rectangular membrane with four edges fixed. The paper gave the computational example and compared the two results from the large deflection theory and the small one, respectively. Results obtained from this paper provide some theoretical foundation for the measurement of pretension by frequency method; meanwhile, the results provide some theoretical foundation for the research of nonlinear vibration of membrane structures and the response solving of membrane structures under dynamic loads.

  14. Estimation of the deflection of the vertical using gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoussakis, Gerassimos; Korakitis, Romylos; Milas, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    We present a method to estimate the deflection of the vertical at a point P on the Earth's physical surface by forming a small network of three points around point P, with known geodetic coordinates (φ, λ, h) and by obtaining gravity measurements at all points. In the first step, the gravity values are used to form the Eötvös matrix of the actual gravity potential W at point P. In the second step, the gravity differences and the components of the Eötvös matrix are used to form a linear system of three algebraic equations with three unknowns, which are the first order partial derivatives of the actual potential W. The solution of the system enables us to determine the components ξ and η of the deflection of the vertical at the chosen point P. Finally, we present a numerical simulation, using several points scattered on a wide area of the Earth's surface.

  15. Deflection of Rotating Symmetric Molecules by Inhomogeneous Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gershnabel, Erez

    2011-01-01

    We consider deflection of rotating symmetric molecules by inhomogeneous optical and static electric fields, compare results with the case of linear molecules, and find new singularities in the distribution of the scattering angle. Scattering of the prolate/oblate molecules is analyzed in detail, and it is shown that the process can be efficiently controlled by means of short and strong femtosecond laser pulses. In particular, the angular dispersion of the deflected molecules may be dramatically reduced by laser-induced molecular pre-alignment. We first study the problem by using a simple classical model, and then find similar results by means of more sophisticated methods, including the formalism of adiabatic invariants and direct numerical simulation of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. The suggested control scheme opens new ways for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping by optical and static fields.

  16. Measurement of Large Forces and Deflections in Microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Hals, Kai Axel; Chen, Xuyuan

    2008-01-01

    Properties of typical MEMS materials have been widely investigated. Mechanical properties of MEMS structures depend not only on the bulk material properties, but also structural factors. A measurement system has been made to measure force/deflection on microstructures to examine some of the structural properties. This is a stylus setup integrated with a load cell and a linear actuator. First, the requirements for the measurement system were established. Then the system was built up and characterized. We have successfully made measurements on a typical micromechanical structure, a cantilever accelerometer design. The stylus placement accuracy, the spring constant along the proof mass, analysis of the force/deflection curve shape and destructive tests on the cantilever have been investigated in our experiment and will be presented in this paper.

  17. Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)

  18. SUPERCONDUCTING RF-DIPOLE DEFLECTING AND CRABBING CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, Jean [ODU, JLAB; De Silva, Paygalage Subashini [ODU, JLAB

    2013-09-01

    Recent interests in designing compact deflecting and crabbing structures for future accelerators and colliders have initiated the development of novel rf structures. The superconducting rf-dipole cavity is one of the first compact designs with attractive properties such as higher gradients, higher shunt impedance, the absence of lower order modes and widely separated higher order modes. Two rf-dipole designs of 400 MHz and 499 MHz have been designed, fabricated and tested as proof-of-principle designs of compact deflecting and crabbing cavities for the LHC high luminosity upgrade and Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade. The first rf tests have been performed on the rf-dipole geometries at 4.2 K and 2.0 K in a vertical test assembly with excellent results. The cavities have achieved high gradients with high intrinsic quality factors, and multipacting levels were easily processed.

  19. Prediction of Double Layer Grids' Maximum Deflection Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza K. Moghadas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient neural networks models are trained to predict the maximum deflection of two-way on two-way grids with variable geometrical parameters (span and height as well as cross-sectional areas of the element groups. Backpropagation (BP and Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks are employed for the mentioned purpose. The inputs of the neural networks are the length of the spans, L, the height, h and cross-sectional areas of the all groups, A and the outputs are maximum deflections of the corresponding double layer grids, respectively. The numerical results indicate that the RBF neural network is better than BP in terms of training time and performance generality.

  20. Effect of layer length on deflection in sandwich beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbu, Muthanna A.; AL-Ameri, Riyadh

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on sandwich beams strengthened mechanically by two external steel plates attached to their tension and compression sides with so-called "shear connectors ". This study is based on the individual behaviour of each component of the composite sandwich section (i.e. reinforced concrete beam and upper steel plate and lower steel plate). The approach has been developed to simulate the behaviour of such beams, and is based on neglecting the separation between the three layers; i.e., the deflections are equal in each element through the same section. The differential equations reached were solved analytically. Deflection was calculated by using the approach for several beams, tested in two series, and close agreements were obtained with the experimental values. Furthermore, the interaction efficiency between the three elements in a composite sandwich beam has been considered thoroughly, from which the effect of some parameters, such as plate length upon the behaviour of such beams, were studied.

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  2. Galvanometer deflection: a precision high-speed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, D P; Raamot, J

    1976-06-01

    An X-Y galvanometer deflection system capable of high precision in a random access mode of operation is described. Beam positional information in digitized form is obtained by employing a Ronchi grating with a sophisticated optical detection scheme. This information is used in a control interface to locate the beam to the required precision. The system is characterized by high accuracy at maximum speed and is designed for operation in a variable environment, with particular attention placed on thermal insensitivity.

  3. Stiffness and Angular Deflection analysis of Revolute Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pundru Srinivasa Rao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed to determine the Cartesian stiffness matrix and angular deflection analysis of revolute manipulator. The selected manipulator has rigid fixed link, two movable links and two rotary joints with joint stiffness coefficients are taken into account. The kinematic model of revolute joint manipulator has considered as a planar kinematic chain, which is composed by rigid fixed link and two revolute joints with clearance and deformable elements. The calculation of stiffness matrix depends on Jacobian matrix and change of configuration. The rotational joints are modeled as torsion springs with the same stiffness constant. The relative angular deflections are proportional to the actuated torques taken into account. The subject of this paper has to describe a method for stiffness analysis of serial manipulator. In the present work is to derive the stiffness matrix and angular deflection equations in the Robotic manipulator under the consideration of two-link optimum geometry model for rotary joint manipulator. The stiffness values are measured by displacements of its revolute links loaded by force.

  4. Kidnapping small icy asteroids in Earth near encounter to harbour life and to deflect trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The inter-planetary flight for human being is under danger because of unscreened and lethal solar flare radioactive showers. The screening of the astronauts by huge superconducting magnetic fields is unrealistic by many reasons. On the contrary the ability to reach nearby icy asteroids, to harbour there a complete undergound room where ecological life systems are first set, this goal may offer a later natural and safe currier for future human stations and enterprise. The need to deflect such a small size (a few thousands tons objects) maybe achieved by micro nuclear engines able to dig the asteroid icy skin, to heat and propel the soil by a synchronous jet engine array, bending and driving it to any desired trajectories. The need for such a wide collection of icy asteroid stations, often in a robotic ibernated state, it will offer the safe help station, raft in the wide space sea, where to collect material or energy in long human planetary travels.

  5. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Clean Air Act Overview Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Clean Air Act Title IV - ... noises in the community (from your neighbor, boom cars, lawn equipment, etc.) and from commercial businesses (factory, ...

  6. Comparison Between Two Solutions Based on the Relationship of Load-deflection Character of a Large Deflection Rubber Circular Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段浩; 胡宗武; 杨赪石; 黎佑铭

    2003-01-01

    The rubber circular plate is considered as a kind of membrane. Based on the character that there existsno bending-moment inside a membrane, the geometric behavior of the rubber circular plate in expanding state wasdescribed with the aid of a group of mathematic method. The relationship between deflection and load was attainedby means of calculating stress and strain inside the curved-surface of rubber plate. Meantime, based on Henckymethod, the relationship between deflection and load was attained and considered as the Hencky solution. The dif-ferent results given rise by the two different resolving methods were compared. The deviation results from theHencky method was discussed, and a kind of correcting method was put forward.

  7. Deflection unit for multi-beam mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzkus, Florian; Butschke, Joerg; Irmscher, Mathias; Jurisch, Michael; Klingler, Wolfram; Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans; Springer, Reinhard

    2008-10-01

    Two main challenges of future mask making are the decreasing throughput of the pattern generators and the insufficient line edge roughness of the resist structures. The increasing design complexity with smaller feature sizes combined with additional pattern elements of the Optical Proximity Correction generates huge data volumes which reduce correspondingly the throughput of conventional single e-beam pattern generators. On the other hand the achievable line edge roughness when using sensitive chemically amplified resists does not fulfill the future requirements. The application of less sensitive resists may provide an improved roughness, however on account of throughput, as well. To overcome this challenge a proton multi-beam pattern generator is developed [1]. Starting with a highly parallel broad beam, an aperture-plate is used to generate thousands of separate spot beams. These beams pass through a blanking-plate unit, based on a CMOS device for de-multiplexing the writing data and equipped with electrodes placed around the apertures switching the beams "on" or "off", dependent on the desired pattern. The beam array is demagnified by a 200x reduction optics and the exposure of the entire substrate is done by a continuous moving stage. One major challenge is the fabrication of the required high aspect deflection electrodes and their connection to the CMOS device. One approach is to combine a post-processed CMOS chip with a MEMS component containing the deflection electrodes and to realize the electrical connection of both by vertical integration techniques. For the evaluation and assessment of this considered scheme and fabrication technique, a proof-of-concept deflection unit has been realized and tested. Our design is based on the generation of the deflection electrodes in a silicon membrane by etching trenches and oxide filling afterwards. In a 5mm x 5mm area 43,000 apertures with the corresponding electrodes have been structured and wired individually or in

  8. A partial differential equation-based general framework adapted to Rayleigh′s, Rician′s and Gaussian′s distributed noise for restoration and enhancement of magnetic resonance image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bharos Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed framework is obtained by casting the noise removal problem into a variational framework. This framework automatically identifies the various types of noise present in the magnetic resonance image and filters them by choosing an appropriate filter. This filter includes two terms: the first term is a data likelihood term and the second term is a prior function. The first term is obtained by minimizing the negative log likelihood of the corresponding probability density functions: Gaussian or Rayleigh or Rician. Further, due to the ill-posedness of the likelihood term, a prior function is needed. This paper examines three partial differential equation based priors which include total variation based prior, anisotropic diffusion based prior, and a complex diffusion (CD based prior. A regularization parameter is used to balance the trade-off between data fidelity term and prior. The finite difference scheme is used for discretization of the proposed method. The performance analysis and comparative study of the proposed method with other standard methods is presented for brain web dataset at varying noise levels in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, structure similarity index map, and correlation parameter. From the simulation results, it is observed that the proposed framework with CD based prior is performing better in comparison to other priors in consideration.

  9. On aerodynamic noise generation from vortex shedding in rotating blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B. T.; Bies, D. A.

    1992-06-01

    The interaction of the shed wakes of plates in a cascade with each following plate is investigated in a water tunnel and shown to provide an explanation for an observed very powerful aerodynamic noise source. In particular, the noise generation of an idling circular saw may be explained as due to the interaction of the wake shed by an upstream tooth with the leading edge of the following downstream tooth. When a vortex travelling downstream in the gullet between teeth encounters the leading edge of the downstream tooth it is deflected out of the gullet into the main stream. The associated impulses which the teeth encounter give rise to the radiated noise.

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  15. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  16. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  17. Deflection by kinetic impact: Sensitivity to asteroid properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck Syal, Megan; Michael Owen, J.; Miller, Paul L.

    2016-05-01

    Impacting an asteroid with a spacecraft traveling at high speed delivers an impulsive change in velocity to the body. In certain circumstances, this strategy could be used to deflect a hazardous asteroid, moving its orbital path off of an Earth-impacting course. However, the efficacy of momentum delivery to asteroids by hypervelocity impact is sensitive to both the impact conditions (particularly velocity) and specific characteristics of the target asteroid. Here we numerically model asteroid response to kinetic impactors under a wide range of initial conditions, using an Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. Impact velocities spanning 1-30 km/s were investigated, yielding, for a particular set of assumptions about the modeled target material, a power-law dependence consistent with a velocity-scaling exponent of μ = 0.44. Target characteristics including equation of state, strength model, porosity, rotational state, and shape were varied, and corresponding changes in asteroid response were documented. The kinetic-impact momentum-multiplication factor, β, decreases with increasing asteroid cohesion and increasing porosity. Although increased porosity lowers β, larger porosities result in greater deflection velocities, as a consequence of reduced target masses for asteroids of fixed size. Porosity also lowers disruption risk for kinetic impacts near the threshold of disruption. Including fast (P = 2.5 h) and very fast (P = 100 s) rotation did not significantly alter β but did affect the risk of disruption by the impact event. Asteroid shape is found to influence the efficiency of momentum delivery, as local slope conditions can change the orientation of the crater ejecta momentum vector. These results emphasize the need for asteroid characterization studies to bracket the range of target conditions expected at near-Earth asteroids while also highlighting some of the principal uncertainties associated with the kinetic-impact deflection strategy.

  18. The 2017 Eclipse: Centenary of the Einstein Light Deflection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennefick, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    August 21st, 2017 will see a total eclipse of the Sun visible in many parts of the United States. Coincidentally this date marks the centenary of the first observational attempt to test Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by measuring gravitational deflection of light by the Sun. This was attempted by the Kodaikanal Observatory in India during the conjunction of Regulus with the Sun in daylight on August 21st, 1917. The observation was attempted at the urging of the amateur German-British astronomer A. F. Lindemann, with his son, F. A. Lindemann, a well-known physicist, who later played a significant role as Churchill's science advisor during World War II. A century later Regulus will once again be in conjunction with the Sun, but by a remarkable coincidence, this will occur during a solar eclipse! Efforts will be made to measure the star deflection during the eclipse and the experiment is contrasted with the famous expeditions of 1919 which were the first to actually measure the light deflection, since the 1917 effort did not meet with success. Although in recent decades there have been efforts made to suggest that the 1919 eclipse team, led by Arthur Stanley Eddington and Sir Frank Watson Dyson, over-interpreted their results in favor of Einstein this talk will argue that such claims are wrong-headed. A close study of their data analysis reveals that they had good grounds for the decisions they made and this conclusion is reinforced by comparison with a modern re-analysis of the plates by the Greenwich Observatory conducted in 1977.

  19. Spin Rate and Deflection Ratio of a Ping Pong Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Joon Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a spherical object’s spin rate on the curvature of its flight, Ping Pong balls, of varying spin rates, were hit horizontally and recorded from above with a high-speed camera. It was shown that there was a proportional relationship between the ball’s spin rate and deflection ratio. Additionally, using the results of the analyzed data, a coefficient of skin friction of the Ping Pong ball was found to be approximately 0.2 under the specific conditions of this investigation.

  20. Online Estimation of wind turbine blade deflection with UWB signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jakobsen, Morten Lomholt; Østergaard, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use ultra-wideband (UWB) signals for the localization of blade tips on wind turbines. Our approach is to acquire two separate distances to each tip via time-delay estimation, and each tip is then localized by triangulation. We derive an approximate maximum a posteriori (MAP) delay...... estimator exploiting i) contextual prior information and ii) a direct-path approximation. The resulting deflection estimation algorithm is computationally feasible for online usage. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the overall triangulation uncertainty and it is observed that negative correlation...

  1. Direct measurement of Vorticella contraction force by micropipette deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Danielle; Tejada, Jonathan; Matsudaira, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The ciliated protozoan Vorticella convallaria is noted for its exceptionally fast adenosine triphosphate-independent cellular contraction, but direct measurements of contractile force have proven difficult given the length scale, speed, and forces involved. We used high-speed video microscopy to image live Vorticella stalled in midcontraction by deflection of an attached micropipette. Stall forces correlate with both distance contracted and the resting stalk length. Estimated isometric forces range from 95 to 177 nanonewtons (nN), or 1.12 nN·μm(-1) of the stalk. Maximum velocity and work are also proportional to distance contracted. These parameters constrain proposed biochemical/physical models of the contractile mechanism.

  2. Angular Dispersion and Deflection Function for Heavy Ion Elastic Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zhen; MAO Rui-Shi; YUAN Xiao-Hua; Xu Zhi-Guo; ZHANG Hong-Bin; XU Hua-Gen; QI Hui-Rong; WANG Yue; JIA Fei; WU Li-Jie; DING Xian-Li; WANG Qi; GAO Qi; GAO Hui; LI Song-Lin; LI Jun-Qing; ZHANG Ya-Peng; XIAO Guo-Qing; JIN Gen-Ming; REN Zhong-Zhou; ZHOU Shan-Gui; XU Wang; HAN Jian-Long; Fan Gong-Tao; ZHANG Shuang-Quan; PANG Dan-Yang; SERGEY Yu-Kun; XIAO Zhi-Gang; XU Hu-Shan; SUN Zhi-Yu; HU Zheng-Guo; ZHANG Xue-Ying; WANG Hong-Wei

    2007-01-01

    The differential cross sections for elastic scattering products of17 F on 208 Pb have been measured.The angular dispersion plots of In(dσ/dθ)versus θ2 are obtained from the angular distribution of the elastic scattering differential cross sections.Systematical analysis on the angular dispersion for the available experimental data indicates that there is an angular dispersion turning angle at forward angular range within the grazing angle.This turning angle can be clarified as nuclear rainbow in classical deflection function.The exotic behaviour of the nuclear rainbow angle offers a new probe to investigate the halo and skin phenomena.

  3. The Deflection of Charged Particles in an Electric Dodecapole Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, D. G.; Chalut, K.; Thompson, J. S.; Kvale, T. J.

    1997-10-10

    The properties of an ion-optical device consisting of twelve long parallel rods placed equidistantly on a circle are briefly reviewed. The use of this device in its dodecapole configuration to deflect ions in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the dodecapole is discussed. Results of trajectory computations made with the SIMION ion-optics computer program demonstrate that the device works remarkably well in separating the constituents of a multiply-charged ion beam. The use of this device to merge an ion beam with an optical beam is proposed.

  4. Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing System Based on UWB Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2016-01-01

    by triangulation. An experimental setup with corner reflector antenna mounted at the tip and horn antennas at the root of a 37.3 m long blade is described. Analyzing the data from the experiment, special attention is given to the propagation aspects of the UWB links, with focus on the multipath effects caused...... by the blade. It is demonstrated that despite the adverse effects of the multipath propagation the ranging accuracy of the system amounts to 1.5 cm, leading to maximum error of deflection 4.5 %....

  5. Observation of Femtosecond Bunch Length Using a Transverse Deflecting Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huning, M.; Bolzmann, A.; Schlarb, H.; /DESY; Frisch, J.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Smith, T.; /SLAC; Rossbach, J.; /Hamburg U.

    2005-12-14

    The design of the VUV-FEL at DESY demands bunch lengths in the order of 50 fs and below. For the diagnostic of such very short bunches a transverse deflecting RF structure (LOLA) has been installed which streaks the beam according to the longitudinal distribution. Tests in the VUV-FEL yielded a rich substructure of the bunches. The most pronounced peak in the has a rms length of approximately 50 fs during FEL operation and below 20 fs FWHM at maximum compression. Depending on the transverse focusing a resolution well below 50 fs was achieved.

  6. MAGNETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  7. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcı, Özgür [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - İvedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Dede, Münir [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - İvedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Oral, Ahmet, E-mail: orahmet@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-10-01

    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ~12 fm/√Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  8. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  9. Implementation of Radio-Frequency Deflecting Devices for Comprehensive High-Energy Electron Beam Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craievich, Paolo; Petronio, Marco; Biedron, Sandra G.; Castronovo, Davide; Dal Forno, Massimo; Di Mitri, Simone; Faure, Nicolas; La Civita, Daniele; Penco, Giuseppe; Rumiz, Luca; Sturari, Luca; Vescovo, Roberto; Wang, Defa

    2015-02-01

    In next-generation light sources, high-brightness electron beams are used in a free-electron laser configuration to produce light for use by scientists and engineers in numerous fields of research. High-brightness beams are described for such light sources as having low transverse and longitudinal emittances, high peak currents, and low slice emittance and energy spread. The optimal generation and preservation of such high-brightness electron beams during the acceleration process and propagation to and through the photon-producing element is imperative to the quality and performance of the light source. To understand the electron beam's phase space in the accelerating section of a next-generation light source machine, we employed radio-frequency cavities operating in a deflecting mode in conjunction with a magnetic spectrometer and imaging system for both low (250 MeV) and high (1.2 GeV) electron energies. This high-resolution, high-energy system is an essential diagnostic for the optimization and control of the electron beam in the FERMI light source generating fully transversely and longitudinally coherent light in the VUV to soft x-ray wavelength regimes. This device is located at the end of the linear accelerator in order to provide the longitudinal phase space nearest to the entrance of the photon-producing beam-lines. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, characterization, commissioning, and operational implementation of this transverse deflecting cavity structure diagnostic system for the high-energy (1.2 GeV) regime.

  10. Large deflection of flexible tapered functionally graded beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Davoodinik; G.H.Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the semi-analytical analyses of the flexible cantilever tapered functionally graded beam under combined inclined end loading and intermediate loading are studied.In order to derive the fully non-linear equations governing the non-linear deformation,a curvilinear coordinate system is introduced.A general non-linear second order differential equation that governs the shape of a deflected beam is derived based on the geometric nonlinearities,infinitesimal local displacements and local rotation concepts with remarkable physical properties of functionally graded materials.The solutions obtained from semi-analytical methods are numerically compared with the existing elliptic integral solution for the case of a flexible uniform cantilever functionally graded beam.The effects of taper ratio,inclined end load angle and material property gradient on large deflection of the beam are evaluated.The Adomian decomposition method will be useful toward the design of tapered functionally graded compliant mechanisms driven by smart actuators.

  11. Design and Field Test of a Galvanometer Deflected Streak Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C C; Goosman, D R; Wade, J T; Avara, R

    2002-11-08

    We have developed a compact fieldable optically-deflected streak camera first reported in the 20th HSPP Congress. Using a triggerable galvanometer that scans the optical signal, the imaging and streaking function is an all-optical process without incurring any photon-electron-photon conversion or photoelectronic deflection. As such, the achievable imaging quality is limited mainly only by optical design, rather than by multiple conversions of signal carrier and high voltage electron-optics effect. All core elements of the camera are packaged into a 12 inch x 24 inch footprint box, a size similar to that of a conventional electronic streak camera. At LLNL's Site-300 Test Site, we have conducted a Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of fast object velocity using this all-optical camera side-by-side with an intensified electronic streak camera. These two cameras are configured as two independent instruments for recording synchronously each branch of the 50/50 splits from one incoming signal. Given the same signal characteristics, the test result has undisputedly demonstrated superior imaging performance for the all-optical streak camera. It produces higher signal sensitivity, wider linear dynamic range, better spatial contrast, finer temporal resolution, and larger data capacity as compared with that of the electronic counterpart. The camera had also demonstrated its structural robustness and functional consistence to be well compatible with field environment. This paper presents the camera design and the test results in both pictorial records and post-process graphic summaries.

  12. System for deflection measurements of floating dry docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a system for deflection measurement of floating dry docks. The system contains two measurement channels observing opposite directions of the dock. It also includes set of reference marks, an industrial computer and a display. Each channel contains CMOS camera with long focal-length lens. Reference marks are implemented as IR LED arrays with 940 nm working wavelength for better performance within bad weather conditions (e.g. fog, rain, high humidity etc.). In the paper we demonstrate results of an analysis of different optical schemes for coupling the oppositely directed channels of the measurement unit and show that the scheme with two image sensors with separated lenses is an optimal option, because it allows usage of nonequidistant location of reference marks and demonstrates the least value of parasitic shift caused by rotations of the measuring unit. The developed system was tested both on specially-designed setup and in real infrastructure of a floating dry dock. The conducted tests proved that a measuring error of the system is smaller than +/- 1.5 mm within the measurement range of +/- 150 mm when deflection of 100 m dock is measured. Obtained results showed that the system demonstrates an ability to work in a harsh environment including poor weather conditions.

  13. Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.

  14. Ex / Noise / CERN / Deerhoof

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, SM18,

    2015-01-01

    Indie rockers Deerhoof battled with the noise of CERN’s magnet test facilities on 30 August 2015. The band visited CERN at the invitation of ATLAS physicist James Beacham, whose pilot project Ex/Noise/CERN collides experimental music artists with experimental particle physics. Credits: -Producer- CERN Video Productions James Beacham François Briard -Director- Noemi Caraban -Camera- Yann Krajewski Piotr Traczyk Noemi Caraban -Crane operator- Antonio Henrique Jorge-Costa -Live recording at CERN- Mixing at Rec studio/Geneva By Serge Morattel -Infography- Daniel Dominguez Noemi Caraban -Deerhoof- John Dieterich Satomi Matsuzaki Ed Rodriguez Greg Saunier w/Deron Pulley SPECIAL THANKS TO: Michal Strychalski Marta Bajko Maryline Charrondiere Luca Bottura Christian Giloux Rodrigue Faes Mariane Catallon Georgina Hobgen Hailey Reissman Marine Bass

  15. Noise source recognition of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on order analysis%基于阶次分析的永磁同步电机噪声源识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林福; 左曙光; 吴旭东; 吴双龙; 毛钰

    2016-01-01

    为了识别出永磁同步电机的噪声来源,该文对常见的机械噪声和不同影响因素下的电磁噪声特点进行研究。首先分析了滚动轴承产生的噪声阶次特征,识别出了滚珠内外圈通过频率对应的分数阶噪声。其次通过麦克斯韦应力张量法推导了理想条件下作用于定子内表面的径向力波的频率阶次,结合实测电流谐波分析了不同电流谐波类型下的径向力波特征,通过引入偏心修正系数分析了转子动态偏心对径向力波的影响,从而识别出了不同影响因素下的电磁噪声源。并且建立了永磁同步电机的有限元模型,通过模态试验对定子铁芯和绕组的等效进行验证,由电机约束模态分析获取了电机在实际安装条件下的模态参数,对实测的共振噪声来源进行解释。最后分析了各影响因素产生的噪声对总体噪声的贡献量,指出电机的主要噪声源。该研究可以识别出永磁同步电机的每一阶次噪声和共振噪声的来源,为进一步的减振降噪奠定基础。%The noise source of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) was identified in this paper. Firstly, the noise signal in the acceleration process was tested and the short time Fourier transform (STFT) was used to perform the time-frequency analysis. Main noise characteristics including frequency order and resonance region were obtained. Then, the order feature of rolling bearing was studied and the fractional order noise produced by ball pass frequency was recognized. Based on the Maxwell stress tensor method, the frequency order of radial electromagnetic force acting on the teeth surface was derived. The characteristics of the ideal radial force under sinusoidal current with no rotor eccentricity were derived. The influence of current harmonics on the radial force was discussed. Current in the acceleration process was monitored and STFT was used to analyze the type of current

  16. Determination of the Critical Value of Deflection for Embedded Cylindrical Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-qi; CHEN Bin; WANG Hai-yan

    2005-01-01

    An embedded cylinder is a large-diameter cylinder embedded in a soil foundation. The state of failure of such an embedded cylindrical structure shows large deflection instead of slide and overturn of the traditional gravity type of structure placed on a rubble base or foundation base. The critical value of deflection of the embedded cylindrical structure, which is the maximum allowable deflection for stability calculation of the cylinder, is a vital control value. Through investigation on deflection and soil pressures on an embedded cylinder by model experiments, the variations of the angle of rotation θ of a cylinder with effective anti-overturning ratio η and moment MH of thrust are discussed. On the basis of experimental study, the critical value of deflection of the cylindrical structure is proposed in the paper. Meanwhile, the formulas for calculating deflection of cylinders are derived.

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  1. Steady-state sinusoidal thermal characterization at chip level by internal infrared-laser deflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perpina, Xavier; Jorda, Xavier; Vellvehi, Miquel [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Altet, Josep [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Mestres, NarcIs [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-08-07

    A new approach is reported for thermally characterizing microelectronic devices and integrated circuits under a steady-state sinusoidal regime by internal infrared-laser deflection (IIR-LD). It consists of extracting the amplitude and phase Bode plots of the temperature profile inside the chip (depth-resolved measurements in the frequency domain). As a consequence, not only are the IIR-LD performances significantly improved (accuracy, robustness to noise, control of boundary conditions and heat flux confinement) but also the direct temperature measurement is feasible when thin regions are inspected and thermal parameters can be easily extracted (thermal diffusivity). In order to show the efficiency of this technique, a thermal test chip (TTC) is used. The TTC is thermally excited by imposing a cosine-like voltage waveform. As a result, a vertical temperature profile inside the die is obtained depending on the heating frequency. Repeating this procedure at several frequencies, the frequency response of the chip internal temperature profile is derived. By comparing the experimental results with the model predictions, good agreement is achieved. This technique allows evaluation of the thermal behaviour at the chip level; also it could be useful for failure analysis.

  2. Exploring the Spatial Resolution of the Photothermal Beam Deflection Technique in the Infrared Region

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    In photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy (PTBD) generating and detection of thermal waves occur generally in the sub-millimeter length scale. Therefore, PTBD provides spatial information about the surface of the sample and permits imaging and/or microspectrometry. Recent results of PTBD experiments are presented with a high spatial resolution which is near the diffraction limit of the infrared pump beam (CLIO-FEL). We investigated germanium substrates showing restricted O+-doped regions with an infrared absorption line at a wavelength around 11.6 microns. The spatial resolution was obtained by strongly focusing the probe beam (i.e. a HeNe laser) on a sufficiently small spot. The strong divergence makes it necessary to refocus the probe beam in front of the position detector. The influence of the focusing elements on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio is discussed. In future studies we expect an enhanced spatial resolution due to an extreme focusing of the probe beam leading to a highly sensitive...

  3. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher M. Maswadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic (OA microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separation of the optical and acoustic paths, (iii high sensitivity and (iv ultrawide bandwidth. Because of the unimpeded optical path in PBDT, diffraction-limited lateral resolution can be readily achieved. The sensitivity of the current PBDT sensor of 22 μV/Pa and its noise equivalent pressure (NEP of 11.4 Pa are comparable with these parameters of the optical micro-ring resonator and commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. Benefits of the present prototype OA microscope were demonstrated by successfully resolving micron-size details in histological sections of cardiac muscle.

  4. Spin-noise correlations and spin-noise exchange driven by low-field spin-exchange collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellis, A. T.; Loulakis, M.; Kominis, I. K.

    2014-09-01

    The physics of spin-exchange collisions have fueled several discoveries in fundamental physics and numerous applications in medical imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance. We report on the experimental observation and theoretical justification of spin-noise exchange, the transfer of spin noise from one atomic species to another. The signature of spin-noise exchange is an increase of the total spin-noise power at low magnetic fields, on the order of 1 mG, where the two-species spin-noise resonances overlap. The underlying physical mechanism is the two-species spin-noise correlation induced by spin-exchange collisions.

  5. Investigation of the phase space distribution of electron bunches at the FLASH-linac using a transverse deflecting structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrs, M.

    2008-06-15

    The operation of a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) puts stringent demands on the peak current, transverse emittance and energy spread of the electron beam. At the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) has been installed to investigate these electron beam parameters. The radio-frequency electromagnetic field in the TDS is utilized to deflect the beam electrons vertically as a function of time so that the charge distribution in the longitudinal-horizontal plane can be imaged with optical transition radiation screens. Using this technique, the single-bunch current profile was measured with an unprecedented resolution of about 10 {mu}m (30 fs) under FEL operating conditions. A precise single-shot measurement of the energy distribution along a bunch was accomplished by using the TDS in combination with an energy spectrometer. Appropriate variations of the focal strengths of quadrupole magnets allowed for the measurement of the horizontal emittance as a function of the longitudinal position within a bunch (slice emittance) with a longitudinal resolution in the order of 10 {mu}m. While the slice emittance in the peak current region was measured to be significantly larger than deduced from properties of the FEL radiation, tomographic methods revealed a bunch region of small horizontal emittance and high current. The observed increase in slice emittance in the peak current region was found to be caused by coherent emission of synchrotron radiation within bending magnets. (orig.)

  6. Deflection routing in slotted self-routing networks with arbitrary topology

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A deflection routing algorithm that can be applied to a novel self-routing address scheme for networks with arbitrary topology is proposed. The proposed deflection routing algorithm can be implemented all-optically using bitwise optical logic gates. Besides the primary output link selection, alternate output link choices by a packet at each node in case of deflection are also encoded in the address header. Priority classes can also be defined in the proposed address scheme. The performance of...

  7. Mission Analysis For the Ion Beam Deflection of Fictitious Asteroid 2015PDC

    CERN Document Server

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Cano, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    A realistic mission scenario for the deflection of fictitious asteroid 2015PDC is investigated that makes use of the ion beam shepherd concept as primary deflection technique. The article deals with the design of a low thrust rendezvous trajectory to the asteroid, the estimation of the propagated covariance ellipsoid and the outcome of a slow-push deflection starting from three worst case scenarios (impacts in New Delhi, Dhaka and Teheran). Displacing the impact point towards very low populated areas, as opposed to full deflection, is found to be the simplest and most effective mitigation approach. Mission design, technical and political aspects are discussed.

  8. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...... is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics...

  9. BRIEF REPORT: Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, C. A. de S.

    2004-12-01

    In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be undoubted evidence of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive a general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field.

  10. Quantum Effects on the Deflection of Light and the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we apply the Gauss--Bonnet theorem to calculate the deflection angle by a quantum corrected Schwarzschild black hole in the weak limit approximation. In particular, we calculate the light deflection by two types of quantum corrected black holes: the renormalization group improved Schwarzschild solution and the quantum corrected Schwarzschild solution in Bohmian quantum mechanics. We start from the corresponding optical metrics to use then the Gauss--Bonnet theorem and calculate the Gaussian curvature in both cases. Finally, we calculate the leading terms of the deflection angle and show that quantum corrections modifies the deflection angle in both solutions.

  11. Orthogonally interdigitated shielded serpentine travelling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward C.; Hudson, Charles L.

    1995-01-01

    A new deflection structure (12) which deflects a beam of charged particles, uch as an electron beam (15), includes a serpentine set (20) for transmitting a deflection field, and a shielding frame (25) for housing the serpentine set (20). The serpentine set (20) includes a vertical serpentine deflection element (22) and a horizontal serpentine deflection element (24). These deflection elements (22, 24) are identical, and are interdigitatedly and orthogonally disposed relative to each other, for forming a central transmission passage (75), through which the electron beam (15) passes, and is deflected by the deflection field, so as to minimize drift space signal distortion. The shielding frame (25) includes a plurality of ground blocks (26, 28, 30, 32), and forms an internal serpentine trough (77) within these ground blocks, for housing the serpentine set (20). The deflection structure (12) further includes a plurality of feedthrough connectors (35, 37, 35I, 37I), which are inserted through the shielding frame (25), and which are electrically connected to the serpentine set (20).

  12. Periodic Relativity: Deflection of Light, Acceleration, Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaveri V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vectorial analysis relating to derivation of deflection of light is presented. Curvilinear acceleration is distinguished from the Newtonian polar conic acceleration. The dif- ference between the two is due to the curvature term. Lorentz invariant expression for acceleration is derived. A physical theory of rotation curves of galaxies based on second solution to Einstein’s field equation is presented. Theory is applied to Milky Way, M31, NGC3198 and Solar system. Modified Kepler’s third law yields correct orbital periods of stars in a galaxy. Deviation factor in the line element of t he theory happens to be the ratio of the Newtonian gravitational acceleration to th e measured acceleration of the star in the galaxy. Therefore this deviation factor can replace the MOND function.

  13. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  14. Asteroid Deflection Using a Spacecraft in Restricted Keplerian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Ketema, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    A method for asteroid deflection that makes use of a spacecraft moving back and forth on a segment of an appropriate Keplerian orbit about the asteroid is described and evaluated. It is shown that, on average, the spacecraft describing such a trajectory can exert a significantly larger force on the asteroid than e.g. a stationary gravity tractor, thereby reducing the time needed to effect a desired velocity change for the asteroid. Furthermore, the current method does not require canted thrusters on the spacecraft (unlike a stationary gravity tractor), markedly reducing the amount of fuel needed to create a given change in the asteroid velocity. In addition, the method allows for the simultaneous use of several spacecraft, further strengthening the overall tugging effect on the asteroid, and distributing the thrust requirement among the spacecraft.

  15. Fabrication and Testing of Deflecting Cavities for APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammosser, John; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert; Jim, Henry; Katherine, Wilson; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ali, Nassiri; Jim, Kerby; Jeremiah, Holzbauer; Genfa, Wu; Joel, Fuerst; Yawei, Yang; Zenghai, Li

    2013-09-01

    Jefferson Lab (Newport News, Virginia) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has fabricated and tested four first article, 2.8 GHz, deflecting SRF cavities, for Argonne's Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) project. These cavities are unique in many ways including the fabrication techniques in which the cavity cell and waveguides were fabricated. These cavity subcomponents were milled from bulk large grain niobium ingot material directly from 3D CAD files. No forming of sub components was used with the exception of the beam-pipes. The challenging cavity and helium vessel design and fabrication results from the stringent RF performance requirements required by the project and operation in the APS ring. Production challenges and fabrication techniques as well as testing results will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Study of surface charges in ballistic deflection transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millithaler, J.-F.; Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; Mateos, J.; GonzáIez, T.; Margala, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the behavior of surface charges in ballistic deflection transistors, at room temperature, where the in-plane geometry associating two drains with two gates in push-pull modes allows the control of electron path. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and compared with experimental data by using different models for accounting for surface charge effects. The simple model which assumes a constant and uniform value of the surface charge provides good results at equilibrium, but it is not able to correctly reproduce the BDT’s complex behavior when biased. We have confirmed that for a correct description of the device operation it is necessary to use a model allowing the surface charge to adapt itself locally to the carrier concentration in its surroundings.

  17. Profiling compact toroid plasma density on CTIX with laser deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel Joseph Erwin

    A laser deflectometer measures line-integrated plasma density gradient using laser diodes and amplified point detectors. A laser passing through an optically thin plasma is refracted by an amount proportional to the line-integrated electron density gradient. I have designed, installed, and operated a deflection diagnostic for the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX), a plasma rail gun which can create compact toroid (CT) plasmas of controllable density and velocity. The diagnostic design and motivation are discussed, as well as three experiments performed with deflectometry. Thus, my thesis consists of the design of the deflectometer diagnostic, a comparison of its accuracy to interferometer density measurements, and finally a survey of compact toroid density profiles in two dimensions conducted with an array of detectors.

  18. Plumb line deflection varied with time obtained by repeated gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付广裕; 李正心

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the plumb line deflection varied with time (PLV) are calculated with the Vening-Meinesz formula for Xiaguan and Beijing point based on the 28 and 39 campaigns of gravimetry at the local gravity networks in the Western Yunnan Earthquake Prediction Experiment Area and the North China, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that: ① the maximum of PLV is under 0.12 and amplitudes of interannual variation are under 0.022.②PLV can be determined with the reliability of 0.012 by the modeling based on the precession of repeated gravimetry. This implies that repeated gravimetry could be used to determine the PLV. ③There exist some common and different characteristics for the different places and different components. It may provide a new approach for the study on the local or global geodynamic by using repeated gravimetry.

  19. Noise from high speed maglev systems: Noise sources, noise criteria, preliminary design guidelines for noise control, and recommendations for acoustical test facility for maglev research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. E.; Abbot, P.; Dyer, I.

    1993-01-01

    Noise levels from magnetically-levitated trains (maglev) at very high speed may be high enough to cause environmental noise impact in residential areas. Aeroacoustic sources dominate the sound at high speeds and guideway vibrations generate noticeable sound at low speed. In addition to high noise levels, the startle effect as a result of sudden onset of sound from a rapidly moving nearby maglev vehicle may lead to increased annoyance to neighbors of a maglev system. The report provides a base for determining the noise consequences and potential mitigation for a high speed maglev system in populated areas of the United States. Four areas are included in the study: (1) definition of noise sources; (2) development of noise criteria; (3) development of design guidelines; and (4) recommendations for a noise testing facility.

  20. Spin-rotation effects in the Stern-Gerlach deflection spectra of 3Σ - molecules and their complexes with argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, D. R.; Robin, M. B.; Gedanken, A.

    1989-01-01

    Stern-Gerlach (SG) magnetic deflection spectra have been calculated for the paramagnetic species 16O 2, 17O 2, NH, NCH 3, and HCCN, all in their 3Σ - electronic ground states. The latter four of these molecules at rotational temperatures of 3 K exhibit both an intense, symmetric three-line pattern due to population of members of the N = 0, S = 1, J = 1 spin-rotation level and, additionally, a weaker, asymmetric nine-line pattern due to population of members of the higher-lying N = 1, S = 1, J = 0, 2, 1 spin-rotation complex. The components of the nine-line patterns suffer Paschen-Back uncoupling at field strengths which correlate with the magnitudes of the electronic spin-spin coupling constants, and in the Paschen-Back regime, the nine lines regroup so as to converge upon the three-line pattern of the N = 0, S = 1, J = 1 level. In 16O 2 at 3 K, due to nuclear statistics only the nine-line pattern is observed; however, at a rotational temperature of 1 K only the J = 0 component of the N = 1, S = 1 complex is populated, and the SG spectrum consists of a single line with a slight paramagnetic (upfield) shift from zero deflection. Calculated anticrossings within the Zeeman manifold of spin-rotation states of 3Σ - molecules and their Ar complexes are readily apparent in the computed SG spectra as abrupt changes of the signs of deflection with increasing magnetic field. Complexation of 16O 2 with Ar at 3 K leads to a SG spectrum very different from that of 16O 2 itself at 3 K, but much more like that of 16O 2 at 1 K, i.e., a single line at small paramagnetic displacement, but with a width which increases with applied field strength. The deflection of this peak of Ar· 16O 2 is smaller than that of the corresponding peak of 16O 2 by just the inverse ratio of the masses of Ar· 16O 2 and 16O 2. Parallel calculations on Ar· 17O 2 reveal SG spectra which are more dense than those of Ar· 16O 2 under the same conditions, due to the differing nuclear statistics in the 17O

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  3. Low noise road surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bolčina, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Noise is everywhere. Noise is a sound that makes people stressful and irritate. It often couses sleep disorders and also health problems like different cardiovascular disorders, hearing loss…In most cases traffic noise is the most disturbing. There are different ways to prevent people from traffic noise like building noise barriers and insulation of facades. However noise barriers and insulation of facades do not prevent noise formation, but are lowering existing noise. Another disadvantage i...

  4. Long-term evolution of coronal magnetic fields based on noise storm continuum observations in the 20th and 21st cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, A.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the noise storms of cycles 20 and 21, the long-term variations of the radiation signatures of sunspot groups during a solar cycle were studied. The results suggest that nonpotential loops favoring the emission of a strong type 1 continuum at the low frequencies (less than 100MHz) tend to exist more frequently above the sunspot groups in the later phase of a solar cycle.

  5. Analysis of random noise, coil inhomogeneity, and ghost artifacts in spin echo imaging on a 1.5 T commercial magnetic resonance imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Rusinek, Henry

    1990-05-01

    Noise in spin echo (SE) images in MRI consists of random and structured components Structured noise arises mainly from the non-uniformity of the B1 field. We have studied these errors using a cylindrical phantom. Random noise analysis by subtraction of a 4,9, or 25 points smoothed image from the original image showed small but significant differences between the three methods, though it was uniform over the phantom and changed little with time over a span of 8 months. The rf coil nonuniformity ( coefficient of variation,CV) in two areas of interest (ROI). a central area (40 cm2) and a ring outside the central region (130 cm2) was measured to be 21% and 45% respectively for the saddle coil and 1 5% and 6.0% respectively for the bird cage coil Using the first day flood image for correction of the later images. CV in the two ROI's of the corrected images were 1.3% and 2.2% for the saddle coil respectively and 0.9% and 1.6% respectively.

  6. 制备噪声抑制片用磁性涂料的配方设计%Formula Design for Magnetic Coating Used to Manufacture Noise Suppressing Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金向; 李木银; 蔡亚夫

    2016-01-01

    采用不同类型的基料树脂和分散剂、防沉剂、溶剂、吸收剂制得磁性涂料。对磁性涂料的分散性、成膜性进行研究和测试,结果表明,由B Y K-P104、B Y K-410、聚脲树脂制备的磁性涂料,可采用溶液流延法生产薄型和超薄型噪声抑制片。%Magnetic coatings were prepared by different types of base resins and dispersing additives, solvent and absorber. The dispersion and iflming of magnetic coatings were studied and tested. The results showed that magnetic coatings prepared by BYK-P104、BYK-410 and polyurea resin was adopted to manufacture thin and ultrathin noise suppressing sheet by solution casting.

  7. A surface work function measurement technique utilizing constant deflected grazing electron trajectories: oxygen uptake on Cu(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A V; Ciftlikli, E Z; Syssoev, S E; Shuttleworth, I G; Hinch, B J

    2010-10-01

    We report on the application of a novel nondestructive in-vacuum technique for relative work function measurements, employing a grazing incidence electron deflection above a sample with a planar surface. Two deflected electron beam detectors are used as a position sensitive detector to control feedback to the sample potential as the sample work function changes. With feedback the sample potential exactly follows the surface sample-size averaged work function variation, so that the deflected beam trajectory remains stable. We also discuss methods to optimize the initial electron trajectories for this method, so as to minimize unwanted effects such as from uncontrolled external magnetic fields. As the electron beam does not impinge on the surface in this new technique electron induced desorption, ionization, dissociation, and/or decomposition is not induced at the interface. Importantly also the technique allows for free access to the surfaces enabling simultaneous deposition/evaporation and/or application of other surface characterization methods. We demonstrate its application in concurrent measurements of helium atom reflectivity and work function changes taking place during molecular oxygen exposure of a Cu(001) surface. A work function measurement sensitivity and stability is demonstrated at ∼10 mV at a sampling rate of 1 Hz and after application of an ∼7 s smoothing routine. In comparison to the helium atom reflectivity measurements, the work function measurements are more sensitive to the initial O uptake, and less so to the final coverage variations and possible surface reordering at higher O coverages.

  8. Evaluation of disparate laser beam deflection technologies by means of number and rate of resolvable spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Peter; Hohenstein, Ralph; Schmidt, Michael

    2013-08-15

    We introduce a method to objectively evaluate systems of differing beam deflection technologies that commonly are described by disparate technical specifications. Using our new approach based on resolvable spots we will compare commercially available random-access beam deflection technologies, namely galvanometer scanners, piezo scanners, MEMS scanners, acousto-optic deflectors, and electro-optic deflectors.

  9. Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core concrete slab systems. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... For the prediction of the long-term deflection, a measured ratio of long-term ...

  10. A nonlinear mathematical model for large deflection of incompressible saturated poroelastic beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear governing equations are established for large deflection of incompressible fluid saturated poroelastic beams under constraint that diffusion of the pore fluid is only in the axial direction of the deformed beams. Then, the nonlinear bending of a saturated poroelastic cantilever beam with fixed end impermeable and free end permeable, subjected to a suddenly applied constant concentrated transverse load at its free end, is examined with the Galerkin truncation method. The curves of deflections and bending moments of the beam skeleton and the equivalent couples of the pore fluid pressure are shown in figures. The results of the large deflection and the small deflection theories of the cantilever poroelastic beam are compared, and the differences between them are revealed. It is shown that the results of the large deflection theory are less than those of the corresponding small deflection theory, and the times needed to approach its stationary states for the large deflection theory are much less than those of the small deflection theory.

  11. A small-gap electrostatic micro-actuator for large deflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Holger; Schenk, Harald; Kaiser, Bert; Langa, Sergiu; Gaudet, Matthieu; Schimmanz, Klaus; Stolz, Michael; Lenz, Miriam

    2015-12-11

    Common quasi-static electrostatic micro actuators have significant limitations in deflection due to electrode separation and unstable drive regions. State-of-the-art electrostatic actuators achieve maximum deflections of approximately one third of the electrode separation. Large electrode separation and high driving voltages are normally required to achieve large actuator movements. Here we report on an electrostatic actuator class, fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process, which allows high deflections with small electrode separation. The concept presented makes the huge electrostatic forces within nanometre small electrode separation accessible for large deflections. Electrostatic actuations that are larger than the electrode separation were measured. An analytical theory is compared with measurement and simulation results and enables closer understanding of these actuators. The scaling behaviour discussed indicates significant future improvement on actuator deflection. The presented driving concept enables the investigation and development of novel micro systems with a high potential for improved device and system performance.

  12. Design Optimization of Deflection Caused After Release of Multilayer Structural Membrane of Symmetric Toggle Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization in deflection caused by the inbuilt stress generated in mechanical or movable membrane of Symmetric Toggle RF MEMS Switch (STS. The movable membrane of STS was initially fabricated with two different materials, i.e. Chrome and Gold. The simulated deflection at 70 °C was 11.9 µm, and experimental deflection was 11-12 µm. We present a study of inbuilt deflection reduction in multimetal movable layers without change in actuation voltage of the switch. The design study was initially carried out on cantilevers and then on structural membrane of STS. STS with proposed multilayer of Cr-Au-Au-Ti-Au has a simulated deflection of 0.56 µm at 70 °C.

  13. Four-dimensional visualization of a small-scale flame based on deflection tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zhigang; Zhao, Minmin

    2016-11-01

    Optical computed tomography is an important technique in the visualization and diagnosis of various flow fields. A small-scale diffusion flame was visualized using deflection tomography. A projection sampling system was proposed for deflection tomography to obtain deflectograms with a pair of gratings. Wave-front retrieval was employed for processing the deflectograms to obtain the deflection angles of the rays. This two-dimensional data extraction method expanded the application of deflection tomography and was suitable for the projection extraction of small-scale combustion. Deflection angle revision reconstruction algorithm was used to reconstruct the temperature distributions in 10 cross sections for each deflectogram in different instants. The flow structure was reconstructed using a visualization toolkit equipped with the marching cube and ray casting algorithms. The performed experiments demonstrated the three-dimensional dynamic visualization of temperature distributions and the flame structures of small-scale diffusion combustion.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Deflections of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel under Four-point Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Fajrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of theoretical and experimental deflection of a hybrid sandwich panel under four-point bending load. The paper initially presents few basic equations developed under three-point load, followed by development of model under four-point bending load and a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental results. It was found that the proposed model for predicting the deflection of hybrid sandwich panels provided fair agreement with the experimental values. Most of the sandwich panels showed theoretical deflection values higher than the experimental values, which is desirable in the design. It was also noticed that the introduction of intermediate layer does not contribute much to reduce the deflection of sandwich panel as the main contributor for the total deflection was the shear deformation of the core that mostly determined by the geometric of the samples and the thickness of the core.

  15. Numerical Simulation Study on the Surface Deflection of Cylindrical Shallow Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Zhongwen; BAO Jun; LIU Zhongyuan; YANG Yuying; SUN Zhenzhong

    2006-01-01

    The increasing applications of new materials such as high strength low alloy (HSAL) steels and aluminum alloy sheets have lead to greater focus on the surface deflections of auto body panels in the automobile industry in recent years. The finite element models of cylindrical shallow shell that can represent auto body panels are established. Numerical simulations of forming and unloading of cylindrical shallow shell are carried out. And a measurement and evaluation method of the surface deflection is introduced. The simulations of surface deflections with various blank holding forces (BHF) show great agreement with the experimental results. The influence laws of sheet thickness and material properties such as yield strength σs, strain-hardening exponent n, anisotropy parameter r and strength coefficient k on the surface deflection are achieved by simulations, which give a basic reference for controlling surface deflections.

  16. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  19. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  20. Towards noise engineering: Recent insights in low-frequency excess flux noise of superconducting quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Sebastian; Ferring, Anna; Enss, Christian

    2016-10-01

    The comprehensive analysis of low-frequency excess flux noise both in terms of magnetic flux noise S Φ , 1 / f and energy sensitivity ɛ1/f of 84 superconducting quantum devices studied at temperatures below 1 K reveals a universal behavior. When analyzing data in terms of ɛ1/f, we find that noise spectra of independent devices cross each other all at certain crossing frequencies fc. Besides this main result of our paper, we further show that superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) arrays systematically feature higher noise exponents than single SQUIDs and give evidence for a material and device type dependence of low-frequency excess flux noise. The latter results facilitate to engineer the shape of magnetic flux noise spectra and thus to experimentally modify key properties such as coherence or measurement times of superconducting quantum devices.

  1. Directed Energy Deflection Laboratory Measurements of Asteroids and Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, T.; Lubin, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary and space defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR [1][5][6] and DE-STARLITE [2][5][6] are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In the DE-STAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds an "asteroid" or a space debris sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 µN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 µN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 µN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 60 µN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed.

  2. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  3. Noise characteristics of an electromagnetic sea-ice thickness sounder on a fixed wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenstein, Lasse; Hendricks, Stefan; Lobach, John; Haas, Christian

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the noise sources of an airborne electromagnetic frequency domain instrument used to measure sea-ice thickness are studied. The antennas are mounted on the wings of an aircraft. The paper presents real data examples showing that strong noise limited the accuracy of the thickness measurement to ± 0.5 m in the best case. Even drift cor­rection and frequency filtering did not reduce the noise to a level necessary for sea ice thickness measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 m. We show results of 3D finite element modeling of the coupling between transmitter and receiver coils and the aircraft, which indicate that wing flexure is the primary cause of the strong noise. Wing deflection angles below 5° relative to the fuselage are large enough to cause changes higher than the wanted signal from the seawater under the ice. Wing flexure noise can be divided into an inductive and geometric contribution, both of the same order. Most of the wing flexure signal appears on the inphase component only, hence the quadrature component should be taken for sea ice thickness retrievals when wing flexure is present even when the inphase produces a larger ocean sig­nal. Results also show that pitch and roll movements of the aircraft and electromagnetic coupling between seawater and aircraft can contribute significantly to the total noise. For flight heights of 30 m over the ocean these effects can change the sig­nal by about 10% or more. For highly quantitative measurements like sea-ice thickness all these effects must be taken into account. We conclude that a fixed wing electromagnetic instrument for the purpose of measure­ments in a centimeter scale must include instrumentation to measure the relative position of the antenna coils with an accuracy of 1/10 mm. Furthermore the antenna separation distance should be as large as possible in order to increase the measured ratio of secondary to primary magnetic field strength.

  4. Comment on "Resolving the 180-deg Ambiguity in Solar Vector Magnetic Field Data: Evaluating the Effects of Noise, Spatial Resolution, and Method Assumptions"

    CERN Document Server

    Georgoulis, Manolis K

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, Leka at al. (Solar Phys. 260, 83, 2009)constructed a synthetic vector magnetogram representing a three-dimensional magnetic structure defined only within a fraction of an arcsec in height. They rebinned the magnetogram to simulate conditions of limited spatial resolution and then compared the results of various azimuth disambiguation methods on the resampled data. Methods relying on the physical calculation of potential and/or non-potential magnetic fields failed in nearly the same, extended parts of the field of view and Leka et al. (2009) attributed these failures to the limited spatial resolution. This study shows that the failure of these methods is not due to the limited spatial resolution but due to the narrowly defined test data. Such narrow magnetic structures are not realistic in the real Sun. Physics-based disambiguation methods, adapted for solar magnetic fields extending to infinity, are not designed to handle such data; hence, they could only fail this test. I demonstrate how a...

  5. Spin-noise correlations and spin-noise exchange driven by low-field spin-exchange collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dellis, A. T.; Loulakis, M.; Kominis, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    The physics of spin exchange collisions have fueled several discoveries in fundamental physics and numerous applications in medical imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance. We here report on the experimental observation and theoretical justification of spin-noise exchange, the transfer of spin-noise from one atomic species to another. The signature of spin-noise exchange is an increase of the total spin-noise power at low magnetic fields, on the order of 1 mG, where the two-species spin-noise ...

  6. Comet deflection by directed energy: a finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajian, Jonathan; Griswold, Janelle; Gandra, Anush; Hughes, Gary B.; Zhang, Qicheng; Rupert, Nic; Lubin, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Comets and Asteroids are viable threats to our planet; if these space rocks are smaller than 25 meters, they burn up in the atmosphere, but if they are wider than 25 meters they can cause damage to the impact area. Anything more than one to two kilometers can have worldwide effects, furthermore a mile-wide asteroid travelling at 30,000 miles per hour has the energy equal to a megaton bomb and is very likely to wipe out most of the life on Earth. Residents near Chelyabinsk, Russia experienced the detrimental effects of a collision with a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) on 15 February 2013 as a 20 m object penetrated the atmosphere above that city. The effective yield from this object was approximately 1/2 Megaton TNT equivalent (Mt), or that of a large strategic warhead. The 1908 Tunguska event, also over Russia, is estimated to have had a yield of approximately 15 Mt and had the potential to kill millions of people had it come down over a large city1. In the face of such danger a planetary defense system is necessary and this paper proposes a design for such a system. DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) is a phased array laser system that can be used to oblate, deflect and de-spin asteroids and comets.

  7. A simple damage detection indicator using operational deflection shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, R. P. C.; Maia, N. M. M.; Almeida, R. A. B.; Urgueira, A. P. V.

    2016-05-01

    Catastrophic structural failure of aircrafts, bridges, buildings and other structures in modern societies has always been of primary concern because of the loss of human lifes and of negative economic impact. The aging of the structures, the growing dependency on their role in our networks of transportation, energy and comunications, the smaller construction tolerances, the bigger power demanded and the media and society awardness to catastrophic events are sufficient motivations for the growing field of structural health monitoring, which aims at assessing the actual condition of a structure and to identify incipient damage. Damage identification can be considered as a two step process, the detection and the diagnosis. The former, and fundamental step, is the confirmation of an efective damage existence. When the response is affirmative, the latter step begins with the diagnosis, and then the questions are: where?, how much?, what type?, when will it fail? In this paper the authors propose a simple method to detect and relatively quantify structural damage by using measured vibrations data, specifically the operational deflections shapes. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are presented to validate the proposed method.

  8. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  9. GPS deflection monitoring of the West Gate Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziq, Noor; Collier, Philip

    2007-05-01

    The achievable precision and relatively high sampling rates of currently available GPS receivers are well suited for monitoring the movements of long-span engineering structures where the amplitude of movements is often more than a few centimetres and the frequency of vibrations is low (below 10 Hz). However, engineering structures often offer non-ideal environments for GPS data collection due to high multipath interference and obstructions causing cycle slips in the GPS observations. Also, for many engineering structures such as bridge decks, vertical movements are more pronounced and more structurally critical than horizontal movements. Accuracy of GPS determined positions in the vertical direction is typically two to three times poorer than in the horizontal component. This paper describes the results of a GPS deflection monitoring trial on the West Gate Bridge in Melbourne, Australia. The results are compared to the estimated frequencies and movements from the design of the bridge and previous accelerometer campaigns. The frequency information derived from the GPS results is also compared to frequency data extracted from an accelerometer installed close to a GPS receiver. GPS results agree closely to the historical results and recent accelerometer trials for key modal frequencies. This indicates the suitability of GPS receivers to monitor engineering structures that exhibit smaller movements due to their stiffness and in environments not ideally suited to using GPS.

  10. Three-dimensional parabolic equation modeling of mesoscale eddy deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L

    2016-02-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanography, including ocean fronts and eddies, on global scale low-frequency acoustics is examined using a fully three-dimensional parabolic equation model. The narrowband acoustic signal, for frequencies from 2 to 16 Hz, is simulated from a seismic event on the Kerguellen Plateau in the South Indian Ocean to an array of receivers south of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, a distance of 9100 km. The path was chosen for its relevance to seismic detections from the HA10 Ascension Island station of the International Monitoring System, for its lack of bathymetric interaction, and for the dynamic oceanography encountered as the sound passes the Cape of Good Hope. The acoustic field was propagated through two years (1992 and 1993) of the eddy-permitting ocean state estimation ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) system. The range of deflection of the back-azimuth was 1.8° with a root-mean-square of 0.34°. The refraction due to mesoscale oceanography could therefore have significant impacts upon localization of distant low-frequency sources, such as seismic or nuclear test events.

  11. Deflection determination of concrete structures considering nonlinearity based on long-gauge strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wan; Lv, Kui; Li, Bing; Jiang, Yuchen; Hu, Xiamin; Qu, Qizhong

    2017-10-01

    Deflection determination of concrete structures using distributed long-gauge strain sensors is investigated in this paper. Firstly, the relationship between deflection and distributed long-gauge strain of concrete beams is presented, and the method is independent of external load and takes account of structural nonlinearity. The deflection distribution along the span of a beam-like structure can be predicted from strain response for the whole process of loading (elastic stage, concrete cracking stage and steel yielding stage). Secondly, experiment of a reinforced concrete beam has been conducted to verify the accuracy of the method. Experimental results show that the relative error between the estimated and actual deflection can be controlled within about 5% while the error can reach up to about 70% if structural nonlinearity is not considered. Finally, the influence of error of material parameters and sensor gauge length on deflection estimation has been analyzed. The error of concrete compression strength has a limited influence on deflection prediction while the contribution of tensile concrete should be considered before concrete cracking. The error of area of tensile bars will affect the deflection accuracy after concrete cracking.

  12. Influence of deflection hole angle on effusion cooling in a real combustion chamber condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-solid coupling simulation is conducted to investigate the performance of effusion cooling in the real combustion chamber condition of strong rotation and primary holes. The wall temperature and film cooling effectiveness of different deflection angle is analyzed. From the results, it is concluded that the performance of effusion is better than conventional film cooling. The wall temperature and gradient is lower, the cooling efficiency is higher and the coolant is reduced by 20%, but pressure loss is slightly increased. The cooling effectiveness decreases behind primary holes because of local combustion. Comparison with the effect of deflection angle, the cooling performance of 60 deg deflection angle is best. The coolant is better attached to the wall downstream when the deflection angle is same as the rotating mainstream. In addition, the effect of deflection angle is not so significant on the coolant flow rate, but a large negative impact on the pressure loss. Although the cooling effectiveness of 60 deg deflection angle is highest, the total pressure recovery coefficient is lower. The maximum temperature drops about 70K and the outlet temperature distribution trends more consistent. So various factors should be taken into consideration when designing of deflection angle.

  13. Implementation of Input Block of Minimally Buffered Deflection NoC Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti M. Shahane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional system on chip designs employ the shared bus architecture for data transfer in highly integrated Multiprocessor system on chips(MPSoC.Network on chip (NoCis a new paradigm for on chip communication for Multiprocessor systems on chips(MPSoCs. NoCs replace the traditional shared buses system with routing switches. Heart of the NoC is the router and it consists of an input buffer, arbiter, crossbar and an output port. The NoC router uses a buffer to store the incoming packets. These buffers improve the performance but they consume more power and area. Bufferless deflection routing is the solution for improvement in energy efficiency. In this method deflections of the packets take place to overcome the contention problem. But at high network load, deflection routing degrades the performance because of unnecessary hopping of data packets. The MinBD (minimally buffered deflection router is a new router design that uses a small buffer for bufferless deflection routing. In this paper the input block of MinBD router is implemented on FPGA which shows that a small buffer will help to reduce the network deflection rate. It also improves the performance and energy efficiency while buffering only deflected data packets.

  14. New results from the CERN-SPS beam deflection experiments with bent crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Worm, T.; Uggerhøj, E.; Mikkelsen, U.; Graftström, P.; Gatignon, L.; Elsener, K.; Doble, N.; Biino, C.; Freund, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Clément, M.

    1996-10-01

    Results from five distinct bending experiments performed recently in the H8 beam at CERN are presented. Firstly, deflection of a positive pion beam at 200 GeV/c is compared to the "standard" 450-GeV/c proton beam for a bending angle of 3.1 mrad along the (111) plane in a 50 mm silicon crystal. Second, deflection of negative pions at 200 GeV/c is investigated for the same crystal, for incidence along the (111) plane as well as the axis. Small deflection effects are seen, but no negative particles are bent through the full bending angle of the crystal. Third, the first results from beam deflection at high energy using a germanium crystal are shown. Slightly higher deflection efficiencies than for silicon are seen for large bending angles, but significantly smaller than expected for such a crystal with higher atomic number. Fourth, deflection efficiencies using a strongly irradiated silicon crystal have been measured for the first time, and a small reduction in efficiency is seen in the irradiated region. Finally, deflection of positive particles using axial alignment of a bent silicon crystal has been investigated at 450 GeV/c. Qualitatively similar behaviour as in previous experiments at 12 GeV/c is seen; the beam splits into several beams corresponding to the different planes, and even weak planes are observed.

  15. A low-noise, high-bandwidth magnetically-levitated momentum-wheel for 3-axis attitude control from a single wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Seddon, Jon; Pechev, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new concept for attitude actuation for small satellites that uses active magnetic bearings to support and tilt a spinning rotor to provide 3-axis attitude control of the satellite using a single actuator. A controlled 3D motion in the spinning rotor provides a conventional torque output about the momentum axis and a gyroscopic torque output about any direction in the plane normal to the spinning axis. Therefore, a single tilting momentum-wheel can generate torque along t...

  16. Real-Time Deflection Monitoring for Milling of a Thin-Walled Workpiece by Using PVDF Thin-Film Sensors with a Cantilevered Beam as a Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Ming; Liu, Dongsheng; Luo, Huan

    2016-01-01

    .... To understand the workpiece deflection behavior in a machining process, a new real-time nonintrusive method for deflection monitoring is presented, and a detailed analysis of workpiece deflection...

  17. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  18. Light deflection with torsion effects caused by a spinning cosmic string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusufi, Kimet [State University of Tetovo, Physics Department, Tetovo (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculation shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion. (orig.)

  19. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  20. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Rathod; P K Singh; Vasant Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45° with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope 174Yb and the fermionic isotope 171Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  1. Analysis of rolls deflection of Sendzimir mill by 3D FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; LEE Gyoo Taek

    2007-01-01

    The deflection of rolls of Sendzimir mill with double AS-U-Roll was simulated by finite element method(FEM). The influences of rolling pressure, strip width and rolls-assignment on rolls deflection were analyzed. The results show that the work roll deflection increases with the increase of rolling pressure and the reduction of work roll radius, but the rigid displacement of work roll slightly changes; the work roll end might appear negative displacement for the narrow strip width and high rolling pressure that might cause the contact of work rolls. The research results are significant for guiding production and theoretical analysis of the rolls system of Sendzimir mill.

  2. Self-Deflection of Dark Screening Spatial Solitons Based on Higher-Order Space Charge Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-Yong; LIU Jin-Song; LIU Shi-Xiong; WANG Cheng; ZHANG Hui-Lan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of higher-order space charge field on the self-deflection of dark screening spatial solitons in biased photorefractive crystals are numerically investigated under steady-state conditions. The expression for an induced space-charge electric field including higher-order space-charge field terms is obtained. Numerical results indicate that dark solitons possess a self-deflection process during propagation, and the solitons always bend in the direction of the c axis of the crystal The self-deflection of dark solitons can experience considerable increase especially in the regime of high bias field strengths.

  3. Mode-locked Lasers Applied to Deflecting a Near Earth Object on Collision Course with Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Fork, Richard; Burgess, Luke; Bergstue, Grant

    2013-01-01

    We consider synchronized trains of sub-picosecond pulses generated by mode-locked lasers applied to deflection of near Earth objects (NEO) on collision course with Earth. Our method is designed to avoid a predicted collision of the NEO with Earth by at least the diameter of Earth. We estimate deflecting a 10,000 MT NEO, such as the asteroid which struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia to be feasible within several months using average power in the ten kilowatt range. We see this deflection method as scalable to larger NEO to a degree not possible using continuous laser systems.

  4. Photonic-based laser driven electron beam deflection and focusing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Plettner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a dielectric photonic structure for ultrafast deflection and focusing of relativistic charged particle beams. The structure is designed to transform a free-space laser beam into a deflection force that acts on the free particles with the same optical phase over a distance of travel that is much greater than the laser wavelength. The proposed structure has a two-dimensional geometry and is compatible with existing nanofabrication methods. Deflection fields of GV/m magnitude and subfemtosecond switching speeds are expected to be possible from these dielectric structures. With these elements a submeter scale extreme ultraviolet synchrotron source seems feasible.

  5. Light deflection with torsion effects caused by a spinning cosmic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-06-01

    Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculation shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion.

  6. Multipole Field Effects for the Superconducting Parallel-Bar Deflecting/Crabbing Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Delayen, Jean Roger [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar deflecting/crabbing cavity is currently being considered as one of the design options in rf separation for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade and for the crabbing cavity for the proposed LHC luminosity upgrade. Knowledge of multipole field effects is important for accurate beam dynamics study of rf structures. The multipole components can be accurately determined numerically using the electromagnetic surface field data in the rf structure. This paper discusses the detailed analysis of those components for the fundamental deflecting/crabbing mode and higher order modes in the parallel-bar deflecting/crabbing cavity.

  7. Light Deflection with Torsion Effects Caused by a Spinning Cosmic String

    CERN Document Server

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-01-01

    Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculations shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion.

  8. Occupational noise management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    Occupational noise is a frequently encountered on-the-job health hazard. This guide presented the responsibilities and regulatory requirements related to business activities where noise above 80 decibels is present. The guide provided a definition of noise and discussed noise hazards, types of noise, and on-the-job noise exposure. A risk assessment to noise in the work environment was also discussed. A guide to a hearing conservation program was also included. The main purpose of a hearing conservation program is the prevention of noise induced hearing loss for employees exposed to occupational noise. The components of such a program were outlined, with particular reference to noise monitoring; noise exposure control; worker education and training; hearing (audiometric) testing; and annual program review and record keeping. It was concluded that in terms of record keeping, it can be very helpful to file noise exposure assessments, particularly personal exposure measurements, with hearing test records to facilitate for future reference. refs., appendices.

  9. Noise and Hearing Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Noise and Hearing Protection Noise and Hearing Protection Patient ... it is. How can I tell if a noise is dangerous? People differ in their sensitivity to ...

  10. Response to "Comment on `Resolving the 180deg Ambiguity in Solar Vector Magnetic Field Data: Evaluating the Effects of Noise, Spatial Resolution, and Method Assumptions'"

    CERN Document Server

    Leka, K D; Gary, G Allen; Crouch, A D; Liu, Y

    2011-01-01

    We address points recently discussed in Georgoulis (2011) in reference to Leka et al. (2009b). Most importantly, we find that the results of Georgoulis (2011) support a conclusion of Leka et al. (2009b): that limited spatial resolution and the presence of unresolved magnetic structures can challenge ambiguity- resolution algorithms. Moreover, the findings of both Metcalf et al. (2006) and Leka et al. (2009b) are confirmed in Georgoulis (2011): a method's performance can be diminished when the observed field fails to conform to that method's assumptions. The implication of boundaries in models of solar magnetic structures is discussed; we confirm that the distribution of the field components in the model used in Leka et al. (2009b) is closer to what is observed on the Sun than what is proposed in Georgoulis (2011). It is also shown that method does matter with regards to simulating limited spatial resolution and avoiding an inadvertent introduction of bias. Finally, the assignment of categories to data- analys...

  11. The importance of being elastic: deflection of a badminton racket during a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Maxine; Rasmussen, John

    2010-03-01

    The deflection profiles of a badminton racket during strokes performed by elite and world-class badminton players were recorded by strain gauges and subsequently analysed to determine the role of shaft stiffness in racket performance. Deflection behaviour was consistent in all strokes across all players, suggesting a controlled use of racket elasticity. In addition, all impacts occurred within 100 ms of each other, a duration in which deflection velocity provides an increase in racket velocity, indicating that the players were able to use racket elasticity to their advantage. Since deflection behaviour is a product of the racket-player interaction, further work is required to determine the effects of different racket properties and player techniques on the elastic response of rackets during strokes.

  12. Deflection of light ray due to a charged body using Material Medium Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Saswati

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational deflection of light ray is an important prediction of General Theory of Relativity. In this paper we develop analytical expression of the deflection of light ray without any weak field approximation due to a charged gravitational body represented by Reissner_Nordstr\\"om (RN) and Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) space time geometry, using material medium approach. It is concluded that although both the geometries represent the charged, non-rotating, spherically symmetric gravitating body, but the effect of charge on the gravitational deflection is just opposite to each other. The gravitational deflection decreases with charge in the RN geometry and increases with charge in the JNW geometry. The calculations obtained here are compared with other methods done by different authors. The formalism is applied to an arbitrary selected pulsar PSRB1937+21 as a gravitating body, as a test case.

  13. Analysis of Deflection Problems of Large-span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-span continuous rigid frame bridge is a kind of common structural form in long-span bridges of our country, but one of the main diseases of these bridges is the excessive deflection in the mid-span, which seriously affects the safety of the structure. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis for the causes of the excessive deflection, and lists the commonly-used control measures in engineering. Simultaneously, new improvement measures and the comparative analysis of before-and-after improvements are put forward on this basis. However, these measures can be used to inhibit deflection in a certain extent, but cannot avoid the occurrence of deflection completely.

  14. Evaluation of Accuracy and Precision of Several Highway Speed Deflection Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, Gonzalo R; Visintine, Beth A.; Rocha,Sergio; Velarde, Jorge; Gallardo, Paola; Nazarian, Soheil; Siddharthan, Rajaratnam V.; Nasimifar, Seyyed

    2014-01-01

    Structural Session 2: Evaluation of Deflection Devices Moderated by Doug Chalman This presentation was held at the Pavement Evaluation 2014 Conference, which took place from September 15-18, 2014 in Blacksburg, Virginia. Presentation only

  15. Design and Development of Superconducting Parallel-Bar Deflecting/Crabbing Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payagalage Subashini Uddi De Silva, Jean Delayen

    2012-07-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar cavity is a deflecting/crabbing cavity with attractive properties that is being considered for a number of applications. We present the designs of a 499 MHz deflecting cavity developed for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade and a 400 MHz crabbing cavity for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. Prototypes of these two cavities are now under development and fabrication.

  16. Encoding whisker deflection velocity within the rodent barrel cortex using phase-delayed inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runjing; Patel, Mainak; Joshi, Badal

    2014-12-01

    The primary sensory feature represented within the rodent barrel cortex is the velocity with which a whisker has been deflected. Whisker deflection velocity is encoded within the thalamus via population synchrony (higher deflection velocities entail greater synchrony among the corresponding thalamic population). Thalamic (TC) cells project to regular spiking (RS) cells within the barrel cortex, as well as to inhibitory cortical fast-spiking (FS) neurons, which in turn project to RS cells. Thus, TC spikes result in EPSPs followed, with a small time lag, by IPSPs within an RS cell, and hence the RS cell decodes TC population synchrony by employing a phase-delayed inhibition synchrony detection scheme. As whisker deflection velocity is increased, the probability that an RS cell spikes rises, while jitter in the timing of RS cell spikes remains constant. Furthermore, repeated whisker deflections with fixed velocity lead to system adaptation--TC →RS, TC →FS, and FS →RS synapses all weaken substantially, leading to a smaller probability of spiking of the RS cell and increased jitter in the timing of RS cell spikes. Interestingly, RS cell activity is better able to distinguish among different whisker deflection velocities after adaptation. In this work, we construct a biophysical model of a basic 'building block' of barrel cortex - the feedforward circuit consisting of TC cells, FS cells, and a single RS cell - and we examine the ability of the purely feedforward circuit to explain the experimental data on RS cell spiking probability, jitter, adaptation, and deflection velocity discrimination. Moreover, we study the contribution of the phase-delayed inhibition network structure to the ability of an RS cell to decode whisker deflection velocity encoded via TC population synchrony.

  17. Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)

  18. Influence of tool deflection on micro channel pattern of 6:4 brass with rectangular tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Kang-Won LEE; Sang-Cheon PARK; Jae-Gu KIM; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyoung-Taik PARK; Kyung-Hyun WHANG

    2009-01-01

    Machining experiment of micro channel structure with 6:4 brass was carried out by shaping process using a single crystal diamond tool. FEM simulation using solid cantilever beam model was analyzed. In result of experiment, tool deflection is observed as machining characteristics through result of experiments such as surface roughness, cutting force and burr formations. And the influence of tool deflection is experimentally proved.

  19. Prediction of Extrusion Pressure And Product Deflection Of Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. GUNDU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available - In this paper artificial neural network was used as a modeling tool for simulation and prediction of extrusion pressure and product deflection of extrudes of lead alloys. An extensive experimental program was undertaken to extrude a lead (Pb alloy on ELE Compact-1500 compression machine. The neural model of extrusion pressure and product deflection was developed based on groups of experiments carried out as samples, Eight (8 die bearing parameters (die bearing length, radius of curvature, slip angle, die angle, die ratio ram displacement, pocket depth and die diameter were used as inputs into the network architecture of 8 [4-3]2 2 in predicting the extrusion pressure and product deflection. After series of network architectures were trained using different training algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt, Bayesian Regulation, Resilient Backpropagation using MATLAB 7.9.0 (R20096, the LM8 [4-3]2 2 was selected as the most appropriate model. Prediction of the neural model exhibited reasonable correlation with the experimental extrusion pressure and product deflection. The predicted extrusion pressure and product deflection gave reasonable errors and higher correlation coefficients indicating that the model is robust for predicting extrusion pressure and product deflection.

  20. Large deflection and rotation of Timoshenko beams with frictional end supports under three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Kui; Li, Xian-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Three-point bending of a beam is studied based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Large deflection and large rotation of a beam resting on simple supports with friction are calculated for a concentrated force acting at the midspan. Using the Lagrangian kinematic relations, a system of non-linear differential equations are obtained for a prismatic shear-deformable Timoshenko beam. Exact solutions for the deflection, horizontal displacement, and rotation of cross-section are derived analytically. Two deflections of small and large scale exist under three-point bending. The solutions corresponding to linearized model coincide with the well-known solutions to the classical Timoshenko beams. Numerical calculations are carried out to show the effect of the important parameters such as shear rigidity of the beam and the coefficient of friction at the contact position between the beam and supports on the deflection. The load-deflection curves are graphically presented. A comparison of large deflections and large rotations with their classical counterparts and with experimental data is made. The obtained results are useful in safety design of linear and non-linear beams subject to three-point bending.

  1. Finite element analysis modeling of pulse-laser excited photothermal deflection (mirage effect) from aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Bialkowski, Stephen E

    2008-12-01

    A finite element analysis method for numerical modeling of the photothermal deflection spectroscopy of aerosols is presented. The models simulate pulse-laser excited photothermal deflection from aerosols collected on a plane surface substrate in air medium. The influence of the aerosol and substrate properties on the transient photothermal deflection signal is examined. We have previously obtained experimental results for photothermal deflection spectrometry of aerosols deposited onto a plate from an impactor system (O. O. Dada and S. E. Bialkowski, Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 1336 (2008)). This paper supports the validity of the experimental results presented in that paper and helps in answering some of the questions raised. The modeling results presented here demonstrate that the (peak) normalized transient temperature change profile and (peak) normalized transient photothermal deflection profile are a good approximation and invariant with number of particles, inter-particle distance, and particulate shape, which suggests that the photothermal deflection signal amplitude may be calibrated linearly with total mass of aerosols and the method could be applied to analysis of complex aerosols.

  2. A novel deflection shape function for rectangular capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer diaphragms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A highly accurate analytical deflection shape function that describes the deflection profiles of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs with rectangular membranes under electrostatic pressure has been formulated. The rectangular diaphragms have a thickness range of 0.6–1.5 μm and a side length range of 100–1000 μm. The new deflection shape function generates deflection profiles that are in excellent agreement with finite element analysis (FEA results for a wide range of geometry dimensions and loading conditions. The deflection shape function is used to analyze membrane deformations and to calculate the capacitances between the deformed membranes and the fixed back plates. In 50 groups of random tests, compared with FEA results, the calculated capacitance values have a maximum deviation of 1.486% for rectangular membranes. The new analytical deflection function can provide designers with a simple way of gaining insight into the effects of designed parameters for CMUTs and other MEMS-based capacitive type sensors.

  3. Evaluation of cuspal deflection in premolar teeth restored with low shrinkable resin composite (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Labib Mohamed; Nabih, Sameh Mahmoud; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated cuspal deflection in premolar teeth restored with low shrinkable resin composite. A total of 40 human premolars were used for cuspal deflection evaluation in this study. Each group was divided into four equal groups according to the type of resin composite and the adhesive used as follows: group A: Using low shrinkable resin composite (silorane) with its adhesive system; group B: Using low shrinkable composite (silorane) with G-bond; group C: Using Filtek Z350 composite with G-bond; and group D: Using Filtek Z350 composite with AdheSE. Cusp deflection was detected using Universal measuring microscope and laser horizontal metroscope. This study was done to investigate the effect of polymerization shrinkage stresses of two resin composite materials (Filtek Z350 and Filtek P90) on cuspal deflection of mesio-occluso-distal restoration. For this study, the extracted non-carious maxillary second premolars were selected. Forty teeth that showed no more than 5% variation in their dimensions were used. A significant increase in cuspal deflection of cavities restored with the methacrylate-based (Filtek Z350) compared with the silorane (P90) resin-based composites was obtained. The change in the organic matrix or materials formulation of the resin composite using silorane has a positive effect on controlling the cusp deflection.

  4. Investigation of UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing with a Tip Antenna inside a Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej;

    2016-01-01

    An UWB blade deflection sensing system with a tip antenna inside a blade is investigated in this paper. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is utilized. This system composes of two UWB radio links between one antenna inside the blade tip and two antennas outside the blade root. Blade deflections ar......, and the sensing system can realize the deflection tracking with a maximum deviation of 0.21 m and root mean squared error of 0.11 m.......An UWB blade deflection sensing system with a tip antenna inside a blade is investigated in this paper. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is utilized. This system composes of two UWB radio links between one antenna inside the blade tip and two antennas outside the blade root. Blade deflections......-blade time-domain measurements are proposed to verify the simulations and realize the blade deflection sensing with an in-blade tip antenna. With the optimized in-blade tip antenna polarization and two root antenna locations, an accuracy of 2 cm is achieved for the tip-root antenna distance estimation...

  5. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  6. Experimental Estimating Deflection of a Simple Beam Bridge Model Using Grating Eddy Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel three-point method using a grating eddy current absolute position sensor (GECS for bridge deflection estimation is proposed in this paper. Real spatial positions of the measuring points along the span axis are directly used as relative reference points of each other rather than using any other auxiliary static reference points for measuring devices in a conventional method. Every three adjacent measuring points are defined as a measuring unit and a straight connecting bar with a GECS fixed on the center section of it links the two endpoints. In each measuring unit, the displacement of the mid-measuring point relative to the connecting bar measured by the GECS is defined as the relative deflection. Absolute deflections of each measuring point can be calculated from the relative deflections of all the measuring units directly without any correcting approaches. Principles of the three-point method and displacement measurement of the GECS are introduced in detail. Both static and dynamic experiments have been carried out on a simple beam bridge model, which demonstrate that the three-point deflection estimation method using the GECS is effective and offers a reliable way for bridge deflection estimation, especially for long-term monitoring.

  7. Record Deflection Efficiencies Measured for High Energy Protons in a Bent Germanium Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsener, K.; Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstrom, P.; Mikkelsen, U.; Kirsebom, K.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Freund, A.

    1997-05-01

    New experimental results on the deflection of 450 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c protons in a bent Ge crystal are presented. At 450 GeV/c, the 50 mm long crystal gave record deflection efficiencies up to 60% for small angles (1 mrad), while at angles as large as 12 mrad, the efficiency is about 25 times larger than for a silicon crystal of the same size. Measurements up to 20 mrad deflection angle have been performed at 200 GeV/c as well as 450 GeV/c - the lower bending dechanneling leads to a rather slow decrease in efficiency at lower momenta, and 15% of the 200 GeV/c beam hitting the crystal are still deflected at the largest angles measured. These experimental results are in good agreement with a model for channeling deflection developed by Ellison and give confidence in extrapolations to higher energies (e.g. to LHC), other crystal materials or different deflection angles.

  8. Airframe Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    A high fidelity aeroacoustic test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a detailed database of component noise for a 5.8% scale HWB aircraft configuration. The model has a modular design, which includes a drooped and a stowed wing leading edge, deflectable elevons, twin verticals, and a landing gear system with geometrically scaled wheel-wells. The model is mounted inverted in the test section and noise measurements are acquired at different streamwise stations from an overhead microphone phased array and from overhead and sideline microphones. Noise source distribution maps and component noise spectra are presented for airframe configurations representing two different approach flight conditions. Array measurements performed along the aircraft flyover line show the main landing gear to be the dominant contributor to the total airframe noise, followed by the nose gear, the inboard side-edges of the LE droop, the wing tip/LE droop outboard side-edges, and the side-edges of deployed elevons. Velocity dependence and flyover directivity are presented for the main noise components. Decorrelation effects from turbulence scattering on spectral levels measured with the microphone phased array are discussed. Finally, noise directivity maps obtained from the overhead and sideline microphone measurements for the landing gear system are provided for a broad range of observer locations.

  9. Can Noise Kill People?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲娣

    2007-01-01

    Someone is singing next door,but you feel unhappy because her singing is just making a noise.We know that too much noise makes people feel terrible. Scientists are still trying to find out more about noise,but already it is known that a noise of over 85 decibels can make some people tired and anxious.

  10. ELF noise fields: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild, Kjell Hansson; Mattsson, Mats-Olof

    2010-08-01

    The debate as to whether low-level electromagnetic fields can affect biological systems and in the long term cause health effects has been going on for a long time. Yet the interaction of weak electromagnetic fields (EMF) with living cells, undoubtedly a most important phenomenon, is still not well understood. The exact mechanisms by which the effects are produced have not been identified. Furthermore, it is not possible to clearly define which aspects of an EMF exposure that constitute the "dose." One of the groups that contributed to solving this problem is the Bioelectromagnetics group at Catholic University of America (CUA), Washington, D.C. Their work has been devoted to investigating the physical parameters that are needed to obtain an effect of EMF exposure on biological systems, and also how to inhibit the effect. This is a review of their work on bioeffects caused by low-level EMF, their dependence on coherence time, constancy, spatial averaging, and also how the effects can be modified by an applied ELF noise magnetic field. The group has been using early chick embryos, and L929 and Daudi cells as their main experimental systems. The review also covers the work of other groups on low-level effects and the inhibition of the effects with an applied noise field. The group at CUA has shown that biological effects can be found after exposure to low-level ELF and RF electromagnetic fields, and when effects are observed, applying an ELF magnetic noise field inhibits the effects. Also, other research groups have tried to replicate the studies from the CUA group, or to apply EMF noise to suppress EMF-induced effects. Replications of the CUA effects have not always been successful. However, in all cases where the noise field has been applied to prevent an observed effect, it has been successful in eliminating the effect.

  11. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  12. Spin Noise Exchange in Coupled Alkali-Metal Vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Dellis, A T; Kominis, I K

    2013-01-01

    The physics of spin exchange collisions has fueled a large number of discoveries in fundamental physics, chemistry and biology, and has led to several applications in medical imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance. We here report on the experimental observation and theoretical justification of a novel effect, the transfer of spin noise from one atomic species to another, through the mechanism of spin exchange. Essentially, we extend the foundational studies of spin exchange into the deeper layer of quantum fluctuations. The signature of spin noise exchange is an increase of the total spin noise power at low magnetic fields where the two-species spin noise resonances overlap.

  13. Mechanics of underwater noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Donald

    1976-01-01

    Mechanics of Underwater Noise elucidates the basic mechanisms by which noise is generated, transmitted by structures and radiated into the sea. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with a description of noise, decibels and levels, significance of spectra, and passive sonar equation. Subsequent chapters discuss sound waves in liquids; acoustic radiation fundamentals; wind-generated ocean ambient noise; vibration isolation and structural damping; and radiation by plate flexural vibrations. Other chapters address cavitation, propeller cavitation noise, radiation by fluctuating-force (dipo

  14. Instrument for orientation of a deflection in a borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechkhaizer, Ya.I.; Buslaev, V.F.; Khafizof, Z.Kh.; Shafikov, F.Kh.

    1981-05-17

    The instrument contains a diamagnetic pipe, a dipmeter with a cylindrical ring, and a framework installed in it, an azimuthal rheochord with magnetic arrow, and an extender with a locknut. To shorten the lowering and raising operations and increase the reliability of orientation of the deflector in vertical and inclined borehole shafts it is equipped with an additional deflector with a cylindrical ring. Installed in it is an additional famework. The extender with locknut is placed between the main and auxillary dipmeters. The frameworks of both dipmeters are arrested with rings with the aid of fixers; the azimuthal rheochords are installed according to one generatrix.

  15. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    We consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  16. Feasibility study on a strain based deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghyun; Aihara, Aya; Puntsagdash, Ganbayar; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Okuma, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The bending stiffness of the wind turbine blades has decreased due to the trend of wind turbine upsizing. Consequently, the risk of blades breakage by hitting the tower has increased. In order to prevent such incidents, this study proposes a deflection monitoring system that can be installed to already operating wind turbine's blades. The monitoring system is composed of an estimation algorithm to detect blade deflection and a wireless sensor network as a hardware equipment. As for the estimation method for blade deflection, a strain-based estimation algorithm and an objective function for optimal sensor arrangement are proposed. Strain-based estimation algorithm is using a linear correlation between strain and deflections, which can be expressed in a form of a transformation matrix. The objective function includes the terms of strain sensitivity and condition number of the transformation matrix between strain and deflection. In order to calculate the objective function, a simplified experimental model of the blade is constructed by interpolating the mode shape of a blade from modal testing. The interpolation method is effective considering a practical use to operating wind turbines' blades since it is not necessary to establish a finite element model of a blade. On the other hand, a sensor network with wireless connection with an open source hardware is developed. It is installed to a 300 W scale wind turbine and vibration of the blade on operation is investigated.

  17. Fusion of electromagnetic trackers to improve needle deflection estimation: simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-10-01

    We present a needle deflection estimation method to anticipate needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. Using limited additional sensory information, our approach reduces the estimation error caused by uncertainties inherent in the conventional needle deflection estimation methods. We use Kalman filters to combine a kinematic needle deflection model with the position measurements of the base and the tip of the needle taken by electromagnetic (EM) trackers. One EM tracker is installed on the needle base and estimates the needle tip position indirectly using the kinematic needle deflection model. Another EM tracker is installed on the needle tip and estimates the needle tip position through direct, but noisy measurements. Kalman filters are then employed to fuse these two estimates in real time and provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position, with reduced variance in the estimation error. We implemented this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated needle insertions and performed sensitivity analysis for various conditions. At an insertion depth of 150 mm, we observed needle tip estimation error reductions in the range of 28% (from 1.8 to 1.3 mm) to 74% (from 4.8 to 1.2 mm), which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution.

  18. An improved equivalent circuit model of a four rod deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsimon, R.; Burt, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present an improved equivalent circuit model for a four rod deflecting cavity which calculates the frequencies of the first four modes of the cavity as well as the RT/Q for the deflecting mode. Equivalent circuit models of RF cavities give intuition and understanding about how the cavity operates and what changes can be made to modify the frequency, without the need for RF simulations, which can be time-consuming. We parameterise a generic four rod deflecting cavity into a geometry consisting of simple shapes. Equations are derived for the line impedance of the rods and the capacitance between the rods and these are used to calculate the resonant frequency of the deflecting dipole mode as well as the lower order mode and the model is bench-marked against two test cases; the CEBAF separator and the HL-LHC 4-rod LHC crab cavity. CST and the equivalent circuit model agree within 4% for both cavities with the LOM frequency and within 1% for the deflecting frequency. RT/Q differs between the model and CST by 37% for the CEBAF separator and 25% for the HL-LHC 4-rod crab cavity; however this is sufficient for understanding how to optimise the cavity design. The model has then been utilised to suggest a method of separating the modal frequencies in the HL-LHC crab cavity and to suggest design methodologies to optimise the cavity geometries.

  19. Laser heating of a cavity versus a plane surface for metal targets utilizing photothermal deflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. H.; Greif, R.; Russo, R. E.

    1996-08-01

    The effects of a cylindrical cavity in a metal surface on the energy coupling of a laser beam with the solid were investigated by using a photothermal deflection technique. The photothermal deflection of a probe beam over the cavity was measured while the bottom of the cavity was heated with a Nd-YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. Cavities in three different materials and with two different aspect ratios were used for the experiment. Temperature distributions in the solid and the surrounding air were computed numerically and used to calculate photothermal deflections for cavity heating and for plane surface heating. Reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity increased the photothermal deflection amplitude significantly with larger increases for materials with larger thermal diffusivity. The computed photothermal deflections agreed more closely with the experimental results when reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity was included in the numerical model. The overall energy coupling between a heating laser and a solid is enhanced by a cavity.

  20. Solar noise storms

    CERN Document Server

    Elgaroy, E O

    2013-01-01

    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  1. Decoherence from 1/f Flux Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-30

    separate experiment, they have suppressed the surface spin susceptibility by a factor of 3 by enclosing the sample in an evacuated hermetic cell and...noise in this cell. Finally, they have begun to investigate possible magnetic contributions to high- frequency loss . For a typical coplanar geometry, the...magnetic participation ratio of a ~ 1 nm layer of adsorbed molecular oxygen is around 10-4, of the same order as the dielectric participation ratio

  2. Helicopter Noise And Noise Abatement Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The helicopter generated noise at and around the airports islower than the noise generated by aeroplanes, since their numberof operations, i. e. the number of takeoffs and landings ismuch lower than the takeoffs and landings of the aeroplanes.Out of some hundred operations a day, helicopters participatewith approximately 15%, but the very impact of noise is by nomeans negligible, since the number of helicopter flights aboveurban areas is constantly increasing.This paper attempts to analyse this phenomenon and thetype of helicopter generated noise, its negative impacts, to explainthe flight procedures and the operative procedures duringtakeoff, landing and overflight of helicopters in operations inthe vicinity and outside airports, as well as the methods of measuringand determining the limit of noise [eve~ and the resultingproblems.

  3. Q-adjusting technique applied to vertical deflections estimation in a single-axis rotation INS/GPS integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xingshu; Wang, Jun; Dai, Dongkai; Xiong, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Former studies have proved that the attitude error in a single-axis rotation INS/GPS integrated system tracks the high frequency component of the deflections of the vertical (DOV) with a fixed delay and tracking error. This paper analyses the influence of the nominal process noise covariance matrix Q on the tracking error as well as the response delay, and proposed a Q-adjusting technique to obtain the attitude error which can track the DOV better. Simulation results show that different settings of Q lead to different response delay and tracking error; there exists optimal Q which leads to a minimum tracking error and a comparatively short response delay; for systems with different accuracy, different Q-adjusting strategy should be adopted. In this way, the DOV estimation accuracy of using the attitude error as the observation can be improved. According to the simulation results, the DOV estimation accuracy after using the Q-adjusting technique is improved by approximate 23% and 33% respectively compared to that of the Earth Model EGM2008 and the direct attitude difference method.

  4. On-chip free-flow magnetophoresis: Separation and detection of mixtures of magnetic particles in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamme, Nicole; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Manz, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The complete separation of mixtures of magnetic particles was achieved by on-chip free-flow magnetophoresis. In continuous flow, magnetic particles were deflected from the direction of larninar flow by a perpendicular magnetic field depending on their magnetic susceptibility and size and on the flow

  5. Caracterización del envejecimiento de tuberías de vapor de centrales térmicas empleando el efecto Barkhausen//Characterization of steam pipes ageing degree from power plants using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de los Reyes-Rodríguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracteriza el grado de envejecimiento del acero 12Cr1MoV con el ruido magnético de Barkhausen por dos métodos. Para ello se realiza un estudio de la evolución microestructural en condiciones de operación (15MPa, 550ºC desde 100000 h a 150000 h, utilizando técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido. En el primer método los experimentos revelan una disminución de la raíz cuadrada media del voltaje con el tiempo de explotación, lo cual se atribuye a la disminución del número de paredes de dominio por unidad de área con el aumento del tamaño de grano. En el segundo método se evalúa el nivel de esferoidización y el tamaño medio de los carburos a partir de la altura total del segundo pico de la envolvente de la señal Barkhausen, mostrando una disminución debido a un cambio en la forma acicular y en el tamaño medio de los carburos. Palabras claves: grado de envejecimiento, ruido barkhausen, tuberías de vapor, carburos._______________________________________________________________________________ Abstract In this paper, an ageing degree characterization of 12Cr1MoV steel using two method of magnetic Barkhausen noise is developed. A study of the microstructural evolution during ageing at operated conditions (15MPa, 550ºC from 100000 h up to 150000 h was carried out using optic and scanning electron microscopy techniques. In the first method the experiments reveal a decreasing of root mean square of voltage with the ageing time, which is attributed to the decreasing of domain walls number per area units with the grain size increasing. In the second method the spheroidization level/average size of carbides was analyzed too with the total second peak height, determining a decreasing due to the change of the shape, size and acicularity of carbides phase. Key words: ageing degree, barkhausen noise, steam pipes, carbides.

  6. Investigation of beam deflection reduction and multi-beamlet focus at a large-area negative ion source for a neutral beam injector with 3-D beam trajectory simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, M; Asano, E; Oka, Y; Osakabe, M; Tsumori, K; Kaneko, O; Yamashita, Y

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the reduction of ion beam deflection caused by electron deflection magnets, and focus of multi-beamlets at a large-area negative ion source of a neutral beam injector (NBI) in order to reduce beam loss during long-distance beam transport (>10 m) and beam injection into a nuclear fusion device. The electrostatic lens effect by displacement of the beam extraction aperture of a grounded grid (GG) was utilized for the beam deflection reduction and the multi-beamlet focus. We proposed an analysis process to adjust the aperture displacement which avoids beam collision with the GG by too much displacement. The analysis process includes a 3-D beam trajectory simulation used for analyzing the beam deflection angle and beam radius as well as theoretical calculations, which are used to calculate the aperture displacement based on the 3-D simulation results. Applicability of the analysis process was examined for a large-area high-current H sup - ion source of an NBI (0.25 mx1.25 m, 40 A, 180 keV). The ana...

  7. Estimation of Hysteresis Loss in Deflection Yoke Ring%偏转磁芯中磁滞损耗的估测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓兵; 尹涵春

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic flux density in the yoke ring has been calculated by measuring the magnetic flux density in deflection area and the induced voltage of the pick-up coil.According to the empirical formula of hysteresis loss,the loss of Philips’ 17 inch CMT has been estimated.The analysis method can be used to optimize the deflection yoke ring,and to properly select the ferrite materials for energy dissipation reduction.%通过空间磁场和感应电压的测量,对偏转磁芯中的磁通密度分布进行了计算,并根据磁滞损耗的经验公式对Philips 17英寸CMT的磁滞损耗进行了估测。该方法适用于降低能量损耗的偏转系统磁芯结构的优化和磁性材料的选择等。

  8. Deflection of 32.8 TeV/c fully stripped Pb ions by means of a bent Si crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Biino, C; Doble, Niels T; Elsener, K; Gatignon, L; Grafström, P; Herr, Werner; Keppler, P; Major, J V; Mikkelsen, U; Taratin, A; Velasco, M

    2000-01-01

    New results on the deflection of fully stripped 32.8 TeV/c Pb ions in a bent Si crystal at the CERN-SPS are reported. Deflection efficiencies above 10% have been measured for deflection angles in the range 4-9 mrad.The effect of particle losses due to interaction in the crystal and other systematic errors have been carefully investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical calculations

  9. Deflection of 32.8 TeV/c fully stripped Pb ions by means of a bent Si crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K. E-mail: konrad.elsener@cern.ch; Gatignon, L.; Grafstroem, P.; Herr, W.; Keppler, P.; Major, J.; Mikkelsen, U.; Taratin, A.; Velasco, M

    2000-04-01

    New results on the deflection of fully stripped 32.8 TeV/c Pb ions in a bent Si crystal at the CERN-SPS are reported. Deflection efficiencies above 10% have been measured for deflection angles in the range 4-9 mrad. The effect of particle losses due to interaction in the crystal and other systematic errors have been carefully investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  10. Deflection of 32.8 TeV/c fully stripped Pb ions by means of a bent Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biino, C.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Herr, W.; Keppler, P.; Major, J.; Mikkelsen, U.; Taratin, A.; Velasco, M.

    2000-03-01

    New results on the deflection of fully stripped 32.8 TeV/c Pb ions in a bent Si crystal at the CERN-SPS are reported. Deflection efficiencies above 10% have been measured for deflection angles in the range 4-9 mrad. The effect of particle losses due to interaction in the crystal and other systematic errors have been carefully investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  11. Solar system constraints on asymptotically flat IR modified Horava gravity through light deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai; Lu, Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the motion of photons around a Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) black hole and obtain constraints on IR modified Ho$\\check{r}$ava gravity without cosmological constant ($\\sim \\Lambda_{W}$). An analytic formula for the light deflection angle is obtained. For a propagating photon, the deflection angle $\\delta \\varphi$ increases with large values of the Ho$\\check{r}$ava gravity parameter $\\omega$. Under the UV limit $\\omega \\longrightarrow \\infty$, deflection angle reduces to the result of usual Schwarzschild case, $4GM/R$. It is also found that with increasing scale of astronomical observation system the Ho$\\check{r}$ava-Lifshitz gravity should satisfy $|\\omega M^2|>1.1725 \\times10^{-16}$ with $12%$ precision for Earth system, $|\\omega M^2| > 8.27649 \\times 10^{-17}$ with $17%$ precision for Jupiter system and $|\\omega M^2| > 8.27650\\times 10^{-15}$ with $0.17%$ precision for solar system.

  12. The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, O

    2015-01-01

    The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.

  13. Flame four-dimensional deflection tomography with compressed-sensing-revision reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Minmin; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Zhaohang

    2016-08-01

    Deflection tomography with limited angle projections was investigated to visualize a premixed flame. A projection sampling system for deflection tomography was used to obtain chronological deflectogram arrays at six view angles with only a pair of gratings. A new iterative reconstruction algorithm with deflection angle compressed-sensing revision was developed to improve reconstruction-distribution quality from incomplete projection data. Numerical simulation and error analysis provided a good indication of algorithm precision and convergence. In the experiment, 150 fringes were processed, and temperature distributions in 20 cross-sections were reconstructed from projection data in four instants. Four-dimensional flame structures and temperature distributions in the flame interior were visualized using the visualization toolkit. The experimental reconstruction was then compared with the result obtained from computational fluid dynamic analysis.

  14. Converse Piezoelectric Effect Induced Transverse Deflection of a Free-Standing ZnO Microbelt

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Youfan

    2009-07-08

    We demonstrate the first electric field induced transverse deflection of a single-crystal, free-standing ZnO microbelt as a result of converse piezoelectric effect. For a microbelt growing along the c-axis, a shear stress in the a-c plane can be induced when an electric field E is applied along the a-axis of the wurtzite structure. As amplified by the large aspect ratio of the microbelt that grows along the c-axis, the strain localized near the root can be detected via the transverse deflection perpendicular to the ZnO microbelt. After an experimental approach was carefully designed and possible artifacts were ruled out, the experimentally observed degree of deflection of the microbelt agrees well with the theoretically expected result. The device demonstrated has potential applications as transverse actuators/sensors/switches and electric field induced mechanical deflectors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  15. High power RF system for transverse deflecting structure XFEL TDS INJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobuev, E. N.; Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Smirnov, A. J.; Sobenin, N. P.; Churanov, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    The high power RF system (HPRF) is designed for RF feeding of the transverse deflecting structure of the transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS System INJ of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser. The HPRF system includes klystron, waveguide ceramic windows, directional couplers, waveguide vacuum units, spark detector and waveguide line. Operating frequency is 2997.2 MHz. Peak input power is up to 3 MW. The HPRF system has been developed, manufactured and assembled in the XFEL Injector building. The total length of the waveguide line is 55 m from the klystron at the -5 floor to the transverse deflecting structure at the -7 floor. All designed RF parameters have been obtained experimentally at low RF power level.

  16. Deflection and Vibration Control of Laminated Plates Using Extension and Shear Actuated Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of surface bonded and embedded piezoelectric composite actuators is examined through a numerical study. Modelling schemes are therefore developed by applying the isoparametric finite element approach to idealise extension-bending and shear-bending couplings due to piezoelectric actuations. A modal control based linear quadratic regulator is employed to perform the active vibration control studies. Influence of shear actuation direction and its width has been examined and interesting deflection patterns are noticed. The through width SAFC develops a constant deflection beyond its length along the laminated plate length. In contrast, segmented SAFC produces a moderate to linearly varying deflection pattern. MFC actuators have shown promising features in vibration control performances. Nevertheless, closed loop damping presents the efficiency of SAFC in the vibration control application. It is therefore envisaged that optimally actuated smart laminates can be designed using MFC and SAFC to efficiently counteract the disturbance forces.

  17. Cryogenic Test of a Proof-of-Principle Superconducting RF-Dipole Deflecting and Crabbing Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, S U; Delayen, Jean Roger

    2013-01-01

    Recent applications in need of compact low-frequency deflecting and crabbing cavities have initiated the design and development of new superconducting structures operating at high gradients with low losses. Previously, TM$_{110}$ -type deflecting and crabbing cavities were developed and have also been operated successfully. However, these geometries are not favorable designs for low operating frequencies. The superconducting rf-dipole cavity is the first compact deflecting and crabbing geometry that has demonstrated high gradients and high shunt impedance. Since the fundamental operating mode is the lowest mode and is widely separated from the nearest higher order mode, the rf-dipole design is an attractive geometry for effective damping of the higher order modes in high current applications. A 400 MHz rf-dipole cavity was designed, fabricated, and tested as a proof-of-principle cavity. The cavity achieved high operating gradients, and the multipacting levels were easily processed and did not reoccur.

  18. Simultaneous Optical Measurements of Axial and Tangential Steady-State Blade Deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the majority of fiber-optic blade instrumentation is being designed and manufactured by aircraft-engine companies for their own use. The most commonly employed probe for optical blade deflection measurements is the spot probe. One of its characteristics is that the incident spot on a blade is not fixed relative to the blade, but changes depending on the blade deformation associated with centrifugal and aerodynamic loading. While there are geometrically more complicated optical probe designs in use by different engine companies, this paper offers an alternate solution derived from a probe-mount design feature that allows one to change the probe axial position until the incident spot contacts either a leading or a trailing edge. By tracing the axial position of either blade edge one is essentially extending the deflection measurement to two dimensions, axial and tangential. The blade deflection measurements were obtained during a wind tunnel test of a fan prototype.

  19. Deflected anomaly mediated SUSY breaking scenario with general messenger–matter interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to introduce general messenger–matter interactions in the deflected anomaly mediated SUSY breaking scenario. The most general form for the resulting soft parameters is derived. New interference terms between the GMSB type and AMSB type contributions are the unique feature of this scenario. Messenger–matter interactions involving sleptons can be used to solve the tachyonic slepton problem and naturally lead to positive slepton masses regardless of the sign of deflection parameter. Besides, due to the new contributions, large |At| that will not trigger color-breaking stop VEV are also possible in this scenario, thus can easily give the 125 GeV higgs which was discovered by LHC. This type of deflected AMSB scenario need very few messenger species, thus can avoid possible non-perturbative gauge couplings below the GUT scale (or Landau pole below the Planck scale.

  20. Enhanced Deflection of Light Ray by Atomic Ensemble on Coherent Population Oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jing; ZHOU Lan; KUANG Le-Man

    2009-01-01

    In recent experiments [e.g., Nature Physics 2 (2006) 332], the enhanced light deflection in an atomic ensemble due to inhomogeneous fields is demonstrated by the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) based mechanism. In this paper, we explore a different mechanism for the similar phenomenon of the enhanced light deflection.This mechanism is based on the coherent population oscillation, which leads to the hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The medium causing the deflection of probe light is an ensemble of two-level atoms manipulated by a strong controlled field on the two photon resonances. In the large detuning condition, the response of the medium to the pump field and signal field is obtained with steady state approximation. And it is found that after the probe field travels across the medium, the signal ray bends due to the spatial-dependent profile of the control beam.

  1. The Influence of the Supporting Wheel Deflection of Large-scale Rotary Kiln on Maximum Contact Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuejun; Qiu Weiliang; Yuan Yincai; Li Ping

    2006-01-01

    The relation between the maximum contact stress ratio and deflection angle is derived from Hertz contact theory when the deflection of rotary kiln supporting wheel happens. According to the analysis of practical example, the maximum contact stress ratio within the deflection range of rotary kiln supporting wheel is listed. The contact stress will increase largely when rotary kiln supporting wheel deflects with little angle,which probably will result in accidents correlating to safety. This will provide theory conference for the design,the operating condition analysis and adjusting of the rotary kiln.

  2. Noise Gating Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.

    2017-08-01

    I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO

  3. Deflection estimation of a wind turbine blade using FBG sensors embedded in the blade bonding line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Woo-Ram; Jeong, Min-Soo; Lee, In; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the deflection of flexible composite wind turbine blades is very important to prevent the blades from hitting the tower. Several researchers have used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors—a type of optical fiber sensor (OFS)—to monitor the structural behavior of the blades. They can be installed on the surface and/or embedded in the interior of composites. However, the typical installation positions of OFSs present several problems, including delamination of sensing probes and a higher risk of fiber breakage during installation. In this study, we proposed using the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap as a new installation position of embedded OFSs for estimating the deflection of the blades. Laboratory coupon tests were undertaken preliminarily to confirm the strain measuring capability of embedded FBG sensors in adhesive layers, and the obtained values were verified by comparison with results obtained by electrical strain gauges and finite element analysis. We performed static loading tests on a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade to evaluate its deflections using embedded FBG sensors positioned in the bonding line. The deflections were estimated by classical beam theory considering a rigid body rotation near the tip of the blade. The evaluated tip deflections closely matched those measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Therefore, we verified the capability of embedded FBG sensors for evaluating the deflections of wind turbine blades. In addition, we confirmed that the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap is a practical location to embed the FBG sensors.

  4. Determination of peak deflections from human surrogates using chestbands in side impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J

    2013-08-01

    To understand the biomechanics of the human body in motor vehicle environments, physical models including anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) and biological models (postmortem human surrogates) are used, and sled tests are conducted. Deflection is often used as a biomechanical variable to characterize the effects of impact loading and derive injury criteria. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different techniques and recommend a methodology to determine the peak thorax and abdominal deflections from temporal contours using chestbands in oblique lateral impacts. The side impact ATD WorldSID representing human surrogates was positioned on a seat. The seat was rigidly fixed to the platform of an acceleration sled. The oblique load-wall fixed to the sled consisted of separate and adjustable plates to contact the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Two 59-gage chestbands were wrapped on the thorax and abdomen. Tests were conducted at low, medium, and high velocities (3.4, 6.7, and 7.5m/s) and three methods, termed the spine-sternum, bilateral, and spine-box, were used to determine the global peak deflection and its angulation. Results indicated that all three methods produced very similar angulations, for all velocity tests, and at both thorax and abdominal regions. However, maximum deflections were the lowest in the spine-sternum, followed by bilateral and spine-box methods, with one exception. Based on the development of deflection contours, locations used in the definitions of the origin, and accuracy in identifying critical locations/points in time-varying contours, results of the present study indicate that the bilateral method is the optimum procedure to determine the oblique peak deflection vector in biomechanical tests.

  5. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  6. Introductory guide to noise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, T.M

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between sound and noise varies from one human being to another. Noise, then, is simply unwanted sound and to understand how it can be combatted we must know more about its nature. A guide of acceptable levels of noise are investigated....

  7. Tip position control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator based on nonlinear deflection feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oke, G. E-mail: oke@boun.edu.tr; Istefanopulos, Y

    2003-07-01

    The control of flexible link manipulators has gained an increasing importance in robotics, in recent years. To control the tip of a flexible manipulator, the joint angles should converge to the desired positions fast and elastic deflections must be effectively suppressed. In this study, a two-link flexible manipulator is controlled by three methods and the results are compared. These methods are, Pd control, PD control augmented by a nonlinear correction term feedback, where the correction term is a function of the deflection of each link, and an adaptive fuzzy controller with the nonlinear correction term feedback. Simulations have been carried out to compare the performances of all three methods.

  8. Static deflection analysis of non prismatic multilayer p-NEMS cantilevers under electrical load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavithra, M., E-mail: pavithramasi78@gmail.com [PhD Research Scholar, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-46 (India); Muruganand, S. [Assistant professor, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-46 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Deflection of Euler-Bernoulli non prismatic multilayer piezoelectric nano electromechanical (p-NEMS) cantilever beams have been studied theoretically for various profiles of p-NEMS cantilevers by applying the electrical load. This problem has been answered by applying the boundary conditions derived by simple polynomials. This method is applied for various profiles like rectangular and trapezoidal by varying the thickness of the piezoelectric layer as well as the material. The obtained results provide the better deflection for trapezoidal profile with ZnO piezo electric layer of suitable nano cantilevers for nano scale applications.

  9. Probability-based method using RFEM for predicting wall deflection caused by excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-geng TANG

    2011-01-01

    This study employs the random finite element method (RFEM) to analyze the wall deflection caused by excavation.The RFEM combined random fields of material properties with the FEM through the Monte Carlo simulation.A well-documented excavation case history is employed to evaluate the influence of uncertainty of analysis parameters.This study shows that RFEM can provide reasonable estimations of the exceedance probability of wall deflection caused by excavation,and has the potential to be a useful tool to account for the uncertainties of material and model parameters in the numerical analysis.

  10. Orbital Simulations on Deflecting Near-Earth Objects by Directed Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin J.; Melis, Carl; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Laser ablation of a Near-Earth Object (NEO) on a collision course with Earth produces a cloud of ejecta which exerts a thrust on the NEO, deflecting it from its original trajectory. Ablation may be performed from afar by illuminating an Earth-targeting asteroid or comet with a stand-off "DE- STAR" system consisting of a large phased-array laser in Earth orbit. Alternatively, a much smaller stand-on "DE-STARLITE" system may travel alongside the target, slowly deflecting it from nearby over a l...

  11. A Novel Deflection Method for Measuring the Growth Stress of Thermally Growing Oxide Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A kind of new deflection technique has been developed for measuring the growth stress of thermally growing oxide scales duringhigh temperature oxidation of alloys. The average growth stresses in oxide scales such as Al2O3, NiO and Cr2O3 formed onthe surface of the superalloys can be investigated by this technique. Unlike the comventional deflection method, the novelmethod does not need to apply a coating for preventing one main face of thin strip specimen from oxidizing and can be usedunaer tne condition of longer time and higher temperature.

  12. Wind tunnel testing of a closed-loop wake deflection controller for wind farm power maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Filippo; Petrović, Vlaho; Schreiber, Johannes; Nanos, Emmanouil M.; Croce, Alessandro; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results from wind tunnel tests aimed at evaluating a closed- loop wind farm controller for wind farm power maximization by wake deflection. Experiments are conducted in a large boundary layer wind tunnel, using three servo-actuated and sensorized wind turbine scaled models. First, we characterize the impact on steady-state power output of wake deflection, achieved by yawing the upstream wind turbines. Next, we illustrate the capability of the proposed wind farm controller to dynamically driving the upstream wind turbines to the optimal yaw misalignment setting.

  13. Laser-driven deflection arrangements and methods involving charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettner, Tomas [San Ramon, CA; Byer, Robert L [Stanford, CA

    2011-08-09

    Systems, methods, devices and apparatus are implemented for producing controllable charged particle beams. In one implementation, an apparatus provides a deflection force to a charged particle beam. A source produces an electromagnetic wave. A structure, that is substantially transparent to the electromagnetic wave, includes a physical structure having a repeating pattern with a period L and a tilted angle .alpha., relative to a direction of travel of the charged particle beam, the pattern affects the force of the electromagnetic wave upon the charged particle beam. A direction device introduces the electromagnetic wave to the structure to provide a phase-synchronous deflection force to the charged particle beam.

  14. Control of deflection deformation of plate-shape castings in solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤淑; 金英达

    2003-01-01

    The deformation mechanism during the solidification was analyzed based on the experimental results ofthe castings. An approximate quadratic differential equation and its discrete model of calculation deflection were pro-posed. The model indicates that the key factors leading to the deflection deformation are the thermal bending mo-ment M and the flexural rigidity E.J. The smaller the former and the larger the latter is, the smaller the deflectiondeformation will be. The experiments are carried out at various technical conditions, and their results appear good a-greement with calculation ones. A method was proposed to predict and control the casting deformation.

  15. In Situ Characterization of the Local Work Function along Individual Free Standing Nanowire by Electrostatic Deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yicong; Zhao, Chengchun; Huang, Feng; Zhan, Runze; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-17

    In situ characterization of the work function of quasi one dimensional nanomaterials is essential for exploring their applications. Here we proposed to use the electrostatic deflection induced by work function difference between nanoprobe and nanowire for in situ measuring the local work function along a free standing nanowire. The physical mechanism for the measurement was discussed in details and a parabolic relationship between the deflection and the potential difference was derived. As a demonstration, measurement of the local work functions on the tip and the sidewall of a ZnO nanowire with Au catalyst at its end and a LaB6 nanowire have been achieved with good accuracy.

  16. Deflection of 450 GeV protons by planar channeling in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, B. N.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Atherton, H. W.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Jeanneret, J. B.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.

    1992-08-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been bent by various angles from 4 to 14 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal. Detailed investigations of the deflected beam as well as the unbent and scattered particles have been performed. The incident beam had a divergence of about 35 μrad (FWHM). 20% of the protons hitting the crystal front face were found to be initially channeled. The measured bending efficiencies range from 5 to 2% (for increasing deflection angles) are compared to theoretical estimates including surface acceptance and dechanneling in bent silicon crystals.

  17. Deflection of 450 GeV protons by planar channeling in a bent silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B.N.; Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E.; Worm, T. (Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation, Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)); Atherton, H.W.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstroem, P.; Jeanneret, J.B. (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)); Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1992-08-01

    A 450 GeV proton beam has been bent by various angles from 4 to 14 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal. Detailed investigations of the deflected beam as well as the unbent and scattered particles have been performed. The incident beam had a divergence of about 35 [mu]rad (FWHM). 20% of the protons hitting the crystal front face were found to be initially channeled. The measured bending efficiencies range from 5 to 2% (for increasing deflection angles) and are compared to theoretical estimates including surface acceptance and dechanneling in bent silicon crystals. (orig.).

  18. Analysis of HOM Properties of Superconducting Parallel-Bar Deflecting/Crabbing Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen

    2011-07-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar cavity is currently being considered for a number of deflecting and crabbing applications due to improved properties and compact design geometries. The 499 MHz deflecting cavity proposed for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade and the 400 MHz crab cavity for the proposed LHC luminosity upgrade are two of the major applications. For high current applications the higher order modes must be damped to acceptable levels to eliminate any beam instabilities. The frequencies and R/Q of the HOMs and mode separation are evaluated and compared for different parallel-bar cavity designs.

  19. The ellipsoidal corrections for boundary value problems of deflection of the vertical with ellipsoid boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The boundary value problem of deflections of vertical with ellipsoid boundary is studied in the paper. Based on spherical harmonic series, the ellipsoidal corrections for the boundary value problem are derived so that it can be well solved. In addition, an imitation arithmetic is given for examining the accuracies of solutions for the boundary value problem as well as its spherical approximation problem, and the computational results illustrate that the boundary value problem has higher accuracy than its spherical approximation problem if deflection of the vertical are measured on geoid.

  20. Comparison between Deflection and Vibration Characteristics of Rectangular and Trapezoidal profile Microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booun Bang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of microcantilevers are increasingly being used as physical, biological, and chemical sensors in various applications. To improve the sensitivity of microcantilever sensors, this study analyses and compares the deflection and vibration characteristics of rectangular and trapezoidal profile microcantilevers. Three models of each profile are investigated. The cantilevers are analyzed for maximum deflection, fundamental resonant frequency and maximum stress. The surface stress is modelled as in-plane tensile force applied on the top edge of the microcantilevers. A commercial finite element analysis software ANSYS is used to analyze the designs. Results show paddled trapezoidal profile microcantilevers have better sensitivity.

  1. Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a knee...

  2. Spin-flip noise in a multiterminal spin valve

    OpenAIRE

    Belzig, Wolfgang; Zareyan, Malek

    2004-01-01

    We study shot noise and cross-correlations in a four terminal spin-valve geometry using a Boltzmann-Langevin approach. The Fano factor (shot noise to current ratio) depends on the magnetic configuration of the leads and the spin-flip processes in the normal metal. In a four-terminal geometry, spin-flip processes are particularly prominent in the cross-correlations between terminals with opposite magnetization.

  3. Shot Noise in a Mesoscopic Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-Biao; WANG Shun-Jin; LI Lei

    2006-01-01

    The charge conductance and the shot noise in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with double quantum dots embedded and coupled to each other by a capacity are studied in the framework of the equation of motion of Green's flunction.From the impurity Anderson model Hamiltonian,the equations of motion of nonequilibrium Green functions are derived and solved including the effects of two body correlations under Lacrolx's approximation.Our results show that the conductance,the shot noise,and the Fano factor (the ratio of the shot noise to the Poisson noise)as functions of the magnetic flux oscillate with the period of h/e,and their oscillation behaviour is similar to the resuIts of the experiment replacing the capacitive coupling by tunnelling between the two dots.The experiment is suggested to test the results.

  4. Thermal-noise-limited underground interferometer CLIO

    CERN Document Server

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Kawamura, Seiji; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Miyakawa, Osamu; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Telada, Souichi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current status of CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory), which is a prototype interferometer for LCGT (Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational-wave Telescope). LCGT is a Japanese next-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector featuring the use of cryogenic mirrors and a quiet underground site. The main purpose of CLIO is to demonstrate a reduction of the mirror thermal noise by cooling the sapphire mirrors. CLIO is located in an underground site of the Kamioka mine, 1000 m deep from the mountain top, to verify its advantages. After a few years of commissioning work, we have achieved a thermal-noise-limited sensitivity at room temperature. One of the main results of noise hunting was the elimination of thermal noise caused by a conductive coil-holder coupled with a pendulum through magnets.

  5. The Gravitational Effects of a Celestial Body with Magnetic Charge and Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gravitational effects (precession of charge-less particles and deflection of light) in the gravitational field of a celestial body with magnetic charge and moment (CM)are investigated. We found that the magnetic charge always weakens the pure Schwarzschild effects, while the magnetic dipole moment deforms the effects in a more complicated way.

  6. Large deflection analysis of a tension-foil bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are as follows: rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's. CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contacts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exist for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. Recently, a new tension-foil bearing configuration has been proposed for turbomachinery applications.

  7. Adaptive Noise Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Ropuš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is an all-present environment pollutant, considered to be one of the greatest contemporary pollutants. World-wide, co-ordinated actions are conducted in order to develop systems which minimise the noise influence onto society.In this article we argue that novel approach to suppression of influence of noise is useful. Furthermore, we argue that the efficient approach is formulation of the efficient, broadly applicable, ubiquituous, adaptive noise-protection system. The approach combines the natural noise-protection form based on plants with the artificially formed coatings.Elements of the system are discussed, its formation and maintenance analysed and perspectives conjectured.

  8. Low-noise amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Gulkov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of signal and noise processing device is considered in this article. It contains two channels: the main channel (MC contains the mixture of signal and noise, and compensation channel (CC that extracts just a noise from the mixture. The feature of the processing circuit is that the mixture samples are formed by short impulses at the moments of passing signal through zero. Further antiphase noise is set in the channels, adder by which the noise is removed from mixture is set on the cannels output. Study of the described device was carried out for simulated AM signal and white Gaussian noise in simulation environment Matlab. The results are shown, that device reduces noise by 16 dB of power.

  9. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  10. Analisis Struktur Balok Non Prismatis Menggunakan Metode Persamaan Slope – Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Slope – deflection equation method is an analysis method to solve statically indeterminate structure. This method is a simple technique to analyze continuous beam, either prismatic or non prismatic. The technique for analyzing non prismatic beam is based on the prismatic beam concept, but with the introduce of some modification coefficient. These coefficients are available in some textbook discussing about structural analysis. This research has an objective to compare the analysis result of a continuous non prismatic beam, with slope – deflection equation method, and result from a structural analysis program (i.e. SAP 2000 v.11.00. The internal moment at the joints produced from this two method will be compared each other. The results show that there is a small difference resulted in internal moment, obtained from hand calculation with slope – deflection method and from software output. The differences resulted from this two techniques are 2 up to 6%. Based on this result it can be stated that slope-deflection method can be used to analyze statically indeterminate nonprismatic beam with some modification factors. The result obtained is nearly the same with one obtained from commercial softwares. 

  11. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  12. DEFLECTION OF A HETEROGENEOUS WIDE-BEAM UNDER UNIFORM PRESSURE LOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. V. Holschuh; T. K. Howard; W. R. Marcum

    2014-07-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or generic test plate assembly (GTPA), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates onset by hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Fuels Development Program. This study’s focus supports the ongoing collaborative effort by detailing the derivation of an analytic solution for deflection of a heterogeneous plate under a uniform, distributed load in order to predict the deflection of test plates in the GTPA. The resulting analytical solutions for three specific boundary condition sets are then presented against several test cases of a homogeneous plate. In all test cases considered, the results for both homogeneous and heterogeneous plates are numerically identical to one another, demonstrating correct derivation of the heterogeneous solution. Two additional problems are presents herein that provide a representative deflection profile for the plates under consideration within the GTPA. Furthermore, qualitative observations are made about the influence of a more-rigid internal fuel-meat region and its influence on the overall deflection profile of a plate. Present work is being directed to experimentally confirm the analytical solution’s results using select materials.

  13. Systematic characterization of optical beam deflection measurement system for micro and nanomechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Klop, W.A.; Eschen, M.; Dool, T.C. van den; Koster, N.B.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement method is very popular in various types of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and micro/nanomechanical sensors to measure a mechanical motion. This paper reports the detail design and implementation of a very low drift (2 nm over 1000 s), high bandwidth (40 MHz

  14. Experimental and numerical study on vibrations and static deflection of a thin hyperelastic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabili, Marco; Balasubramanian, Prabakaran; Breslavsky, Ivan D.; Ferrari, Giovanni; Garziera, Rinaldo; Riabova, Kseniia

    2016-12-01

    The hyperelastic behavior of a thin square silicone rubber plate has been investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally; the case of small-amplitude vibrations has been considered, as well as the case of large static deflection under aerostatic pressure. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model has been chosen to describe the material nonlinear elasticity. The material parameters have been identified by a fitting procedure on the results of a uniaxial traction test. For the analytical model, the equations of motion have been obtained by a unified energy approach, and geometrical nonlinearities are modeled according to the Novozhilov nonlinear shell theory. A numerical model has also been developed by using a commercial Finite-Element code. In the experiments, the silicone rubber plate has been fixed to a heavy metal frame; a certain in-plane pre-load, applied by stretching the plate, has been given in order to ensure a flatness of the surface. An experimental modal analysis has been conducted; results have been used to identify the applied in-plane loads by optimization procedure with two different models: a numerical and an analytical one. The first four experimental and numerical natural modes and frequencies are in good agreement with the experiments after the pre-load identification. The static deflection has been measured experimentally for different pressures. Results have been compared to those obtained by analytical and numerical models. The static deflections are also satisfactorily compared, up to a deflection 50 times larger than the plate thickness, corresponding to a 30 percent strain.

  15. Large-deflection statics analysis of active cardiac catheters through co-rotational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng Qi; Chen Qiu; Mehndiratta, Aadarsh; I-Ming Chen; Haoyong Yu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a co-rotational concept for large-deflection formulation of cardiac catheters. Using this approach, the catheter is first discretized with a number of equal length beam elements and nodes, and the rigid body motions of an individual beam element are separated from its deformations. Therefore, it is adequate for modelling arbitrarily large deflections of a catheter with linear elastic analysis at the local element level. A novel design of active cardiac catheter of 9 Fr in diameter at the beginning of the paper is proposed, which is based on the contra-rotating double helix patterns and is improved from the previous prototypes. The modelling section is followed by MATLAB simulations of various deflections when the catheter is exerted different types of loads. This proves the feasibility of the presented modelling approach. To the best knowledge of the authors, it is the first to utilize this methodology for large-deflection static analysis of the catheter, which will enable more accurate control of robot-assisted cardiac catheterization procedures. Future work would include further experimental validations.

  16. Deflection-based method for seismic response analysis of concrete walls: Benchmarking of CAMUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Prabir C. [Civil and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (India)]. E-mail: pcb@aerb.gov.in; Roshan, A.D. [Civil and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (India)

    2007-07-15

    A number of shake table tests had been conducted on the scaled down model of a concrete wall as part of CAMUS experiment. The experiments were conducted between 1996 and 1998 in the CEA facilities in Saclay, France. Benchmarking of CAMUS experiments was undertaken as a part of the coordinated research program on 'Safety Significance of Near-Field Earthquakes' organised by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Technique of deflection-based method was adopted for benchmarking exercise. Non-linear static procedure of deflection-based method has two basic steps: pushover analysis, and determination of target displacement or performance point. Pushover analysis is an analytical procedure to assess the capacity to withstand seismic loading effect that a structural system can offer considering the redundancies and inelastic deformation. Outcome of a pushover analysis is the plot of force-displacement (base shear-top/roof displacement) curve of the structure. This is obtained by step-by-step non-linear static analysis of the structure with increasing value of load. The second step is to determine target displacement, which is also known as performance point. The target displacement is the likely maximum displacement of the structure due to a specified seismic input motion. Established procedures, FEMA-273 and ATC-40, are available to determine this maximum deflection. The responses of CAMUS test specimen are determined by deflection-based method and analytically calculated values compare well with the test results.

  17. Temperature- and deflection- dependences of orthodontic force with Ni-Ti wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaru, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio

    2003-06-01

    Orthodontic forces of Ni-Ti wires examined under the retrained condition on the dental arch model were evaluated with the changes in temperature and deflection. The tested specimens were a commercially available superelastic (W1) wire and two shape memory wires with their nominal A(f) points were 35 degrees C (W2) and 40 degrees C (W3), respectively. They showed typical superelastic hysteresis loops under the restraint condition at 40 degrees C. The force levels were significantly larger than those generally obtained by simple three-bending test. The recovery forces in the plateau region at 1.0 mm deflection were much larger than desired in the clinical guidelines around oral temperatures. In the shape memory wire W3, the recovery force rapidly decreased to zero by a small reduction of the deflection from its maximum. However, the wire again exerted the force with the remaining permanent deflection by temperature rising. It was small compared to the guidelines of desirable orthodontic force and seemed to be useful especially for the hypersensitive patients.

  18. Deflection of a vibrissa leads to a gradient of strain across mechanoreceptors in a mystacial follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Samuel J; Knutsen, Per M; Matthews, David W; Kleinfeld, David

    2015-07-01

    Rodents use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate tactile features during active exploration. The site of mechanical transduction in the vibrissa sensorimotor system is the follicle sinus complex and its associated vibrissa. We study the mechanics within the ring sinus (RS) of the follicle in an ex vivo preparation of the mouse mystacial pad. The sinus region has a relatively dense representation of Merkel mechanoreceptors and longitudinal lanceolate endings. Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy was used to visualize labeled cell nuclei in an ∼ 100-nl vol before and after passive deflection of a vibrissa, which results in localized displacements of the mechanoreceptor cells, primarily in the radial and polar directions about the vibrissa. These displacements are used to compute the strain field across the follicle in response to the deflection. We observe compression in the lower region of the RS, whereas dilation, with lower magnitude, occurs in the upper region, with volumetric strain ΔV/V ∼ 0.01 for a 10° deflection. The extrapolated strain for a 0.1° deflection, the minimum angle that is reported to initiate a spike by primary neurons, corresponds to the minimum strain that activates Piezo2 mechanoreceptor channels.

  19. A load balancing bufferless deflection router for network-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Zhou; Zhangming, Zhu; Duan, Zhou

    2016-07-01

    The bufferless router emerges as an interesting option for cost-efficient in network-on-chip (NoC) design. However, the bufferless router only works well under low network load because deflection more easily occurs as the injection rate increases. In this paper, we propose a load balancing bufferless deflection router (LBBDR) for NoC that relieves the effect of deflection in bufferless NoC. The proposed LBBDR employs a balance toggle identifier in the source router to control the initial routing direction of X or Y for a flit in the network. Based on this mechanism, the flit is routed according to XY or YX routing in the network afterward. When two or more flits contend the same one desired output port a priority policy called nearer-first is used to address output ports allocation contention. Simulation results show that the proposed LBBDR yields an improvement of routing performance over the reported bufferless routing in the flit deflection rate, average packet latency and throughput by up to 13%, 10% and 6% respectively. The layout area and power consumption compared with the reported schemes are 12% and 7% less respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474087, 61322405, 61376039).

  20. Systematic characterization of optical beam deflection measurement system for micro and nanomechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Klop, W.A.; Eschen, M.; Dool, T.C. van den; Koster, N.B.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement method is very popular in various types of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and micro/nanomechanical sensors to measure a mechanical motion. This paper reports the detail design and implementation of a very low drift (2 nm over 1000 s), high bandwidth (40

  1. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  2. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  3. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy J.; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  4. Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huashun; Jiang, Jiasheng

    2017-02-01

    Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode in a two grid electron gun is presented theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation based on the theoretical equations. The influences upon performance and design of electron gun with linear filament cathode, which is used broadly in electrocurtain accelerators, are discussed in detail.

  5. Dealing with Uncertainties in Asteroid Deflection Demonstration Missions: NEOTwIST

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Cano, Juan L; Avila, Javier Martin; Drube, Line; Harris, Alan W; Falke, Albert; Johann, Ulrich; Engel, Kilian; Schwartz, Stephen R; Michel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Deflection missions to near-Earth asteroids will encounter non-negligible uncertainties in the physical and orbital parameters of the target object. In order to reliably assess future impact threat mitigation operations such uncertainties have to be quantified and incorporated into the mission design. The implementation of deflection demonstration missions offers the great opportunity to test our current understanding of deflection relevant uncertainties and their consequences, e.g., regarding kinetic impacts on asteroid surfaces. In this contribution, we discuss the role of uncertainties in the NEOTwIST asteroid deflection demonstration concept, a low-cost kinetic impactor design elaborated in the framework of the NEOShield project. The aim of NEOTwIST is to change the spin state of a known and well characterized near-Earth object, in this case the asteroid (25143) Itokawa. Fast events such as the production of the impact crater and ejecta are studied via cube-sat chasers and a flyby vehicle. Long term chang...

  6. Crack deflection in brittle media with heterogeneous interfaces and its application in shale fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaguang; Wei, Yujie

    Driven by the rapid progress in exploiting unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, there is growing interest in hydraulic fracture of brittle yet heterogeneous shales. In particular, how hydraulic cracks interact with natural weak zones in sedimentary rocks to form permeable cracking networks is of significance in engineering practice. Such a process is typically influenced by crack deflection, material anisotropy, crack-surface friction, crustal stresses, and so on. In this work, we extend the He-Hutchinson theory (He and Hutchinson, 1989) to give the closed-form formulae of the strain energy release rate of a hydraulic crack with arbitrary angles with respect to the crustal stress. The critical conditions in which the hydraulic crack deflects into weak interfaces and exhibits a dependence on crack-surface friction and crustal stress anisotropy are given in explicit formulae. We reveal analytically that, with increasing pressure, hydraulic fracture in shales may sequentially undergo friction locking, mode II fracture, and mixed mode fracture. Mode II fracture dominates the hydraulic fracturing process and the impinging angle between the hydraulic crack and the weak interface is the determining factor that accounts for crack deflection; the lower friction coefficient between cracked planes and the greater crustal stress difference favor hydraulic fracturing. In addition to shale fracking, the analytical solution of crack deflection could be used in failure analysis of other brittle media.

  7. Hydroelastic analysis of a very large floating plate with large deflections in stochastic seaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The hydroelasticity of a very large floating plate with large deflections in multidirectional irregular waves is discussed. After a brief introduction on wave loads on a flexible structure, the paper derives the generalised fluid force acting on a floating structure in multidirectional irregular ...

  8. Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission: the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A.; Michel, P.

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor. AIDA is a joint ESA-NASA cooperative project, which includes the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous spacecraft and the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission. The AIDA target is the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos, which will make an unusually close approach to Earth in October, 2022. The ~300-kg DART spacecraft is designed to impact the Didymos secondary at 6.5 km/s and demonstrate the ability to modify its trajectory through momentum transfer. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to investigate the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, (ii) to demonstrate asteroid deflection by kinetic impact and to characterize the deflection. The primary DART objectives are to demonstrate a hypervelocity impact on the Didymos moon and to determine the resulting deflection from ground-based observatories. The DART impact on the Didymos secondary will cause a measurable change in the orbital period of the binary.

  9. Wide-Band Optical Fibre System for Investigation of MEMS and NEMS Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowska Karolina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the construction of experimental setup for MEMS/NEMS deflection measurements is presented. The system is based on intensity fibre optic detector for linear displacement sensing. Furthermore the electronic devices: current source for driving the light source and photodetector with wide-band preamplifier are presented.

  10. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  11. Aeroacoustic Evaluation of Flap and Landing Gear Noise Reduction Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Ravetta, Patricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements for a semi-span, 18% scale, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The model was used as a test bed to conduct detailed studies of flap and main landing gear noise sources and to determine the effectiveness of numerous noise mitigation concepts. Using a traversing microphone array in the flyover direction, an extensive set of acoustic data was obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the information was acquired with the model in a landing configuration with the flap deflected 39 deg and the main landing gear alternately installed and removed. Data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24 over directivity angles between 56 deg and 116 deg, with 90 deg representing the overhead direction. Measured acoustic spectra showed that several of the tested flap noise reduction concepts decrease the sound pressure levels by 2 - 4 dB over the entire frequency range at all directivity angles. Slightly lower levels of noise reduction from the main landing gear were obtained through the simultaneous application of various gear devices. Measured aerodynamic forces indicated that the tested gear/flap noise abatement technologies have a negligible impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  12. ON THE EVALUATION OF DEFLECTIONS OF THE VERTICAL USING FFT TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There exist three types of convolution formulae for the efficientevaluation of gravity field convolution integrals,i.e.,the planar 2D convolution,the spherical 2D convolution and the spherical 1D convolution.The largest drawback of both the planar and the spherical 2D FFT methods is that,due to the approximations in the kernel function,only inexact results can be achieved.Apparently,the reason is the meridian convergence at higher latitudes.As the meridians converge,the Δφ,Δλ blocks do not form a rectangular grid,as is assumed in 2D FFT methods.It should be pointed out that the meridian convergence not only leads to an approximation error in the kernel function,but also causes an approximation error during the implementation of 2D FFT in computer.In order to meet the increasing need for precise determination of the vertical deflections,this paper derives a more precise planar 2D FFT formula for the computation of the vertical deflections.After having made a detailed comparison between the planar and the spherical 2D FFT formulae,we find out the main source of errors causing the loss in accuracy by applying the conventional spherical 2D FFT method.And then,a modified spherical 2D FFT formula for the computation of the vertical deflections is developed in this paper.A series of numerical tests have been carried out to illustrate the improvement made upon the old spherical 2D FFT.The second part of this paper is to discuss the influences of the spherical harmonic reference field,the limited capsize,and the singular integral on the computation of the vertical deflections.The results of the vertical deflections over China by applying the spherical 1D FFT formula with different integration radii have been compared to the astro-observed vertical deflections in the South China Sea to obtain a set of optimum deflection computation parameters.

  13. Comparison of the Load Deflection Characteristics of Esthetic and Metal Orthodontic Wires on Ceramic Brackets using Three Point Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal Hiralal Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Steel wires showed highest strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load/deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced more deflection at low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  14. Cuspal deflection and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with bulk-fill flowable resin-based composite base materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moorthy, A; Hogg, C H; Dowling, A H;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases.......To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardised Class II cavities incrementally filled with a dimethacrylate RBC or bulk-fill flowable RBC bases....

  15. A geometrically non-linear formulation of a three-dimensional beam element for solving large deflection multibody system problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.B.; Meijaard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A beam finite element formulation for large deflection problems in the analysis of flexible multibody systems has been proposed. In this formulation, a set of independent discrete deformation modes are defined for each element which are related to conventional small deflection beam theory in a co-ro

  16. Obtaining Magnetic Properties of Meteorites Using Magnetic Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Nabelek, L.; Mazanec, M.; Simon, K.; Hruba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic images of Murchison meteorite's and Chelyabinsk meteorite's thin section have been obtained from magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses (Nabelek et al., 2015). Nabelek, L., Mazanec, M., Kdyr, S., and Kletetschka, G., 2015, Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section: Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

  17. Application of artificial neural networks to predict the deflections of reinforced concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Mateusz; Szymańska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear structural mechanics should be taken into account in the practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Cracking is one of the major sources of nonlinearity. Description of deflection of reinforced concrete elements is a computational problem, mainly because of the difficulties in modelling the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of concrete and steel. In design practise, in accordance with technical rules (e.g., Eurocode 2), a simplified approach for reinforced concrete is used, but the results of simplified calculations differ from the results of experimental studies. Artificial neural network is a versatile modelling tool capable of making predictions of values that are difficult to obtain in numerical analysis. This paper describes the creation and operation of a neural network for making predictions of deflections of reinforced concrete beams at different load levels. In order to obtain a database of results, that is necessary for training and testing the neural network, a research on measurement of deflections in reinforced concrete beams was conducted by the authors in the Certified Research Laboratory of the Building Engineering Institute at Wrocław University of Science and Technology. The use of artificial neural networks is an innovation and an alternative to traditional methods of solving the problem of calculating the deflections of reinforced concrete elements. The results show the effectiveness of using artificial neural network for predicting the deflection of reinforced concrete beams, compared with the results of calculations conducted in accordance with Eurocode 2. The neural network model presented in this paper can acquire new data and be used for further analysis, with availability of more research results.

  18. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  19. Nonlinear Coupled Dynamics of a Rod Fastening Rotor under Rub-Impact and Initial Permanent Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear coupled dynamic model of a rod fastening rotor under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection was developed in this paper. The governing motion equation was derived by the D’Alembert principle considering the contact characteristic between disks, nonlinear oil-film force, rub-impact force, unbalance mass, etc. The contact effects between disks was modeled as a flexural spring with cubical nonlinear stiffness. The coupled nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the rub-impact rod fastening rotor bearing system with initial permanent deflection were investigated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Bifurcation diagram, vibration waveform, frequency spectrum, shaft orbit and Poincaré map are used to illustrate the rich diversity of the system response with complicated dynamics. The studies indicate that the coupled dynamic responses of the rod fastening rotor bearing system under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection exhibit a rich nonlinear dynamic diversity, synchronous periodic-1 motion, multiple periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion can be observed under certain conditions. Larger radial stiffness of the stator will simplify the system motion and make the oil whirl weaker or even disappear at a certain rotating speed. With the increase of initial permanent deflection length, the instability speed of the system gradually rises, and the chaotic motion region gets smaller and smaller. The corresponding results can provide guidance for the fault diagnosis of a rub-impact rod fastening rotor with initial permanent deflection and contribute to the further understanding of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the rod fastening rotor bearing system.

  20. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Elda; Matarese, Giovanni; Di Bella, Guido; Nucera, Riccardo; Borsellino, Chiara; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires for correct selection of orthodontic wires. Seven different NiTi wires of two different sizes (0.014 and 0.016 inches), commonly used during the alignment phase, were tested. A three-point bending test was carried out to evaluate the load-deflection characteristics. The archwires were subjected to bending at a constant temperature of 37°C and deflections of 2 and 4 mm. Analysis of variance showed that thermal NiTi wires exerted significantly lower working forces than superelastic wires of the same size in all experimental tests (P Wire size had a significant effect on the forces produced: with an increase in archwire dimension, the released strength increased for both thermal and superelastic wires. Superelastic wires showed, at a deflection of 2 mm, narrow and steep hysteresis curves in comparison with the corresponding thermal wires, which presented a wide interval between loading and unloading forces. During unloading at 4 mm of deflection, all wires showed curves with a wider plateau when compared with 2 mm deflection. Such a difference for the superelastic wires was caused by the martensite stress induced at higher deformation levels. A comprehensive understanding of mechanical characteristics of orthodontic wires is essential and selection should be undertaken in accordance with the behaviour of the different wires. It is also necessary to take into account the biomechanics used. In low-friction mechanics, thermal NiTi wires are to be preferred to superelastic wires, during the alignment phase due to their lower working forces. In conventional straightwire mechanics, a low force archwire would be unable to overcome the resistance to sliding.