WorldWideScience

Sample records for definitive tests included

  1. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  2. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  3. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  4. An Academic Definitions Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Daniel Richard

    2017-01-01

    L2 vocabulary is commonly conceptualized in terms of a size or depth of one's total lexical knowledge and tested discretely with selection-type items. Concerns exist, however, regarding L2 users' ability to cope with unknown vocabulary, especially in the context of academic reading. This motivated the creation of a test which measures the ability…

  5. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  6. 78 FR 60898 - Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally..., ``definition and requirements for a nationally recognized testing laboratory'' (The Regulation). The Regulation... place all submissions, including any personal information provided, in the public docket...

  7. Should Listening and Speaking be included in a Language Test?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗文

    2013-01-01

      Language test is widely used in our daily life for various purposes, while a lot of language tests fail to include listening or speaking for one reason or another. The question that whether this type of test is still valid enough to serve test purposes and have a positive washback for English learning has come up.

  8. Angular momentum in general relativity: The definition at null infinity includes the spatial definition as a special case

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzi, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    I show that the definition of angular momentum at null infinity given by A. Rizzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1150 (1998), reduces to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner definition at spatial infinity in the appropriate limit. This identification reinforces the gauge condition of the null definition as well as the null definition itself. Insight into the place of the null and spatial definitions is also gained. The methods used in this paper are very useful for understanding far-field problems in general rel...

  9. New Directions in Price Test for Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Zipitria, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    The appropriate definition of the relevant market is the main task in competition cases. But this definition, and its application, has proved difficult in abuse of dominance cases, mainly because of the cellophane fallacy. I offer new interpretations for the cointegration test and its vector error correction representation, in antitrust market definition. Then I apply them to define the beer market in Uruguay as an example.

  10. Definition of IMR antenna test techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurka, V. J.

    1984-09-01

    Compact antenna test ranges (CR) with two cylindrical reflectors are compared with other indoor techniques. It is shown that only CR create an electromagnetic field environment suitable for far field simulation. The reflectivity level of CR is better than that of other (indoor and outdoor) ranges. Levels as low as -70 dB are realistic; this implies that an important source of errors in pattern measurements is eliminated. The cross-polar level is relatively high for linear polarization (vertical plane only), but accurate cross-polar measurements are possible. Errors due to amplitude taper are acceptable even for antennas which occupy 60% of the CR dimension (linear). Phase characteristics are almost perfect.

  11. Integrated Language Definition Testing: Enabling Test-Driven Language Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kats, L.C.L.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of compilers, interpreters, and development environments for programming languages is essential for effective software development and maintenance. They are often tested only as an afterthought. Languages with a smaller scope, such as domain-specific languages, often remain untested. General-purpose testing techniques and test case generation methods fall short in providing a low-threshold solution for test-driven language development. In this paper we introduce the notion of ...

  12. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because...

  13. Medicaid program; clarification of outpatient hospital facility (including outpatient hospital clinic) services definition. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    Outpatient hospital services are a mandatory part of the standard Medicaid benefit package. This final rule aligns the Medicaid definition of outpatient hospital services more closely to the Medicare definition in order to: Improve the functionality of the applicable upper payment limits (which are based on a comparison to Medicare payments for the same services), provide more transparency in determining available hospital coverage in any State, and generally clarify the scope of services for which Federal financial participation (FFP) is available under the outpatient hospital services benefit category.

  14. Integrated Language Definition Testing: Enabling Test-Driven Language Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of compilers, interpreters, and development environments for programming languages is essential for effective software development and maintenance. They are often tested only as an afterthought. Languages with a smaller scope, such as domain-specific languages, often remain untested.

  15. Integrated Language Definition Testing: Enabling Test-Driven Language Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of compilers, interpreters, and development environments for programming languages is essential for effective software development and maintenance. They are often tested only as an afterthought. Languages with a smaller scope, such as domain-specific languages, often remain untested.

  16. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case definitions have been recognized to be important elements of public health surveillance systems. They are to assure comparability and consistency of surveillance data and have crucial impact on the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of a surveillance system. The reliability of case definitions has rarely been investigated systematically. Methods We conducted a Round-Robin test by asking all 425 local health departments (LHD and the 16 state health departments (SHD in Germany to classify a selection of 68 case examples using case definitions. By multivariate analysis we investigated factors linked to classification agreement with a gold standard, which was defined by an expert panel. Results A total of 7870 classifications were done by 396 LHD (93% and all SHD. Reporting sensitivity was 90.0%, positive predictive value 76.6%. Polio case examples had the lowest reporting precision, salmonellosis case examples the highest (OR = 0.008; CI: 0.005–0.013. Case definitions with a check-list format of clinical criteria resulted in higher reporting precision than case definitions with a narrative description (OR = 3.08; CI: 2.47–3.83. Reporting precision was higher among SHD compared to LHD (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.14–2.02. Conclusion Our findings led to a systematic revision of the German case definitions and build the basis for general recommendations for the creation of case definitions. These include, among others, that testable yes/no criteria in a check-list format is likely to improve reliability, and that software used for data transmission should be designed in strict accordance with the case definitions. The findings of this study are largely applicable to case definitions in many other countries or international networks as they share the same structural and editorial characteristics of the case definitions evaluated in this study before their revision.

  17. Test definitions for the evaluation of digital waveform recorders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromer, Richard Paul (R.P. Kromer Consulting, Albuquerque, NM); Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2007-07-01

    This Test Definition for the Evaluation of Digitizing Waveform Recorders (DWR) defines the process that can be performed as part of the evaluation and testing of geophysical sensors, digitizers, sensor subsystems and geophysical station/array systems. The objectives are to (1) evaluate the overall technical performance of the DWR, measure the distortions introduced by the high resolution digitizers and provide a performance check of the internal calibrator if provided and (2) evaluate the technical performance of the DWR for a specific sensor application. The results of these evaluations can be compared to the manufacturer's specifications and any relevant application requirements or specifications.

  18. Proposal of a comprehensive definition of modified and other forms of mycotoxins including "masked" mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Marko, Doris; Dänicke, Sven; Mally, Angela; Berthiller, Franz; Klaffke, Horst; Lorenz, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    As the term "masked mycotoxins" encompasses only conjugated mycotoxins generated by plants and no other possible forms of mycotoxins and their modifications, we hereby propose for all these forms a systematic definition consisting of four hierarchic levels. The highest level differentiates the free and unmodified forms of mycotoxins from those being matrix-associated and from those being modified in their chemical structure. The following lower levels further differentiate, in particular, "modified mycotoxins" into "biologically modified" and "chemically modified" with all variations of metabolites of the former and dividing the latter into "thermally formed" and "non-thermally formed" ones. To harmonize future scientific wording and subsequent legislation, we suggest that the term "modified mycotoxins" should be used in the future and the term "masked mycotoxins" to be kept for the fraction of biologically modified mycotoxins that were conjugated by plants.

  19. A quantitative definition of hypervalencyElectronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full data for charge calculations on the test set of molecules; original data for Fig. 1-3, including geometries, energies and QTAIM charges; geometries and QTAIM charges for all other species; worked examples of γ calculations; results for alternative charge models. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02076j

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durrant, Marcus C

    2015-01-01

    From the inception of Lewis' theory of chemical bonding, hypervalency has remained a point of difficulty that has not been fully resolved by the currently accepted qualitative definition of this term...

  20. Initial field testing definition of subsurface sealing and backfilling tests in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.R. [I. T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains an initial definition of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns. Examples of concerns to be addressed include achieving selected hydrologic and structural requirements for seals, removing portions of the shaft liner, excavating keyways, emplacing cementitious and earthen seals, reducing the impact of fines on the hydraulic conductivity of fractures, efficient grouting of fracture zones, sealing of exploratory boreholes, and controlling the flow of water by using engineered designs. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these and other concerns. These tests are divided into two groups: Seal component tests and performance confirmation tests. The seal component tests are thorough small-scale in situ tests, the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests, the fracture grouting tests, the surface backfill tests, and the grouted rock mass tests. The seal system tests are the seepage control tests, the backfill tests, the bulkhead test in the Calico Hills unit, the large-scale shaft seal and shaft fill tests, and the remote borehole sealing tests. The tests are proposed to be performed in six discrete areas, including welded and non-welded environments, primarily located outside the potential repository area. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the Exploratory Studies Facility and detailed numerical analyses. Tests are likely to be performed both before and after License Application.

  1. Clinical features of congenital adrenal insufficiency including growth patterns and significance of ACTH stimulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ji Won; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk

    2013-11-01

    Congenital adrenal insufficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations. Early suspicion and definite diagnosis are crucial because the disease can precipitate a life-threatening hypovolemic shock without prompt treatment. This study was designed to understand the clinical manifestations including growth patterns and to find the usefulness of ACTH stimulation test. Sixteen patients with confirmed genotyping were subdivided into three groups according to the genetic study results: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH, n=11), congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (n=3) and X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (n=2). Bone age advancement was prominent in patients with CAH especially after 60 months of chronologic age (n=6, 67%). They were diagnosed in older ages in group with bone age advancement (Pcongenital adrenal insufficiency. ACTH stimulation test played an important role to support the diagnosis and serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were significantly elevated in all of the CAH patients. The test will be important for monitoring growth and puberty during follow up of patients with congenital adrenal insufficiency.

  2. Workplace harassment: a test of definitional criteria derived from an analysis of research definitions and Canadian social definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybourn, Marvin; Spinner, Barry; Malcom, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of the occurrence and effects of workplace harassment continues to grow. However, despite increasing awareness, ambiguity remains about how harassment is defined and, consequently, how to determine whether a questionable situation should be judged as harassment. For this research we reviewed definitions of workplace harassment and identified four elements that were frequently included as criteria for making judgments of whether harassment had occurred (i.e., repetition, intent, perceived intent, consequences). In two separate studies, fictional scenarios were used to evaluate the extent to which participants' judgments about harassment were affected by the presence or absence of the four elements. Ratings of the scenarios provided by student participants (study one; N=160) and a convenience sample of community participants (study two; N=292) with varying levels of work experience and diverse professional backgrounds were analysed. According to our results the four elements significantly influenced participants' judgments of harassment. The intent of the harasser had the strongest and most consistent effect on harassment judgements and whether the behaviour was repeated had the weakest and least consistent effect. In addition to the unique effects of the individual elements, significant interactions between the elements emerged and suggest that harassment judgements depend on the interplay of a variety of factors. Though the results of these studies add to the growing body of research that focuses on defining workplace harassment, they also highlight the need for additional research in the area.

  3. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  4. Should the current DSM-IV-TR definition for PTSD be expanded to include serial and multiple microtraumas as aetiologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seides, R

    2010-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops from events that are interpreted as traumatic. It may be secondary to witnessing trauma to someone close, an event that threatens one's life or childhood sexual trauma. Resultant feelings can be fear, helplessness or horror. Thresholds at which traumatic events cause PTSD, the individual's coping ability and support systems help determine occurrence and severity of symptoms. According to DSM-IV-TR (DSM) definition, PTSD can occur after childhood sexual abuse or a single trauma threatening life or safety. However, it is becoming clearer that symptoms of PTSD can arise from multiple less severe traumas ('microtraumas'), which can be a consequence of a history of longstanding emotional neglect, humiliation or inaccurate attribution of blame. The DSM should consider modifying the criteria to include multiple microtraumas that can lead to PTSD symptoms and may even be more destructive to psychological health.

  5. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-07-15

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize "high-definition" electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 min on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of five types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring and Ag/AgCl disc) and seven conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, rubber and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels.

  6. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2017-08-28

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  7. Use of IgG Avidity test in case definitions of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, C; Charrier, L; Giacomuzzi, M; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A; Mombrò, M; Fabris, C; Marocchetti, P; Alfieri, R; Leto, R; Renzi, N; Milano, R; Lievre, M A; Colozza, M; Zanella, D; Antona, G; Paschero, M C; Tosetti, F; Miglietti, D; Nicoletta, T; De Renzi, G; Tinivella, F; Donati, M; Ferrini, A; Crotti, G; Coucourde, L; Guazzotti, G C; Gera, A; Malabaila, A; Di Natale, C; Rabozzi, M L; Ginardi, C; Bruzzone, T; Canepa, C; Fruttero, M; Mastracchio, G; Valle, S; Toppino, M; Forno, N; Bellingeri, P; Caraccio, W; Lazzara, C; Decaroli, V; Pedrazzi, E; Gomella, S

    2004-01-01

    A survey network for congenital toxoplasmosis (TOXO-NET) was set up in December 1996 in Piedmont (Italy). Participants were asked to classify the infections in pregnant mothers and newborns by the criteria of the European Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis published by Lebech in 1996. Because the IgG Avidity test is largely employed as a 2nd level test in toxoplasmosis diagnosis and it could be helpful to date infection, the co-ordinators of TOXO-NET suggested including it in the "case definition" of "probable" infection and "unlikely" infection. 117 cases of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy divided into the risk categories under Lebech's criteria were re-examined using the "new" case definitions. 77 out of 117 (65.8%) Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy could be defined with only one serum sample using the IgG Avidity test. The IgG Avidity test proved a useful method to classify the Toxoplasma gondii infections in pregnancy, especially when we had only one serum sample.

  8. Counselors' Clinical Use of Definitive Drug Testing Results in Their Work with Substance-Use Clients: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzetelny, Adam; Zeller, Barbara; Miller, Nicholas; City, Kathy Egan; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Passik, Steven D

    We conducted a psychotherapeutic examination of the use of definitive drug testing (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Employing a generic qualitative method (Caelli et al. in International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(2), 2003; Merriam, 2009) we asked SUD counselors to provide narratives about cases where drug testing had revealed new or unexpected information about clients' drug-taking behaviors. Semi-structured interviews with 12 SUD counselors were conducted by phone and analyzed for themes derived from the literature. These counselors reported many new positive drug tests in clients previously believed to be adherent with treatment. Key themes assessed in counselors' narratives included initial client denial that was often followed by later acknowledgement of relapse and increased motivation, at times presenting new opportunities for clients to engage in treatment and enhance the therapeutic alliance. These results suggest that definitive drug testing can be used in a non-stigmatizing and therapeutic manner.

  9. Computational Analysis of Arc-Jet Wedge Tests Including Ablation and Shape Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekcen, Tahir; Chen, Yih-Kanq; Skokova, Kristina A.; Milos, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Coupled fluid-material response analyses of arc-jet wedge ablation tests conducted in a NASA Ames arc-jet facility are considered. These tests were conducted using blunt wedge models placed in a free jet downstream of the 6-inch diameter conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. The fluid analysis includes computational Navier-Stokes simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle and test box as well as the flowfield over the models. The material response analysis includes simulation of two-dimensional surface ablation and internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow. For ablating test articles undergoing shape change, the material response and fluid analyses are coupled in order to calculate the time dependent surface heating and pressure distributions that result from shape change. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests was Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Effects of the test article shape change on fluid and material response simulations are demonstrated, and computational predictions of surface recession, shape change, and in-depth temperatures are compared with the experimental measurements.

  10. Design Authority in the Test Programme Definition: The Alenia Spazio Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messidoro, P.; Sacchi, E.; Beruto, E.; Fleming, P.; Marucchi Chierro, P.-P.

    2004-08-01

    In addition, being the Verification and Test Programme a significant part of the spacecraft development life cycle in terms of cost and time, very often the subject of the mentioned discussion has the objective to optimize the verification campaign by possible deletion or limitation of some testing activities. The increased market pressure to reduce the project's schedule and cost is originating a dialecting process inside the project teams, involving program management and design authorities, in order to optimize the verification and testing programme. The paper introduces the Alenia Spazio experience in this context, coming from the real project life on different products and missions (science, TLC, EO, manned, transportation, military, commercial, recurrent and one-of-a-kind). Usually the applicable verification and testing standards (e.g. ECSS-E-10 part 2 "Verification" and ECSS-E-10 part 3 "Testing" [1]) are tailored to the specific project on the basis of its peculiar mission constraints. The Model Philosophy and the associated verification and test programme are defined following an iterative process which suitably combines several aspects (including for examples test requirements and facilities) as shown in Fig. 1 (from ECSS-E-10). The considered cases are mainly oriented to the thermal and mechanical verification, where the benefits of possible test programme optimizations are more significant. Considering the thermal qualification and acceptance testing (i.e. Thermal Balance and Thermal Vacuum) the lessons learned originated by the development of several satellites are presented together with the corresponding recommended approaches. In particular the cases are indicated in which a proper Thermal Balance Test is mandatory and others, in presence of more recurrent design, where a qualification by analysis could be envisaged. The importance of a proper Thermal Vacuum exposure for workmanship verification is also highlighted. Similar considerations are

  11. Dual-focus Magnification, High-Definition Endoscopy Improves Pathology Detection in Direct-to-Test Diagnostic Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ashley; Burkitt, Michael D; Cox, Trevor; Smart, Howard L; Probert, Chris; Haslam, Neil; Sarkar, Sanchoy

    2017-03-01

    In the UK, the majority of diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopies are a result of direct-to-test referral from the primary care physician. The diagnostic yield of these tests is relatively low, and the burden high on endoscopy services. Dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy is expected to improve detection and classification of UGI mucosal lesions and also help minimize biopsies by allowing better targeting. This is a retrospective study of patients attending for direct-to-test UGI endoscopy from January 2015 to June 2015. The primary outcome of interest was the identification of significant pathology. Detection of significant pathology was modelled using logistic regression. 500 procedures were included. The mean age of patients was 61.5 (±15.6) years; 60.8% of patients were female. Ninety-four gastroscopies were performed using dual-focus magnification high-definition endoscopy. Increasing age, male gender, type of endoscope, and type of operator were all identified as significant factors influencing the odds of detecting significant mucosal pathology. Use of dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy was associated with an odds ratio of 1.87 (95%CI 1.11-3.12) favouring the detection of significant pathology. Subsequent analysis suggested that the increased detection of pathology during dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy also influenced patient follow-up and led to a 3.0 fold (p=0.04) increase in the proportion of patients entered into an UGI endoscopic surveillance program. Dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy improved the diagnostic yield for significant mucosal pathology in patients referred for direct-to-test endoscopy. If this finding is recapitulated elsewhere it will have substantial impact on the provision of UGI endoscopic services.

  12. The wide variation of definitions of genetic testing in international recommendations, guidelines and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, Jorge; Paneque, Milena; Guimarães, Bárbara; Rantanen, Elina; Javaher, Poupak; Nippert, Irma; Schmidtke, Jörg; Kääriäainen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques

    2012-04-01

    In spite of being very commonly used, the term genetic testing is debatable and used with several meanings. The diversity of existing definitions is confusing for scientists, clinicians and other professionals, health authorities, legislators and regulating agencies and the civil society in general, particularly when genetic testing is the object of guidelines or legal documents. This work compares definitions of genetic testing found in recommendations, guidelines and reports from international institutions, policy makers and professional organizations, but also in documents from other stakeholders in the field, as the pharmaceutical industry, insurers, ethics bodies, patient organizations or human-rights associations. A systematic review of these documents confirmed the extreme variability existing in the concepts and the ambiguous or equivocal use of the term. Some definitions (narrower) focus on methodologies or the material analysed, while others (broader) are information- or context-based. Its scope may range from being synonymous of just DNA analysis, to any test that yields genetic data. Genetic testing and genetic information, which may be derived from a range of medical exams or even family history, are often used interchangeably. Genetic testing and genetic screening are sometimes confused. Human molecular genetics (a discipline) is not always distinguished from molecular biology (a tool). Professional background, geographical context and purpose of the organizations may influence scope and usage. A common consensus definition does not exist. Nevertheless, a clear set of precise definitions may help creating a common language among geneticists and other health professionals. Moreover, a clear context-dependent, operative definition should always be given.

  13. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  14. FY 2016 Status Report: Documentation of All CIRFT Data including Hydride Reorientation Tests (Draft M2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Bevard, Bruce B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-09-04

    The first portion of this report provides a detailed description of fiscal year (FY) 2015 test result corrections and analysis updates based on FY 2016 updates to the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) program methodology, which is used to evaluate the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under normal conditions of transport (NCT). The CIRFT consists of a U-frame test setup and a real-time curvature measurement method. The three-component U-frame setup of the CIRFT has two rigid arms and linkages connecting to a universal testing machine. The curvature SNF rod bending is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. Three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are clamped to the side connecting plates of the U-frame and used to capture deformation of the rod. The second portion of this report provides the latest CIRFT data, including data for the hydride reorientation test. The variations in fatigue life are provided in terms of moment, equivalent stress, curvature, and equivalent strain for the tested SNFs. The equivalent stress plot collapsed the data points from all of the SNF samples into a single zone. A detailed examination revealed that, at the same stress level, fatigue lives display a descending order as follows: H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), LMK, and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX). Just looking at the strain, LMK fuel has a slightly longer fatigue life than HBR fuel, but the difference is subtle. The third portion of this report provides finite element analysis (FEA) dynamic deformation simulation of SNF assemblies . In a horizontal layout under NCT, the fuel assembly’s skeleton, which is formed by guide tubes and spacer grids, is the primary load bearing apparatus carrying and transferring vibration loads within an SNF assembly. These vibration loads include interaction forces between the SNF assembly and the canister basket walls. Therefore, the integrity of the guide

  15. FY 2016 Status Report: Documentation of All CIRFT Data including Hydride Reorientation Tests (Draft M2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    The first portion of this report provides a detailed description of fiscal year (FY) 2015 test result corrections and analysis updates based on FY 2016 updates to the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) program methodology, which is used to evaluate the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under normal conditions of transport (NCT). The CIRFT consists of a U-frame test setup and a real-time curvature measurement method. The three-component U-frame setup of the CIRFT has two rigid arms and linkages connecting to a universal testing machine. The curvature SNF rod bending is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. Three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are clamped to the side connecting plates of the U-frame and used to capture deformation of the rod. The second portion of this report provides the latest CIRFT data, including data for the hydride reorientation test. The variations in fatigue life are provided in terms of moment, equivalent stress, curvature, and equivalent strain for the tested SNFs. The equivalent stress plot collapsed the data points from all of the SNF samples into a single zone. A detailed examination revealed that, at the same stress level, fatigue lives display a descending order as follows: H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), LMK, and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX). Just looking at the strain, LMK fuel has a slightly longer fatigue life than HBR fuel, but the difference is subtle. The third portion of this report provides finite element analysis (FEA) dynamic deformation simulation of SNF assemblies . In a horizontal layout under NCT, the fuel assembly’s skeleton, which is formed by guide tubes and spacer grids, is the primary load bearing apparatus carrying and transferring vibration loads within an SNF assembly. These vibration loads include interaction forces between the SNF assembly and the canister basket walls. Therefore, the integrity of the guide

  16. Introducing the Adults with Chronic Healthcare Needs (ACHCN) definition and screening instrument: Rationale, supporting evidence and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Stephen P; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Altman, Barbara M; Bethell, Christina D; Carle, Adam C; Druss, Benjamin G; Houtrow, Amy J; Reichard, Amanda; Chan, Leighton

    2017-08-08

    Among working age adults in the United States, there is a large, heterogeneous population that requires ongoing and elevated levels of healthcare and related services. At present, there are conflicting approaches to the definition and measurement of this population in health services research. An expert panel was convened by the National Institutes of Health with the objective of developing a population-level definition of Adults with Chronic Healthcare Needs (ACHCN). In addition, the panel developed a screening instrument and methods for its use in health surveys to identify and stratify the population consistently. The panel employed multiple methods over the course of the project, including scoping literature reviews, quantitative analyses from national data sources and cognitive testing. The panel defined the ACHCN population as "Adults (age 18-65) with [1] ongoing physical, cognitive, or mental health conditions or difficulties functioning who [2] need health or related support services of a type or amount beyond that needed by adults of the same sex and similar age." The screener collects information on chronic health conditions, functional difficulties, and elevated use of or unmet need for healthcare services. Adapted from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau definition that identifies Children with Special Healthcare Needs, aligned with the ACS-6 disability measure, and consistent with the HHS Multiple Chronic Condition Framework, this definition and screener provide the research community with a common denominator for the identification of ACHCN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influenza outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: the utility of laboratory testing and case definitions on mass gathering outbreak containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J van Hal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a predefined clinical case definition. However, the utility of these clinical case definitions and laboratory testing in mass gathering outbreaks remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: An influenza outbreak was identified during World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. From the data collected on pilgrims presenting to a single clinic, a Markov model was developed and validated against the actual epidemic curve. Simulations were performed to examine the utility of different clinical case definitions and laboratory testing strategies for containment of influenza outbreaks. Clinical case definitions were found to have the greatest impact on averting further cases with no added benefit when combined with any laboratory test. Although nucleic acid testing (NAT demonstrated higher utility than indirect immunofluorescence antigen or on-site point-of-care testing, this effect was lost when laboratory NAT turnaround times was included. The main benefit of laboratory confirmation was limited to identification of true influenza cases amenable to interventions such as antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous re-evaluation of case definitions and laboratory testing strategies are essential for effective management of influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings.

  18. Economics of resynchronization strategies including chemical tests to identify nonpregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Fricke, P M; Cabrera, V E

    2013-02-01

    Our objectives were to assess (1) the economic value of decreasing the interval between timed artificial insemination (TAI) services when using a pregnancy test that allows earlier identification of nonpregnant cows; and (2) the effect of pregnancy loss and inaccuracy of a chemical test (CT) on the economic value of a pregnancy test for dairy farms. Simulation experiments were performed using a spreadsheet-based decision support tool. In experiment 1, we assessed the effect of changing the interbreeding interval (IBI) for cows receiving TAI on the value of reproductive programs by simulating a 1,000-cow dairy herd using a combination of detection of estrus (30 to 80% of cows detected in estrus) and TAI. The IBI was incremented by 7d from 28 to 56 d to reflect intervals either observed (35 to 56 d) or potentially observed (28 d) in dairy operations. In experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of accuracy of the CT and additional pregnancy loss due to earlier testing on the value of reproductive programs. The first scenario compared the use of a CT 31 ± 3 d after a previous AI with rectal palpation (RP) 39 ± 3 d after AI. The second scenario used a CT 24 ± 3 d after AI or transrectal ultrasound (TU) 32 d after AI. Parameters evaluated included sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), questionable diagnosis (Qd), cost of the CT, and expected pregnancy loss. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all possible combinations of parameter values to determine their relative importance on the value of the CT. In experiment 1, programs with a shorter IBI had greater economic net returns at all levels of detection of estrus, and use of chemical tests available on the market today might be beneficial compared with RP. In experiment 2, the economic value of programs using a CT could be either greater or less than that of RP and TU, depending on the value for each of the parameters related to the CT evaluated. The value of the program using the CT was affected (in order) by (1) Se, (2

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chemical testing for decision-support: How to include animal welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbert, S.G.M.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs.

  20. Thermal Testing for Resin Structure Including Artificial Cavity Made by Three-Dimensional Printer

    OpenAIRE

    倉橋, 貴彦; 丸岡, 宏太郎; 井山, 徹郎; Kurahashi, Takahiko; Maruoka, Kotaro; Iyama, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the thermal testing is carried out by using the resin structure with artificial cavity made by three-dimensional printer. There are some non-destructive testing method such as the ultrasonic testing method, the thermal testing method and so on. It is known that the size of defect can be found at the target point by using the ultrasonic testing method. On the other hand, the thermal testing method has a characteristic that the location of the defect, the cavity, the corrosion an...

  1. Equivalency of Spanish language versions of the trail making test part B including or excluding "CH".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Mariana; Suarez, Paola; Posada, Carolina; Fortuny, Lidia Artiola I; Marcotte, Thomas; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Spanish speakers commonly use two versions of the alphabet, one that includes the sound "Ch" between C and D and another that goes directly to D, as in English. Versions of the Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B) have been created accordingly to accommodate this preference. The pattern and total number of circles to be connected are identical between versions. However, the equivalency of these alternate forms has not been reported. We compared the performance of 35 healthy Spanish speakers who completed the "Ch" form (CH group) to that of 96 individuals who received the standard form (D group), based on whether they mentioned "Ch" in their oral recitation of the alphabet. The groups had comparable demographic characteristics and overall neuropsychological performance. There were no significant differences in TMT-B scores between the CH and D groups, and relationships with demographic variables were comparable. The findings suggest that both versions are equivalent and can be administered to Spanish speakers based on their preference without sacrificing comparability.

  2. Interferometric detection of gravitational waves: the definitive test for General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Even if Einstein's General Relativity achieved a great success and overcame lots of experimental tests, it also showed some shortcomings and flaws which today advise theorists to ask if it is the definitive theory of gravity. In this essay we show that, if advanced projects on the detection of Gravitational Waves (GWs) will improve their sensitivity, allowing to perform a GWs astronomy, accurate angular and frequency dependent response functions of interferometers for GWs arising from various Theories of Gravity, i.e. General Relativity and Extended Theories of Gravity, will be the definitive test for General Relativity. The papers which found this essay have been the world's most cited in the official Astroparticle Publication Review of ASPERA during the 2007 with 13 citations.

  3. Effects of L1 Definitions and Cognate Status of Test Items on the Vocabulary Size Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development and evaluation of a bilingual Vocabulary Size Test (VST, Nation, 2006). A bilingual (English-Russian) test was developed and administered to 121 intermediate proficiency EFL learners (native speakers of Russian), alongside the original monolingual (English-only) version of the test. A comparison of the bilingual…

  4. The Langley thermal protection system test facility: A description including design operating boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Langley thermal protection system test facility is presented. This facility was designed to provide realistic environments and times for testing thermal protection systems proposed for use on high speed vehicles such as the space shuttle. Products from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures, having a maximum total enthalpy of 10.3 MJ/kg, are used as a test medium. Test panels with maximum dimensions of 61 cm x 91.4 cm are mounted in the side wall of the test region. Static pressures in the test region can range from .005 to .1 atm and calculated equilibrium temperatures of test panels range from 700 K to 1700 K. Test times can be as long as 1800 sec. Some experimental data obtained while using combustion products of methane-air mixtures are compared with theory, and calibration of the facility is being continued to verify calculated values of parameters which are within the design operating boundaries.

  5. Recommendation to include methyldibromo glutaronitrile in the European standard patch test series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Goossens, An; Gruvberger, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrilc (MDBGN) is used non-occupationally and occupationally. High contact allergy rates have been reported when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients as well as clinical cases with allergic contact dermatitis. Up till now there has been no agreement on which patch test preparation to use to trace contact allergy to MDBGN. From the year 2005 on, MDBGN at 0.5% w/w in petrolatum is recommended for the European standard patch test series. The choice of 0.5% is based on consideration of rates of contact allergy, doubtful and irritant reactions, as well as on information on clinical relevance represented by results of a repeated open application test, and patch test concentrations to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN in individual cases.

  6. Post-test thermal-hydraulic analysis of two intermediate LOCA tests at the ROSA facility including uncertainty evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi@freixa.net [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kim, T.-W. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Manera, A. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The OECD/NEA ROSA-2 project aims at addressing thermal-hydraulic safety issues relevant for light water reactors by building up an experimental database at the ROSA Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The ROSA facility simulates a PWR Westinghouse design with a four-loop configuration and a nominal power of 3423 MWth. Two intermediate break loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) experiments (Tests 1 and 2) have been carried out during 2010. The two tests were analyzed by using the US-NRC TRACE best estimate code, employing the same nodalization previously used for the simulation of small-break LOCA experiments of the ROSA-1 programme. A post-test calculation was performed for each test along with uncertainty analysis providing uncertainty bands for each relevant time trend. Uncertainties in the code modelling capabilities as well as in the initial and boundary conditions were taken into account, following the guidelines and lessons learnt through participation in the OECD/NEA BEMUSE programme. Two different versions of the TRACE code were used in the analysis, providing a qualitatively good prediction of the tests. However, the uncertainty analysis revealed differences between the performances of some models in the two versions. The most relevant parameters of the two experimental tests were falling within the computed uncertainty bands.

  7. Post-test thermal-hydraulic analysis of two intermediate LOCA tests at the ROSA facility including uncertainty evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J.; Kim, T-W.; Manera, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The OECD/NEA ROSA-2 project aims at addressing thermal-hydraulic safety issues relevant for light water reactors by building up an experimental database at the ROSA Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The ROSA facility simulates a PWR Westinghouse design with a four-loop configuration and a nominal power of 3423 MWth. Two intermediate break loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) experiments (Test 1 and 2) have been carried out during 2010. The two tests were analyzed by using the US-NRC TRACE best estimate code, employing the same nodalization previously used for the simulation of small-break LOCA experiments of the ROSA-1 program. A post-test calculation was performed for each test along with uncertainty analysis providing uncertainty bands for each relevant time trend. Uncertainties in the code modeling capabilities as well as in the initial and boundary conditions were taken into account, following the guidelines and lessons learnt through participation in the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program. Two different versions of the TRACE code were used in the analysis, providing a qualitatively good prediction of the tests. However, both versions showed deficiencies that need to be addressed. The most relevant parameters of the two experimental tests were falling within the computed uncertainty bands. (author)

  8. Should sperm DNA fragmentation testing be included in the male infertility work-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheena E M

    2015-08-01

    A response to the editorial 'Are we ready to incorporate sperm DNA fragmentation testing into our male infertility work-up? A plea for more robust studies' by Erma Drobnis and Martin Johnson. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  10. [Long QT syndrome: a brief review of the electrocardiographical diagnosis including Viskin's test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manlio F

    2012-01-01

    The QT interval measures both repolarization and depolarization. Learning to measure the QT interval and know how to correct (QTc) for heart rate (HR) is essential for the diagnosis of long QT syndrome (LQTS). The QTc interval changes in duration and even morphology depending on the time of the day and on a day-to-day basis. A diminished adaptive response of the QTc interval to changes in HR is known as QT hysteresis. Viskin has introduced a very simple clinical test to confirm the diagnosis of LQTS based on the "hypoadaptation" of the QT when standing. This phenomenon gives the appearance of a "stretching of the QT" on the surface ECG. Likewise, he has coined the term "QT stunning" to refer to the phenomenon that the QTc interval does not return to baseline despite recovery of baseline HR after standing. This article shows some examples of the Viskin's test.

  11. Screened test-charge - electron interaction including many-body effects in two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.

    1997-05-01

    Bound states of a negatively charged test particle and an electron are studied by incorporating many-body effects (exchange and correlation) in the screening function of an interacting electron gas via the local-field correction. Using a variational method and a matrix-diagonalization method we determine the energies and the wave functions of the ground state and the excited states as functions of the electron density for three-dimensional and two-dimensional systems. For high electron density no bound states are found. Below a critical density the number and the energy of the bound states increase with decreasing electron density. We also present results for bound-state energies of a positively charged test particle with an electron, and compare them with results obtained within the random-phase approximation where the local-field correction is ignored.

  12. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    An instructional aid is presented which integrates the subject of solar energy into the classroom study of industrial arts. This guide for teachers was produced in addition to the student activities book for industrial arts by the USDOE Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  13. Pilot's Guide to an Airline Career, Including Sample Pre-Employment Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, W.L.

    Occupational information for persons considering a career as an airline pilot includes a detailed description of the pilot's duties and material concerning preparation for occupational entry and determining the relative merits of available jobs. The book consists of four parts: Part I, The Job, provides an overview of a pilot's duties in his daily…

  14. "Enzyme Test Bench," a high-throughput enzyme characterization technique including the long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskiy, Kirill; Schultze, Hergen; Boy, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2009-06-01

    A new high throughput technique for enzyme characterization with specific attention to the long term stability, called "Enzyme Test Bench," is presented. The concept of the Enzyme Test Bench consists of short term enzyme tests in 96-well microtiter plates under partly extreme conditions to predict the enzyme long term stability under moderate conditions. The technique is based on the mathematical modeling of temperature dependent enzyme activation and deactivation. Adapting the temperature profiles in sequential experiments by optimal non-linear experimental design, the long term deactivation effects can be purposefully accelerated and detected within hours. During the experiment the enzyme activity is measured online to estimate the model parameters from the obtained data. Thus, the enzyme activity and long term stability can be calculated as a function of temperature. The engineered instrumentation provides for simultaneous automated assaying by fluorescent measurements, mixing and homogenous temperature control in the range of 10-85 +/- 0.5 degrees C. A universal fluorescent assay for online acquisition of ester hydrolysis reactions by pH-shift is developed and established. The developed instrumentation and assay are applied to characterize two esterases. The results of the characterization, carried out in microtiter plates applying short term experiments of hours, are in good agreement with the results of long term experiments at different temperatures in 1 L stirred tank reactors of a week. Thus, the new technique allows for both: the enzyme screening with regard to the long term stability and the choice of the optimal process temperature regarding such process parameters as turn over number, space time yield or optimal process duration. The comparison of the temperature dependent behavior of both characterized enzymes clearly demonstrates that the frequently applied estimation of long term stability at moderate temperatures by simple activity measurements

  15. Mammalian Toxicology Testing: Problem Definition Study, Technology Changes Impact on Testing Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    so designated by other authorized documents - 1 S SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGE MW- Deise ,nteO REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BORE ADomLrS UCTONSRM I...This correlation, in spite of the very separate history in development of these test assays, strongly suggests a fundamental correlation between...e.g., plasma proteins ), and in repair mechanisms. It is now recognized that rodents are imcompletely predictive of target organ toxic- ity, that there

  16. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  17. Flex Power Grid Lab, an electronic equipment test laboratory for emerging MV applications, including grid inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Erik C.W. de [Flex Power Grid Lab, Arnheim (Netherlands); Vaessen, Peter T.M. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnheim (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The success of a sustainable energy supply in a free energy market depends on proper management of the energy flows. For control and management, power electronics are indispensable. The knowledge about electromagnetic power technology and the development of components are about to undergo explosive growth. Due to the emergence of decentralised energy sources and the liberalisation of the energy market, the control and management of electrical flows is gaining in importance. Hierarchically controlled one-way traffic continues to decline in favour of (autonomous) networks supplied by large and small generating stations that provide varying electric currents in all directions within a power grid. The complexity of constantly balancing supply and demand is therefore increasing while the assets are simultaneously being utilised to their limits. Information and communication technology has given power technology a strong impulse. Power electronic technology allows network managers and operators to better guide the energy flow. It therefore also contributes to a more rapid transition to a durable energy supply. For example, the application of power electronics in network-integrated decentralised generators such as micro-CHP, wind turbines and solar cells increases the ability to intervene on an extremely local level in an intelligent manner. This increased application and penetration of grid connected power electronics also inevitably increases the demand for research, knowledge and testing of the behaviour of the equipment when integrated into the grid. (orig.)

  18. 78 FR 20345 - Modification and Expansion of CBP Centers of Excellence and Expertise Test To Include Six...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Expertise Test To Include Six Additional Centers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Protection's (CBP's) plan to modify and expand its test for the Centers of Excellence and Expertise (CEEs... Border Protection (CBP) established two Centers of Excellence and Expertise (CEEs): The Electronics...

  19. Three case studies of three high school teachers' definitions, beliefs, and implementation practices of inquiry-based science method including barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn-Morrison, Kimberly D.

    This study involved three teachers in various stages of implementation of inquiry-based science method. The cases were chosen because one participant was a novice in using inquiry-based science method, one participant was in her second year of implementation, and the third participant was experienced with inquiry-based science method. The cases were set in a rural high school in three different science classrooms. One of the classrooms was a regular biology class. One of the classrooms was an honors oceanography class and another was an advanced placement environmental science classroom. Data sources included interviews, observations, and document collection. Interviews, observations, and document collection were used to triangulate data. Each classroom was observed five times. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of the semester with each participant and at the end of the semester. Follow-up interviews were conducted after each observation. Documents were collected such as each teacher's lesson plans, student work, and assignments. Data was initially organized according to the research areas of teacher's definition, teacher's beliefs, teacher's barriers to implementation, and teacher's enablers to implementation. Then, patterns emerging from each of these cases were organized. Lastly, patterns emerging across cases were compared in a cross-case analysis. Patterns shared between cases were: Participants related inquiry-based science method with hands-on learning activities. Participants saw students as the center of the learning process. Participants had positive beliefs about constructivist learning practices that were strengthened after implementation of inquiry-based teaching. Facilitators of successful implementation of inquiry-based science method were positive student motivation, students' retention of knowledge, and a positive experience for lower level students. Barriers to successful implementation were teachers not having complete control of the

  20. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Benchmark Definition and Test Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard Strydom; Frederik Reitsma; Hans Gougar; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are essential elements of the reactor simulation code verification and validation process. Although several international uncertainty quantification activities have been launched in recent years in the LWR, BWR and VVER domains (e.g. the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program [1], from which the current OECD/NEA LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) benchmark [2] effort was derived), the systematic propagation of uncertainties in cross-section, manufacturing and model parameters for High Temperature Reactor (HTGR) designs has not been attempted yet. This paper summarises the scope, objectives and exercise definitions of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR UAM [3]. Note that no results will be included here, as the HTGR UAM benchmark was only launched formally in April 2012, and the specification is currently still under development.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744 ...

  2. ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula Mamatha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP guidelines for management of ASC-H is colposcopic examination followed by biopsy. HPV testing (HPVT is recommended after a negative biopsy result. More definitive interpretation of ASC-H could prevent discomfort and minimize the cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association of various cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H with various clinical scenarios. Methods We reviewed SurePath™ (TriPath Imaging, Inc. Burlington, NC, USA cervical smears interpreted as ASC-H in 161 women (mean age, 37 {15 to 78} years, over 24 months (2002 to 2003. HPVT (Digene, Hybrid Capture® II HPV test, Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA was performed in 20% of cases (33/161 and biopsy results were available in 54 cases (19 with and 35 without HPVT. Results HPVT was positive in 64% (21/33 cases, and negative in 36% (12/33 cases. In the follow-up biopsies of 71% (15/21 of cases with positive HPVT, 27% showed HPV changes or CIN1, 27% showed CIN2-3, and 46% were negative for epithelial abnormality. Follow-up biopsies from cases with negative HPVT (33%, 4/12 cases, 8% showed CIN1 and 25% were negative for any epithelial abnormality. Six cytomorphological patterns of ASC-H correlated with different clinical categories in relation to HPVT and biopsy results. 35% (19 out of 54 ASC-H cases in which biopsy results were available could be interpreted definitively as HSIL by cytopathology, 11% (6/54 cases as LSIL with cyanophilic atypical parakeratotic pattern, and 31% (17/54 cases as reactive, with HPV status. The interpretation had to be continued as ASC-H in 22% (12/54 cases. Conclusion ASC-H demonstrated a spectrum of cytomorphological patterns. Some of these patterns in liquid-based cervical smears may be more specifically interpreted as LSIL, HSIL, or benign if HPV status is known.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  4. Problematic Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa: Testing Potential Risk Factors against Different Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Melissa; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie; Kern, Laurence; Godart, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    "Hyperactivity" has a wide prevalence range of 31% to 80% in the anorexia nervosa literature that could be partly due to the plethora of definitions provided by researchers in this field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) To assess the variance across prevalence rates of problematic exercise encountered in patients with anorexia nervosa, in relation to seven different definitions found in the literature. 2) To examine how core eating disorder symptoms and the dimensions of emotional profile are associated with these different definitions and the impact of these definitions on the assessment of patients' quality of life. Exercise was evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, type and compulsion using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 women suffering from severe anorexia nervosa. Seven different definitions of problematic exercise were identified in the literature: three entailing a single dimension of problematic exercise (duration, compulsion or intensity) and four combining these different dimensions. Emotional profile scores, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, eating disorder symptomatology, worries and concerns about body shape, self-esteem and quality of life were assessed using several established questionnaires. The prevalence of problematic exercise varied considerably from, 5% to 54%, depending on the number of criteria used for its definition. The type and level of eating disorder symptomatology was found to be associated with several definitions of problematic exercise. Surprisingly, a better self-reported quality of life was found among problematic exercisers compared to non-problematic exercisers in three of the definitions. The different definitions of problematic exercise explain the broad prevalence ranges and the conflicting associations generally reported in the literature between problematic exercise and eating disorder-related psychological parameters. There is an urgent need for a valid consensus on the definition of

  5. Problematic Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa: Testing Potential Risk Factors against Different Definitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Rizk

    Full Text Available "Hyperactivity" has a wide prevalence range of 31% to 80% in the anorexia nervosa literature that could be partly due to the plethora of definitions provided by researchers in this field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1 To assess the variance across prevalence rates of problematic exercise encountered in patients with anorexia nervosa, in relation to seven different definitions found in the literature. 2 To examine how core eating disorder symptoms and the dimensions of emotional profile are associated with these different definitions and the impact of these definitions on the assessment of patients' quality of life. Exercise was evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, type and compulsion using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 women suffering from severe anorexia nervosa. Seven different definitions of problematic exercise were identified in the literature: three entailing a single dimension of problematic exercise (duration, compulsion or intensity and four combining these different dimensions. Emotional profile scores, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, eating disorder symptomatology, worries and concerns about body shape, self-esteem and quality of life were assessed using several established questionnaires. The prevalence of problematic exercise varied considerably from, 5% to 54%, depending on the number of criteria used for its definition. The type and level of eating disorder symptomatology was found to be associated with several definitions of problematic exercise. Surprisingly, a better self-reported quality of life was found among problematic exercisers compared to non-problematic exercisers in three of the definitions. The different definitions of problematic exercise explain the broad prevalence ranges and the conflicting associations generally reported in the literature between problematic exercise and eating disorder-related psychological parameters. There is an urgent need for a valid consensus on the

  6. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-09-21

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  7. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  8. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  9. Item and Test Construct Definition for the New Spanish Baccalaureate Final Evaluation: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesús García; Martin-Monje, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The current English section of the University Entrance Examination (PAU) has kept the same format for twenty years. The Bologna process has provided new reasons to vary its current format, since the majority of international reputed tests usually include oral sections with both listening and speaking tasks. Recently the Universidad de Alcalá…

  10. The analysis of the performance test results including correlation between the traits of this evaluation in crossbred gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy NOWACHOWICZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was the analysis of the performance test results including correlation between the traits of this evaluation in crossbred gilts of Polish Large White (PLW and Polish Landrace (PL, conducted in years 2004-2008 in Poland in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region. The subject of research was 51.802 crossbred gilts came from two crossing variants (where the sows’ breed was given in first position: PLW x PL and PL x PLW. The PLW x PL crossbred gilts in years 2004-2007 and in a total results summary from years 2004-2008 obtained higher performance test selection index value, thus had higher the breeding value regarding to the growth and slaughter traits as compared to the animals came from PL x PLW crossing variant. Within the space of 5 analysed years (2004-2008 the performance test selection index increased in the PLW x PL and PL x PLW crossbred gilts by 3.6 and 5.8 points, respectively. Thus the improvement of the breeding value of evaluated animals has been done. In all analysed years in the tested groups of crossbred gilts negative and statistically high significant correlations have been observed between the growth rate and the standardised body meat content of animals, which may show the unfavourable impact of the high growth rate on the meat content of pigs.

  11. Synthetic Source Inversion Tests with the Full Complexity of Earthquake Source Processes, Including Both Supershear Rupture and Slip Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok Goo; Dalguer, Luis A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies in dynamic source modeling and kinematic source inversion show that earthquake rupture may contain greater complexity than we previously anticipated, including multiple slipping at a given point on a fault. Finite source inversion methods suffer from the nonuniqueness of solutions, and it may become more serious if we aim to resolve more complex rupture models. In this study, we perform synthetic inversion tests with dynamically generated complex rupture models, including both supershear rupture and slip reactivation, to understand the possibility of resolving complex rupture processes by inverting seismic waveform data. We adopt a linear source inversion method with multiple windows, allowing for slipping from the nucleation of rupture to the termination at all locations along a fault. We regularize the model space effectively in the Bayesian framework and perform multiple inversion tests by considering the effect of inaccurate Green's functions and station distributions. We also perform a spectral stability analysis. Our results show that it may be possible to resolve both a supershear rupture front and reactivated secondary slipping using the linear inversion method if those complex features are well separated from the main rupture and produce a fair amount of seismic energy. It may be desirable to assume the full complexity of an earthquake rupture when we first develop finite source models after a major event occurs and then assume a simple rupture model for stability if the estimated models do not show a clear pattern of complex rupture processes.

  12. Experimental test of a hot water storage system including a macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Atrigna, M.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Risi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TESs) are of fundamental importance for many energetic systems, essentially because they permit a certain degree of decoupling between the heat or cold production and the use of the heat or cold produced. In the last years, many works have analysed the addition of a PCM inside a hot water storage tank, as it can allow a reduction of the size of the storage tank due to the possibility of storing thermal energy as latent heat, and as a consequence its cost and encumbrance. The present work focuses on experimental tests realized by means of an indoor facility in order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of a hot water storage tank including PCM modules during a charging phase. A commercial bio-based PCM has been used for the purpose, with a melting temperature of 58°C. The experimental results relative to the hot water tank including the PCM modules are presented in terms of temporal evolution of the axial temperature profile, heat transfer and stored energy, and are compared with the ones obtained by using only water as energy storage material. Interesting insights, relative to the estimation of the percentage of melted PCM at the end of the experimental test, are presented and discussed.

  13. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2014-12-01

    allow for simultaneous testing activity effectively doubling overall test capacity per HETS operating hour. Using about 1 kilowatt (kW) of proton power extracted from the accelerator before injection in the accumulator ring, its operation would be unnoticeable by neutron scattering users at the SNS target station. The H beam laser stripping technique would allow for control of beam power on the HETS target independent from power delivered to the SNS. Large systems with frontal areas of up to 1 x 2 m² could be accommodated with integral high-energy flux values (above 10 megaelectron-volt, or MeV) to at most 104 n/cm²/s; components could also be tested with flux levels to at most 107 n/cm²/s on beam sizes of up to 0.2 x 0.2 m². Selectable moderating material and neutron filters would allow tailoring of the neutron spectrum to user demands; charged particle deflectors could be switched to allow or deflect protons, pions, and muons. It is estimated that HETS would take 5 years to complete after award of contract, including engineering design and construction. Commissioning would take at least another 6 months. Interference with SNS principal operations was not considered in the construction time estimate; connection of the proton transport line and tunnel from the accelerator high energy beam transport (HEBT) and construction around existing site utilities would require careful planning and coordination with beam operations at the SNS. A high-energy (HE) neutron test facility using an available beam line on the SNS target station is a technically and financially attractive option. Inspired by the new ChipIR instrument on the ISIS TS 2 spallation source in the UK, a similar facility could be placed on an unused beam line in the SNS instrument hall [e.g., on beam line 8 (both A and B channels would be needed) or on beam line 10]. The performance would approach that of an HETS (~80%), but it would be operationally more limited, with only a single

  14. Friction Reduction Tested for a Downsized Diesel Engine with Low-Viscosity Lubricants Including a Novel Polyalkylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Sander

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing pressure to reduce emissions, friction reduction is always an up-to-date topic in the automotive industry. Among the various possibilities to reduce mechanical friction, the usage of a low-viscosity lubricant in the engine is one of the most effective and most economic options. Therefore, lubricants of continuously lower viscosity are being developed and offered on the market that promise to reduce engine friction while avoiding deleterious mixed lubrication and wear. In this work, a 1.6 L downsized Diesel engine is used on a highly accurate engine friction test-rig to determine the potential for friction reduction using low viscosity lubricants under realistic operating conditions including high engine loads. In particular, two hydrocarbon-based lubricants, 0W30 and 0W20, are investigated as well as a novel experimental lubricant, which is based on a polyalkylene glycol base stock. Total engine friction is measured for all three lubricants, which show a general 5% advantage for the 0W20 in comparison to the 0W30 lubricant. The polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant, however, shows strongly reduced friction losses, which are about 25% smaller than for the 0W20 lubricant. As the 0W20 and the polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant have the same HTHS-viscosity , the findings contradict the common understanding that the HTHS-viscosity is the dominant driver related to the friction losses.

  15. Constraints and tensions in testing general relativity from Planck and CFHTLenS including intrinsic alignment systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Dossett, Jason N; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    We present constraints on testing general relativity (GR) at cosmological scales using recent data sets and the impact of galaxy intrinsic alignment (IA) in the CFHTLenS lensing data on those constraints. We consider CMB temperature data from Planck, the galaxy power spectrum from WiggleZ, weak lensing tomography from the CFHTLenS, ISW-galaxy cross correlations, and BAO data from 6dF, SDSS DR7, and BOSS DR9. We use a parameterization of the modified gravity (MG) that is binned in redshift and scale, a parameterization that evolves monotonically in scale but is binned in redshift, and a functional parameterization that evolves only in redshift. We present the results in terms of the MG parameters $Q$ and $\\Sigma$. We employ an IA model with an amplitude $A_{CFHTLenS}$ that is included in the parameter analysis. We find an improvement in the constraints on the MG parameters corresponding to $40-53\\%$ increase on the figure of merit compared to previous studies, and GR is found consistent with the data at the $9...

  16. Progress in the integration of Test Blanket Systems in ITER equatorial port cells and in the interfaces definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal, R., E-mail: romain.pascal@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Beloglazov, S.; Bonagiri, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Commin, L. [CEA, IRFM, Cadarache (France); Cortes, P.; Giancarli, L.M.; Gliss, C.; Iseli, M.; Lanza, R.; Levesy, B.; Martins, J.-P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Neviere, J.-C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Comex-Nucleaire, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, L.; Plutino, D.; Shu, W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Swami, H.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design integration of two test blanket systems in ITER port cell is addressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of interfaces of TBSs with building and other ITER systems is done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designs of pipe forest, bioshield plug and ancillary equipment unit are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maintenance of the two test blanket systems in ITER port cell is considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The management of the heat and tritium releases in the TBM port cell is described. - Abstract: In the framework of the TBM Program, three ITER vacuum vessel equatorial ports (no. 16, no. 18 and no. 02) have been allocated for the testing of up to six mock-ups of six different DEMO tritium breeding blankets. Each one is called a Test Blanket System (TBS). A TBS consists mainly of the Test Blanket Module (TBM), the in-vessel component facing the plasma, and several ancillary systems, in particular the cooling system and the tritium extraction system. Each port accommodates two TBMs and therefore the two TBSs have to share the corresponding port cell. This paper deals with the design integration aspects of the two TBSs in each port cell performed at ITER Organization (IO) with the corresponding definition of interfaces with other ITER systems. The performed activities have raised several issues that are discussed in the paper and for which design solutions are proposed.

  17. Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplow, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Market definition has long held a central place in competition law. This entry surveys recent analytical work that has called the market definition paradigm into question on a number of fronts: whether the process is feasible, whether market share threshold tests are coherent, whether the hypothetical monopolist test in merger guidelines is counterproductive, and whether and when the frequent focus on cross-elasticities is useful.

  18. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2014-12-01

    allow for simultaneous testing activity effectively doubling overall test capacity per HETS operating hour. Using about 1 kilowatt (kW) of proton power extracted from the accelerator before injection in the accumulator ring, its operation would be unnoticeable by neutron scattering users at the SNS target station. The H beam laser stripping technique would allow for control of beam power on the HETS target independent from power delivered to the SNS. Large systems with frontal areas of up to 1 x 2 m² could be accommodated with integral high-energy flux values (above 10 megaelectron-volt, or MeV) to at most 104 n/cm²/s; components could also be tested with flux levels to at most 107 n/cm²/s on beam sizes of up to 0.2 x 0.2 m². Selectable moderating material and neutron filters would allow tailoring of the neutron spectrum to user demands; charged particle deflectors could be switched to allow or deflect protons, pions, and muons. It is estimated that HETS would take 5 years to complete after award of contract, including engineering design and construction. Commissioning would take at least another 6 months. Interference with SNS principal operations was not considered in the construction time estimate; connection of the proton transport line and tunnel from the accelerator high energy beam transport (HEBT) and construction around existing site utilities would require careful planning and coordination with beam operations at the SNS. A high-energy (HE) neutron test facility using an available beam line on the SNS target station is a technically and financially attractive option. Inspired by the new ChipIR instrument on the ISIS TS 2 spallation source in the UK, a similar facility could be placed on an unused beam line in the SNS instrument hall [e.g., on beam line 8 (both A and B channels would be needed) or on beam line 10]. The performance would approach that of an HETS (~80%), but it would be operationally more limited, with only a single user

  19. Validation of a dynamic model for unglazed collectors including condensation. Application for standardized testing and simulation in TRNSYS and IDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Pettersson, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    An improved unglazed collector model has been validated for use in TRNSYS and IDA and also for future extension of the EN12975 collector test standard. The basic model is the same as used in the EN12975 test standard in the quasi dynamic performance test method (QDT). In this case with the addition...... of a condensation term that can handle the operation of unglazed collectors below the dew point of the air. This is very desirable for simulation of recharging of ground source energy systems and direct operation of unglazed collectors together with a heat pump. The basic idea is to have a direct connection between...... collector testing and system simulation by using the same dynamic model and parameters during testing and simulation. The model together with the parameters will be validated in each test in this way. This work describes the method applied to an unglazed collector operating partly below the dew point under...

  20. Simulation analysis of the EUSAMA Plus suspension testing method including the impact of the vehicle untested side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobaj, K.

    2016-09-01

    The work deals with the simulation analysis of the half car vehicle model parameters on the suspension testing results. The Matlab simulation software was used. The considered model parameters are involved with the shock absorber damping coefficient, the tire radial stiffness, the car width and the rocker arm length. The consistent vibrations of both test plates were considered. Both wheels of the car were subjected to identical vibration, with frequency changed similar to the EUSAMA Plus principle. The shock absorber damping coefficient (for several values of the car width and rocker arm length) was changed on one and both sides of the vehicle. The obtained results are essential for the new suspension testing algorithm (basing on the EUSAMA Plus principle), which will be the aim of the further author's work.

  1. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-01-01

    various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. CONCLUSIONS: From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn...... Chamber technique, a dose of 20 mg pet. preparation is recommended. Whenever there is a positive reaction to fragrance mix 2, additional patch testing with the 6 ingredients, 5 if there are simultaneous positive reactions to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and fragrance mix 2, is recommended....

  2. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A;

    2014-01-01

    grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g...

  3. Statistical Analysis of a Large Sample Size Pyroshock Test Data Set Including Post Flight Data Assessment. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on its mission to observe planet Earth in late 1999. Prior to launch, the new design of the spacecraft's pyroshock separation system was characterized by a series of 13 separation ground tests. The analysis methods used to evaluate this unusually large amount of shock data will be discussed in this paper, with particular emphasis on population distributions and finding statistically significant families of data, leading to an overall shock separation interface level. The wealth of ground test data also allowed a derivation of a Mission Assurance level for the flight. All of the flight shock measurements were below the EOS Terra Mission Assurance level thus contributing to the overall success of the EOS Terra mission. The effectiveness of the statistical methodology for characterizing the shock interface level and for developing a flight Mission Assurance level from a large sample size of shock data is demonstrated in this paper.

  4. An Asset Pricing Approach to Testing General Term Structure Models including Heath-Jarrow-Morton Specifications and Affine Subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel

    of the risk premium is associated with the slope factor, and individual risk prices depend on own past values, factor realizations, and past values of other risk prices, and are significantly related to the output gap, consumption, and the equity risk price. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is strongly...... is tested, but in addition to the standard bilinear term in factor loadings and market prices of risk, the relevant mean restriction in the term structure case involves an additional nonlinear (quadratic) term in factor loadings. We estimate our general model using likelihood-based dynamic factor model...... techniques for a variety of volatility factors, and implement the relevant likelihood ratio tests. Our factor model estimates are similar across a general state space implementation and an alternative robust two-step principal components approach. The evidence favors time-varying market prices of risk. Most...

  5. Including Bioconcentration Kinetics for the Prioritization and Interpretation of Regulatory Aquatic Toxicity Tests of Highly Hydrophobic Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, So-Young; Kang, Hyun-Joong; Mayer, Philipp; Escher, Beate I

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, regulations of chemicals require short-term toxicity data for evaluating hazards and risks of the chemicals. Current data requirements on the registration of chemicals are primarily based on tonnage and do not yet consider properties of chemicals. For example, short-term ecotoxicity data are required for chemicals with production volume greater than 1 or 10 ton/y according to REACH, without considering chemical properties. Highly hydrophobic chemicals are characterized by low water solubility and slow bioconcentration kinetics, which may hamper the interpretation of short-term toxicity experiments. In this work, internal concentrations of highly hydrophobic chemicals were predicted for standard acute ecotoxicity tests at three trophic levels, algae, invertebrate, and fish. As demonstrated by comparison with maximum aqueous concentrations at water solubility, chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) greater than 10(6) are not expected to reach sufficiently high internal concentrations for exerting effects within the test duration of acute tests with fish and invertebrates, even though they might be intrinsically toxic. This toxicity cutoff was explained by the slow uptake, i.e., by kinetics, not by thermodynamic limitations. Predictions were confirmed by data entries of the OECD's screening information data set (SIDS) (n = 746), apart from a few exceptions concerning mainly organometallic substances and those with inconsistency between water solubility and Kow. Taking error propagation and model assumptions into account, we thus propose a revision of data requirements for highly hydrophobic chemicals with log Kow > 7.4: Short-term toxicity tests can be limited to algae that generally have the highest uptake rate constants, whereas the primary focus of the assessment should be on persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-term effects.

  6. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens.

  7. Definition and application of neuropsychological test battery to evaluate postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentin, Lívia Stocco Sanches; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Aguiar Junior, Wagner de; Rios, Ruth Pinto Camarão; Stahlberg, Mariane Galzerano; Menezes, Iolanda Valois Galvão de; Osternack-Pinto, Kátia; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the adequacy of the neuropsychological test battery proposed by the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction to evaluate this disorder in Brazilian elderly...

  8. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) C...

  9. Probabilistic seismic safety assessment of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant including ambient vibration tests: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of

  10. Effective Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a Two-Step Algorithm Including Tests for Antigen and Cytotoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Ticehurst, John R.; Aird, Deborah Z.; Dam, Lisa M.; Borek, Anita P.; Hargrove, John T.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were ≥99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by ≈75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in ≤3 days, we decided that this algorithm would be effective. Over 6 months...

  11. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  12. A new test statistic for climate models that includes field and spatial dependencies using Gaussian Markov random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosedal-Sanchez, Alvaro; Jackson, Charles S.; Huerta, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A new test statistic for climate model evaluation has been developed that potentially mitigates some of the limitations that exist for observing and representing field and space dependencies of climate phenomena. Traditionally such dependencies have been ignored when climate models have been evaluated against observational data, which makes it difficult to assess whether any given model is simulating observed climate for the right reasons. The new statistic uses Gaussian Markov random fields for estimating field and space dependencies within a first-order grid point neighborhood structure. We illustrate the ability of Gaussian Markov random fields to represent empirical estimates of field and space covariances using "witch hat" graphs. We further use the new statistic to evaluate the tropical response of a climate model (CAM3.1) to changes in two parameters important to its representation of cloud and precipitation physics. Overall, the inclusion of dependency information did not alter significantly the recognition of those regions of parameter space that best approximated observations. However, there were some qualitative differences in the shape of the response surface that suggest how such a measure could affect estimates of model uncertainty.

  13. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Black Hills, and Manitou, Colorado test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some current beetle-killed ponderosa pine can be detected on S190-B photography imaged over the Bear Lodge mountains in the Black Hills National Forest. Detections were made on SL-3 imagery (September 13, 1973) using a zoom lens microscope to view the photography. At this time correlations have not been made to all of the known infestation spots in the Bear Lodge mountains; rather, known infestations have been located on the SL-3 imagery. It was determined that the beetle-killed trees were current kills by stereo viewing of SL-3 imagery on one side and SL-2 on the other. A successful technique was developed for mapping current beetle-killed pine using MSS imagery from mission 247 flown by the C-130 over the Black Hills test site in September 1973. Color enhancement processing on the NASA/JSC, DAS system using three MSS channels produced an excellent quality detection map for current kill pine. More importantly it provides a way to inventory the dead trees by relating PCM counts to actual numbers of dead trees.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  15. The value of a formula including haematocrit, blood urea and gender (HUGE) as a screening test for chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gregori, J A; Robles, N R; Mena, C; Ardanuy, R; Jauregui, R; Macas-Nu Nunez, J F

    2011-06-01

    Despite increasing use in clinical practice, an estimated glomerular filtration rate value (eGFR) of HUGE formula. A formula including haematocrit , blood urea, and gender (HUGE), diagnoses CRI regardless of the variables of age, blood creatinine, creatinine clearance, or other eGFR. The HUGE formula is: L = 2.505458 - (0.264418 x Hematocrit) + (0.118100 x Urea) [+ 1.383960 if male]. If L is a negative number the individual does not have CRI; if L is a positive number, CRI is present. Our data demonstrate that the HUGE formula is more reliable than MDRD and CKD-EPI, particularly in persons aged over 70. Our HUGE screening formula offers a straightforward, easily available and inexpensive method for differentiating between CRI and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 that will prevent a considerable number of aged healthy persons, as much as 1.700.000 in Spain and 2.600.000 in U.K., to be excluded from clinical assays or treatments contraindicated in CRI.

  16. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  17. 46 CFR 57.04-1 - Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202). 57.04-1 Section 57.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Procedure Qualification Range § 57.04-1 Test specimen requirements...

  18. 40 CFR 1048.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For engines from an engine family that will be used only in variable-speed applications, use one of... you will not restrict an engine family to constant-speed or variable-speed applications. (4) Use a... § 1048.505 C2 mode No. Engine speed 1 Torque(percent) 2 Weightingfactors 1 Maximum test speed 25 0.06 2...

  19. Space shuttle orbiter avionics software: Post review report for the entry FACI (First Article Configuration Inspection). [including orbital flight tests integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, H.

    1978-01-01

    Status of the computer programs dealing with space shuttle orbiter avionics is reported. Specific topics covered include: delivery status; SSW software; SM software; DL software; GNC software; level 3/4 testing; level 5 testing; performance analysis, SDL readiness for entry first article configuration inspection; and verification assessment.

  20. Mammalian Toxicology Testing: Problem Definition Study, AMTR Protocol/Pricing Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    and water must be provided ad used in the reproductive study. Strains cesarean section approximately I day libitum. Pregnant females must be with low...justification for not providing such specific stain tested must be submitted. be sacrificed at time of cesarean section material must be submitted...This approach allows for comparisons of costs between various performance alternatives and uses a standardized pricing approach that can be updated

  1. Definition and test of the electromagnetic immunity of UAS for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, C.; Chmel, S.; Jöster, M.; Pusch, T.; Suhrke, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technological developments considerably lowered the barrier for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to be employed in a variety of usage scenarios, comprising live video transmission from otherwise inaccessible vantage points. As an example, in the French-German ANCHORS project several UAS guided by swarm intelligence provide aerial views and environmental data of a disaster site while deploying an ad-hoc communication network for first responders. Since being able to operate in harsh environmental conditions is a key feature, the immunity of the UAS against radio frequency (RF) exposure has been studied. Conventional Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) applied to commercial and industrial electronics is not sufficient since UAS are airborne and can as such move beyond the bounds within which RF exposure is usually limited by regulatory measures. Therefore, the EMC requirements have been complemented by a set of specific RF test frequencies and parameters where strong sources are expected to interfere in the example project test case of an inland port environment. While no essential malfunctions could be observed up to field strengths of 30 V m-1, a sophisticated, more exhaustive approach for testing against potential sources of interference in key scenarios of UAS usage should be derived from our present findings.

  2. Definition of the linearity loss of the surface temperature in static tensile tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risitano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Static tensile tests on material for mechanical constructions have pointed out the linearity loss of the surface temperature with the application of load. This phenomenon is due to the heat generation caused by the local microplasticizations which carry the material to deviate from its completely thermoelastic behavior,. The identification of the static load which determines the loss of linearity of the temperature under stress, becomes extremely important to define a first dynamic characterization of the material. The temperature variations that can be recorded during the static test are often very limited (a few tenths of degree for every 100 MPa in steels and they require the use of special sensors able to measure very low temperature variations. The experience acquired in such analysis highlighted that, dealing with highly accurate sensors or with particular materials, the identification of the first linearity loss (often by eye in the temperature curves, can be influenced by the sensibility of the investigator himself and can lead to incorrect estimates. The aim of this work is to validate the above mentioned observations on different steels, by applying the autocorrelation function to the data collected during the application of a static load. This, in order to make the results of the thermal analysis free from the sensitivity of the operator and to make the results as objective as possible, for defining the closest time of the linearity loss in the temperature-time function.

  3. Polytrauma Defined by the New Berlin Definition: A Validation Test Based on Propensity-Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-09-11

    Background: Polytrauma patients are expected to have a higher risk of mortality than that obtained by the summation of expected mortality owing to their individual injuries. This study was designed to investigate the outcome of patients with polytrauma, which was defined using the new Berlin definition, as cases with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 for two or more different body regions and one or more additional variables from five physiologic parameters (hypotension [systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg], unconsciousness [Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8], acidosis [base excess ≤ -6.0], coagulopathy [partial thromboplastin time ≥ 40 s or international normalized ratio ≥ 1.4], and age [≥70 years]). Methods: We retrieved detailed data on 369 polytrauma patients and 1260 non-polytrauma patients with an overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 18 who were hospitalized between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015 for the treatment of all traumatic injuries, from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center. Patients with burn injury or incomplete registered data were excluded. Categorical data were compared with two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests. The unpaired Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Propensity-score matched cohort in a 1:1 ratio was allocated using the NCSS software with logistic regression to evaluate the effect of polytrauma on patient outcomes. Results: The polytrauma patients had a significantly higher ISS than non-polytrauma patients (median (interquartile range Q1-Q3), 29 (22-36) vs. 24 (20-25), respectively; p propensity score-matched pairs of polytrauma and non-polytrauma patients who showed no significant difference in sex, age, co-morbidity, AIS ≥ 3, and Injury Severity Score (ISS), the polytrauma patients had a significantly higher mortality rate (OR 17.5, 95% CI 4.21-72.76; p propensity

  4. Instability in the COPD Diagnosis upon Repeat Testing Vary with the Definition of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Montes de Oca, Maria; Lopez, Maria Victorina; Jardim, Jose R.; Muino, Adriana; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuze, Julio; Menezes, Ana Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    Background A low FEV1/FVC from post-bronchodilator spirometry is required to diagnose COPD. Both the FEV1 and the FVC can vary over time; therefore, individuals can be given a diagnosis of mild COPD at one visit, but have normal spirometry during the next appointment, even without an intervention. Methods We analyzed two population-based surveys of adults with spirometry carried out for the same individuals 5-9 years after their baseline examination. We determined the factors associated with a change in the spirometry interpretation from one exam to the next utilizing different criteria commonly used to diagnose COPD. Results The rate of an inconsistent diagnosis of mild COPD was 11.7% using FEV1/FVC <0.70, 5.9% using FEV1/FEV6 test in patients with borderline results. PMID:25811461

  5. Deadly pluralism? Why death-concept, death-definition, death-criterion and death-test pluralism should be allowed, even though it creates some problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2009-10-01

    Death concept, death definition, death criterion and death test pluralism has been described by some as a problematic approach. Others have claimed it to be a promising way forward within modern pluralistic societies. This article describes the New Jersey Death Definition Law and the Japanese Transplantation Law. Both of these laws allow for more than one death concept within a single legal system. The article discusses a philosophical basis for these laws starting from John Rawls' understanding of comprehensive doctrines, reasonable pluralism and overlapping consensus. It argues for the view that a certain legal pluralism in areas of disputed metaphysical, philosophical and/or religious questions should be allowed, as long as the disputed questions concern the individual and the resulting policy, law or acts based on the policy/law, do not harm the lives of other individuals to an intolerable extent. However, while this death concept, death definition, death criterion and death test pluralism solves some problems, it creates others.

  6. Definition and evaluation of testing scenarios for knee wear simulation under conditions of highly demanding daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesau, Jens; Schilling, Carolin; Kaddick, Christian; Utzschneider, Sandra; Jansson, Volkmar; Fritz, Bernhard; Blömer, Wilhelm; Grupp, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of our study was the definition of testing scenarios for knee wear simulation under various highly demanding daily activities of patients after total knee arthroplasty. This was mainly based on a review of published data on knee kinematics and kinetics followed by the evaluation of the accuracy and precision of a new experimental setup. We combined tibio-femoral load and kinematic data reported in the literature to develop deep squatting loading profiles for simulator input. A servo-hydraulic knee wear simulator was customised with a capability of a maximum flexion of 120°, a tibio-femoral load of 5000N, an anterior-posterior (AP) shear force of ±1000N and an internal-external (IE) rotational torque of ±50Nm to simulate highly demanding patient activities. During the evaluation of the newly configurated simulator the ability of the test machine to apply the required load and torque profiles and the flexion kinematics in a precise manner was examined by nominal-actual profile comparisons monitored periodically during subsequent knee wear simulation. For the flexion kinematics under displacement control a delayed actuator response of approximately 0.05s was inevitable due to the inertia of masses in movement of the coupled knee wear stations 1-3 during all applied activities. The axial load and IE torque is applied in an effective manner without substantial deviations between nominal and actual load and torque profiles. During the first third of the motion cycle a marked deviation between nominal and actual AP shear load profiles has to be noticed but without any expected measurable effect on the latter wear simulation due to the fact that the load values are well within the peak magnitude of the nominal load amplitude. In conclusion the described testing method will be an important tool to have more realistic knee wear simulations based on load conditions of the knee joint during activities of daily living.

  7. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    found in for the pressure station approach. Walker and Dickerhoff also included estimates of DeltaQ test repeatability based on the results of field tests where two houses were tested multiple times. The two houses were quite leaky (20-25 Air Changes per Hour at 50Pa (0.2 in. water) (ACH50)) and were located in the San Francisco Bay area. One house was tested on a calm day and the other on a very windy day. Results were also presented for two additional houses that were tested by other researchers in Minneapolis, MN and Madison, WI, that had very tight envelopes (1.8 and 2.5 ACH50). These tight houses had internal duct systems and were tested without operating the central blower--sometimes referred to as control tests. The standard deviations between the multiple tests for all four houses were found to be about 1% of the envelope air flow at 50 Pa (0.2 in. water) (Q50) that led to the suggestion of this as a rule of thumb for estimating DeltaQ uncertainty. Because DeltaQ is based on measuring envelope air flows it makes sense for uncertainty to scale with envelope leakage. However, these tests were on a limited data set and one of the objectives of the current study is to increase the number of tested houses. This study focuses on answering two questions: (1) What is the uncertainty associated with changes in weather (primarily wind) conditions during DeltaQ testing? (2) How can these uncertainties be reduced? The first question is addressing issues of repeatability. To study this five houses were tested as many times as possible over a day. Weather data was recorded on-site--including the local windspeed. The result from these five houses were combined with the two Bay Area homes from the previous studies. The variability of the tests (represented by the standard deviation) is the repeatability of the test method for that house under the prevailing weather conditions. Because the testing was performed over a day a wide range of wind speeds was achieved following

  8. Modification of the BAX Salmonella test kit to include a hot start functionality (modification of AOAC Official Method 2003.09).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, F Morgan; DiCosimo, Deana; Farnum, Andrew; Tice, George; Andaloro, Bridget; Davis, Eugene; Burns, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the BAX System PCR assay for Salmonella was modified to include a hot start functionality designed to keep the reaction enzyme inactive until PCR begins. To validate the assay's Official Methods of Analysis status to include this procedure modification, an evaluation was conducted on four food types that were simultaneously analyzed with the BAX System and either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method for detecting Salmonella. Identical performance between the BAX System method and the reference methods was observed. Additionally, lysates were analyzed using both the BAX System Classic and BAX System Q7 instruments with identical results using both platforms for all samples tested. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 34 samples were positive for both the BAX System and reference methods, and 66 samples were negative by both the BAX System and reference methods, demonstrating 100% correlation. No instrument platform variation was observed. Additional inclusivity and exclusivity testing using the modified test kit demonstrated the test kit to be 100% accurate in evaluation of test panels of 352 Salmonella strains and 46 non-Salmonella strains.

  9. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...

  10. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspe...

  11. Analytical performances of d-ROMs test and BAP test in canine plasma. Definition of the normal range in healthy Labrador dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Marchetti, V; Cardini, G; Iorio, E L

    2008-02-01

    An high level of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), due to an increased production of oxidant species and/or a decreased efficacy of antioxidant system, can lead to oxidative stress, an emerging health risk factor involved in the aging and in many diseases, including inflammatory, infectious and degenerative disorders, either in humans or in animals. In the last years some assays panels have been developed to globally evaluate the oxidative balance by means of the concomitant assessment of ROS production and antioxidant system capability. In this report, the validation trials of d-ROMs (Reactive Oxygen Metabolites- derived compounds) and BAP (Biological Antioxidant Potential) tests in canine specie are described and also the specific referral ranges are calculated in a Labrador population. The results of linearity, precision and accuracy trials show that both tests exhibit good to excellent analytical performances. The possibility of measuring oxidative stress in vivo with simple, cheap and accurate tests, d-ROMs test and BAP test, provides for the veterinarians a very suitable tool to monitor oxidative stress and to correctly choice of eventual antioxidant supplementations in diseases proven related to oxidative stress in animals and particularly in dogs. Further studies will be useful to confirm this possibility.

  12. Traces of dissolved particles, including coccoliths, in the tests of agglutinated foraminifera from the Challenger Deep (10,897 m water depth, western equatorial Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, A. J.; Uematsu, K.; Kitazato, H.; Toyofuku, T.; Young, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    We examined four multilocular agglutinated foraminiferan tests from the Challenger Deep, the deepest point in the world's oceans and well below the depth at which biogenic and most detrital minerals disappear from the sediment. The specimens represent undescribed species. Three are trochamminaceans in which imprints and other traces of dissolved agglutinated particles are visible in the orange or yellowish organic test lining. In Trochamminacean sp. A, a delicate meshwork of organic cement forms ridges between the grain impressions. The remnants of test particles include organic structures identifiable as moulds of coccoliths produced by the genus Helicosphaera. Their random alignment suggests that they were agglutinated individually rather than as fragments of a coccosphere. Trochamminacean sp. C incorporates discoidal structures with a central hole; these probably represent the proximal sides of isolated distal shields of another coccolith species, possibly Hayaster perplexus. Imprints of planktonic foraminiferan test fragments are also present in both these trochamminaceans. In Trochamminacean sp. B, the test surface is densely pitted with deep, often angular imprints ranging from roughly equidimensional to rod-shaped. The surfaces are either smooth, or have prominent longitudinal striations, probably made by cleavage traces. We presume these imprints represent mineral grains of various types that subsequently dissolved. X-ray microanalyses reveal strong peaks for Ca associated with grain impressions and coccolith remains in Trochamminacean sp. C. Minor peaks for this element are associated with coccolith remains and planktonic foraminiferan imprints in Trochamminacean sp. A. These Ca peaks possibly originate from traces of calcite remaining on the test surfaces. Agglutinated particles, presumably clay minerals, survive only in the fourth specimen (' Textularia' sp.). Here, the final 4-5 chambers comprise a pavement of small, irregularly shaped grains with flat

  13. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Model of the Lockheed YP-80A Airplane Including Correlation with Flight Tests and Tests of Dive-Recovery Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph W.; Gray, Lyle J.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.

  14. Estimating implementation and operational costs of an integrated tiered CD4 service including laboratory and point of care testing in a remote health district in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    Full Text Available An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM has been proposed to provide 'full-coverage' of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1 Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing 600 samples/day and serving > 100 or > 200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa.Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time.The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively, but with related increased LTR-TAT of > 24-48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT < 6-hours could be achieved with placement of twenty-seven Tier-1/POC or eight Tier-2/POC-hubs, at a cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured 'full service coverage' and < 24 hour LTR-TAT for the district at $7.42 per-test.Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery of services in Pixley-ka-Seme, with an estimated local ∼ 12-24-hour LTR-TAT, is ∼ $2 more than existing referred services per-test, but 2-4 fold cheaper than implementing eight Tier-2/POC-hubs or providing twenty-seven Tier-1/POCT CD4

  15. Target spectrum matrix definition for multiple-input- multiple-output control strategies applied on direct-field- acoustic-excitation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Blanco, M.; Janssens, K.; Bianciardi, F.

    2016-09-01

    During the last two decades there have been several improvements on environmental acoustic qualification testing for launch and space vehicles. Direct field excitation (DFAX) tests using Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control strategies seems to become the most cost-efficient way for component and subsystem acoustic testing. However there are still some concerns about the uniformity and diffusivity of the acoustic field produced by direct field testing. Lately, much of the documented progresses aimed to solve the non-uniformity of the field by altering the sound pressure level requirement, limiting responses and adding or modifying control microphones positions. However, the first two solutions imply modifying the qualification criteria, which could lead to under-testing, potentially risking the mission. Furthermore, adding or moving control microphones prematurely changes the system configuration, even if it is an optimal geometric layout in terms of wave interference patterns control. This research investigates the target definition as an initial condition for the acoustic MIMO control. Through experiments it is shown that for a given system configuration the performance of a DFAX test strongly depends on the target definition procedure. As output of this research a set of descriptors are presented describing a phenomenon defined as “Energy- sink”.

  16. CEQATR Thermal Test Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balusek, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    A thermal test overview of the Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Test Requirement (CEQATR) is presented. The contents include: 1) CEQATR Thermal Test Overview; 2) CxP Environments; 3) CEQATR Table 1.2-1; 4) Levels of Assembly; 5) Definitions for Levels of Assembly; 6) Hardware Applicability; 7) CEQATR Thermal-Related Definitions; 8) Requirements for unit-level thermal testing; 9) Requirements for major assembly level thermal testing; 10) General thermal testing requirements; 11) General thermal cycle, thermal vacuum profiles; 12) Test tolerances; 13) Vacuum vs Ambient; 14) Thermal Gradient; 15) Sequence of Testing; 16) Alternative Strategies; 17) Protoflight; 18) Halt/Hass; 19) Humidity; and 20) Tailoring.

  17. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  18. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  19. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  20. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    to develop a hierarchical schema that systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogates; and to obtain feedback from stakeholders. METHODS: After a systematic search of Medline and Embase on biomarkers, surrogate (outcomes, endpoints, markers, indicators), intermediate...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...

  1. Systematic approach to sonographic evaluation of the pelvis in women with suspected endometriosis, including terms, definitions and measurements: a consensus opinion from the International Deep Endometriosis Analysis (IDEA) group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, S; Condous, G; van den Bosch, T; Valentin, L; Leone, F P G; Van Schoubroeck, D; Exacoustos, C; Installé, A J F; Martins, W P; Abrao, M S; Hudelist, G; Bazot, M; Alcazar, J L; Gonçalves, M O; Pascual, M A; Ajossa, S; Savelli, L; Dunham, R; Reid, S; Menakaya, U; Bourne, T; Ferrero, S; Leon, M; Bignardi, T; Holland, T; Jurkovic, D; Benacerraf, B; Osuga, Y; Somigliana, E; Timmerman, D

    2016-09-01

    The IDEA (International Deep Endometriosis Analysis group) statement is a consensus opinion on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe the sonographic features of the different phenotypes of endometriosis. Currently, it is difficult to compare results between published studies because authors use different terms when describing the same structures and anatomical locations. We hope that the terms and definitions suggested herein will be adopted in centers around the world. This would result in consistent use of nomenclature when describing the ultrasound location and extent of endometriosis. We believe that the standardization of terminology will allow meaningful comparisons between future studies in women with an ultrasound diagnosis of endometriosis and should facilitate multicenter research. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. HPTN 071 (PopART: a cluster-randomized trial of the population impact of an HIV combination prevention intervention including universal testing and treatment: mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HPTN 052 trial confirmed that antiretroviral therapy (ART can nearly eliminate HIV transmission from successfully treated HIV-infected individuals within couples. Here, we present the mathematical modeling used to inform the design and monitoring of a new trial aiming to test whether widespread provision of ART is feasible and can substantially reduce population-level HIV incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The HPTN 071 (PopART trial is a three-arm cluster-randomized trial of 21 large population clusters in Zambia and South Africa, starting in 2013. A combination prevention package including home-based voluntary testing and counseling, and ART for HIV positive individuals, will be delivered in arms A and B, with ART offered universally in arm A and according to national guidelines in arm B. Arm C will be the control arm. The primary endpoint is the cumulative three-year HIV incidence. We developed a mathematical model of heterosexual HIV transmission, informed by recent data on HIV-1 natural history. We focused on realistically modeling the intervention package. Parameters were calibrated to data previously collected in these communities and national surveillance data. We predict that, if targets are reached, HIV incidence over three years will drop by >60% in arm A and >25% in arm B, relative to arm C. The considerable uncertainty in the predicted reduction in incidence justifies the need for a trial. The main drivers of this uncertainty are possible community-level behavioral changes associated with the intervention, uptake of testing and treatment, as well as ART retention and adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The HPTN 071 (PopART trial intervention could reduce HIV population-level incidence by >60% over three years. This intervention could serve as a paradigm for national or supra-national implementation. Our analysis highlights the role mathematical modeling can play in trial development and monitoring, and more widely in evaluating the

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  5. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  6. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  7. Test-set reduction in the screening step definition of a chiral separation strategy in polar organic solvents chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Hasret; Desmedt, Bart; Heyden, Yvan Vander

    2012-12-01

    The last decades, many efforts have been made to design and develop chiral separation strategies for different analytical techniques. To ensure that these strategies are broadly applicable rather large test-sets of molecules with very diverse molecules are used. The most enantioselective and complementary separation systems are then used as screening conditions in separation strategies. Potential changes in conditions e.g. implementation of new chiral selectors, requires screening of the entire set to retain the most enantioselective systems. A rational reduction of the test-sets may open new perspectives for developing and updating separation strategies. In the present work, it is investigated whether the screening step of an existing separation strategy in polar organic solvents chromatography can be reconstructed based on reduced test-set results Therefore, the structures of the 58 molecules of the test-set are digitally drawn and their optimal geometrical conformations calculated. From these conformations 3D-molecular descriptors are calculated. The test-set reduction is performed using the Kennard and Stone algorithm: compounds with the most diverse descriptors are selected. The test-sets are gradually reduced with 10% starting from 90% to 30% of the initial size. The results pointed out that with some reduced test-sets the same chromatographic systems are selected. A test-set reduction with 30% (41 remaining compounds) seems possible without losing information on the global enantioselectivity and complementarity of the tested chiral stationary phases.

  8. 49 CFR 130.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dredged spoil. Note: This definition does not include hazardous substances (see 40 CFR part 116). Other... liquid separation, when determined in accordance with the procedures specified in ASTM D 4359-84, “Standard Test Method for Determining Whether a Material is a Liquid or a Solid,” 1990 edition, which...

  9. 48 CFR 1335.001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 1335.001 Definitions. Human subject means a living individual... example, a medical record). Private information must be individually identifiable (i.e., the identity of... means a systematic investigation, including research, development, testing and evaluation, designed...

  10. 32 CFR 22.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or testing of specific products, systems or processes to be considered for sale or acquisition; these efforts are within the definition of “development.” Basic research. Efforts directed toward increasing...). It does not include development of military systems and hardware where specific requirements have...

  11. 30 CFR 7.502 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Refuge Alternatives § 7.502 Definitions. The... background atmospheric pressure that could result from an explosion, which includes the impact of the... integrated components that create a life-sustaining environment for persons trapped in an underground...

  12. 38 CFR 21.5720 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Educational Assistance Test Program General § 21.5720 Definitions..., technical or vocational school in the United States (including the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands) that— (1) Provides education on a postsecondary...

  13. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of bending strength of spinal pedicle screws, including cylindrical, conical, dual core and double dual core designs using numerical simulations and mechanical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Jinn

    2014-09-01

    Pedicle screws are used for treating several types of spinal injuries. Although several commercial versions are presently available, they are mostly either fully cylindrical or fully conical. In this study, the bending strengths of seven types of commercial pedicle screws and a newly designed double dual core screw were evaluated by finite element analyses and biomechanical tests. All the screws had an outer diameter of 7 mm, and the biomechanical test consisted of a cantilever bending test in which a vertical point load was applied using a level arm of 45 mm. The boundary and loading conditions of the biomechanical tests were applied to the model used for the finite element analyses. The results showed that only the conical screws with fixed outer diameter and the new double dual core screw could withstand 1,000,000 cycles of a 50-500 N cyclic load. The new screw, however, exhibited lower stiffness than the conical screw, indicating that it could afford patients more flexible movements. Moreover, the new screw produced a level of stability comparable to that of the conical screw, and it was also significantly stronger than the other screws. The finite element analysis further revealed that the point of maximum tensile stress in the screw model was comparable to the point at which fracture occurred during the fatigue test. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Definitely Life but not Definitively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Randall S.

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative usefulness as aids to arriving at a scientific definition of life. We look at some of the more recent definitions and analyse them in the light of our criteria for a good definition. We argue that since there are so many linguistic and philosophical difficulties with such a definition of life, what is needed is a series of working descriptions, which are suited to the audience and context in which they are used and useful for the intended purpose. We provide some ideas and examples of the forms these may take.

  16. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  17. Use of an Aptitude Test in University Entrance--A Validity Study: Updated Analyses of Higher Education Destinations, Including 2007 Entrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Catherine; Wheater, Rebecca; Morrison, Jo; Durbin, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned to evaluate the potential value of using an aptitude test as an additional tool in the selection of candidates for admission to higher education (HE). This five-year study is co-funded by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER), the Department for…

  18. Steering Organoids Toward Discovery: Self-Driving Stem Cells Are Opening a World of Possibilities, Including Drug Testing and Tissue Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, stem cells' shape-shifting abilities have wowed scientists. With proper handling, a few growth factors, and some time, stem cells can be cooked up into specific cell types, including neurons, muscle, and skin.

  19. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  20. Definition of intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shobhit; Siddiqui, Khurram A

    2011-01-01

    Defining intractable epilepsy is essential not only to identify up to 40% of patients refractory to pharmacological management, but also to facilitate selection and comparison of such patients for research purposes. The ideal definition still eludes us. Multiple factors including number of antiepileptic drug (AED) failures, seizure frequency and duration of unresponsiveness, etiology, and epilepsy syndromes are considered in formulating the definition of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Most definitions used in the literature agree on the number of AED failures, which seem to be 2 or 3, however, the seizure frequency and time factor are varied. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed a definition of drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of 2 tolerated and appropriately chosen and used AED schedules. This for now, could provide an operational definition for clinical and research settings. However, with emergence of new data and novel treatments the criteria for intractability may change.

  1. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 9: PEP design, development and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A plan for the production of two PEP flight systems is defined. The task's milestones are described. Provisions for the development and assembly of new ground support equipment required for both testing and launch operations are included.

  2. A general tank test of a model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat including a special working chart for the determination of hull performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John R

    1938-01-01

    The results of a general tank test of a 1/6 full-size model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat (N.A.C.A. model 18) are given in non-dimensional form. In addition to the usual curves, the results are presented in a new form that makes it possible to apply them more conveniently than in the forms previously used. The resistance was compared with that of N.A.C.A. models 11-C and 26(Sikorsky S-40) and was found to be generally less than the resistance of either.

  3. Differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species by real-time PCR including detection of methicillin resistants in comparison to conventional microbiology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschik, Sven; Lehmann, Lutz E; Steinhagen, Folkert; Book, Malte; Molitor, Ernst; Hoeft, Andreas; Stueber, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognized as a major pathogen. Methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant strains of S. epidermidis (MRSE) are among the most prevalent multiresistant pathogens worldwide, frequently causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In the present pilot study, we tested a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to quickly differentiate Staphylococci and identify the mecA gene in a clinical setting. Compared to the conventional microbiology testing the real-time PCR assay had a higher detection rate for both S. aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS; 55 vs. 32 for S. aureus and 63 vs. 24 for CoNS). Hands-on time preparing DNA, carrying out the PCR, and evaluating results was less than 5 h. The assay is largely automated, easy to adapt, and has been shown to be rapid and reliable. Fast detection and differentiation of S. aureus, CoNS, and the mecA gene by means of this real-time PCR protocol may help expedite therapeutic decision-making and enable earlier adequate antibiotic treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-02-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 529 consists of one Corrective Action Site (25-23-17). For the purpose of this investigation, the Corrective Action Site has been divided into nine parcels based on the separate and distinct releases. A conceptual site model was developed for each parcel to address the translocation of contaminants from each release. The results of this investigation will be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Sites Office's (NNSA/NSO's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites: 03-59-01, Building 3C-36 Septic System; 03-59-02, Building 3C-45 Septic System; 06-51-01, Sump Piping, 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris; 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping; and 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the NTS, CAU 516 is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls, and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information and process knowledge on the expected nature and extent of contamination of CAU 516 are insufficient to select preferred corrective action alternatives; therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  7. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy: II. Numerical predictions and experimental tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new depth-averaged mathematical model that is designed to simulate all stages of debris-flow motion, from initiation to deposition. A companion paper shows how the model’s five governing equations describe simultaneous evolution of flow thickness, solid volume fraction, basal pore-fluid pressure, and two components of flow momentum. Each equation contains a source term that represents the influence of state-dependent granular dilatancy. Here we recapitulate the equations and analyze their eigenstructure to show that they form a hyperbolic system with desirable stability properties. To solve the equations we use a shock-capturing numerical scheme with adaptive mesh refinement, implemented in an open-source software package we call D-Claw. As tests of D-Claw, we compare model output with results from two sets of large-scale debris-flow experiments. One set focuses on flow initiation from landslides triggered by rising pore-water pressures, and the other focuses on downstream flow dynamics, runout, and deposition. D-Claw performs well in predicting evolution of flow speeds, thicknesses, and basal pore-fluid pressures measured in each type of experiment. Computational results illustrate the critical role of dilatancy in linking coevolution of the solid volume fraction and pore-fluid pressure, which mediates basal Coulomb friction and thereby regulates debris-flow dynamics.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  9. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia.This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped and very quickly (28 working days. All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001 and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001 or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001. Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001. Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%.This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are

  10. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C.; Katokele, Stark; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Balfour, Lexi; Reiff, Mark; Lancaster, Warren; Noden, Bruce H.; Bock, Ronnie; Stothard, J. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Background Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of ‘mapping resolution’, as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia. Methods/Findings/Interpretation This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17 896 children from 299 schools) at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped) and very quickly (28 working days). All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001) and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001) or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001). Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001). Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively) performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%. Conclusion/Significance This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map

  11. Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Surveillance Case Definitions for Zika Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hanley; Win, Mar-Kyaw; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated performance of 5 case definitions for Zika virus disease surveillance in a human cohort during an outbreak in Singapore, August 26–September 5, 2016. Because laboratory tests are largely inaccessible, use of case definitions that include rash as a required clinical feature are useful in identifying this disease. PMID:28117032

  12. 24 CFR 891.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definition. Rehabilitation may also include renovation, alteration, or remodeling for the conversion or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 891.105 Section 891... § 891.105 Definitions. The following definitions apply, as appropriate, throughout this part....

  13. Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

  14. [Scale Mosaic: definition and testing of a tool for assessing the risk of falling and the care planning during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprani, Riccarda; Taglioni, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    in year 2008 the Ausl of Ravenna had a small number of patients at risk among the patients fallen, and among the patients evaluated with risk for fall. This could be due to the rating scale used (Conley) that does not recognize the risk factors "drug therapy" and "conditions clinical care". to experiment a rating scale (Mosaic), to evaluate the performance indicators compared to the scales Conley, Fall Risk Assessment Scoring System (FRASS), Stratity; evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken to manage the risk; Operators remain vigilant about the risk falls. using the scale Mosaic for patients admitted in 16 Hospital Units for two-months. Performance indicators: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative. Studies considered for comparison: Hospital (AO) Bologna for Conley, AO Bologna and AO Niguarda Cà Granda Milan for Stratify, AO Bergamo for FRASS. were analyzed 1474 tabs. Males are 848 (57.5%) and females 626 (43.5%), the average age is 70.8 years. Of these 42 patients have fallen (2.8%), including 25 males and 17 females and the average age is 72.2. Are not at risk 426 (29%) patients and at risk 1048 (71%) patients. In other assessments the patients at risk was 31% in AUSL Ravenna, 59% (Conley) and 13% (Stratify) in AO Bologna and 41.5% (FRASS) in AO Bergamo. The scale Mosaic has a sensitivity of 0.98 (Conley, Stratify and FRASS amounted to 0.69, to 0.20, to 0.50), a specificity of 0.30 (Conley, Stratify and FRASS amounted to 0.41, 0.87, 0.59.) The patients fallen are at risk in 41 cases (97%) and of these 24 low-risk. The most frequent risk factors are: "mobility and gait" (1209 items), "drug therapy" (850 items) , "conditions clinical care" (841 items). Planned actions have an average of 2.2 in patients fallen, of 3.5 in low-risk patients and of 4.48 in patients at high risk. Compared with the previous year shows a decrease of 14 falls and an increase in the level of outcome "no one" (from 61% to 73.5%). the greater number of falls

  15. Neuroretinitis -- definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007624.htm Neuroretinitis - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  16. Definition of transcriptome-based indices for quantitative characterization of chemically disturbed stem cell development: introduction of the STOP-Toxukn and STOP-Toxukk tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Hoelting, Lisa; Srinivasan, Sureshkumar Perumal; Meisig, Johannes; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Grinberg, Marianna; Liebing, Julia; Bluethgen, Nils; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Rempel, Eugen; Stoeber, Regina; Schildknecht, Stefan; Förster, Sunniva; Godoy, Patricio; van Thriel, Christoph; Gaspar, John Antonydas; Hescheler, Jürgen; Waldmann, Tanja; Hengstler, Jan G; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2017-02-01

    Stem cell-based in vitro test systems can recapitulate specific phases of human development. In the UKK test system, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) randomly differentiate into cells of the three germ layers and their derivatives. In the UKN1 test system, hPSCs differentiate into early neural precursor cells. During the normal differentiation period (14 days) of the UKK system, 570 genes [849 probe sets (PSs)] were regulated >fivefold; in the UKN1 system (6 days), 879 genes (1238 PSs) were regulated. We refer to these genes as 'developmental genes'. In the present study, we used genome-wide expression data of 12 test substances in the UKK and UKN1 test systems to understand the basic principles of how chemicals interfere with the spontaneous transcriptional development in both test systems. The set of test compounds included six histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), six mercury-containing compounds ('mercurials') and thalidomide. All compounds were tested at the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration, while valproic acid and thalidomide were additionally tested over a wide range of concentrations. In total, 242 genes (252 PSs) in the UKK test system and 793 genes (1092 PSs) in the UKN1 test system were deregulated by the 12 test compounds. We identified sets of 'diagnostic genes' appropriate for the identification of the influence of HDACis or mercurials. Test compounds that interfered with the expression of developmental genes usually antagonized their spontaneous development, meaning that up-regulated developmental genes were suppressed and developmental genes whose expression normally decreases were induced. The fraction of compromised developmental genes varied widely between the test compounds, and it reached up to 60 %. To quantitatively describe disturbed development on a genome-wide basis, we recommend a concept of two indices, 'developmental potency' (D p) and 'developmental index' (D i), whereby D p is the fraction of all developmental genes

  17. Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-06

    The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.

  18. Serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and tuberculin skin test to diagnose latent tuberculosis in household Mexican contacts: conversion and reversion rates and associated factors using conventional and borderline zone definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Monárrez-Espino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A cohort of 123 adult contacts was followed for 18‐24 months (86 completed the follow-up to compare conversion and reversion rates based on two serial measures of QuantiFERON (QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST (PPD from TUBERSOL, Aventis Pasteur, Canada for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB in household contacts of TB patients using conventional (C and borderline zone (BZ definitions. Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding TB exposure, TB risk factors and socio-demographic data. QFT (IU/mL conversion was defined as 0.70 (BZ and reversion was defined as ≥0.35 to 10 (BZ and reversion was defined as ≥5 to <5 (C. The QFT conversion and reversion rates were 10.5% and 7% with C and 8.1% and 4.7% with the BZ definitions, respectively. The TST rates were higher compared with QFT, especially with the C definitions (conversion 23.3%, reversion 9.3%. The QFT conversion and reversion rates were higher for TST ≥5; for TST, both rates were lower for QFT <0.35. No risk factors were associated with the probability of converting or reverting. The inconsistency and apparent randomness of serial testing is confusing and adds to the limitations of these tests and definitions to follow-up close TB contacts.

  19. Conceptualising Business Models: Definitions, Frameworks and Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Fielt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The business model concept is gaining traction in different disciplines but is still criticized for being fuzzy and vague and lacking consensus on its definition and compositional elements. In this paper we set out to advance our understanding of the business model concept by addressing three areas of foundational research: business model definitions, business model elements, and business model archetypes. We define a business model as a representation of the value logic of an organization in terms of how it creates and captures customer value. This abstract and generic definition is made more specific and operational by the compositional elements that need to address the customer, value proposition, organizational architecture (firm and network level and economics dimensions. Business model archetypes complement the definition and elements by providing a more concrete and empirical understanding of the business model concept. The main contributions of this paper are (1 explicitly including the customer value concept in the business model definition and focussing on value creation, (2 presenting four core dimensions that business model elements need to cover, (3 arguing for flexibility by adapting and extending business model elements to cater for different purposes and contexts (e.g. technology, innovation, strategy (4 stressing a more systematic approach to business model archetypes by using business model elements for their description, and (5 suggesting to use business model archetype research for the empirical exploration and testing of business model elements and their relationships.

  20. Predicting pressure-dependent unimolecular rate constants using variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling combined with system-specific quantum RRK theory: a definitive test for fluoroform dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zhang, Xin; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-06-22

    Understanding the falloff in rate constants of gas-phase unimolecular reaction rate constants as the pressure is lowered is a fundamental problem in chemical kinetics, with practical importance for combustion, atmospheric chemistry, and essentially all gas-phase reaction mechanisms. In the present work, we use our recently developed system-specific quantum RRK theory, calibrated by canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling, combined with the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism, to model the dissociation reaction of fluoroform (CHF3), which provides a definitive test for falloff modeling. Our predicted pressure-dependent thermal rate constants are in excellent agreement with experimental values over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The present validation of our methodology, which is able to include variational transition state effects, multidimensional tunneling based on the directly calculated potential energy surface along the tunneling path, and torsional and other vibrational anharmonicity, together with state-of-the-art reaction-path-based direct dynamics calculations, is important because the method is less empirical than models routinely used for generating full mechanisms, while also being simpler in key respects than full master equation treatments and the full reduced falloff curve and modified strong collision methods of Troe.

  1. Strategy that includes serial noninvasive leg tests for diagnosis of thromboembolic disease in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism based on data from PIOPED. Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, P D; Hull, R D; Pineo, G

    1995-10-23

    % to 66%) if only a single noninvasive leg test were performed, and further reduced to 193 (29%) of 662 (95% CI, 26% to 33%) if serial noninvasive leg tests were used where appropriate. A noninvasive strategy that includes VQ scans, single noninvasive leg tests, and serial noninvasive leg tests would permit a diagnosis of thromboembolic disease or a safe exclusion of thromboembolic disease in 71% of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism.

  2. The Johnson Space Center Management Information Systems (JSCMIS). 1: Requirements Definition and Design Specifications for Versions 2.1 and 2.1.1. 2: Documented Test Scenario Environments. 3: Security Design and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Management Information System (JSCMIS) is an interface to computer data bases at NASA Johnson which allows an authorized user to browse and retrieve information from a variety of sources with minimum effort. This issue gives requirements definition and design specifications for versions 2.1 and 2.1.1, along with documented test scenario environments, and security object design and specifications.

  3. 23 CFR 660.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are included in the FS's planning and land management processes. Statewide transportation plan means... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 660.103 Section 660.103 Highways FEDERAL... (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.103 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in 23 U.S.C....

  4. 7 CFR 3430.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 3430.602 Section 3430.602 Agriculture... Definitions. The definitions applicable to the program under this subpart include: Beginning farmer or rancher... Poverty Level for a family of four or less than 50 percent of county median household income in each of...

  5. 12 CFR 211.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 211.21 Section 211.21 Banks and... foreign bank does not include a central bank of a foreign country that does not engage or seek to engage... OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking Organizations § 211.21 Definitions. The definitions contained in...

  6. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  7. Evaluation of the Radiochemistry of Near-Field Water Samples at the Nevada Test Site Applied to the Definition of a Hydrologic Source Term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K

    2002-07-05

    Effective management of available groundwater resources and strategies for remediation of water impacted by past nuclear testing practices depend on knowledge about the migration of radionuclides in groundwater away from the sites of the explosions. A primary concern is to assess the relative mobilities of the different radionuclide species found near sites of underground nuclear tests and to determine the concentration, extent, and speed of this movement. Ultimately the long term transport behavior of radionuclides with half-lives long enough that they will persist for decades, their interaction with groundwater, and the resulting flux of these contaminants is of paramount importance. As part of a comprehensive approach to these assessments, more than three decades of site-specific sites studies have been undertaken at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which have focused on the means responsible for the observed or suspected movement of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests (RNM, 1983). More recently regional and local models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport have been developed as part of a federal and state of Nevada program to assess the long-term effects of underground nuclear testing on human health and environment (e.g., U.S. DOE/NV, 1997a; Tompson et al., 1999; Pawloski et al., 2001). Necessary to these efforts is a reliable measure of the hydrologic source term which is defined as those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise transported by groundwater (Smith et al., 1995). Measurement of radionuclides in waters sampled near the sites of underground nuclear test provides arguably the best opportunity to bound the hydrologic source term. This empirical approach was recognized early and concentration data has been collected annually since mid-1970's. Initially three sites were studied at the NTS; over the years the program has been expanded to include more than fifteen study locations. As part of various field programs, Lawrence

  8. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  9. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  10. Challenging the present definition of "normal" vitamin D levels obtained by a single blood test. Can we develop a formula to predict vitamin D levels in the 4 seasons from a single season's measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandeter, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Publications on the health effects of vitamin D (25(OH) D) had almost triplicate in the last 10years, not only for its known "calcemic effects" (calcium, phosphor, PTH), but for the more recent findings on its "non-calcemic effects" (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and relation with certain types of cancer). Part of these publications deal with the definition of what is a "normal" circulating level of 25(OH) D that may distinguish between health and disease. The literature also deals with seasonal variations of vitamin D, showing levels that rise in summer and fall in winter and with DBP phenotypes and geographical location that affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements. Despite the knowledge of the existence of these phenomena many studies on vitamin D fail to acknowledge the time of the year the blood sample was extracted. Thus, when we compare results from different studies without defining the season that the samples were drawn, we compare incomparable figures. Furthermore, it is quite absurd to define "normal levels" as a static measure (over or under a certain value) using a single blood test when the value measured is known to change with seasons. Knowing that people have different vitamin D levels in different seasons of the year, we should ask ourselves which of these measurements should be used to define a "real" or "normal" level? Is it the lower one? Is there a "mean measure" that should be used for this matter? If yes, how do we obtain it? Do we have to make 4 seasonal measurements in each patient? Alternatively, might there be a possibility of developing a formula to help us obtain the mean from a single season's measure or one season's prediction from another season's measurement? And knowing that DBP phenotypes and geographical location affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements; shouldn't we include this in the equation? In this article I will discuss the hypothetical existence of an Individual Mean Annual vitamin D level that I will

  11. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01/25/1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-07-29

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 254 was used between 1963 through 1973 for the decontamination of test-car hardware and tooling used in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program. The CAS is composed of a fenced area measuring approximately 119 feet by 158 feet that includes Building 3126, an associated aboveground storage tank, a potential underground storage area, two concrete decontamination pads, a generator, two sumps, and a storage yard. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that decontamination activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) onto building surfaces, down building drains to associated leachfields, and to soils associated with two concrete decontamination pads located outside the building. Therefore, the scope of the corrective action field investigation will involve soil sampling at biased and random locations in the yard using a direct-push method, scanning and static radiological surveys, and laboratory analyses of all soil/building samples. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that solvents and degreasers may have been used in the decontamination processes; therefore, potential COCs include volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, asbestos, gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium, uranium, and strontium-90. The results of this

  13. European Contribution to Human Aspect Investigations for Future Planetary Habitat Definition Studies: Field Tests at MDRS on Crew Time Utilisation and Habitat Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Foing, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    Human factors are a dominant aspect in space missions, which may strongly influence work results and efficiency. To assess their impact on future long term space missions and to attempt a general quantification, the environmental and technical conditions to which astronauts may be confronted need to be reproduced as closely as possible. Among the stressors that occur during space missions, limited resources, limited social interactions, long term living and working in confined and isolated areas are among the most important for future planetary exploration. The European Space Agency (ESA) has a strong interest in obtaining data and insights in human aspects to prepare for future studies on the definition of future Lunar and Martian planetary habitats. In this frame, ESA's Directorate of Human Space Flight was associated to the EuroGeoMars campaign conducted by the Crews 76 and 77 in February 2009 in The Mars Society's `Mars Desert Research Station' (MDRS) in the Desert of Utah. The EuroGeoMars Campaign lasted 5 weeks and encompassed two groups of experiments, on human crew related aspects and field experiments in geology, biology and astronomy/astrophysics. The human crew related aspects covered (1) crew time organization in a planetary habitat, (2) an evaluation of the different functions and interfaces of this habitat, (3) an evaluation of man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment. Several forms and questionnaires were filled in by all crew members: time and location evaluation sheets and two series of questionnaires. In addition, the crew participated in another on-going food study where the type of food was imposed and crew impressions were collected via questionnaires. The paper recalls the objectives of the human crew related experiments of the EuroGeoMars project and presents the first results of these field investigations. Some recommendations and lessons learnt will be presented and used as first inputs for future planetary habitat

  14. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  15. 7 CFR 633.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.2 Definitions. The following definitions shall be.... Landowner may include all forms of collective ownership including joint tenants, tenants in common, and life... scientific scholarship. WBP means the Water Bank Program. ...

  16. The inverse microconglomerate test: Definition and application to the preservation of Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Rory; Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Dare, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic field test, the inverse microconglomerate test. In contrast with traditional conglomerate tests, which target specimens that might preserve primary magnetizations, the inverse microconglomerate test focuses on magnetic carriers having unblocking temperatures less than peak metamorphic temperatures. These mineral carriers are expected to carry a consistent direction of remagnetization. Hence, the inverse microconglomerate test evaluates whether coherent magnetizations are retained on a grain/mineral scale in a given sedimentary rock sample. By defining the remagnetization direction, it also serves as a benchmark for comparison of magnetizations from other grains/minerals having unblocking temperatures higher than peak metamorphic conditions (i.e., potential primary magnetizations). We apply this new test to sediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. For the JH sediments we focus on fuchsite, a secondary Cr-mica that contains relict Cr-Fe spinels capable of recording remanent magnetizations. We find that JH fuchsite grains retain consistent magnetic directions at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340 oC, which defines a positive test. This direction does not reproduce a nominal 1078-1070 Ma remagnetization reported by Weiss et al. (EPSL, 2015) that we interpret as an artifact of inappropriate use of averaging and statistics. The thermochemical remanent magnetization recorded by the fuchsite was most likely imparted during peak JH metamorphic conditions at ˜2650 Ma. Our inverse microconglomerate test complements a positive microconglomerate test and large scale positive conglomerate test conducted on JH cobbles (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013), further supporting evidence that JH zircons record Paleoarchean to Hadean primary magnetizations at high (greater than 550 oC) unblocking temperatures (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). More generally, the new inverse microconglomerate test may aid in

  17. 78 FR 78386 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Definition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) revision titled, ``Definition and...: Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On... specified in regulations 29 CFR 1910.7, Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized...

  18. 40 CFR 610.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... data” means any information which is a quantitative measure of any aspect of the behavior of a retrofit... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 610.11 Section 610.11... DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Provisions § 610.11 Definitions. (a) Except as...

  19. European Mixed Forests: Definition and research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Andenmatten, E.; Barbati, A.; Barreiro, S.; Brang, P.; Bravo, F.; Coll, L.; Corona, P.; Ouden, den J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) briefly review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material an

  20. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    extracted term and definition candidates—implemented as an online publicly available workflow, easy to use and suitable for translation, linguistic and especially terminological tasks. The developed workflow components can be easily integrated in other natural language processing workflows. In future research, we will act in several directions. Since we have a modular workflow, an obvious step to take is to add or substitute the tools in current implementation with other state-of-the-art preprocessing tools. In addition, we foresee to continue the research in the following lines. First, machine learning methods will be used trying to improve the results, the methodology for automatic term-alignment from comparable corpora (Fišer et al. 2011 will be implemented in the workflow environment and tested on our corpus. Our major focus will be on performing new experiments on other corpora and explore the influence of text type on definition extraction, as well as in comparison of our approach with other systems. For the developed Language Technologies Glossary, once we finish with uploading and refining the results, we will think of including the collection into Termania18 or I-Slovar19 collections.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 165: Areas 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, and 3) (January 2002, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 165 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; CAS 25-51-02, Dry Well; CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; CAS 26-59-01, Septic System; CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain. All eight CASs are located in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Six of these CASs are located in Area 25 facilities and two CASs are located in Area 26 facilities. The eight CASs at CAU 165 consist of dry wells, septic systems, decontamination pads, and a reservoir. The six CASs in Area 25 are associated with the Nuclear Rocket Development Station that operated from 1958 to 1973. The two CASs in Area 26 are associated with facilities constructed for Project Pluto, a series of nuclear reactor tests conducted between 1961 to 1964 to develop a nuclear-powered ramjet engine. Based on site history, the scope of this plan will be a two-phased approach to investigate the possible presence of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The Phase I analytical program for most CASs will include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radionuclides. If laboratory data obtained from the Phase I investigation indicates the presence of contaminants of concern, the process will continue with a Phase II investigation to define the extent of contamination. Based on the

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Recovery definitions: Do they change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E

    2015-09-01

    The term "recovery" is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The "What Is Recovery?" project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n=1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach's alpha was estimated. Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent "What Is Recovery?" survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 28 CFR 544.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include screening, assessments, goal setting, fitness/nutrition prescriptions and counseling. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 544.31 Section 544.31... Recreation Programs § 544.31 Definitions. (a) Leisure activities are a wide range of activities in...

  6. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by the Department, including but not limited to the individual's education, financial transactions... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part:...

  7. 12 CFR 313.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 313.21 Section 313.21 Banks and... DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 313.21 Definitions. (a) Administrative offset means withholding...) Person includes a natural person or persons, profit or nonprofit corporation, partnership,...

  8. 48 CFR 1509.170-4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Contractor Performance Evaluations 1509.170-4 Definitions. (a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 1509.170-4.... Performance categories include quality, cost control, timeliness of performance, business...

  9. 23 CFR 950.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 950.3 Section 950.3 Highways FEDERAL... COLLECTION § 950.3 Definitions. As used in this part: 1604 toll program refers to any of the tolling programs authorized under section 1604 of SAFETEA-LU. These programs include the Value Pricing Pilot Program,...

  10. 5 CFR 9.1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 9.1 Section 9.1... Definition. As used in this rule, 'Executive agency' means an Executive department, a Government corporation... Code, but does not include the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency,...

  11. 10 CFR 81.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 81.2 Section 81.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Act means the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 619), including any... under this subpart; (c) NRC invention means an invention covered by a U.S. patent or patent...

  12. 20 CFR 903.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 903.2 Section 903.2 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES ACCESS TO RECORDS Records Pertaining to Individuals § 903.2 Definitions. (a) The term agency includes any executive department, military...

  13. 46 CFR 24.10-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definition, includes every territory for the international relations of which a contracting government to the... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used... monetary contribution or donation of fuel, food, beverage, or other supplies. Headquarters means the...

  14. 7 CFR 2812.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2812.3 Section 2812.3 Agriculture...) § 2812.3 Definitions. (a) Cannibalization. The dismantling of equipment for parts to repair or enhance..., routers, and servers), including telecommunications and research equipment, that are appropriate for...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.202 Definitions. The definitions in this section shall be applicable for all purposes of administering the Milk... Corporation of the Department. Class I Milk means milk, including milk components, classified as Class I...

  16. 5 CFR 300.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 300.703 Section 300.703... Bar to Appointment of Persons Who Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law § 300.703 Definitions... citizen or an alien (including parolees and refugees and those who are lawfully admitted to the...

  17. 27 CFR 7.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 7.51 Section 7.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions. As used in §§ 7.50 through 7.55 of this part, the term “advertisement” includes any written...

  18. 27 CFR 5.62 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition. 5.62 Section 5.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Definition. As used in §§ 5.61 through 5.66 of this part, the term “advertisement” includes any written...

  19. On the definition of superclusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we

  20. On the definition of superclusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we

  1. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  2. Developing a comprehensive definition of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Bain, Julie; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-09-02

    Understanding sustainability is one of the significant implementation science challenges. One of the big challenges in researching sustainability is the lack of consistent definitions in the literature. Most implementation studies do not present a definition of sustainability, even when assessing sustainability. The aim of the current study was to systematically develop a comprehensive definition of sustainability based on definitions already used in the literature. We searched for knowledge syntheses of sustainability and abstracted sustainability definitions from the articles identified through any relevant systematic and scoping reviews. The constructs in the abstracted sustainability definitions were mapped to an existing definition. The comprehensive definition of sustainability was revised to include emerging constructs. We identified four knowledge syntheses of sustainability, which identified 209 original articles. Of the 209 articles, 24 (11.5%) included a definition of sustainability. These definitions were mapped to three constructs from an existing definition, and nine new constructs emerged. We reviewed all constructs and created a revised definition: (1) after a defined period of time, (2) a program, clinical intervention, and/or implementation strategies continue to be delivered and/or (3) individual behavior change (i.e., clinician, patient) is maintained; (4) the program and individual behavior change may evolve or adapt while (5) continuing to produce benefits for individuals/systems. All 24 definitions were remapped to the comprehensive definition (percent agreement among three coders was 94%). Of the 24 definitions, 17 described the continued delivery of a program (70.8%), 17 mentioned continued outcomes (70.8%), 13 mentioned time (54.2%), 8 addressed the individual maintenance of a behavior change (33.3%), and 6 described the evolution or adaptation (25.0%). We drew from over 200 studies to identify 24 existing definitions of sustainability

  3. Development definition of strength and anaerobic abilities in jump tests: classification, methodology of measuring and norms of estimation of standing high jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Serhiyenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the methodology of carrying out the tests: standing high jump and to systematize the general notion about measuring of strength and anaerobic human abilities. Material and Methods: methods of theoretic analysis and generalization, method of search and study of scientific information were used. Results: the standing high jump classification which helps to differentiate jumps according to the way of fulfillment and estimation of the development of motor abilities ware founded. Conclusion: the methodology of doing different kinds of jumps is described

  4. Universal definition of perioperative bleeding in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Cornelius; Aronson, Solomon; Dietrich, Wulf; Hofmann, Axel; Karkouti, Keyvan; Levi, Marcel; Murphy, Gavin J; Sellke, Frank W; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; von Heymann, Christian; Ranucci, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Perioperative bleeding is common among patients undergoing cardiac surgery; however, the definition of perioperative bleeding is variable and lacks standardization. We propose a universal definition for perioperative bleeding (UDPB) in adult cardiac surgery in an attempt to precisely describe and quantify bleeding and to facilitate future investigation into this difficult clinical problem. The multidisciplinary International Initiative on Haemostasis Management in Cardiac Surgery identified a common definition of perioperative bleeding as an unmet need. The functionality and usefulness of the UDPB for clinical research was then tested using a large single-center, nonselected, cardiac surgical database. A multistaged definition for perioperative bleeding was created based on easily measured clinical end points, including total blood loss from chest tubes within 12 hours, allogeneic blood products transfused, surgical reexploration including cardiac tamponade, delayed sternal closure, and the need for salvage treatment. Depending on these components, bleeding is graded as insignificant, mild, moderate, severe, or massive. When applied to an established cardiac surgery dataset, the UDPB provided insight into the incidence and outcome of bleeding after cardiac surgery. The proposed UDPB in adult cardiac surgery provides a precise classification of bleeding that is useful in everyday practice as well as in clinical research. Once fully validated, the UDPB may be useful as an institutional quality measure and serve as an important end point in future cardiac surgical research. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A transdisciplinary definition of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Murray E

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis is a fundamental abstract reasoning concept in healthcare. It forms the foundation for clinical guidelines, evidence-based practice, and healthcare interventions. The definition of diagnosis is evolving in a manner that may change patient care and clinical research. Currently, dictionary definitions of diagnosis fall into two broad categories, those that stress the original etymology and those that are based on classifying the patient problem according to preexisting labels. Many medical diagnoses are not sufficient to justify allied health, profession-specific interventions. Some authors have suggested profession-specific definitions of diagnosis and profession-specific nomenclature. However, a unique set of labels that are insulated from other health professions has been difficult to achieve because of the interdependence of pathology, impairments, and the patient's role in society. Coordinated interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary patient care, including clinical guidelines, and efficient delivery of services necessitate a definition that facilitates communication across health care professions. A solution to this dilemma may be to create a bridge, recognizing the multifactorial etiology of health and professional autonomy while explicitly stating the context of profession-specific interventions as a team approach. I propose that the definition of diagnosis be modified to: "the process of determining mechanisms by which the patient's health condition arises and the conclusions reached by doing so."

  6. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: a case-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Gerard C; Does, Ronald J M M; de Mast, Jeroen; Trip, Albert; van den Heuvel, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning approach to project definition. Data sources were project documentation and hospital-performance statistics of 271 Lean Six Sigma health care projects from 2002 to 2009 of general, teaching, and academic hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Objectives and operational definitions of improvement projects in the sample, analyzed and structured in a uniform format and terminology. Extraction of reusable elements of earlier project definitions, presented in the form of 9 templates called generic project definitions. These templates function as exemplars for future process improvement projects, making the selection, definition, and operationalization of similar projects more efficient. Each template includes an explicated rationale, an operationalization in the form of metrics, and a prototypical example. Thus, a process of incremental and sustained learning based on case-based reasoning is facilitated. The quality of project definitions is a crucial success factor in pursuits to improve health care delivery. We offer 9 tried and tested improvement themes related to patient safety, patient satisfaction, and business-economic performance of hospitals.

  7. A hardenability test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, N.V.S.N. [Ingersoll-Rand (I) Ltd., Bangalore (India)

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for hardenability evaluation and its application to heat treatable steels will be discussed. This will include an overview and deficiencies of the current methods and discussion on the necessity for a new approach. Hardenability terminology will be expanded to avoid ambiguity and over-simplification as encountered with the current system. A new hardenability definition is proposed. Hardenability specification methods are simplified and rationalized. The new hardenability evaluation system proposed here utilizes a test specimen with varying diameter as an alternative to the cylindrical Jominy hardenability test specimen and is readily applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of steels with different cross-section sizes.

  8. 45 CFR 78.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided that such abstinence is documented by the results of periodic urine drug testing conducted during that period; and provided further that such drug testing is conducted using an immunoassay test... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 78.2 Section 78.2 Public...

  9. EDSP Tier 2 test (T2T) guidances and protocols are delivered, including web-based guidance for diagnosing and scoring, and evaluating EDC-induced pathology in fish and amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agency’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) consists of two tiers. The first tier provides information regarding whether a chemical may have endocrine disruption properties. Tier 2 tests provide confirmation of ED effects and dose-response information to be us...

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Generation System Definition: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and 30 percent further reductions by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles. DOE retained Black & Veatch to support SETO’s SunShot Initiative for CSP solar power tower technology in the following areas: 1. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of a flexible test facility to be used to test and prove components in part to support financing. 2. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature molten salt (MS) facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2 cycle generating approximately 10MWe. 3. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature falling particle facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2 cycle

  11. Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of the traditional and revised WHO dengue case definitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamaliel Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness, is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence continues to increase. In 2009, the World Health Organization published guidelines that included a revision of the dengue case definition. Compared to the traditional definition, the revised case definition relies more on signs than on symptoms, making it more applicable to young children. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of both case definitions in two studies of pediatric dengue in Managua, Nicaragua. In a community-based cohort study, we included data from 3,407 suspected dengue cases, of which 476 were laboratory-confirmed. In the second study, we collected information from 1,160 participants recruited at the national pediatric reference hospital (723 laboratory-confirmed. In the cohort study, the traditional definition had 89.3% sensitivity and 43.1% specificity, while the revised definition yielded similar sensitivity (86.6% and higher specificity (55.2%, p<0.001. In the hospital study, the traditional case definition yielded 96.7% sensitivity and 22.0% specificity, whereas the revised case definition had higher sensitivity (99.3%, p<0.001 but lower specificity (8.5%, p<0.001. We then evaluated the performance of two diagnostic models based on the signs/symptoms included in each definition by analyzing the effect of increasing numbers of signs/symptoms on the sensitivity and specificity of case capture. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a slightly better performance for the revised model in both studies. Interestingly, despite containing less symptoms that cannot be readily expressed by children aged less than 4 years, the revised definition did not perform better in this age group. Overall, our results indicate that both case definitions have similar capacity to diagnose dengue. Owing to their high sensitivity and low specificity, they should be primarily used for screening purposes. However, in a primary care setting

  12. 25 CFR 290.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions. Appropriate Bureau official (ABO) means the Bureau official with delegated authority to approve... jurisdiction, including tribal justice systems or as established by the tribe. Member of an Indian tribe...

  13. 28 CFR 79.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.41 Definitions. (a) Cor pulmonale means heart disease, including... fibrosis, cor pulmonale related to fibrosis of the lung, silicosis, or pneumoconiosis. (h)...

  14. 40 CFR 98.248 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.248 Definitions. Except as specified in this section... onsite. Product does not include process vent emissions, fugitive emissions, or wastewater....

  15. 49 CFR 583.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.4 Definitions. (a) Statutory... automobile are included with such vehicle whether or not such component parts are permanently installed in...

  16. Polymer Structure--Organic Aspects (Definitions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Seymour, Raymond B.

    1988-01-01

    Lists alphabetically the definitions of key organic-based terms used in characterizing the structure of polymers. Includes several common polymers, some of their uses and their respective structures. (CW)

  17. 28 CFR 91.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tribal Lands § 91.22 Definitions. (a) The Act means the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of..., construction management, or project management costs. Construction does not include the purchase of land....

  18. On the Usefulness of "Value" in the Definition of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Current definitions of creativity almost universally include "value" or a close cognate as one of the criteria. This article discusses two problems that arise as the result of the inclusion of value in those definitions. First, there is a conflict between the researchers' definition of the relevant phenomena and that used in the ordinary…

  19. Sedimentary connection between rock glaciers and torrential channels: definition, inventory and quantification from a test area in the south-western Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummert, Mario; Barboux, Chloé; Delaloye, Reynald

    2017-04-01

    order to validate these estimations, the resulting sediment transfer rates are compared to transfer rates calculated from repeated terrestrial LiDAR surveys on selected study cases. This contribution presents results from the application of this methodology in a test study area in the south-western Swiss Alps. The methodology reveals itself suitable to identify rock glaciers connected to the torrential network. For each of the detected rock glaciers, an estimation of the sediment yield is proposed. The transfer rates range from tens of cubic meters per year for some slow moving and/or partially connected landforms, to several thousands of cubic meters per year. References: Delaloye R. (2004). Contribution à l'étude du pergélisol de montagne en zone marginale. GeoFocus vol. 10, Thèse, Département de Géosciences/Géographie, Université de Fribourg. Delaloye, R., Lambiel, C., Gärtner-Roer, I. (2010). Overview of rock glacier kinematics research in the Swiss Alps. Seasonal rhythm, interannual variations and trends over several decades. Geogr. Helv., 65: 2, 135-145. Delaloye, R., Morard, S., Barboux, C., Abbet, D., Gruber, V., Riedo, M. & Gachet, S. (2013). Rapidly moving rock glaciers in Mattertal. In: Graf, C. (Eds). Mattertal - ein Tal in Bewegung. Publikation zur Jahrestagung der Schweizerischen Geomorphologischen Gesellschaft 29. Juni - 1. Juli 2011, St. Niklaus, Birmensdorf, Eidg. Forschungsanstalt WSL, 113 - 124. Gärtner-Roer, I. (2012). Sediment transfer rates of two active rockglaciers in the Swiss Alps. Geomorphology, 167-168, 45-50. Lugon, R. & Stoffel, M. (2010). Rock glacier dynamics and magnitude-frequency relations of debris flows in a high-elevation watershed : Ritigraben, Swiss Alps. Global and Planetary Change, 73, 202-210.

  20. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...... susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  1. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  3. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  4. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  5. Comparison of time to detect definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Laurence M.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis concerns the measurement of times to detect multiple targets. It compares two common definitions of times to detection--interdetection time, and search time to detection--to a relatively new definition called time in field-of-view until detection. This comparison uses the data from the Thermal Pinpoint Test conducted from July to December 1983. Detection time distributions and mean times to detection were studied, lookin...

  6. The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Paul; Runco, Susan; Fontanot, Carlos; Getteau, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) payload enables long-term experimentation of four, commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) high definition video, cameras mounted on the exterior of the International Space Station. The payload enables testing of cameras in the space environment. The HDEV cameras transmit imagery continuously to an encoder that then sends the video signal via Ethernet through the space station for downlink. The encoder, cameras, and other electronics are enclosed in a box pressurized to approximately one atmosphere, containing dry nitrogen, to provide a level of protection to the electronics from the space environment. The encoded video format supports streaming live video of Earth for viewing online. Camera sensor types include charge-coupled device and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. Received imagery data is analyzed on the ground to evaluate camera sensor performance. Since payload deployment, minimal degradation to imagery quality has been observed. The HDEV payload continues to operate by live streaming and analyzing imagery. Results from the experiment reduce risk in the selection of cameras that could be considered for future use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. This paper discusses the payload development, end-to- end architecture, experiment operation, resulting image analysis, and future work.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-08-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU)168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 25 and 26 at the NTS in Nevada, CAU 168 is comprised of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Review of data collected during the corrective action investigation, as well as consideration of current and future operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS, led the way to the development of three CAAs for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Close in Place with Administrative Controls. As a result of this evaluation, a combination of all three CAAs is recommended for this CAU. Alternative 1 was the preferred CAA for three CASs, Alternative 2 was the preferred CAA for six CASs (and nearly all of one other CAS), and Alternative 3 was the preferred CAA for two CASs (and a portion of one other CAS) to complete the closure at the CAU 168 sites. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and elimination of potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at CAU 168.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 322 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 01-25-01, AST Release (Area 1); 03-25-03, Mud Plant AST Diesel Release (Area 3); 03-20-05, Injection Wells (Area 3). Corrective Action Unit 322 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. The investigation of three CASs in CAU 322 will determine if hazardous and/or radioactive constituents are present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  9. On the definition of superclusters

    OpenAIRE

    Chon, Gayoung; Boehringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show tha...

  10. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 527: Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1 (Including Records of Technical Change No.1, 2, 3, and 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-12-06

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 527, Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 527 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 26-20-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1. The site is located in an abandoned mine site in Area 26 (which is the most arid part of the NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Historical documents may refer to this site as CAU 168, CWD-1, the Wingfield mine (or shaft), and the Wahmonie mine (or shaft). Historical documentation indicates that between 1959 and the 1970s, nonliquid classified material and unclassified waste was placed in the Horn Silver Mine's shaft. Some of the waste is known to be radioactive. Documentation indicates that the waste is present from 150 feet to the bottom of the mine (500 ft below ground surface). This CAU is being investigated because hazardous constituents migrating from materials and/or wastes disposed of in the Horn Silver Mine may pose a threat to human health and the environment as well as to assess the potential impacts associated with any potential releases from the waste. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  12. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  13. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  14. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  15. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  16. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  17. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  18. 49 CFR 325.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards, 40 CFR 202.10, are used as they are defined in that section. (c) Additional definitions. (1) Hard test site means any test site having the ground surface covered with concrete, asphalt, packed dirt, gravel, or similar reflective material for more than 1/2 the distance between the microphone target...

  19. Students' Understanding of the Definite Integral Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhan, Derar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' procedural and conceptual knowledge of the definite integral. Twenty-five students enrolled in one section of an undergraduate Calculus II class participated in this study. Data were collected from a test that was conducted during the fourth week of the semester. The test aimed at collecting information about the…

  20. Definitions of deafblindness and congenital deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Larsen, Flemming; Damen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    of the studies reported no definition of DB and 76.7% reported no definition of CDB. Main discrepancies are: (1) medical/functional versus ability/functioning definitions regarding DB; and (2) different criteria for onset of DB in the case of defining CDB (e.g. age versus developmental level). The results...... of this study call attention to a scientifically inadequate approach to the study of DB and CDB. Findings indicate that clear guidelines for sample descriptions of the DB and/or CDB populations are needed. It is suggested that studies including DB and CDB participants provide the following information...

  1. Sexting and the Definition Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Surís, Joan-Carles; Akre, Christina

    2017-07-19

    Sexting among youths has become a necessary topic of interest in research because of the negative consequences that this activity could create, especially when content is shared with others. Indeed, this loss of control could lead to humiliation, (cyber)bullying, or harassment. The development of new technologies, press coverage, and increase of prevalence rates could also explain the growth of interest in sexting. However, its definition is still a gray area. This review examines the different definitions of sexting used in the literature and its correlates. Several elements of the definition of sexting were assessed: actions (sending, receiving, and forwarding); media types (text, images, and videos); sexual characteristics; and transmission modes. Nine databases were searched for studies on sexting among youths up to 18 years of age. Eighteen studies published between 2012 and 2015 were included. Prevalence rates of sexting ranged between .9% and 60% partly depending on the definition. Most studies assessed sending, but when sending and receiving were measured, prevalence rates were higher for receiving. Some articles found associations with age, gender, race, sexual behavior, romantic relationships, risky behaviors, online activity, psychological difficulties, and social pressure. Finding a consensus regarding the definition is essential to assess accurately the activity and adapt prevention. Adolescents' interpretations of the activity are important as sexting could be used as a sexual behavior between two consenting persons. Prevention strategies should focus on sexting that goes wrong when it is forwarded to a third party and when it occurs in a context of pressure or harassment. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What is compassion and how can we measure it? A review of definitions and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Clara; Lever Taylor, Billie; Gu, Jenny; Kuyken, Willem; Baer, Ruth; Jones, Fergal; Cavanagh, Kate

    2016-07-01

    The importance of compassion is widely recognized and it is receiving increasing research attention. Yet, there is lack of consensus on definition and a paucity of psychometrically robust measures of this construct. Without an agreed definition and adequate measures, we cannot study compassion, measure compassion or evaluate whether interventions designed to enhance compassion are effective. In response, this paper proposes a definition of compassion and offers a systematic review of self- and observer-rated measures. Following consolidation of existing definitions, we propose that compassion consists of five elements: recognizing suffering, understanding the universality of human suffering, feeling for the person suffering, tolerating uncomfortable feelings, and motivation to act/acting to alleviate suffering. Three databases were searched (Web of Science, PsycInfo, and Medline) and nine measures included and rated for quality. Quality ratings ranged from 2 to 7 out of 14 with low ratings due to poor internal consistency for subscales, insufficient evidence for factor structure and/or failure to examine floor/ceiling effects, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity. We call our five-element definition, and if supported, the development of a measure of compassion based on this operational definition, and which demonstrates adequate psychometric properties.

  3. Data Definitions in the ACL2 Sedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Raju Chamarthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a data definition framework that enables the convenient specification of data types in ACL2s, the ACL2 Sedan. Our primary motivation for developing the data definition framework was pedagogical. We were teaching undergraduate students how to reason about programs using ACL2s and wanted to provide them with an effective method for defining, testing, and reasoning about data types in the context of an untyped theorem prover. Our framework is now routinely used not only for pedagogical purposes, but also by advanced users. Our framework concisely supports common data definition patterns, e.g. list types, map types, and record types. It also provides support for polymorphic functions. A distinguishing feature of our approach is that we maintain both a predicative and an enumerative characterization of data definitions. In this paper we present our data definition framework via a sequence of examples. We give a complete characterization in terms of tau rules of the inclusion/exclusion relations a data definition induces, under suitable restrictions. The data definition framework is a key component of counterexample generation support in ACL2s, but can be independently used in ACL2, and is available as a community book.

  4. 5 CFR 630.1002 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leave Bank Program § 630.1002 Definitions. Agency means an “Executive agency,” as defined in 5 U.S.C. 105, or a “military department,” as defined in 5 U.S.C. 102. “Agency” does not include the Central... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 630.1002 Section 630.1002...

  5. New night vision goggle gain definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  6. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  7. On the definition of superclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Gayoung; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally...

  8. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  9. 76 FR 32845 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of “Qualifying Country End Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... amend the definition of ``qualifying country end product'' by eliminating the component test for... INFORMATION: I. Background This rule proposes to amend the definition of ``qualifying country end product'' to..., the component test for the DFARS definition of ``domestic end product'' was waived by the interim...

  10. Comparison of different definitions of feeding intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reintam Blaser, Annika; Starkopf, Liis; Deane, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: While feeding intolerance (FI) is clinically important in the critically ill it is inconsistently defined. By evaluating definitions of FI based on relationships between symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction and mortality the objective was to define FI using...... the definition that was most strongly associated with subsequent mortality. METHODS: Data from all adult patients admitted to a single ICU between 2004 and 2011, and who were receiving enteral nutrition (EN), were analysed. The amount of EN administered, presence of absent bowel sounds (BS), vomiting and....../or regurgitation, diarrhoea, bowel distension, and large gastric residual volumes (GRVs) were documented daily. A GRV ≥500 ml/day was considered as large and the sum of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including large GRV was calculated daily. Various definitions of FI were modelled. Definitions using only GRV...

  11. Sensitivity of Cross-Tropopause Convective Transport to Tropopause Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, E.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    An idealized three-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to simulate cross-tropopause boundary layer mass transport in a midlatitude supercell. A ten-hour simulation is conducted to encompass the growth and decay cycle, with focus on irreversible transport above the tropopause. However, several tropopause definitions are present in the literature, and the impact of tropopause definition on irreversible cross-tropopause transport has not been quantified. Six previously published tropopause definitions are evaluated to determine the sensitivity of tropopause definition on midlatitude irreversible cross-tropopause transport. These definitions include specific values of altitude, temperature lapse rate (i.e., WMO definition), potential vorticity, stratospheric tracer concentration, static stability, and curvature of static stability. This investigation highlights the challenge of defining a tropopause during active deep convection and shows that some definitions (e.g., potential vorticity) may not be appropriate for cross-tropopause transport studies that resolve deep convection.

  12. 14 CFR 381.5 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... special nature and limited duration, which exists for reasons apart from the tour itself, and which is represented by the operator of the tour as including admission to that event. Examples of such events include... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.5 Definition. Special Event Tour means a tour that is organized for...

  13. 16 CFR 680.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public. A solicitation does not include marketing communications that are directed at the general public... include, for example, a telemarketing call, direct mail, e-mail, or other form of marketing communication... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.3 Definitions. As...

  14. 40 CFR 60.721 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... computing devices under SIC Code 3573; (3) Products classified as calculating and accounting machines under..., not including the prime coat or texture coat. This definition includes fog coating, but does not... that is applied to a plastic substrate to attenuate EMI/RFI signals. Fog coating (also known as...

  15. 5 CFR 550.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... travel back and forth daily to work, as established by the employing agency based on the generally held...) Severance Pay § 550.703 Definitions. In this subpart: Agency means an agency as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a... to include the expanded area surrounding the employee's residence and including all destinations...

  16. 28 CFR 90.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... examination means an examination provided to a sexual assault victim by medical personnel trained to gather... domestic violence and/or sexual assault victims. Included in this definition are rape crisis centers... violence (including threats or attempts) committed: (i) By a current or former spouse of the victim;...

  17. 42 CFR 456.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Mental Diseases § 456.601 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart— Facility means an institution for mental diseases, or an intermediate care facility. Intermediate care facility includes... institutions as defined in § 440.170(b) of this chapter. Institution for mental diseases includes a...

  18. 16 CFR 6.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 6.103 Section 6.103 Commercial... following body systems: Neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech... includes, but is not limited to, such diseases and conditions as orthopedic, visual, speech, and...

  19. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  20. Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantone, Domenico; De Angelis, Floriana; Doshi, Anisha; Chataway, Jeremy

    2016-06-01

    Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is diagnosed retrospectively and involves a clinical course characterized by a progressive accumulation of neurological disability, independent of relapses, following an initial relapsing-remitting (RR) phase. Our incomplete understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) may explain why, to date, there is no definitive imaging or laboratory test that is able to inform us when the disease is clearly entering into a progressive phase and why the vast majority of clinical trials testing immunosuppressant and immunomodulating drugs in SPMS patients has so far yielded disappointing or mixed results. Here we discuss the definition(s) of SPMS and how it may vary, outcome measurements (current and emerging) and modern trial design.

  1. A Structured Design for Test Methodology: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a case study of a structured Design for Test (DFT) methodology that was adopted for our ASIC project used in High-Definition TV system. The methodology includes the following features, full-scan for chip test, test point insertion, test, path delay test, embedded SRAM Build-In Self Test (BIST), and also the implementation of IEEE 1149.1 Standard. The paper discusses details of the ASIC designs and technology. Our chip has a 2+ million transistors and large embedded memory, which brought us extra test challenge.

  2. Including supplementary elements in a compositional biplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunis-i-Estadella, J.; Thió-Henestrosa, S.; Mateu-Figueras, G.

    2011-05-01

    The biplot is a widely and powerful methodology used with multidimensional data sets to describe and display the relationships between observations and variables in an easy way. Compositional data are vectors with positive components, whose sum is constant because they represent a relative contribution of different parts to a whole; due to this property standard biplots cannot be performed with compositional data, instead of a previous transformation of the data is performed. In this paper, we extend the compositional biplot defined by Aitchison and Greenacre (2002), in order to include in the display supplementary elements which are not used in the definition of the compositional biplot. Different types of supplementary elements are considered: supplementary parts of the composition, supplementary continuous variables external to the composition, supplementary categorical variables and supplementary observations. The projection of supplementary parts of the composition is done by means of the equivalence of clr and lr biplots. The other supplementary projections are done by classical methodology. An application example with a real geological data is included.

  3. Towards an effective definition of death and disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Calixto; Leisman, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    There exists much controversy in providing an effective definition of human death, largely due to the lack of a rigorous separation and ordered formulation of three distinct elements: a universally accepted definition of death, the medical criterion (anatomical substrata) for determining that death has occurred, and the tests to prove that the criterion has been satisfied. The papers herein review medical standards, philosophical arguments, neurophysiological knowledge, behavioural and cognitive theory and the legal ramifications of the brain-oriented standards of death (whole brain, brainstem and higher brain). The papers examine the notion of connectivities and networks of conscious experience in order to formulate an effective definition of death, based on the basic physiopathological mechanisms of consciousness. We cannot simply differentiate and locate arousal as a function of the ascending reticular activating system, and awareness as a function of the cerebral cortex. Substantial interconnections among the brainstem, subcortical structures, and the neocortex are essential integrating components of human consciousness. This paper attempts to reconcile the brain-oriented standards that are currently inconsistent. The thread of the arguments is the basis for a standard of human death that includes consciousness as the most important function of the body, because it provides the capacity for integrating the functions of the body. The notion of consciousness as the ultimate integrative function is more consistent with the biologically-based systems than the more philosophically-based notions of personhood. Both sides of the argument are presented herein.

  4. Measurement Decision Risk - The Importance of Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the more misunderstood areas of metrology is the Test Uncertainty Ratio (TUR) and the Test Accuracy Ratio (TAR). There have been many definitions over the years, but why are these definitions important to a discussion on measurement decision risk? The importance lies in the clarity of communication. Problems can immediately arise in the application (or misapplication) of the definition of these terms. In other words, while it is important to understand the definitions, it is more important to understand concepts behind the definitions and to be precise in how they are applied. The objective of any measurement is a decision. Measurement Decision Risk is a way to look at the quality of a measurement, and although it is not a new concept, it has generated a lot of attention since its addition as a requirement in the new U.S. National Standard, ANSIINCSL Z540.3-2006. In addition to Measurement Decision Risk as the prime method of managing measurement risk, Z540.3 has added, as a fall-back, an explicit definition for TUR. The impact these new requirements may have on calibration service providers has become the topic of much discussion and in some cases concern. This paper will look at the concepts behind the definitions and how they relate to Measurement Decision Risk. Using common examples, this paper will also provide a comparison of various elements of risk related to measurement science using the concepts of TAR, TUR, accuracy ratios, and Consumer Risk (False Accept Risk). The goal of this paper is to provide a better understanding of their relevance to the measurement decision process.

  5. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  6. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  7. Automatic extraction of legal concepts and definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Winkels; R. Hoekstra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an experiment in automatic concept and definition extraction from written sources of law using relatively simple natural language and standard semantic web technology. The software was tested on six laws from the tax domain.

  8. 10 CFR 712.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expertise in the area of psychological assessment for the HRP. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders means the current version of the American Psychiatric Association's manual containing definitions... special nuclear material based on a drug test, a National Agency Check, a psychological assessment,...

  9. 40 CFR 790.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions. 790.3 Section 790.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED... means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Equivalence data means chemical data or biological test...

  10. 7 CFR 2903.23 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Supplementary Information § 2903.23 Definitions. For the purpose... American Society for Testing and Materials Standard. Budget period means the interval of time (usually 12... means the United States Department of Agriculture. Education activity means an act or process that...

  11. Definition and epidemiology of unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbaya, Tarek A; Potdar, Neelam; Jeve, Yadava B; Nardo, Luciano G

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of unexplained infertility can be made only after excluding common causes of infertility using standard fertility investigations,which include semen analysis, assessment of ovulation, and tubal patency test. These tests have been selected as they have definitive correlation with pregnancy. It is estimated that a standard fertility evaluation will fail to identify an abnormality in approximately 15% to 30% of infertile couples. The reported incidence of such unexplained infertility varies according to the age and selection criteria in the study population. We conducted a review of the literature via MEDLINE. Articles were limited to English-language, human studies published between 1950 and 2013. Since first coined more than 50 years ago, the term unexplained infertility has been a subject of debate. Although additional investigations are reported to explain or define other causes of infertility, these have high false-positive results and therefore cannot be recommended for routine clinical practice. Couples with unexplained infertility might be reassured that even after 12 months of unsuccessful attempts, 50% will conceive in the following 12 months and another 12% in the year after.

  12. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  13. Molten Salt: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and to reduce costs 30 percent further by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles. DOE retained Black & Veatch to support SETO’s SunShot Initiative for CSP solar power tower technology in the following areas: 1. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of a flexible test facility to be used to test and prove components in part to support financing. 2. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature molten salt (MS) facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2 cycle generating approximately 10MWe. 3. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature falling particle facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2

  14. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The definition of IVM is clear-variations need defining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Thompson, Jeremy G; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2016-11-01

    Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is currently defined as the maturation in vitro of immature cumulus-oocyte complexes collected from antral follicles. This is the original definition as first described by Pincus and Enzmann and then by Edwards many decades ago, and this clear and unambiguous definition has served us well ever since. In an attempt to clarify apparent differences among clinicians, the following revised definition of IVM was recently proposed: 'The retrieval of oocytes from small and intermediate sized follicles in an ovary before the largest follicle has surpassed 13 mm in mean diameter'. As such, this proposed definition should encompass the use of hCG triggering. To change the clear and long-serving definition of IVM to fit varying clinical practices requires a compelling justification based on solid scientific and clinical grounds. We are of the opinion that the proposed revised definition of IVM is counterintuitive as it includes protocols that are intended to mature oocytes in vivo The proposed definitions are cumbersome and indeed further complicate the situation. It is not scientifically rational to base the definition on follicular size, and the definition ignores the vast corporate knowledge acquired from the many decades and >6000 publications in animal research that universally practices IVM as per the existing definition. Furthermore, such a definition can lead to false results in interpreting the follow-up of children conceived using IVM. Hence, we see no rationale to change the existing definition of IVM. However, we agree that variations on IVM require alternative nomenclature-these definitions need to be intuitive and need to clearly distinguish themselves from the existing long-standing definition of IVM. This would help to clarify the recent confusion within the clinical ART community as to what is and what is not, IVM.

  16. Prebiotics: why definitions matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term.

  17. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  18. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716

  19. Definition of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sunik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
    entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information [1] that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
    knowledge systems.

  20. Critical reflections on the currently leading definition of sustainable employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuren, Bram Bi; de Grip, Andries; Jansen, Nicole Wh; Kant, Imjert; Zijlstra, Fred Rh

    2016-06-01

    claims can be made, such relationships need to be tested with SE as criterion. This is, however, impossible within the approach van der Klink et al provides. (1), as SE is equated with its predictor(s). Therefore, similar to the first conceptual issue, it seems unlikely that the capability set adequately reflects SE. Fourth, the definition by van der Klink et al (1) suggests that SE only applies to individuals who are employed. In the Abma et al publication (9), which accompanies van der Klink's definition paper as a validation paper, this is shown by the way in which capabilities are measured. Moreover, the definition also suggests this because individuals can only be considered to be sustainably employable if their work context enables them to achieve tangible opportunities. However, individuals who are not currently working can still be highly employable and even sustainably so, but just be between jobs. It is therefore not required for individuals to be enabled by their employer to be sustainably employable. Consequently, in line with our aforementioned points on improving the definition, being enabled by an employer to achieve value may be an important predictor of SE, but it is not necessarily part of SE itself. Moreover, future approaches to SE should define the concept in such a way that it is applicable to every individual regardless of employment status. Finally, the definition and operationalization of SE in the form of a capability set do not include any specification on how the longitudinal aspect of SE should be captured. The definition rightfully acknowledges the longitudinal dimension of SE, but its operationalization focuses solely on achieving value. Although achieving value at work may be an important predictor of SE, a complete operationalization and definition should include its longitudinal nature as well. Outlook In conclusion, while van der Klink et al's definition of SE (1) does have strong merits, it requires further improvement. The approach

  1. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  2. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  3. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations in the...

  4. Romanian definite article revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available I shall attempt to resume a long, almost endless discussion: the origin of the Romanian definite article. Any grammar of Romanian or any comparative grammar the Romance languages (e. g. Tagliavini 1977 always observes that Romanian, an iso­ lated case in the Romance family, has an agglutinated definite article. The typology is not indeed rare: Bulgarian, Albanian, Armenian, Basque and Swedish witness the same mechanism. We cannot approach the topic by analysing all these languages, yet a comparative analysis would be finally useful. In our case, it is obvious that Romanian cannot be isolated from Albanian and Bulgarian. A potential solution must explain the situation in ALL these three "Balkanic" languages, even if Romanian is not Balkanic stricto sensu1. The paper shall focus on the deep roots of the Romanian and Albanian definite arti­ cle, its typological relations with other linguistic areas, and shall attempt to explain this isolated situation in the field of Romance linguistics. For sure, the Romanian definite article mainly reflects the Latin heritage. Nevertheless, by saying only this, the tableau is not complete: some forms are not Latin but Pre-Latin, Thracian. This paper will try to substantiate this assertion.

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  6. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  7. Definition af primitiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    tidspunkt, kan der spares meget tid senere, hvor det er besværligt at definerer primitiverne helt om.I denne rapport er de primitiver, der skal bruges til Sydkrafts net gennemgået. Der er taget stilling til hver enkelt tilstand for de forskellige primitiver. Dette er gjort for at få en definition, som er...

  8. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…

  9. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  10. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  11. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  12. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  13. New Sepsis and Septic Shock Definitions: Clinical Implications and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chanu; Klompas, Michael

    2017-09-01

    New sepsis definitions shift emphasis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome to organ dysfunction, quantified using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. The new definitions also propose Quick SOFA criteria to rapidly identify potentially infected patients at risk for poor outcomes. The diagnosis of septic shock requires vasopressor dependence and increased lactate levels. Strengths of these definitions include their simplicity and clear association with adverse outcomes. However, their utility in identifying patients with serious infections before frank sepsis ensues remains to be seen. This article reviews challenges in defining sepsis, strengths and weaknesses of the new definitions, and unresolved issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Business Mereology: Imaginative Definitions of Insourcing and Outsourcing Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A

    2010-01-01

    Outsourcing, the passing on of tasks by organizations to other organizations, often including the personnel and means to perform these tasks, has become an important IT-business strategy over the past decades. We investigate imaginative definitions for outsourcing relations and outsourcing transformations. Abstract models of an extreme and unrealistic simplicity are considered in order to investigate possible definitions of outsourcing. Rather than covering all relevant practical cases an imaginative definition of a concept provides obvious cases of its instantiation from which more refined or liberal definitions may be derived. A definition of outsourcing induces to a complementary definition of insourcing. Outsourcing and insourcing have more complex variations in which multiple parties are involved. All of these terms both refer to state transformations and to state descriptions pertaining to the state obtained after such transformations. We make an attempt to disambiguate the terminology in that respect a...

  15. A Corpus-Based Investigation of Definite Description Use

    CERN Document Server

    Poesio, M; Poesio, Massimo; Vieira, Renata

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a study of definite descriptions use in written texts aimed at assessing the feasibility of annotating corpora with information about definite description interpretation. We ran two experiments, in which subjects were asked to classify the uses of definite descriptions in a corpus of 33 newspaper articles, containing a total of 1412 definite descriptions. We measured the agreement among annotators about the classes assigned to definite descriptions, as well as the agreement about the antecedent assigned to those definites that the annotators classified as being related to an antecedent in the text. The most interesting result of this study from a corpus annotation perspective was the rather low agreement (K=0.63) that we obtained using versions of Hawkins' and Prince's classification schemes; better results (K=0.76) were obtained using the simplified scheme proposed by Fraurud that includes only two classes, first-mention and subsequent-mention. The agreement about antecedents was al...

  16. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  17. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  18. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Brady

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  19. External threat and the definition of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudedale, P; Smith-Cunnien, P; Parker, J; Inverarity, J

    1984-05-01

    Research ( Lauderdale , 1976; Schachter , 1951) suggests that an external threat to a group can lead to the rejection of deviant members of the group and alteration of group communication patterns and solidarity. This study sought to extend those findings, integrate them with concepts from Simmel 's (1917/1955) work on group conflict, and link them to key issues in the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior. We examined the effect of variation in level of threat, the relationship between deviant status and nonconformity to the central task norm, the role of high-status actors in deviance designation, the relationship between rejection and negative definition of the deviant, and the effects of rejection and negative definition on group solidarity. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design involving three conditions (strong threat, weak threat, and no threat). The results suggest that (a) the level of threat is directly related to the extent of rejection and negative definition, (b) nonconformity to the central task norm is not systematically related to deviant status, (c) high-status actors are more involved in the rejection of the deviant, (d) sociometric rejection of the deviant is accompanied by negative definition in the strong-threat condition, and (e) the level of group solidarity is related to the extent of rejection and negative definition. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior and analogous processes in other social groups.

  20. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  1. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States. Under section 993(g), the term “United States” includes the States, the District of Columbia,...

  2. 20 CFR 322.2 - General definition of remuneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General definition of remuneration. 322.2... INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.2 General definition of remuneration. (a) Remuneration. (1) Remuneration... accruing. (2) Remuneration includes income in the form of a commodity, service, or privilege if, before...

  3. 29 CFR 825.125 - Definition of health care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of health care provider. 825.125 Section 825.125... Definition of health care provider. (a) The Act defines “health care provider” as: (1) A doctor of medicine... providing health care services. (b) Others “capable of providing health care services” include only:...

  4. 16 CFR 240.3 - Definition of seller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of seller. 240.3 Section 240.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.3 Definition of seller. Seller includes any...

  5. 40 CFR 98.390 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.390 Definition of the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... same meaning given in § 98.6 and includes any entity that imports petroleum products or natural...

  6. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of basic research. 272.3 Section 272...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 272.3 Definition of... processes or products in mind. It includes all scientific study and experimentation directed...

  7. 45 CFR 1180.2 - Definition of a museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public. (b) Museums include, but are not limited to, the following types of institutions, if they... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of a museum. 1180.2 Section 1180.2... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS Definitions and Eligibility §...

  8. 29 CFR 501.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the instrumentalities and tools for accomplishing the work; the location of the work; the hiring party... apples for cider on a farm; or logging employment. An occupation included in either statutory definition... operation, management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of such farm and its tools and...

  9. 45 CFR 74.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 74.2 Section 74.2 Public Welfare... Management and Budget. OMB means the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Outlays or expenditures mean... term research also includes activities involving the training of individuals in research techniques...

  10. 5 CFR 1216.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES TESTIMONY BY MSPB EMPLOYEES... informal. (2) This definition does not include persons who are no longer employed by the MSPB and who agree... of the MSPB. (g) Request means any informal request, by whatever method, for the production...

  11. 12 CFR 918.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 918.1 Section 918.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS BANK... the Bank, including, without limitation, daily meeting fees, incentive payments and fringe benefits....

  12. 12 CFR 1770.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1770.3 Section 1770.3 Banks and... Charter Act and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act, which are codified at 12 U.S.C. 1716.... Compensation includes all direct and indirect payments of benefits, both cash and non-cash, granted to or...

  13. 5 CFR 250.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. Team leaders are those who provide employees with day-to-day guidance in work projects, but do... AGENCIES Employee Surveys § 250.301 Definitions. In this part— Agency means an executive agency as defined... agency's management team. This includes anyone with supervisory or managerial duties. Managers are...

  14. 44 CFR 334.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 334.4 Section 334.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... security emergency is any occurrence, including natural disaster, military attack, technological...

  15. 10 CFR 436.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (hardware). Jet fuel means fuels for use, generally in aircraft turbine engines. Life cycle cost means the... Operations Plans § 436.101 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Automotive gasoline means all grades of gasoline for use in internal combustion engines except aviation gasoline. Does not include diesel...

  16. 12 CFR 626.6000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 626.6000 Section 626.6000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6000... person who requests or who has received an extension of credit from a creditor and includes any...

  17. 12 CFR 1710.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE General § 1710.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term... potential value in connection with employment. The term “compensation” includes all direct and indirect... Mortgage Association or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; and the term “Enterprises”...

  18. 5 CFR 551.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Provisions § 551.104 Definitions. In this part— Act or FLSA means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended (29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.). Administrative employee means an... generically in subpart G and includes complaints under the child labor provisions of the Act. Claim period...

  19. 12 CFR 327.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 327.51 Section 327.51 Banks and... Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program. An eligible premium also does not include any emergency special... Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program or for any other reason. (e) An insured depository...

  20. 41 CFR 51-1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disabilities (including blind) for not less than 75 percent of the work-hours of direct labor required to... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.3 Definitions. As... employment and training opportunities for persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities...

  1. 12 CFR 268.702 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Physical or Mental Disability § 268.702 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following... disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities. The term physical or mental impairment includes, but is not limited to, such...

  2. 6 CFR 15.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... psychological disorder such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities. The term physical or mental impairment includes, but is not limited to... DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 15.3 Definitions. For...

  3. 32 CFR 176.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjustment, Department of Defense. Private nonprofit organization. An organization, no part of the net... nonprofit organization, including a homeless assistance planning board, that provides or proposes to provide... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 176.5 Section 176.5...

  4. 48 CFR 23.1103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Encouraging Contractor Policies to Ban Text Messaging While Driving 23.1103 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Driving—(1) Means operating a motor vehicle on an active roadway with... or other electronic device, including for the purpose of short message service texting,...

  5. 12 CFR 206.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit and liquidity risks, including operational risks, related to intraday and interday transactions... bank's Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital under the risk-based capital guidelines provided by the bank's primary... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 206.2 Section 206.2 Banks...

  6. 48 CFR 3009.108-7002 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Prospective Contractors 3009.108-7002 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Expanded Affiliated Group means an... substantially all of the properties constituting a trade or business of a domestic partnership; (2) After the... the acquisition includes the entity does not have substantial business activities in the foreign...

  7. 32 CFR 552.126 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... person. (h) Pistol. A weapon originally designed, made, and intended to fire a projectile (bullet) from... single pull of the trigger, and shall include any such weapon which may be readily restored to fire a... Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.126 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the following...

  8. 10 CFR 171.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 171.5 Section 171.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... partly owned by the United States of America which is an instrumentality of the United States, or any..., INCLUDING HOLDERS OF CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE, REGISTRATIONS, AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM APPROVALS...

  9. 7 CFR 319.59-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disease caused by the fungus Tilletia indica (Mitra) Mundkur. Plant. Any plant (including any plant part... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-1 Definitions. Administrator...

  10. 42 CFR 121.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 121.2 Section 121.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN... organ(s). Organ means a human kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, or intestine (including...

  11. 23 CFR 777.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas. Wetlands or habitat... WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.2 Definitions. In addition to those contained in 23 U.S.C. 101(a), the..., enhancement, creation, and under exceptional circumstances, preservation, of wetlands, wetland buffer...

  12. 32 CFR 1904.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1904.2 Definitions. (a) Agency or CIA means the Central Intelligence... competent jurisdiction. (c) Employee means any CIA officer, any staff, contract, or other employee of CIA, any person including independent contractors associated with or acting for or on behalf of CIA,...

  13. 12 CFR 1731.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mortgage, including a mortgage associated with a mortgage-backed security or similar financial instrument... AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a) Director means the Director of OFHEO, or his or her designee. (b) Enterprise means the Federal National Mortgage...

  14. 7 CFR 400.128 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unauthorized or illegal acts, including but not limited to: (i) Theft, misuse, or loss of Government funds; (ii) False claims for services and travel reimbursement; (iii) Illegal, unauthorized obligations and... Years § 400.128 Definitions. (a) Agency means (1) An Executive Agency as defined by 5 U.S.C. 105,...

  15. 40 CFR 97.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... record of the measured parameters in the measurement units required by subpart HH of this part. Biomass... definition shall equal the unit's total energy input from all fuel except biomass if the unit is a boiler... any petroleum-based fuel (including diesel fuel or petroleum derivatives such as oil tar) and...

  16. 40 CFR 97.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of this part. Biomass means— (1) Any organic material grown for the purpose of being converted to... definition shall equal the unit's total energy input from all fuel except biomass if the unit is a boiler... any petroleum-based fuel (including diesel fuel or petroleum derivatives such as oil tar) and...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1902 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administration of a social security system including responsibility for implementing an agreement; the Social... authority means the official with overall responsibility for administration of a country's social security... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 404.1902 Section...

  18. 29 CFR 99.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accepted government auditing standards (GAGAS). The term auditor does not include internal auditors of non... Definitions. Audit finding means deficiencies which the auditor is required by § 99.510(a) to report in the... which must be audited under this part. Auditor means an auditor that is a public accountant or a...

  19. 7 CFR 1416.701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program § 1416.701 Definitions. Application means the “2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program” Application form. Fruit tree means a woody perennial plant having a single... acreage of the same crop of trees (including Christmas trees, ornamental trees, nursery trees, and...

  20. 45 CFR 95.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Equipment Acquired Under... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 95.703 Section 95.703 Public Welfare... program(s). This term includes local government public assistance agencies which administer public...

  1. 40 CFR 60.611 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compounds. Ammoxidation and oxychlorination reactions are included in this definition. Air Oxidation Reactor... From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Air Oxidation Unit Processes § 60... given them. Air Oxidation Reactor means any device or process vessel in which one or more organic...

  2. 12 CFR 203.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 203.2 Section 203.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE... of Puerto Rico. The term includes an individual condominium unit, cooperative unit, or mobile...

  3. 32 CFR 344.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... security strategy. It includes DoD Active and Reserve military personnel, military retired members, DoD... CHARTERS ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR RESERVE AFFAIRS (ASD(RA)) § 344.3 Definitions. (a) Reserve components. Refers collectively to the Army National Guard of the United States, Army Reserve, Naval...

  4. 24 CFR 586.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.5 Definitions. As used in this part: CERCLA. Comprehensive Environmental... living. These services include, but are not limited to, case management, housing counseling, job training... welfare hotels, congregate shelters and transitional housing for the mentally ill); (ii) An institution...

  5. 5 CFR 430.402 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.402 Definitions. In this subpart— Appraisal system..., evaluating, and rewarding employee performance. This includes appraisal systems and appraisal programs as... authorized under performance appraisal systems not covered by 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 for communicating what...

  6. 42 CFR 50.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 50.202 Section 50.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY... include the ability to consent to sterilization. Public Health Service means the Office of the Assistant...

  7. 45 CFR 46.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.202 Definitions. The... purposes of this subpart. If a neonate is viable then it may be included in research only to the extent... product of conception from implantation until delivery. (d) Neonate means a newborn. (e) Nonviable...

  8. 33 CFR 136.303 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....303 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE...; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.303 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Advertisement means the dissemination of information, including but not...

  9. 21 CFR 110.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... microorganisms” includes those microorganisms that are of public health significance, that subject food to... food at or below the given aw will not support the growth of undesirable microorganisms. (o) Sanitize... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 110.3 Section 110.3 Food and...

  10. 32 CFR 1290.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING...; or to issue citations or tickets. Personnel so designated will include the Command Security Officer...

  11. 32 CFR 1285.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 1285.3 Definitions. The following terms and meanings... issue a “no record” determination. These include the Directors (or equivalent) of HQ DLA Primary Staff...

  12. 7 CFR 94.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... back portions of poultry. Light meat. Refers to the skinless and deboned breast and wing portions of poultry. Poultry. Any kind of domesticated bird, including, but not limited to, chicken, turkey, duck... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Processed Poultry Products § 94.301 Definitions. Words used in the regulations...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.502 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.502 Definitions. (a... ventilated cavities, the pressure envelope is the interior skin. (2) Thermal envelope area means the sum of the surface areas of outside walls, ceiling and floor, including all openings. The wall area...

  14. 77 FR 41670 - Definition of Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... in the definition of ``Peak power'', and 5. On page 652, add the term ``Port of export''. 0 The text... Export Administration Regulations (EAR). * * * * * Explosives. (Cat 1)--see Annex ``List of Explosives...''. * * * * * Nuclear reactor. (Cat 0 and 2) includes the items within or attached directly to the reactor vessel,...

  15. 27 CFR 4.61 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 4.61 Section 4.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... in §§ 4.60 through 4.65 of this part, the term advertisement includes any written or verbal...

  16. 5 CFR 179.203 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 179.203 Section 179.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS.... Hearing official means an individual (including an administrative law judge) responsible for...

  17. On some positive definite functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Rajendra; Jain, Tanvi

    2014-01-01

    We study the function $(1 - \\|x\\|)\\slash (1 - \\|x\\|^r),$ and its reciprocal, on the Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^n,$ with respect to properties like being positive definite, conditionally positive definite, and infinitely divisible.

  18. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  19. Outcomes Among Pregnant Women Included in the Operation TOMODACHI Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    Table 1 shows the status of potentially-exposed pregnancies. Pregnancy outcomes include live delivery, spontaneous loss, and induced abortion ...birth defects, which are defined according to the Case Definition of the National Birth Defects Prevention Network.3 Additional uses for these data...pregnancy outcome in the electronic medical data/records. Overall, the live delivery rates are quite high and the spontaneous loss rates are quite

  20. A New Definition of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Alan; Korb, Kevin B.

    Creative artifacts can be generated by employing A-Life software, but programmers must first consider, explicitly or implicitly, what would count as creative. Most apply standard definitions that incorporate notions of novelty, value and appropriateness. Here we re-assess this approach. Some basic facts about creativity suggest criteria that guide us to a new definition of creativity. We briefly defend our definition against some plausible objections and explore the ways in which this new definition differs and improves upon the alternatives.

  1. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  2. Definition extraction for glossary creation : a study on extracting definitions for semi-automatic glossary creation in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the automatic extraction of definitions from text. Definition extraction can play a role in various applications including the semi-automatic development of glossaries in an eLearning context, which constitutes the main focus of this dissertation. A glossary provi

  3. Definition of total mesorectal excision, including the perineal phase : Technical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenga, Klaas; Grossmann, Irene; DeRuiter, Marco; Wiggers, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Background: Total mesorectal excision (TME) has contributed to a decline in local recurrence. The operation is difficult because of the complicated anatomy of the pelvis and the narrow spaces in the pelvis. We review the anatomy related to TME and we present our surgical technique. Anatomy: The pelv

  4. 78 FR 18457 - Definition of Form I-94 To Include Electronic Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Passenger Information System (APIS \\1\\) following 9/11, CBP now collects information on aliens traveling by... DHS will create a Form I-94 in an electronic format based on passenger, passport and visa information... APIS. CBP also now uses the Arrival and Departure Information System (ADIS), which draws information...

  5. The case for expanding the definition of 'key populations' to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for understanding HIV in industrialised countries with low-level or concentrated ... In reviewing the national response to HIV/AIDS, ... 1 Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa .... Pit latrine without ventilation or bucket. 1 ..... and the experience of life stress have been associated with risky sexual.

  6. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on ... the most of your exercise routine. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Activity Count Physical activity is ...

  7. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on ... of the minerals that you need. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that ...

  8. 75 FR 67629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Terms and Definitions for “Dependent”, “Domestic Partner...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... partnership'', and by revising the definition of ``Immediate family'' to include ``Domestic partner'' and... partnership'', adds a definition for ``Dependent'', and revises the definition of ``Immediate family'' to... partner'' and ``Domestic partnership''; and by revising the definition for ``Immediate family''. The added...

  9. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331¿288 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and th

  10. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331¿288 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and th

  11. Causality, Bell's theorem, and Ontic Definiteness

    CERN Document Server

    Henson, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Bell's theorem shows that the reasonable relativistic causal principle known as "local causality" is not compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics. It is not possible maintain a satisfying causal principle of this type while dropping any of the better-known assumptions of Bell's theorem. However, another assumption of Bell's theorem is the use of classical logic. One part of this assumption is the principle of "ontic definiteness", that is, that it must in principle be possible to assign definite truth values to all propositions treated in the theory. Once the logical setting is clarified somewhat, it can be seen that rejecting this principle does not in any way undermine the type of causal principle used by Bell. Without ontic definiteness, the deterministic causal condition known as Einstein Locality succeeds in banning superluminal influence (including signalling) whilst allowing correlations that violate Bell's inequalities. Objections to altering logic, and the consequences for operational and...

  12. On the definition of superclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally, we suggest that those superclusters that will survive the accelerating cosmic expansion and collapse in the future be called "superstes-clusters", where "superstes" means survivor in Latin, to distinguish them from traditional superclusters.

  13. Formalizing biomedical concepts from textual definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Alina; Ma, Yue; Tsatsaronis, George; Kissa, Maria; Distel, Felix; Baader, Franz; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ontologies play a major role in life sciences, enabling a number of applications, from new data integration to knowledge verification. SNOMED CT is a large medical ontology that is formally defined so that it ensures global consistency and support of complex reasoning tasks. Most biomedical ontologies and taxonomies on the other hand define concepts only textually, without the use of logic. Here, we investigate how to automatically generate formal concept definitions from textual ones. We develop a method that uses machine learning in combination with several types of lexical and semantic features and outputs formal definitions that follow the structure of SNOMED CT concept definitions. We evaluate our method on three benchmarks and test both the underlying relation extraction component as well as the overall quality of output concept definitions. In addition, we provide an analysis on the following aspects: (1) How do definitions mined from the Web and literature differ from the ones mined from manually created definitions, e.g., MeSH? (2) How do different feature representations, e.g., the restrictions of relations' domain and range, impact on the generated definition quality?, (3) How do different machine learning algorithms compare to each other for the task of formal definition generation?, and, (4) What is the influence of the learning data size to the task? We discuss all of these settings in detail and show that the suggested approach can achieve success rates of over 90%. In addition, the results show that the choice of corpora, lexical features, learning algorithm and data size do not impact the performance as strongly as semantic types do. Semantic types limit the domain and range of a predicted relation, and as long as relations' domain and range pairs do not overlap, this information is most valuable in formalizing textual definitions. The analysis presented in this manuscript implies that automated methods can provide a valuable contribution to the

  14. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  15. The Logic of Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Wittgenstein , in his Philosophical Investigations (1953), observed that, for many phenomena, there are no necessary conditions common to all members of... Wittgenstein 1953: §66, p.27e). Wittgenstein refers to these overlapping similarities as “family resemblances” (Ibid., §67, p.27e). Few, if any, of...that is, we may resort to stipulative definition). But this is not necessary for the concept to be usable. Indeed, as Wittgenstein says, sometimes

  16. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  17. Definition Study PHARUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    definitie studie zijn gebruikt in het voorontwerp van het PHARUS systeem . TNO report STUDelft Page 6 ABSTRACT 3 SAMENVAlTING 4 CONTENTS 6 1 INTRODUCTION 9...University of Technology, Laboratory for Telecommunication and Remote Sensing Technology. FEL-TNO had tke lead and was responsible for the project management ...Aerospace Programs in Delft was responsible for the program management . The definition study PHARUS was started in the first half of 1988 and ended

  18. VOGES-PROSKAUER AND COAGULASE TESTS TO THE LABORATORIAL DIAGNOSTIC OF Staphylococcus aureus INCLUDED IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BOVINE MASTITIS UTILIZAÇÃO DO TESTE DE VOGES-PROSKAUER E DA COAGULASE PARA O DIAGNÓSTICO LABORATORIAL DE Staphylococcus aureus ENVOLVIDOS NA EPIDEMIOLOGIA DA MASTITE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Zafalon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic characteristics of acetoin production to the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of mammary quarters of cows with mastitis, orifices of teats and mouthpieces of the liners were studied, in agreement to different coagulation grades presented by strains in the tube coagulase test with rabbit plasma and different rain levels in the environment of the herd. The production of acetoin and the coagulase test were performed after growth on blood agar base supplemented with sheep blood, Gram staining and catalase production. All strains were confirmed by molecular identification at species level by species-specific PCR. Among 329 samples identified, 167 were isolated from milk, 117 from teat orifices and 45 from mouthpieces of the liners. Among these samples, 85.0%, 71.1% and 69.2% strains originated from the milk, mouthpieces and orifices, respectively, presented whole coagulation in the coagulase test. Reduced specificities were obtained to the acetoin production to different coagulation grades on the few rains period as well as on the many rains period. Sensitivities to the acetoin production were higher on the few rains period to all sources and coagulation grades, except to strains from orifices with incomplete coagulation and strains from mouthpieces with complete coagulation. It is recommended the acetoin production test how a good diagnostic strategy to the S. aureus identification, combined with other tests how coagulase, mainly in the milk samples originated from mastitic mammary quarters and on periods with little occurrence of rains.


    KEY WORDS: Animal health, bacteriology, diagnosis, milk.
    Estudaram-se as características diagnósticas do teste de Voges-Proskauer (VP na identificação de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de leite de quartos mamários de vacas com mastite, óstios dos tetos e insufladores dos conjuntos de ordenha, perante diferentes graus de coagulação apresentados pelas cepas

  19. Controversy around the definition of waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-11-20

    Full Text Available This paper presents the information concerning the definition of waste. Discussing the importance of the clear definition, ongoing debates, broad definition of waste, problems with the broad definition, interpretation, current waste management model...

  20. American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism Preliminary Definition of Remission in Rheumatoid Arthritis for Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, David T.; Smolen, Josef S.; Wells, George; Zhang, Bin; van Tuyl, Lilian H. D.; Funovits, Julia; Aletaha, Daniel; Allaart, Renée; Bathon, Joan; Bombardieri, Stefano; Brooks, Peter; Brown, Andrew; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Choi, Hyon; Combe, Bernard; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Furst, Dan; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Hawker , Gillian; Keystone, Edward; Khanna, Dinesh; Kirwan, John; Kvien, Tore; Landewé, Robert; Listing, Joachim; Michaud, Kaleb; Mola, Emilio Martin; Montie, Pam; Pincus, Ted; Richards, Pam; Siegel, Jeff; Simon, Lee; Sokka, Tuulikki; Strand, Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter; Tyndall, Alan; van der Heijde, Desirée; Verstappen, Suzan; White, Barbara; Wolfe, Fred; Zink, Angela; Boers, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Background With remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) an increasingly attainable goal, there is no widely used definition of remission that is stringent but achievable and could be applied uniformly as an outcome in clinical trials. Methods A committee consisting of members of the American College of Rheumatology, the European League Against Rheumatism and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Initiative (OMERACT) met to guide the process and review prespecified analyses from clinical trials of patients with RA. The committee requested a stringent definition (little, if any, active disease) and decided to use core set measures to define remission including at least joint counts and an acute phase reactant. Members were surveyed to select the level of each core set measure consistent with remission. Candidate definitions of remission were tested including those that constituted a number of individual measures in remission (Boolean approach) as well as definitions using disease activity indexes. To select a definition of remission, trial data were analyzed to examine the added contribution of patient reported outcomes and the ability of candidate measures to predict later good x-ray and functional outcomes. Results Survey results for the definition of remission pointed to indexes at published thresholds and to a count of core set measures with each measure scored as 1 or less (e.g. tender and swollen joint counts, CRP and global assessments on 0-10 scale). Analyses suggested the need to include a patient reported measure. Examination of 2 year follow-up data suggested that many candidate definitions performed comparably in terms of predicting later good x-ray and functional outcomes, although DAS28 based measures of remission did not predict good radiographic outcomes as well as did the other candidate definitions. Given these and other considerations, we propose that a patient be defined as in remission based on one of two definitions : 1: When their scores on the

  1. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  2. Gene-disease relationship discovery based on model-driven data integration and database view definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, S; Jonveaux, P; Bicep, C; Pierron, L; Smaïl-Tabbone, M; Devignes, M D

    2009-01-15

    Computational methods are widely used to discover gene-disease relationships hidden in vast masses of available genomic and post-genomic data. In most current methods, a similarity measure is calculated between gene annotations and known disease genes or disease descriptions. However, more explicit gene-disease relationships are required for better insights into the molecular bases of diseases, especially for complex multi-gene diseases. Explicit relationships between genes and diseases are formulated as candidate gene definitions that may include intermediary genes, e.g. orthologous or interacting genes. These definitions guide data modelling in our database approach for gene-disease relationship discovery and are expressed as views which ultimately lead to the retrieval of documented sets of candidate genes. A system called ACGR (Approach for Candidate Gene Retrieval) has been implemented and tested with three case studies including a rare orphan gene disease.

  3. Virtual occlusal definition for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X J; Li, Q Q; Zhang, Z; Li, T T; Xie, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-03-01

    Computer-assisted surgical simulation is being used increasingly in orthognathic surgery. However, occlusal definition is still undertaken using model surgery with subsequent digitization via surface scanning or cone beam computed tomography. A software tool has been developed and a workflow set up in order to achieve a virtual occlusal definition. The results of a validation study carried out on 60 models of normal occlusion are presented. Inter- and intra-user correlation tests were used to investigate the reproducibility of the manual setting point procedure. The errors between the virtually set positions (test) and the digitized manually set positions (gold standard) were compared. The consistency in virtual set positions performed by three individual users was investigated by one way analysis of variance test. Inter- and intra-observer correlation coefficients for manual setting points were all greater than 0.95. Overall, the median error between the test and the gold standard positions was 1.06mm. Errors did not differ among teeth (F=0.371, P>0.05). The errors were not significantly different from 1mm (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the errors made by the three independent users (P>0.05). In conclusion, this workflow for virtual occlusal definition was found to be reliable and accurate.

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  5. Comparison of three local frame definitions for the kinematic analysis of the fingers and the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goislard de Monsabert, B; Visser, J M A; Vigouroux, L; Van der Helm, F C T; Veeger, H E J

    2014-08-22

    Because the hand is a complex poly-articular limb, numerous methods have been proposed to investigate its kinematics therefore complicating the comparison between studies and the methodological choices. With the objective of overcoming such issues, the present study compared the effect of three local frame definitions on local axis orientations and joint angles of the fingers and the wrist. Three local frames were implemented for each segment. The "Reference" frames were aligned with global axes during a static neutral posture. The "Landmark" frames were computed using palpated bony landmarks. The "Functional" frames included a flexion-extension axis estimated during functional movements. These definitions were compared with regard to the deviations between obtained local segment axes and the evolution of joint (Cardan) angles during two test motions. Each definition resulted in specific local frame orientations with deviations of 15° in average for a given local axis. Interestingly, these deviations produced only slight differences (below 7°) regarding flexion-extension Cardan angles indicating that there is no preferred method when only interested in finger flexion-extension movements. In this case, the Reference method was the easiest to implement, but did not provide physiological results for the thumb. Using the Functional frames reduced the kinematic cross-talk on the secondary and tertiary Cardan angles by up to 20° indicating that the Functional definition is useful when investigating complex three-dimensional movements. Globally, the Landmark definition provides valuable results and, contrary to the other definitions, is applicable for finger deformities or compromised joint rotations.

  6. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem van der Kamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005–2010 identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1 more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2 one definition for Europe – when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3 reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4 useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes.

  7. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Schumacher, H Ralph; Fransen, Jaap; Neogi, Tuhina; Jansen, Tim L; Brown, Melanie; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Eliseev, Maxim; McCarthy, Geraldine; Stamp, Lisa K; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Sivera, Francisca; Ea, Hang-Korng; Gerritsen, Martijn; Scire, Carlo A; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Lin, Chingtsai; Chou, Yin-Yi; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo; Janssen, Matthijs; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Cimmino, Marco A; Uhlig, Till; Taylor, William J

    2016-12-01

    To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study. Data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR) were randomly divided into development and test data sets. A data-driven case definition was formed using logistic regression in the development data set. This definition, along with definitions used in GUGC studies and the 2015 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout classification criteria were applied to the test data set, using monosodium urate crystal identification as the gold standard. For all tested GUGC definitions, the simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" had the best test performance characteristics (sensitivity 82%, specificity 72%). The simple definition had similar performance to a SUGAR data-driven case definition with 5 weighted items: self-report, self-report of doctor diagnosis, colchicine use, urate-lowering therapy use, and hyperuricemia (sensitivity 87%, specificity 70%). Both of these definitions performed better than the 1977 American Rheumatism Association survey criteria (sensitivity 82%, specificity 67%). Of all tested definitions, the 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria had the best performance (sensitivity 92%, specificity 89%). A simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" has the best test performance characteristics of existing definitions that use routinely available data. A more complex combination of features is more sensitive, but still lacks good specificity. If a more accurate case definition is required for a particular study, the 2015 ACR/EULAR gout classification criteria should be considered. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  9. What do you do for a living? Toward a more succinct definition of health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles D

    2006-09-13

    This commentary discusses the need for, and the advantages of, a more concise, revised definition of the field of health services research. It argues for a definition that includes not only the topics on which health services research focuses but also the goals of health services research. A number of condensed definitions are provided for consideration.

  10. What do you do for a living? Toward a more succinct definition of health services research

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips Charles D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This commentary discusses the need for, and the advantages of, a more concise, revised definition of the field of health services research. It argues for a definition that includes not only the topics on which health services research focuses but also the goals of health services research. A number of condensed definitions are provided for consideration.

  11. The Impact of Various Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guba, Egon G.

    The impact of various definitions of the term "policy" on the nature and outcomes of policy analysis is illustrated by noting a variety of definitions which are implied in the literature. These definitions are applied to exemplar policy arenas to note their differential effect. The policy arenas discussed include the community…

  12. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature governing the Intercultural Communication and Cross-cultural Communication as two subjects discussed in the field of Cultural Communication and International Communication, have been reviewed and tried through a novel method to promote the level of religion from a concept usually seen as something such as race, ethnic, identity and life style under the title of international communication and cultural communication to a much higher position and place it under the title of interreligious communication. Following creation of a new field of study, many of the scholars and thinkers who are concerned about that field get together and focus of its issues and try to offer definitions and divisions about the subject. Later, after accumulation of scientific materials about different issues in the field, the human knowledge in that subject starts to develop further and in a more organized way. In this regard, first, the preferred definitions of religion, culture, communication, and Interreligious Communication will be offered. Accordingly, every society includes a meaning structure which is called culture and communication would act as an interaction tool in this system whose task is coding and decoding. Religion is considered the origin of culture and the director of communication. Based on these primary definitions, the interreligious communication is defined as: the relationship between or among the monotheistic religions based on the common understanding of religious

  13. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  14. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  15. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  16. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  17. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  18. Simulant Agent Resistance Test Manikin (SMARTMAN) Testing of Protective Mask Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    The staff will include emergency medical technicians ( EMTs ) qualified in advanced life support. 2.2 Instrumentation. Permissible error...warfare agent DA Department of the Army DTP detailed test plan EMT emergency medical technician FD/SC failure definition/scoring...Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NRT near real time NTA non-traditional agent TOP 08-2-109 16 September 2013 APPENDIX C

  19. 42 CFR 440.2 - Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific definitions; definitions of services for... Definitions § 440.2 Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes. (a) Specific definitions...) Definitions of services for FFP purposes. Except as limited in part 441, FFP is available in...

  20. Self-reported concussion history: impact of providing a definition of concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins CA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Clifford A Robbins,1 Daniel H Daneshvar,1,2 John D Picano,1,3 Brandon E Gavett,1,4 Christine M Baugh,1,2 David O Riley,1 Christopher J Nowinski,1,2,5 Ann C McKee,1,2,6–8 Robert C Cantu,1,5,9,10 Robert A Stern1,2,8,91Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, 2Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 4Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO, USA; 5Sports Legacy Institute, Waltham MA, USA; 6United States Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 7Department of Pathology, 8Alzheimer's Disease Center, 9Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 10Department of Neurosurgery, Emerson Hospital, Concord, MA, USABackground: In recent years, the understanding of concussion has evolved in the research and medical communities to include more subtle and transient symptoms. The accepted definition of concussion in these communities has reflected this change. However, it is unclear whether this shift is also reflected in the understanding of the athletic community.What is known about the subject: Self-reported concussion history is an inaccurate assessment of someone's lifetime exposure to concussive brain trauma. However, unfortunately, in many cases it is the only available tool.Hypothesis/purpose: We hypothesize that athletes' self-reported concussion histories will be significantly greater after reading them the current definition of concussion, relative to the reporting when no definition was provided. An increase from baseline to post-definition response will suggest that athletes are unaware of the currently accepted medical definition.Study design: Cross-sectional study of 472 current and former athletes.Methods: Investigators conducted structured telephone interviews with current and former athletes between January

  1. The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: are we overestimating the real prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisslén Magnus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI. Discussion ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without associated symptoms or evident functional impairment in daily living. While two tests are recommended to assess each domain, only one is required to fulfill this diagnostic criterion. Unfortunately, this definition necessitates that about 20% of the cognitively normal HIV-infected population is classified as suffering ANI. This liberal definition raises important ethical concerns and has as well diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Since neither its biological substrate, prognostic significance nor therapeutic implications are clearly established, we recommend that this diagnosis be modified or applied cautiously. Summary The diagnoses of less severe forms of neurocognitive disorders in HIV relies on the outcomes of neuropsychological testing, and a high proportion of HIV-infected patients with effective cART may be classified as neurocognitively abnormal using the current criteria. The definition of ANI is not stringent, and results in approximately 20% of the population being classified as abnormal. To us this seems an unacceptable false-positive rate.

  2. The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: are we overestimating the real prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisslén, Magnus; Price, Richard W; Nilsson, Staffan

    2011-12-28

    A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI). ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without associated symptoms or evident functional impairment in daily living. While two tests are recommended to assess each domain, only one is required to fulfill this diagnostic criterion. Unfortunately, this definition necessitates that about 20% of the cognitively normal HIV-infected population is classified as suffering ANI. This liberal definition raises important ethical concerns and has as well diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Since neither its biological substrate, prognostic significance nor therapeutic implications are clearly established, we recommend that this diagnosis be modified or applied cautiously. The diagnoses of less severe forms of neurocognitive disorders in HIV relies on the outcomes of neuropsychological testing, and a high proportion of HIV-infected patients with effective cART may be classified as neurocognitively abnormal using the current criteria. The definition of ANI is not stringent, and results in approximately 20% of the population being classified as abnormal. To us this seems an unacceptable false-positive rate.

  3. Amino acid empirical contact energy definitions for fold recognition in the space of contact maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogolari Federico

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradicting evidence has been presented in the literature concerning the effectiveness of empirical contact energies for fold recognition. Empirical contact energies are calculated on the basis of information available from selected protein structures, with respect to a defined reference state, according to the quasi-chemical approximation. Protein-solvent interactions are estimated from residue solvent accessibility. Results In the approach presented here, contact energies are derived from the potential of mean force theory, several definitions of contact are examined and their performance in fold recognition is evaluated on sets of decoy structures. The best definition of contact is tested, on a more realistic scenario, on all predictions including sidechains accepted in the CASP4 experiment. In 30 out of 35 cases the native structure is correctly recognized and best predictions are usually found among the 10 lowest energy predictions. Conclusion The definition of contact based on van der Waals radii of alpha carbon and side chain heavy atoms is seen to perform better than other definitions involving only alpha carbons, only beta carbons, all heavy atoms or only backbone atoms. An important prerequisite for the applicability of the approach is that the protein structure under study should not exhibit anomalous solvent accessibility, compared to soluble proteins whose structure is deposited in the Protein Data Bank. The combined evaluation of a solvent accessibility parameter and contact energy allows for an effective gross screening of predictive models.

  4. 40 CFR 716.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND... environmental effects on invertebrates, fish, or other animals, and plants, including: Acute toxicity tests..., including surveys, tests, and studies of: Biological, photochemical, and chemical degradation; structure...

  5. A new role of proficiency testing in nuclear analytical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The most recent definition of measurement result requires a statement of uncertainty whenever results obtained by nuclear or other quantitative methods of analysis are reported. Proficiency testing (PT) therefore must include the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased quantity values...... that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT-scheme and permits calculation of En numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT-data from a recent international laboratory...

  6. Phenotype definition in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Melodie R

    2006-05-01

    Phenotype definition consists of the use of epidemiologic, biological, molecular, or computational methods to systematically select features of a disorder that might result from distinct genetic influences. By carefully defining the target phenotype, or dividing the sample by phenotypic characteristics, we can hope to narrow the range of genes that influence risk for the trait in the study population, thereby increasing the likelihood of finding them. In this article, fundamental issues that arise in phenotyping in epilepsy and other disorders are reviewed, and factors complicating genotype-phenotype correlation are discussed. Methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation are addressed, focusing on epidemiologic studies. With this foundation in place, the epilepsy subtypes and clinical features that appear to have a genetic basis are described, and the epidemiologic studies that have provided evidence for the heritability of these phenotypic characteristics, supporting their use in future genetic investigations, are reviewed. Finally, several molecular approaches to phenotype definition are discussed, in which the molecular defect, rather than the clinical phenotype, is used as a starting point.

  7. Definitions of oppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, R G

    1997-12-01

    How we begin to serve others as healthcare professionals and how it is we define underserved and oppressed peoples is important in understanding issues in the organization and allocation of health care. This exploration, based on feminist post-structuralist theory, explores how nurses formulate definitions of 'underserved' and 'vulnerable'. This study goes beyond prescribed definitions to locate meanings used to identify oppression. I present, through an analysis of a literature search, the context and construction of the terms 'vulnerable population' and 'medically underserved'. Professional nursing journals are the source of relevant text. The implications of working with particular understandings of the terms 'vulnerable' and 'underserved' is based on my assumption that healthcare providers need to critically focus on the personal and political meanings they attribute to the labels used to define the clients and communities with whom they work. The presentation of this material supports that the way we define 'vulnerable' and 'underserved' is related to how our work fighting racism, ageism, AIDS, poverty, homophobia, addiction, domestic violence, sexism and colonization is realized.

  8. TQM in a test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gary D.; King, Elizabeth A.; Oleson, Keith

    1992-11-01

    In response to the changing aerospace economic climate, Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (MMAG) has adopted a Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy to maintain a competitive edge. TQM emphasizes continuous improvement of processes, motivation to improve from within, cross-functional involvement, people empowerment, customer satisfaction, and modern process control techniques. The four major initiatives of TQM are Product Excellence, Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II), People Empowerment, and Subcontract Management. The Defense Space and Communications (DS&C) Test Lab's definition and implementation of the MRP II and people empowerment initiatives within TQM are discussed. The application of MRP II to environmental test planning and operations processes required a new and innovative approach. In an 18 month span, the test labs implemented MRP II and people empowerment and achieved a Class 'A' operational status. This resulted in numerous benefits, both tangible and intangible, including significant cost savings and improved quality of life. A detailed description of the implementation process and results are addressed.

  9. Size definitions for particle sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The recommendations of an ad hoc working group appointed by Committee TC 146 of the International Standards Organization on size definitions for particle sampling are reported. The task of the group was to collect the various definitions of 'respirable dust' and to propose a practical definition on recommendations for handling standardization on this matter. One of two proposed cut-sizes in regard to division at the larynx will be adopted after a ballot.

  10. Much Ado About the New Definitions of Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copotoiu Sanda-Maria

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the publication of the new definition of sepsis (Sepsis-3, a plethora of articles have been published in medical journals. Recognizing the epidemiological importance of the previous definitions, first issued in 1992 (Sepsis-1, and subsequently revised in 2001 (Sepsis-2, the most recent opinion emphasizes the failure “to provide adequate groups of patients with homogenous aetiologies, presentations and outcomes”, and blamed one of the causes “for the failure of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs, that tested the efficacy of adjuvant sepsis therapies”. This review summarizes the recent advances in sepsis definition.

  11. Formal Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2005-01-01

    * This publication is partially supported by the KT-DigiCult-Bg project. A definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI) was proposed in [1] but this definition was not absolutely formal at least because the word "Human" was used. In this paper we will formalize the definition from [1]. The biggest problem in this definition was that the level of intelligence of AI is compared to the intelligence of a human being. In order to change this we will introduce some parameters to which AI ...

  12. Reclaiming the definition of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul; Everard, Mark; Santillo, David; Robèrt, Karl-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Since its inception two decades ago, the concept of sustainable development has suffered from a proliferation of definitions, such that it has increasingly come to mean many things to many different people. This has limited its credibility, called into question its practical application and the significance of associated achievements and, overall, limited the progress in environmental and social developments which it was designed to underpin. This viewpoint article is intended to re-open the concept of sustainable development for discussion 20 years on from the Brundtland Report, in the context of the current state of the world, our growing understanding of ecosystems and their response to stressors and the parallel increase in recognition of inherent limitations to that understanding. Following a brief review of the diverse manner in which the concept has developed over time, we present the case for application of a series of simple conditions for sustainability, originally developed by The Natural Step in the early 90s, which nevertheless still provide a sound basis on which progress towards sustainable development could be monitored. The paper also highlights the unavoidable links between sustainability and ethics, including those in the sensitive fields of population and quality of life. Overall we argue the need for the concept of sustainable development to be reclaimed from the plethora of economically-focused or somewhat vague and un-measurable definitions which have found increasing favour in recent years and which all too often accompany relatively minor progress against 'business as usual'. The vision encapsulated in the Brundtland Report was ground-breaking. If, however, true sustainability in human interactions with the biosphere is to be realised, a far stronger and more empirical interpretation of the original intent is urgently required. To be effective, such an interpretation must encompass and guide developments in political instruments and public

  13. Test Development Study On The Spatial Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan SEZEN YÜKSEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial visualization, frequently used in many stages of daily life, is also an indispensable part of mathematics and geometry courses. There are many definitions of spatial visualization ability and various tests have been developed to measure this ability. The aim of this study is to develop a new test for determining the spatial visualization ability for students in higher education. For this purpose, a test including 29 items was prepared. The developed test’s pilot scheme was applied to 236 students of mathematics and mathematics education programs in different two state universities. The data obtained were analyzed by packaged software like Iteman 4, SPSS 17.0 and Lisrel8.7. The test, which was developed by discarding two items according to results of item analysis, validity and reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, was finalized. The Cronbach α coefficient of test was calculated as .84 and RMSEA value of test was calculated as 0,032.

  14. Testing agile requirements models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOTASCHANJAN Jewgenij; PISTER Markus; RUMPE Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a model-based approach to validate software requirements in agile development processes by simulation and in particular automated testing. The use of models as central development artifact needs to be added to the portfolio of software engineering techniques, to further increase efficiency and flexibility of the development beginning already early in the requirements definition phase. Testing requirements are some of the most important techniques to give feedback and to increase the quality of the result. Therefore testing of artifacts should be introduced as early as possible, even in the requirements definition phase.

  15. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  16. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  17. Cellulitis: definition, etiology, and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Craig G

    2011-12-01

    Cellulitis is a common condition seen by physicians. Over the past decade, skin and soft tissue infections from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common. In this article, the definition, etiology, and clinical features of cellulitis are reviewed, and the importance of differentiating cellulitis from necrotizing soft tissue infections is emphasized. Empiric antimicrobial recommendations are suggested, including the most recent recommendations from the Infectious Disease Society of America.

  18. Punctal stenosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiberman, Uri; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Selva, Dinesh; Leibovitch, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Acquired punctal stenosis is a condition in which the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus is narrowed or occluded. This condition is a rare cause of symptomatic epiphora, but its incidence may be higher in patients with chronic blepharitis, in those treated with various topical medications, including antihypertensive agents, and especially in patients treated with taxanes for cancer. The purpose of this review is to cover the medical literature, focusing in particular on definition, incidence, risk factors, etiology and treatment options. PMID:22848141

  19. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Jürgen M Bauer; Boirie, Yves; Cederholm, Tommy; Landi, Francesco; Martin, Finbarr C; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Rolland, Yves; Schneider, Stéphane M; Topinková, Eva; Vandewoude, Maurits; Zamboni, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a practical clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia. EWGSOP included representatives from four participant organisations, i.e. the European Geriatric Medicine Society, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics—European Region and the International Association of Nutrition and Aging. These organisation...

  20. Sociocultural definitions of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1990-10-01

    Public constituencies frequently are criticized by technical experts as being irrational in response to low-probability risks. This presentation argued that most people are concerned with a variety of risk attributes other than probability and that is rather irrational to exclude these from the definition and analysis of technological risk. Risk communication, which is at the heart of the right-to-know concept, is described as the creation of shared meaning rather than the mere transmission of information. A case study of utilities, public utility commissions, and public interest groups illustrates how the diversity of institutional cultures in modern society leads to problems for the creation of shared meanings in establishing trust, distributing liability, and obtaining consent to risk. This holistic approach to risk analysis is most appropriate under conditions of high uncertainty and/or decision stakes. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles.

  2. Product definition data interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  3. Grouping Synonyms by Definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Ingrid; Jacquey, Evelyne; Venant, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for grouping the synonyms of a lemma according to its dictionary senses. The senses are defined by a large machine readable dictionary for French, the TLFi (Tr\\'esor de la langue fran\\c{c}aise informatis\\'e) and the synonyms are given by 5 synonym dictionaries (also for French). To evaluate the proposed method, we manually constructed a gold standard where for each (word, definition) pair and given the set of synonyms defined for that word by the 5 synonym dictionaries, 4 lexicographers specified the set of synonyms they judge adequate. While inter-annotator agreement ranges on that task from 67% to at best 88% depending on the annotator pair and on the synonym dictionary being considered, the automatic procedure we propose scores a precision of 67% and a recall of 71%. The proposed method is compared with related work namely, word sense disambiguation, synonym lexicon acquisition and WordNet construction.

  4. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of IDAA1c and age on partial C-peptide remission (stimulated C-peptide, SCP > 300 pmol/L). RESULTS: PR (IDAA1c ≤ 9) in the Danish and Hvidoere cohorts occurred in 62 vs. 61% (3 months......OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  5. Automating generation of textual class definitions from OWL to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert; Malone, James; Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard; Third, Allan

    2011-05-17

    Text definitions for entities within bio-ontologies are a cornerstone of the effort to gain a consensus in understanding and usage of those ontologies. Writing these definitions is, however, a considerable effort and there is often a lag between specification of the main part of an ontology (logical descriptions and definitions of entities) and the development of the text-based definitions. The goal of natural language generation (NLG) from ontologies is to take the logical description of entities and generate fluent natural language. The application described here uses NLG to automatically provide text-based definitions from an ontology that has logical descriptions of its entities, so avoiding the bottleneck of authoring these definitions by hand. To produce the descriptions, the program collects all the axioms relating to a given entity, groups them according to common structure, realises each group through an English sentence, and assembles the resulting sentences into a paragraph, to form as 'coherent' a text as possible without human intervention. Sentence generation is accomplished using a generic grammar based on logical patterns in OWL, together with a lexicon for realising atomic entities. We have tested our output for the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) using a simple survey strategy to explore the fluency of the generated text and how well it conveys the underlying axiomatisation. Two rounds of survey and improvement show that overall the generated English definitions are found to convey the intended meaning of the axiomatisation in a satisfactory manner. The surveys also suggested that one form of generated English will not be universally liked; that intrusion of too much 'formal ontology' was not liked; and that too much explicit exposure of OWL semantics was also not liked. Our prototype tools can generate reasonable paragraphs of English text that can act as definitions. The definitions were found acceptable by our survey and, as a result, the

  6. Toward a definition of competency-based education in medicine: a systematic review of published definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jason R; Mungroo, Rani; Ahmad, Yasmine; Wang, Mimi; De Rossi, Stefanie; Horsley, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Competency-based education (CBE) has emerged in the health professions to address criticisms of contemporary approaches to training. However, the literature has no clear, widely accepted definition of CBE that furthers innovation, debate, and scholarship in this area. To systematically review CBE-related literature in order to identify key terms and constructs to inform the development of a useful working definition of CBE for medical education. We searched electronic databases and supplemented searches by using authors' files, checking reference lists, contacting relevant organizations and conducting Internet searches. Screening was carried out by duplicate assessment, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. We included any English- or French-language sources that defined competency-based education. Data were analyzed qualitatively and summarized descriptively. We identified 15,956 records for initial relevancy screening by title and abstract. The full text of 1,826 records was then retrieved and assessed further for relevance. A total of 173 records were analyzed. We identified 4 major themes (organizing framework, rationale, contrast with time, and implementing CBE) and 6 sub-themes (outcomes defined, curriculum of competencies, demonstrable, assessment, learner-centred and societal needs). From these themes, a new definition of CBE was synthesized. This is the first comprehensive systematic review of the medical education literature related to CBE definitions. The themes and definition identified should be considered by educators to advance the field.

  7. 76 FR 59914 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Terms and Definitions for “Dependent”, “Domestic Partner...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... partner'', and ``Domestic partnership'', and by revising the definition of ``Immediate family'' to include... ``Domestic partner'' and ``Domestic partnership'', adds a definition for ``Dependent'', and revises the... partnership status will be determined. One association offered alternate language for two definitions included...

  8. Cracking and load-deformation behavior of fiber reinforced concrete: Influence of testing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Minelli, Fausto; Fischer, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    on the definition of measured and derived parameters, including toughness, elastic properties and strength. This paper discusses a number of test procedures for selected material properties including tension and flexure. A comparative experimental study was carried out using two distinct fiber reinforced...... cementitious composites with strain hardening and strain softening behavior. Digital Image Correlation was utilized in the experimental program to detect and quantify the formation of cracks. Results show that the different test methodologies valuate specific aspects of material performance. The outcome...

  9. 42 CFR 82.5 - Definition of terms used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at autopsy), thyroid, male breast, female breast, esophagus, stomach, pharynx, small intestine... definition will include renal cancer effective October 1, 2001. (q) Uncertainty distribution is a...

  10. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Permanent magnets including undulators and wigglers

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrdt, J.

    2011-01-01

    After a few historic remarks on magnetic materials we introduce the basic definitions related to permanent magnets. The magnetic properties of the most common materials are reviewed and the production processes are described. Measurement techniques for the characterization of macroscopic and microscopic properties of permanent magnets are presented. Field simulation techniques for permanent magnet devices are discussed. Today, permanent magnets are used in many fields. This article concentrat...

  12. 5 CFR 210.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 210.102 Section 210.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS (GENERAL) Applicability of Regulations; Definitions § 210.102 Definitions. (a) The definitions in paragraph...

  13. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  14. An Operational Definition of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Guershon; Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    An operational definition offered in this paper posits learning as a multi-dimensional and multi-phase phenomenon occurring when individuals attempt to solve what they view as a problem. To model someone's learning accordingly to the definition, it suffices to characterize a particular sequence of that person's disequilibrium-equilibrium phases in…

  15. 46 CFR Section 1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS RESTRICTIONS UPON THE TRANSFER OR CHANGE IN USE OR IN TERMS GOVERNING UTILIZATION OF PORT FACILITIES Section 1 Definitions. As used in this...

  16. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught geography…

  17. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  18. 20 CFR 404.446 - Definition of “substantial services” and “services.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definition of “substantial services” and “services.” (a) General. In general, the substantial services test... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âsubstantial servicesâ and...)(1). It is a test of whether, in view of all the services rendered by the individual and...

  19. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  20. Heuristics for identification of acronym-definition patterns within text: towards an automated construction of comprehensive acronym-definition dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, J D; Garner, H R

    2002-01-01

    To develop an automated, accurate and scalable method by which acronym-definition pairs can be identified within text. Its primary advantage is in enabling information processing methods to resolve author-defined acronyms, but it also allows an automated creation of a reference work on acronym definitions. This has several advantages over manual or semi-automated methods, besides time and effort saved, such as enabling identification of relative frequencies for alternate acronyms and definitions as well as spelling, phrasing and hyphenation variants for a unique acronym-definition pair. It also aids users in identifying acronym/definition variants present in the literature that may not necessarily be in biomedical databases. A set of heuristics to accurately locate and identify the boundaries of acronym-definition pairs was developed and refined in terms of precision and recall on subsets of MEDLINE records. These training sets were gradually increased in size and heuristics re-evaluated to ensure scalability. Our final set of Acronym Resolving General Heuristics (ARGH) had a sample-based estimated rate of 96.5 +/- 0.4% precision and 93.0 +/- 2.7% recall when tested on over 12 million MEDLINE records, identifying more than 174,000 unique acronyms and their 737,000 associated definitions. We estimate that as much as 36% of the acronyms in MEDLINE are associated with more than one definition and, conversely, up to 10% of definitions are associated with more than one acronym. The number of unique acronyms in MEDLINE is increasing at a rate of approximately 11,000 per year, while the number of definitions associated with them is growing at approximately four times that rate. Access to the ARGH database is available online at http://lethargy.swmed.edu/ARGH/argh.asp. The heuristic module and database are available upon request.

  1. 46 CFR 32.57-5 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 32.57-5 Section 32.57-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Definitions—TB/ALL. (a) Standard fire test. A “standard fire test” is one which develops in the test furnace a...

  2. Definition of the characteristic impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云生; Abbas Sayed OMAR

    1996-01-01

    Currently available definitions of the characteristic impedance are ambiguous andior inaccurate.A general definition,based on the description of discontinuities between adjacent waveguides,is given.This definition is accurate and independent of the structure concerned.So it can be applied to the design of passive components in any type of transmission lines.Using this definition,a given structure can be uniquely characterized,but the absolute value of the characteristic impedance has no sense any more.As an example,the design of a microstrip impedance transformer using this new definition is presented.Numerical results using the mode-matching method prove the accuracy of the theory.

  3. Self reference in word definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Levary, David; Moses, Elisha; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2011-01-01

    Dictionaries are inherently circular in nature. A given word is linked to a set of alternative words (the definition) which in turn point to further descendants. Iterating through definitions in this way, one typically finds that definitions loop back upon themselves. The graph formed by such definitional relations is our object of study. By eliminating those links which are not in loops, we arrive at a core subgraph of highly connected nodes. We observe that definitional loops are conveniently classified by length, with longer loops usually emerging from semantic misinterpretation. By breaking the long loops in the graph of the dictionary, we arrive at a set of disconnected clusters. We find that the words in these clusters constitute semantic units, and moreover tend to have been introduced into the English language at similar times, suggesting a possible mechanism for language evolution.

  4. A contemporary definition and classification of hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekate, Harold L

    2009-03-01

    This review focuses on the problems related to defining hydrocephalus and on the development of a consensus on the classification of this common problem. Such a consensus is needed so that diverse research efforts and plans of treatment can be understood in the same context. The literature was searched to determine the definition of hydrocephalus and to identify previously proposed classification schemes. The historic perspective, purpose, and result of these classifications are reviewed and analyzed. The concept of the hydrodynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a hydraulic circuit is presented to serve as a template for a contemporary classification scheme. Finally, a definition and classification that include all clinical causes and forms of hydrocephalus are suggested. The currently accepted classification of hydrocephalus into "communicating" and "noncommunicating" varieties is almost 90 years old and has not been modified despite major advances in neuroimaging, neurosciences, and treatment outcomes. Despite a thorough search of the literature using computerized search engines and bibliographies from review articles and book chapters, I identified only 6 previous attempts to define and classify different forms of hydrocephalus. This review proposes the following definition for hydrocephalus: hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain related to inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the ventricular system to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation. Based on this definition (potential points of flow restriction) and on the view of the CSF system as a hydraulic circuit, a classification system is proposed. The acceptance of this proposed definition and classification schema would allow clinicians and basic scientists to communicate effectively, to share information and results, and to develop testable hypotheses.

  5. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  6. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  7. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  8. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  9. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  10. Inconsistent Definitions of the Pressure-Coupled Response and the Admittance of Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Eric H.

    2003-01-01

    When an acoustic wave is present in a solid propellant combustion environment, the mass flux from the combustion zone oscillates at the same frequency as the acoustics. The acoustic wave is either amplified or attenuated by the response of the combustion to the acoustic disturbance. When the acoustic wave is amplified, this process is called combustion instability. The amplification is quantitatively measured by a response function. The ability to predict combustion stability for a solid propellant formulation is essential to the formulator to prevent or minimize the effects of instabilities, such as an oscillatory thrust. Unfortunately, the prediction of response values for a particular propellant remains a technical challenge. Most predictions of the response of propellants are based on test data, but there are a number of questions about the reliability of the standard test method, the T-burner. Alternate methods have been developed to measure the response of a propellant, including the ultrasound burner, the magnetic flowmeter and the rotating valve burner, but there are still inconsistencies between the results obtained by these different methods. Aside from the experimental differences, the values of the pressure-coupled responses obtained by different researchers are often compared erroneously, for the simple reason that inconsistencies in the definitions of the responses and admittances are not considered. The use of different definitions has led to substantial confusion since the first theoretical treatments of the problem by Hart and McClure in 1959. The definitions and relations derived here seek to alleviate this problem.

  11. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  12. Update on Executive Function Neuropsychological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Marino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents different problems related to executive functions (EF assessment with neuropsychological tests. It shows an overview of EF definitions and theoreticals models created to overcome the problem of inductive lists. Also EF tests history and their emerging contexts are reviewed, to hypothetisize about its consequences over actual conditions of EF assessment practice. Later, an EF tests classification is proposed, taking into account criterias like tests origins, constructs relates and systemic or simple forms of aplication. Finally the idea of a new generation of tests supported by theoreticals and technological advances was analyzed. This includes the development of EF scientifical ontologies, reverse inferences analysis and ecological and etological validity studies.

  13. DEFINITION OF A NEW LEVEL ONE TEST CASE MEASUREMENTS OF EQUILIBRIUM RADIATION FROM AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA IN THE NEAR-UV TO NEAR-IR SPECTRAL REGION FOR A TITAN-TYPE N2-CH4 MIXTURE. PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vacher, Damien; André, Pascal; Lino Da Silva, Mario; Dudeck, Michel; Faure, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A test case, using a similar methodology and experimental set-up than previous test case TC5-Level 1 is presented in this paper. An inductively coupled plasma torch, working at atmospheric pressure, is used to create N2-CH4 Titan-like plasma (98%N2 - 2%CH4). The operating frequency and power are 64 MHz and 3 kW respectively. This kind of apparatus allows obtaining plasma in chemical and quasi-thermal equilibrium The spectral measurements cover the [300-800] nm range an...

  14. Definition of a new level-one test case - measurements of equilibrium radiation from an inductively coupled plasma in the near-UV to near-IR spectral region for a martian-type CO2-N2 mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Vacher, Damien; Faure, Géraldine; Lino Da Silva, M.; Dudeck, M.; André, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    A new test case, using a quasi-similar methodology and experimental set-up than previous test case 1, is presented in this paper. An inductively coupled plasma torch, working at atmospheric pressure, is used to create CO2-N2 Martian-like plasma (97% CO2, 3% N2). The operating frequency and power are 64 MHz and 3 kW respectively. This kind of apparatus allows obtaining plasma in chemical and quasi-thermal equilibrium. The plasma characterization will consist firstly to determining the chemical...

  15. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  16. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  17. Engineering Geodesy - Definition and Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Heiner; Schwieger, Volker; Wieser, Andreas; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    This article summarises discussions concerning the definition of "engineering geodesy" within the German Geodetic Commission. It is noted that engineering geodesy by means of its tasks, methods and characteristics is an application-oriented science whose research questions often arise from observed phenomena or from unsolved practical problems. In particular it is characterised by the professional handling of geometry-related problems in a cost-effective manner that includes comprehensive quality assessment at all phases of the problem solution - from planning through measurement to data processing and interpretation. The current methodical developments are primarily characterised by the increasing integration of the measurement and analysis into challenging construction, production and monitoring processes as well as by the transition to spatially continuous methods. A modern definition of engineering geodesy is proposed at the end of this article.

  18. Punctal stenosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiberman U

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Uri Soiberman,1 Hirohiko Kakizaki,2 Dinesh Selva,3 Igal Leibovitch11Division of Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan; 3South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Acquired punctal stenosis is a condition in which the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus is narrowed or occluded. This condition is a rare cause of symptomatic epiphora, but its incidence may be higher in patients with chronic blepharitis, in those treated with various topical medications, including antihypertensive agents, and especially in patients treated with taxanes for cancer. The purpose of this review is to cover the medical literature, focusing in particular on definition, incidence, risk factors, etiology and treatment options.Keywords: acquired punctal stenosis, definition, epiphora, etiology, treatment

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC

  1. European Mixed Forests: definition and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bravo-Oviedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We aim at (i developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii review the research perspectives in mixed forests.Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide.Material and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests.Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients. The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time.The research perspectives identified are (i species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests.Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.Keywords: COST Action; EuMIXFOR; mixed-species forests; admixtures of species.

  2. Functional interpretation and inductive definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Avigad, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Extending G\\"odel's \\emph{Dialectica} interpretation, we provide a functional interpretation of classical theories of positive arithmetic inductive definitions, reducing them to theories of finite-type functionals defined using transfinite recursion on well-founded trees.

  3. The Definition of Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Melchionne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to recent controversy in the aesthetics of everyday life with a succinct definition designed to clarify the domain of study. The article is intentionally designed for brevity and accessibility in order to facilitate usage.

  4. Market Definition: Use and Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown; Dennis Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Market definition is a crude though sometimes useful tool for identifying market power. The ambiguity in what analysts mean by market power (price above marginal cost, or excess profits) cannot be resolved by market share.

  5. Market Definition: Use and Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown; Dennis Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Market definition is a crude though sometimes useful tool for identifying market power. The ambiguity in what analysts mean by market power (price above marginal cost, or excess profits) cannot be resolved by market share.

  6. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials View All Content Definition & Facts for Constipation What is Constipation? Constipation is a condition in which you typically ... to prevent or relieve constipation. How common is constipation? Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal ( ...

  7. Analytic definition of spin structure

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  8. Nutraceutical-definition and introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Ekta K.

    2003-01-01

    Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term “Nutraceutical” from “Nutrition” and “Pharmaceutical” in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.

  9. Nutraceutical--definition and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ekta K

    2003-01-01

    Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term "Nutraceutical" from "Nutrition" and "Pharmaceutical" in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.

  10. Catalog of 199 register-based definitions of chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Michael F; Johnsen, Søren P; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    definitions were proposed based on record linkage between multiple registers, including registers of prescribed drugs and use of general practitioners' services. CONCLUSIONS THIS STUDY PROVIDED A CATALOG OF REGISTER-BASED DEFINITIONS FOR CHRONIC CONDITIONS FOR USE IN HEALTHCARE PLANNING AND RESEARCH, WHICH IS......INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: The definitions were defined based on information from nationwide Danish public healthcare registers. Medical and epidemiological specialists identified and grouped relevant diagnosis codes that covered chronic conditions, using the International Classification System version 10 (ICD-10). Where relevant...

  11. On the definition of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya; Iritani, Takumi; Nozaki, Masahiro; Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Tasaki, Hal

    2015-06-01

    We focus on the issue of proper definition of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories, and examine a naive definition where gauge invariant states are viewed as elements of an extended Hilbert space which contains gauge non-invariant states as well. Working in the extended Hilbert space, we can define entanglement entropy associated with an arbitrary subset of links, not only for abelian but also for non-abelian theories. We then derive the associated replica formula. We also discuss the issue of gauge invariance of the entanglement entropy. In the Z N gauge theories in arbitrary space dimensions, we show that all the standard properties of the entanglement entropy, e.g. the strong subadditivity, hold in our definition. We study the entanglement entropy for special states, including the topological states for the Z N gauge theories in arbitrary dimensions. We discuss relations of our definition to other proposals.

  12. On the definition of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya; Nozaki, Masahiro; Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Tasaki, Hal

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the issue of proper definition of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories, and examine a naive definition where gauge invariant states are viewed as elements of an extended Hilbert space which contain gauge non-invariant states as well. Working in the extended Hilbert space, we can define entanglement entropy associated with an arbitrary subset of links, not only for abelian but also for non-abelian theories. We then derive the associated replica formula. We also discuss the issue of gauge invariance of the entanglement entropy. In the $Z_N$ gauge theories in arbitrary space dimensions, we show that all the standard properties of the entanglement entropy, e.g. the strong subadditivity, hold in our definition. We study the entanglement entropy for special states, including the topological states for the $Z_N$ gauge theories in arbitrary dimensions. We discuss relations of our definition to other proposals.

  13. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Will, C. M.; Ni, W.

    1971-01-01

    Metric theories of gravity are presented, including the definition of metric theory, evidence for its existence, and response of matter to gravity with test body trajectories, gravitational red shift, and stressed matter responses. Parametrized post-Newtonian framework and interpretations are reviewed. Gamma, beta and gamma, and varied other parameters were measured. Deflection of electromagnetic waves, radar time delay, geodetic gyroscope precession, perihelion shifts, and periodic effects in orbits are among various studies carried out for metric theory experimentation.

  14. Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Mors, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range...... of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient...... contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher...

  15. How do different definitions of night shift affect the exposure assessment of night work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to show how different definitions affect the proportion of shifts classified as night shifts. The Danish Working Hour Database was used to calculate number of night shifts according to eight definitions. More than 98% of the total night shifts were night shifts by use of both...... the reference definition (at least 3 h of work between 24:00 and 05:00) and definitions using a period during the night. The overlap with definitions based on starting and ending time was less pronounced (64-71 %). The proportion of classified night shifts differs little when night shifts are based...... on definitions including a period during the night. Studies based on other definitions may be less comparable....

  16. The Evolution of Definitions for Nursing Informatics: A Critical Analysis and Revised Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Staggers, Nancy; Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that nursing informatics is entering its third decade as a specialty within nursing, many definitions still exist to describe the field. This paper offers a rationale for a definition for nursing informatics and a critical analysis of past definitions. An organizing framework of technology-oriented, conceptual, and role-oriented definitions is used to critique these definitions. Subsequently, a revised definition is proposed. This evolutionary definition integrates critical c...

  17. Locomotive Assignment Optimization Including Train Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intention– Cyclic locomotive assignment planning is a specific type of organization of locomotive usage, and in fact, it means putting the complete workload to a closed chain, which is repeated periodically. The concept of cyclic locomotive assignment planning type organization in the area of train traction has proven in practice as the best one, but as it is made for in-advance defined timetable and without considering the stochastic nature of the timetable realization process, it leads to incompatibility in using locomotives. Methodology – Methodology defined in this paper contains: research of train delays on the Serbian Railways and Montenegrin Railways networks, analysis of the real system organization of locomotive usage in conditions of train delays, theoretical thesis of solving the problem of optimal cyclic locomotive assignment planning in conditions of train delays, designing of a model with algorithms, preparing the software package, testing the model and program with results, as well as the conclusions drawn from the complete research project. Results– The optimization model of cyclic locomotive assignment planning during the process of making timetable including train delays has been defined. Conclusion –The obtained results have shown as expected, that the larger delays of trains required a larger number of locomotives. However, by using this model it is possible to optimize the required number of locomotives, taking into account the real time delays of trains.

  18. Hydrogen cracking and stress corrosion of pipeline steels. Contribution of the cracking mechanisms study to the understanding of the in-service damage and to the definition of a ranking test; Fissuration assistee par l'hydrogene et corrosion sous contrainte des aciers de pipelines. Apports de l'etude des mecanismes de fissuration a la comprehension de l'endommagement de service et a la definition d'un test de classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Friant, D.

    2000-12-19

    This work is based on the study of the cracking of a French oil transmission pipeline protected by a cathodic protection system. The objective is to identify field parameters, which contribute to the cracks propagation, and to assess changes in the operating conditions, which could lead to a mitigation of the phenomenon. We have focused on the study of the micro-mechanisms by means of slow strain rate tests. Then, cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate cracks propagation mechanisms. Smooth and pre-notched specimens were tested at free and cathodic potential. Hydrogen is responsible for crack advance through changes in the local steels properties. Such effects take place when two phenomenons occur: favourable conditions for hydrogen entry and, a localisation of hydrogen and its effects. In particular, we have shown the essential role of a dynamic loading in promoting hydrogen entry into the steel (especially at the very crack tip). At cathodic potential, hydrogen-related effects are exacerbated by the presence of MnS inclusions which leads to the initiation of internal cracks (HIC) and to a SOHIC-like crack morphology. At free potential, the lesser amount of available hydrogen give localisation-related effects a greater importance. Cracking is then related to a hydrogen-induced SCC mechanism. Three parameters are involved in the field cracking: operating pressure variations, period of over-protection and a sensitive steels microstructure (MnS). Cathodic protection appears to be the most efficient field parameter to mitigate the phenomenon: it requires a better control of the polarisation level. Finally, a ranking test is outlined from the study of the cracking mechanisms. (author)

  19. [Reproductive health: definitions, data and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundigo, A

    1994-01-01

    Emergence of the concept of reproductive health over the past decade was stimulated by distinct currents in the fields of health and of feminist theory. The broadened concept represents a reaction to the essentially demographic justification offered for population policies and their principal instrument of action, family planning, since the 1970s. The new focus is more affirmative, and its discourse promotes the right to health, to improved access to services, and to health services offering quality and respect for women. Social justice aspects, especially nondiscrimination against the poor and other specific groups, and free selection of contraceptive options and services have assumed greater importance. Reproductive health is viewed as encompassing psychological aspects and power relations within marital unions. Very general provisional definitions of the concept of reproductive health are acceptable for the moment. But it is important to arrive at a definition that will be clear and specific and will combine the preoccupations of the health field with feminist concerns. The problem of measurement is related to the problem of definition. Satisfactory indicators of reproductive health are lacking. Existing indicators such as maternal mortality, fertility measures, or contraceptive prevalence continue to be used despite their narrow focus. Several priority areas of research in reproductive health have been identified, including aspects and determinants of sexual behavior, roles of men and women in reproductive health, the dynamics of contraceptive usage, undesired pregnancy, determinants and consequences of induced abortion, lactation and spacing and their relationship to sterilization, and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  20. Toward a modernized definition of wildlife health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig

    2014-07-01

    There has been, to date, little discussion about the defining features and measures of wildlife health in the literature or legislation. Much wildlife health work focuses on the detection and response to infectious or parasitic diseases; this perspective has been reinforced by the focus of the One Health initiative on wildlife as sources of emerging infections. The definition of health as "the absence of disease" lags 70 yr behind modern concepts of human health and emerging concepts of wildlife health in terms of vulnerability, resilience, and sustainability. Policies, programs, and research that focus on the integration of wildlife health with natural resource conservation, ecosystem restoration, and public health need a working definition of health that recognizes the major threats to fish and wildlife are the result of many other drivers besides pathogens and parasites, including habitat loss, globalization of trade, land-use pressure, and climate change. A modern definition of wildlife health should emphasize that 1) health is the result of interacting biologic, social, and environmental determinants that interact to affect capacity to cope with change; 2) health cannot be measured solely by what is absent but rather by characteristics of the animals and their ecosystem that affect their vulnerability and resilience; and 3) wildlife health is not a biologic state but rather a dynamic social construct based on human expectations and knowledge.

  1. Psychometric Testing of the Method of Generations’ Mentality Type Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada I. Pishchik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the mentality phenomenon in psychology and states the lack of clear, definite positions, concerning mentality, presents author's concept of mentality system, including nuclear and peripheral elements. On this basis, the initial survey, helping to develop the method of mentality measurement was conducted. The article presents author's method of generations’ mentality type measurement, carries out psychometric testing of method paragraphs. The paragraphs were tested on reliability-stability, reliability-conformity, factorial, convergent, constructive and empirical validities. The data of method testing on different samples are cited

  2. 24 CFR 1000.10 - What definitions apply in these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Census. This definition includes: (i) Wages, salaries, tips, commissions, etc.; (ii) Self-employment... emotional impairment which- (i) Is expected to be of long-continued and indefinite duration; (ii... definition, the term “physical, mental or emotional impairment” includes, but is not limited to: (i) Any...

  3. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition... reason, including destruction. Producing a fluorinated GHG does not include the reuse or recycling of a... the reuse or recycling of nitrous oxide or the creation of by-products that are released or...

  4. Human environments: definition, scope, and the role of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is a brief introduction to the subject matter of the volume including the complexity and definition of human environments. Exposure to complex mixtures and the problem of interactions are considered as well as the important role of toxicology in environmental and human health, including risk analysis, risk management, and risk communication.

  5. 14 CFR 1216.203 - Definition of key terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and... Floodplain and Wetlands Management § 1216.203 Definition of key terms. (a) Action—any NASA activity including... wetlands. (i) Floodproofing—the modification of individual structures and facilities, their sites,...

  6. Role of test in total quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Bill

    1995-05-01

    The quality of a delivered product or system is ultimately limited by the quality of its design and manufacturing process. Defects that escape the design, manufacturing, and test processes are delivered to customers. Process Potential Index (Cp) and Process Capability Index (Cpk) are now widely used to express design and manufacturing quality. Design quality may be estimated from product models, if they exist, or measured using parameter test data. The difficulty in using test data is no so much in the calculations, but in the recording, storing, and selection of the data to be used in the calculations. This paper defines the metrics of quality estimation and describes an implementation of a system for estimating defect levels and process capabilities. The implementation includes the definition of a standardized parametric data exchange language for test data and an analytical system to standardize product quality measurement.

  7. 39 CFR 447.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 447.12 Section 447.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PERSONNEL RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL EMPLOYEES Applicability and Definitions § 447.12 Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this part. (a) Postal...

  8. 42 CFR 400.200 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 400.200 Section 400.200 Public... PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; DEFINITIONS Definitions § 400.200 General definitions. In this chapter, unless the... determined in accordance with SSI methodologies, that does not exceed 200 percent of the Federal poverty...

  9. 37 CFR 41.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 41.201 Section... Definitions. In addition to the definitions in §§ 41.2 and 41.100, the following definitions apply to... invention. Involved claim means, for the purposes of 35 U.S.C. 135(a), a claim that has been designated...

  10. Dual, use-based definition of "system"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard definition (ISO 15288, 2008) of the concept of a system is not complete and is the definition of a closed system. Such a definition is inadequate for systems engineering. A use-based definition is proposed which spans the open...

  11. 42 CFR 1000.10 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 1000.10 Section 1000.10 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; GENERAL DEFINITIONS Definitions § 1000.10 General definitions. In this...

  12. 48 CFR 302.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 302.101 Section 302.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 302.101 Definitions. (a) Agency head or head of the Agency, unless...

  13. 49 CFR 1101.1 - Statutory definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory definitions. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE DEFINITIONS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1101.1 Statutory definitions. The definitions contained in section 10102...

  14. Does retrieval practice enhance learning and transfer relative to restudy for term-definition facts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Steven C; Rickard, Timothy C

    2017-09-01

    In many pedagogical contexts, term-definition facts that link a concept term (e.g., "vision") with its corresponding definition (e.g., "the ability to see") are learned. Does retrieval practice involving retrieval of the term (given the definition) or the definition (given the term) enhance subsequent recall, relative to restudy of the entire fact? Moreover, does any benefit of retrieval practice for the term transfer to later recall of the definition, or vice versa? We addressed those questions in 4 experiments. In each, subjects first studied term-definition facts and then trained on two thirds of the facts using multiple-choice tests with feedback. Half of the test questions involved recalling terms; the other half involved recalling definitions. The remaining facts were either not trained (Experiment 1) or restudied (Experiments 2-4). A 48-hr delayed multiple-choice (Experiments 1-2) or short answer (Experiments 3a-4) final test assessed recall of all terms or all definitions. Replicating and extending prior research, retrieval practice yielded improved recall and positive transfer relative to no training. Relative to restudy, however, retrieval practice consistently enhanced subsequent term retrieval, enhanced subsequent definition retrieval only after repeated practice, and consistently yielded at best minimal positive transfer in either direction. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Validation of a case definition for leptospirosis diagnosis in patients with acute severe febrile disease admitted in reference hospitals at the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira Leite de Albuquerque Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is often mistaken for other acute febrile illnesses because of its nonspecific presentation. Bacteriologic, serologic, and molecular methods have several limitations for early diagnosis: technical complexity, low availability, low sensitivity in early disease, or high cost. This study aimed to validate a case definition, based on simple clinical and laboratory tests, that is intended for bedside diagnosis of leptospirosis among hospitalized patients. METHODS: Adult patients, admitted to two reference hospitals in Recife, Brazil, with a febrile illness of less than 21 days and with a clinical suspicion of leptospirosis, were included to test a case definition comprising ten clinical and laboratory criteria. Leptospirosis was confirmed or excluded by a composite reference standard (microscopic agglutination test, ELISA, and blood culture. Test properties were determined for each cutoff number of the criteria from the case definition. RESULTS: Ninety seven patients were included; 75 had confirmed leptospirosis and 22 did not. Mean number of criteria from the case definition that were fulfilled was 7.8±1.2 for confirmed leptospirosis and 5.9±1.5 for non-leptospirosis patients (p<0.0001. Best sensitivity (85.3% and specificity (68.2% combination was found with a cutoff of 7 or more criteria, reaching positive and negative predictive values of 90.1% and 57.7%, respectively; accuracy was 81.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The case definition, for a cutoff of at least 7 criteria, reached average sensitivity and specificity, but with a high positive predictive value. Its simplicity and low cost make it useful for rapid bedside leptospirosis diagnosis in Brazilian hospitalized patients with acute severe febrile disease.

  16. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the hours of work participation, it must so indicate in its TFAP along with a definition of... proposal include, but are not limited to: poverty, unemployment, jobless and job surplus rates; education...

  17. Combinatorial Testing for VDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Gorm; Lausdahl, Kenneth; Battle, Nick

    2010-01-01

    by forgotten preconditions as well as broken invariants and post-conditions. Trace definitions are defined as regular expressions describing possible sequences of operation calls, and are conceptually similar to UML sequence diagrams. In this paper we present a tool enabling test automation based on VDM traces...

  18. Vent Relief Valve Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  19. Development of a case definition for clinical feline herpesvirus infection in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) housed in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Carmel L; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce A; Fields, Victoria; Teare, Cyd Shields; Barrie, Michael; Haefele, Holly; Junge, Randall; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L

    2013-09-01

    The identification of feline herpesvirus (FHV) infected cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and characterization of shedding episodes is difficult due to nonspecific clinical signs and limitations of diagnostic tests. The goals of this study were to develop a case definition for clinical FHV and describe the distribution of signs. Medical records from six different zoologic institutions were reviewed to identify cheetahs with diagnostic test results confirming FHV. Published literature, expert opinion, and results of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) were used to develop a clinical case definition based on 69 episodes in FHV laboratory confirmed (LC) cheetahs. Four groups of signs were identified in the MCA: general ocular signs, serious ocular lesions, respiratory disease, and cutaneous lesions. Ocular disease occurred with respiratory signs alone, with skin lesions alone, and with both respiratory signs and skin lesions. Groups that did not occur together were respiratory signs and skin lesions. The resulting case definition included 1) LC cheetahs; and 2) clinically compatible (CC) cheetahs that exhibited a minimum of 7 day's duration of the clinical sign groupings identified in the MCA or the presence of corneal ulcers or keratitis that occurred alone or in concert with other ocular signs and skin lesions. Exclusion criteria were applied. Application of the case definition to the study population identified an additional 78 clinical episodes, which represented 58 CC cheetahs. In total, 28.8% (93/322) of the population was identified as LC or CC. The distribution of identified clinical signs was similar across LC and CC cheetahs. Corneal ulcers and/or keratitis, and skin lesions were more frequently reported in severe episodes; in mild episodes, there were significantly more cheetahs with ocular-only or respiratory-only disease. Our results provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of FHV, while presenting a standardized case definition that can

  20. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi

    2004-01-01

    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.