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Sample records for definitions gemination occurs

  1. Geminated tooth : case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos Lopez, Violeta; Rojas Tabash, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    A review of literature is presented about gemination. The case expounded has been of a female patient 8 years of age, with a geminated maxillary temporal canine, asymptomatic and without treatment. Topics such as definitions, clinical and radiographic characteristics, complications and treatment in the gemination are focussed [es

  2. Identification and characterisation of a nuclear localisation signal in the SMN associated protein, Gemin4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorson, Monique A.; Dickson, Alexa M.; Shaw, Debra J.; Todd, Adrian G.; Young, Elizabeth C.; Morse, Robert; Wolstencroft, Catherine; Lorson, Christian L.; Young, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Gemin4 is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein that is involved in U snRNP assembly, apoptosis, nuclear/cytoplasmic transportation, transcription, and RNAi pathways. Gemin4 is one of the core components of the Gemin-complex, which also contains survival motor neuron (SMN), the seven Gemin proteins (Gemin2-8), and Unrip. Mutations in the SMN1 gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although the functions assigned to Gemin4 predominantly occur in the nucleus, the mechanisms that mediate the nuclear import of Gemin4 remain unclear. Here, using a novel panel of Gemin4 constructs we identify a canonical nuclear import sequence (NLS) in the N-terminus of Gemin4. The Gemin4 NLS is necessary and independently sufficient to mediate nuclear import of Gemin4. This is the first functional NLS identified within the SMN-Gemin complex

  3. Drosophila SMN complex proteins Gemin2, Gemin3, and Gemin5 are components of U bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchi, Ruben J.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Liu, Ji-Long

    2010-01-01

    Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) play key roles in pre-mRNA processing in the nucleus. The assembly of most U snRNPs takes place in the cytoplasm and is facilitated by the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex. Discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules called U bodies have been proposed to be specific sites for snRNP assembly because they contain U snRNPs and SMN. U bodies invariably associate with P bodies, which are involved in mRNA decay and translational control. However, it remains unknown whether other SMN complex proteins also localise to U bodies. In Drosophila there are four SMN complex proteins, namely SMN, Gemin2/CG10419, Gemin3 and Gemin5/Rigor mortis. Drosophila Gemin3 was originally identified as the Drosophila orthologue of human and yeast Dhh1, a component of P bodies. Through an in silico analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicases we confirmed that Gemin3 is the bona fide Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate Gemin3 whereas the Drosophila orthologue of Dhh1 is Me31B. We then made use of the Drosophila egg chamber as a model system to study the subcellular distribution of the Gemin proteins as well as Me31B. Our cytological investigations show that Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 colocalise with SMN in U bodies. Although they are excluded from P bodies, as components of U bodies, Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 are consistently found associated with P bodies, wherein Me31B resides. In addition to a role in snRNP biogenesis, SMN complexes residing in U bodies may also be involved in mRNP assembly and/or transport.

  4. Drosophila SMN complex proteins Gemin2, Gemin3, and Gemin5 are components of U bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauchi, Ruben J.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX (United Kingdom); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) play key roles in pre-mRNA processing in the nucleus. The assembly of most U snRNPs takes place in the cytoplasm and is facilitated by the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex. Discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules called U bodies have been proposed to be specific sites for snRNP assembly because they contain U snRNPs and SMN. U bodies invariably associate with P bodies, which are involved in mRNA decay and translational control. However, it remains unknown whether other SMN complex proteins also localise to U bodies. In Drosophila there are four SMN complex proteins, namely SMN, Gemin2/CG10419, Gemin3 and Gemin5/Rigor mortis. Drosophila Gemin3 was originally identified as the Drosophila orthologue of human and yeast Dhh1, a component of P bodies. Through an in silico analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicases we confirmed that Gemin3 is the bona fide Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate Gemin3 whereas the Drosophila orthologue of Dhh1 is Me31B. We then made use of the Drosophila egg chamber as a model system to study the subcellular distribution of the Gemin proteins as well as Me31B. Our cytological investigations show that Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 colocalise with SMN in U bodies. Although they are excluded from P bodies, as components of U bodies, Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 are consistently found associated with P bodies, wherein Me31B resides. In addition to a role in snRNP biogenesis, SMN complexes residing in U bodies may also be involved in mRNP assembly and/or transport.

  5. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  6. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunhee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  7. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  8. Geminate recombination in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The extended Onsager model for geminate neutralization is supported by the field dependence of the ionization yield in liquid argon irradiated by high energy electrons or x rays. Attempts to employ the model fail unless the distribution of initial separation distances between the thermalized electrons and their sibling ions (secondary electron thermalization ranges) is included. Data of Scalettar and co-workers are reanalyzed

  9. Radiative lifetime of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors: a-Ge:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [Faculty of Technology, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Lifetimes of radiative recombination of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors are calculated at thermal equilibrium. The theory is applied to calculate the radiative lifetimes of type I and II geminate pairs and non-geminate pairs in hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) and compared with the experimental results. The type II geminate pairs can exist in singlet and triplet spin states, only singlet is considered here, whereas the type I geminate pairs do not have spin dependence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Language Specific Listening of Japanese Geminate Consonants: Cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko eSadakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g. /ss/, /kk/ in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is used to characterize the first part of geminate consonants despite the acoustic difference between two distinct realizations of geminate consonants (silence in the case of e.g. stop consonants and elongation in the case of fricative consonants. The current study tests this discrepancy between abstract representations and acoustic realizations influences how native speakers of Japanese perceive geminate consonants. The experiments used pseudo words containing either the geminate consonant /ss/ or a manipulated version in which the first part was replaced by silence /_s/. The sound /_s/ is acoustically similar to /ss/, yet does not occur in everyday speech. Japanese listeners demonstrated a bias to group these two types into the same category while Italian and Dutch listeners distinguished them. The results thus confirmed that distinguishing fricative geminate consonants with silence from those with sustained frication is not crucial for Japanese native listening. Based on this observation, we propose that native speakers of Japanese tend to segment geminated consonants into two parts and that the first portion of fricative geminates is perceptually similar to a silent duration. This representation is compatible with both Japanese orthography and phonology. Unlike previous studies that were inconclusive in how native speakers segment geminate consonants, our study demonstrated relatively strong effect of Japanese specific listening. Thus the current experimental methods may open up new lines of investigation into the relationship between development of phonological representation, orthography and speech perception.

  11. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies on geminate ion recombination in saturated hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Katsumura, Y.; Tabata, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The geminate recombination kinetics of the excess electron and the electron hole are discussed, based on time-resolved data on picosecond and nanosecond time scales. The recombination times of the excess electron and the electron hole are evaluated to be 3 ps for cyclohexane on the basis of the comparison between the experimental and the calculated results. The spin correlation decay of the geminate ion pairs and the triplet state formation before the spin correlation loss have also been discussed. The rapidly decaying species with very broad absorption spectra, which are similar to the absorption spectra of the cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons, have been observed in neat saturated hydrocarbons in the sub-nanosecond and a few nanosecond time regions. The identification of the rapidly decaying species were not definitely made but those species are tentatively assigned to the excited states and/or the tail of the geminate cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons. (author)

  12. Gemination or fusion? - challenge for dental practitioners (case study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipashvili, N; Vadachkoria, D; Beshkenadze, E

    2011-05-01

    Gemination and fusion are anomalies in size, shape and structure of teeth. Gemination more frequently affects the primary teeth, but it may occur in permanent dentitions, usually in the incisor region. Geminated teeth are typically disfigured in appearance due to irregularities of the enamel. Fused teeth can have separated pulpal space, one pulp chamber and two canals or take the form of a large bifid crown with one pulpal space. It is hard to differentiate between fusion and gemination, especially if the supernumerary tooth bud is fused with the adjacent one. Usually, fusion may be differentiated from germination by a reduced number of teeth. An exception is in the unusual case in which the fusion is between a supernumerary tooth and normal tooth. A 20-year-old male referred to us at - "UniDent" - Dental Clinic, Training and Research Center. The patient complained about the large, unusual maxillary central incisors, lip irritation and aesthetic problems. According clinical examination and radiological findings, clinical diagnose was - bilateral germination of central incisors. Several treatment methods have been described in the literature with respect to the different types and morphological variations of fused and geminated teeth, including endodontic, direct\\indirect restorative, surgical, periodontal and/or orthodontic treatment. Our patient has demanded for better aesthetics and he choose the treatment option to make two separate PFM crowns. In the beginning of treatment, the length of tooth 11 was 9.5mm, after prosthodontic treatment it has become 11.5mm. For tooth 21, it was 9.9 millimeter and became - 10.8 mm, while the primary width of right central incisor appeared 13.2 millimeter and was narrowed until 10.8 mm. 12.8 mm was the - width of left central incisor, which finally became - 10.4 mm. Despite the considerable number of cases reported in the literature, the differential diagnosis between these abnormalities is very difficult, as well as, to find

  13. Co-occurrence of gemination and dens invaginatus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Achalli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gemination is a developmental anomaly where a single tooth bud attempts to split into two. It is also sometimes called as double tooth or twinning. Dens invaginatus is another developmental anomaly caused due to invagination of a portion of crown. These anomalies occur as separate entities. Co-occurrence of these two anomalies have been only reported four times in the literature. Here we present an extremely rare case of simultaneous occurrence of gemination and dens invaginatus in the same tooth. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 175-177

  14. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Motohashi-Saigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

  15. Endodontic and periodontal treatments of a geminated mandibular first premolar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, S; Bercy, P; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J-P

    2002-02-01

    To describe a rare case of gemination involving a mandibular first premolar. The complex morphology of geminated teeth renders their endodontic and periodontal management difficult. Root canal and periodontal treatments were performed on a geminated mandibular first premolar with three canals. Clinical examination showed two separated crowns with united roots. Radiographically, two distinct pulp chambers with two joined and a third independent canal were seen. Conventional root canal treatment resulted in complete healing of the apical lesion. However, the occurrence of a vertical fracture led to the extraction of the mesial segment. At the follow-up visit, the distal segment was clinically healthy and continued to satisfy functional demands.

  16. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jordão Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar.

  17. Bilateral gemination of maxillary permanent incisors: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pooja; Jha, Manish; Mutha, Animesh; Bahar, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dental disorders may be due to anomalies in tooth number, size, shape and structure. Gemination and fusion are anomalies of shape with close similarity but with different etiology. Gemination and fusion are anomalies of shape with close similarity but with different etiology. The etiology of germination is not fully understood environmental factors such as trauma, vitamin deficiencies, systemic diseases and certain genetic predisposition have been suggested as possible causes. A...

  18. Synthesis and Chemistry of Organic Geminal Di- and Triazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häring, Andreas P; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-11-06

    This review recapitulates all available literature dealing with the synthesis and reactivity of geminal organic di- and triazides. These compound classes are, to a large extent, unexplored despite their promising chemical properties and their simple preparation. In addition, the chemistry of carbonyl diazide (2) and tetraazidomethane (105) is described in separate sections.

  19. I Jornada Internacional GEMInIS (JIG/2014

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    GEMInIS Grupo de Estudos sobre Mídias Interativas em Imagem e Som

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A I Jornada Internacional GEMInIS (JIG/2014 terá como tema central os processos da convergência midiática que transformam o “entretenimento transmídia” na base da economia criativa. O ‘entretenimento transmídia’ ocupa um lugar central na esfera da produção e consumo, porém, é uma noção que permanece relativamente inédita no campo acadêmico. Historicamente, entretenimento é um conceito que aparece associado ao que é ‘alegre, divertido, emocionante e prazeroso’. Na I Jornada Internacional GEMInIS, pretende-se debater os processos de compartilhamento da propriedade intelectual e comercial das marcas, visando um maior entendimento sobre o modo como o conteúdo audiovisual é concebido e distribuído nas redes culturais e comunicacionais.

  20. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

  1. The Gemin associates of survival motor neuron are required for motor function in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Rebecca; Cauchi, Ruben J

    2013-01-01

    Membership of the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex extends to nine factors, including the SMN protein, the product of the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene, Gemins 2-8 and Unrip. The best-characterised function of this macromolecular machine is the assembly of the Sm-class of uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles and each SMN complex member has a key role during this process. So far, however, only little is known about the function of the individual Gemin components in vivo. Here, we make use of the Drosophila model organism to uncover loss-of-function phenotypes of Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5, which together with SMN form the minimalistic fly SMN complex. We show that ectopic overexpression of the dead helicase Gem3(ΔN) mutant or knockdown of Gemin3 result in similar motor phenotypes, when restricted to muscle, and in combination cause lethality, hence suggesting that Gem3(ΔN) overexpression mimics a loss-of-function. Based on the localisation pattern of Gem3(ΔN), we predict that the nucleus is the primary site of the antimorphic or dominant-negative mechanism of Gem3(ΔN)-mediated interference. Interestingly, phenotypes induced by human SMN overexpression in Drosophila exhibit similarities to those induced by overexpression of Gem3(ΔN). Through enhanced knockdown we also uncover a requirement of Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 for viability and motor behaviour, including locomotion as well as flight, in muscle. Notably, in the case of Gemin3 and Gemin5, such function also depends on adequate levels of the respective protein in neurons. Overall, these findings lead us to speculate that absence of any one member is sufficient to arrest the SMN-Gemins complex function in a nucleocentric pathway, which is critical for motor function in vivo.

  2. Gas-phase water-mediated equilibrium between methylglyoxal and its geminal diol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axson, Jessica L.; Takahashi, Kaito; De Haan, David O.; Vaida, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    In aqueous solution, aldehydes, and to a lesser extent ketones, hydrate to form geminal diols. We investigate the hydration of methylglyoxal (MG) in the gas phase, a process not previously considered to occur in water-restricted environments. In this study, we spectroscopically identified methylglyoxal diol (MGD) and obtained the gas-phase partial pressures of MG and MGD. These results, in conjunction with the relative humidity, were used to obtain the equilibrium constant, KP, for the water-mediated hydration of MG in the gas phase. The Gibbs free energy for this process, ΔG°, obtained as a result, suggests a larger than expected gas-phase diol concentration. This may have significant implications for understanding the role of organics in atmospheric chemistry. PMID:20142510

  3. What and where in speech recognition: Geminates and singletons in spoken Italian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagliapietra, L.; McQueen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Four cross-modal repetition priming experiments examined whether consonant duration in Italian provides listeners with information not only for segmental identification ("what" information: whether the consonant is a geminate or a singleton) but also for lexical segmentation ("where" information:

  4. Thermal Annealing Reduces Geminate Recombination in TQ1:N2200 All-Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Karuthedath, Safakath; Melianas, Armantas; Kan, Zhipeng; Pranculis, Vytenis; Wohlfahrt, Markus; Khan, Jafar Iqbal; Gorenflot, Julien; Xia, Yuxin; Inganä s, Olle; Gulbinas, Vidmantas; Kemerink, Martijn; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2018-01-01

    -geminate recombination competing with charge extraction, causing low FFs, our results demonstrate that the donor/acceptor interface in all-polymer solar cells can be favourably altered to enhance charge separation, without compromising charge transport and extraction.

  5. Geminate free radical processes and magnetic field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveson, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of the dynamics of radical pair recombination reactions in solution by flash photolysis Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and the influence of low static external magnetic fields upon them (MFE). An outline of the concepts of ESR is presented, followed by the theories of Chemically Induced Dynamic Electron Polarisation (CIDEP) of transient radical pairs. This is then followed by a brief review of the flash photolysis ESR apparatus and application of the Bloch equations to solve the equations of time-resolved ESR. Completing the theory section is an overview of the mechanisms by which magnetic fields alter the course of a geminate radical pair reaction in solution. Experimental CIDEP observations of the radical pair produced on photolysis of 1,3-dihydroxypropanone are simulated using polarisation theory and applied to a random-walk diffusion model to find, for the first time, the geminate reaction probability in solutions of varying viscosity. CIDEP spectra of the radical pair formed on photolysis of hydroxypropanone in contrast are not accounted for by current polarisation theory. The discrepancy is due to moderately fast relaxation of the acyl radical, CH 3 CO·, which alters the relative intensities in the ST 0 RPM pattern of the counter radical. Calculations taking into account this now provide an adequate basis for simulation of the spectrum. This method also, in principle, represents a new method for the measurement of phase relaxation times. Concluding the ESR work is a CIDEP study of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl diphenylphosphine oxide. Unusual spin polarisation phenomena are found. The time-resolved optical absorption spectroscopy technique used for detecting low magnetic field effects on neutral radical pair reactions is described. Various improvements to the experiment are discussed which result in the observation of the low field effect for a neutral radical pair produced by Norrish type II chemistry. This is followed by an

  6. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation

  7. Geminate electron--cation recombination in disordered solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Y.A.; Chekunaev, N.I.; Goldanskii, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of a geminate electron--cation recombination has been developed using the percolation approach to the description of the electron transport in disordered solids. Following this approach all trapping sites are separated into two groups. The first group forms a diffusion cluster responsible for the macroscopic charge transfer in disordered media whilethe second group consists of isolated traps playing the role of origins and sinks for mobile electrons. In the framework of such a model an equation has been derived describing the electron motion in the Coulomb field of a parent cation. The solution of this equation in the long time limit shows that the recombination rate decreases vs time as t -(1+α/2) with α being a positive constant or a very weak function of t. In the particular case of Gaussian diffusion α=1 and the kinetic law obtained reduces to that predicted by the well-known Onsager--Smoluchowski theory. However for the dispersive (non-Gaussian) transport in highly disordered systems α<1 and its value depends on the type of disorder, on the energy level structure of trapped electrons and on the specific mechanism of electron migration through the medium

  8. Recombination yield of geminate radical pairs in low magnetic fields - A Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktorov, A.B.; Hansen, M.J.; Pedersen, J. Boiden

    2006-01-01

    An analytic expression for the recombination yield of a geminate radical pair with a single spin one half nuclei is derived. The expression is valid for any field strength of the static magnetic field. It is assumed that the spin mixing is caused solely by the hyperfine interaction of the nuclear spin and the difference in Zeeman energies of the two radical partners, that the recombination occurs at the distance of closest approach, and that there is a locally strong dephasing at contact. This is a special result of a new general approach where a Green's function technique is used to recast the stochastic Liouville equation into a low dimensional matrix equation that is particularly convenient for locally strong dephasing systems. The equation is expressed in terms of special values (determined by the magnetic parameters) of the Green's function for the relative motion of the radicals and it is therefore valid for any motional model, e.g. diffusion, one and two site models. The applicability of the strong dephasing approximation is illustrated by comparison with numerical exact results

  9. Gemin5: A Multitasking RNA-Binding Protein Involved in Translation Control

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    David Piñeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gemin5 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP that was first identified as a peripheral component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN complex. This predominantly cytoplasmic protein recognises the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs through its WD repeat domains, allowing assembly of the SMN complex into small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. Additionally, the amino-terminal end of the protein has been reported to possess cap-binding capacity and to interact with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E. Gemin5 was also shown to downregulate translation, to be a substrate of the picornavirus L protease and to interact with viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements via a bipartite non-canonical RNA-binding site located at its carboxy-terminal end. These features link Gemin5 with translation control events. Thus, beyond its role in snRNPs biogenesis, Gemin5 appears to be a multitasking protein cooperating in various RNA-guided processes. In this review, we will summarise current knowledge of Gemin5 functions. We will discuss the involvement of the protein on translation control and propose a model to explain how the proteolysis fragments of this RBP in picornavirus-infected cells could modulate protein synthesis.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C stabilizes Gemin3 to block p53-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C, one of the essential latent antigens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-induced immortalization of primary human B lymphocytes in vitro, has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis via interaction with several cellular and viral factors. Gemin3 (also named DDX20 or DP103 is a member of DEAD RNA helicase family which exhibits diverse cellular functions including DNA transcription, recombination and repair, and RNA metabolism. Gemin3 was initially identified as a binding partner to EBNA2 and EBNA3C. However, the mechanism by which EBNA3C regulates Gemin3 function remains unclear. Here, we report that EBNA3C directly interacts with Gemin3 through its C-terminal domains. This interaction results in increased stability of Gemin3 and its accumulation in both B lymphoma cells and EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Moreover, EBNA3C promotes formation of a complex with p53 and Gemin3 which blocks the DNA-binding affinity of p53. Small hairpin RNA based knockdown of Gemin3 in B lymphoma or LCL cells remarkably attenuates the ability of EBNA3C to inhibit the transcription activity of p53 on its downstream genes p21 and Bax, as well as apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that Gemin3 may be a common target of oncogenic viruses for driving cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities.

  11. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia L. Repetto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII. To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4. We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  12. Solvable model with an extreme AGP ground state: relationships among fermion pairs, pairons, and natural spin geminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    A model many-fermion Hamiltonian is presented for which the ground state is asymptotically an Antisymmetrized Geminal Powers (AGP) wave function with largest possible greatest eigenvalue for its two-particle reduced density matrix. Closed analytical expressions and plane-wave expansions are presented for the generating geminal of the AGP ground state and for its one-particle reduced density matrix. The natural orbitals for this generating geminal are plane waves. The generating geminal shows intensely local character in its intracule and corresponds to the formation of a quasi-boson from two fermions. One may appropriately modify this generating geminal to introduce zero occupation numbers of its one-particle reduced density matrix and to make all the nonzero occupation numbers of its one-particle reduced density matrix equal, thus making this geminal a generator of an extreme AGP wave function, with an extreme large eigenvalue for its two-particle reduced density matrix. Closed analytical expressions are also given for this modified geminal and for its one-particle reduced density matrix. The similarities and differences of the features of this model and the accepted models of the superconducting ground state of electrons in metals, and the superfluid ground state of liquid He 4 are mentioned

  13. The Role of Geminates in Infants' Early Word Production and Word-Form Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn; Majoran, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    Infants learning languages with long consonants, or geminates, have been found to "overselect" and "overproduce" these consonants in early words and also to commonly omit the word-initial consonant. A production study with thirty Italian children recorded at 1;3 and 1;9 strongly confirmed both of these tendencies. To test the…

  14. Treatment Plan and Clinical Management of a Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Moushekhian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The anatomic anomalies detection is important for an attentive clinician. Asuccessful treatment of an endodontically involved tooth should make itfunctional and aesthetically acceptable for the patient. The following articlepresented a case of gemination and the endodontic, prosthetic and periodontaltreatments which were done to keep a complicated tooth in aesthetic zone

  15. A role for complexes of survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein with gemins and profilin in neurite-like cytoplasmic extensions of cultured nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Aarti; Lambrechts, Anja; Le thi Hao; Le, Thanh T.; Sewry, Caroline A.; Ampe, Christophe; Burghes, Arthur H.M.; Morris, Glenn E.

    2005-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of SMN (survival of motor neurons protein) and consequent loss of motor neurons. SMN is involved in snRNP transport and nuclear RNA splicing, but axonal transport of SMN has also been shown to occur in motor neurons. SMN also binds to the small actin-binding protein, profilin. We now show that SMN and profilin II co-localise in the cytoplasm of differentiating rat PC12 cells and in neurite-like extensions, especially at their growth cones. Many components of known SMN complexes were also found in these extensions, including gemin2 (SIP-1), gemin6, gemin7 and unrip (unr-interacting protein). Coilin p80 and Sm core protein immunoreactivity, however, were seen only in the nucleus. SMN is known to associate with β-actin mRNA and specific hnRNPs in axons and in neurite extensions of cultured nerve cells, and SMN also stimulates neurite outgrowth in cultures. Our results are therefore consistent with SMN complexes, rather than SMN alone, being involved in the transport of actin mRNPs along the axon as in the transport of snRNPs into the nucleus by similar SMN complexes. Antisense knockdown of profilin I and II isoforms inhibited neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and caused accumulation of SMN and its associated proteins in cytoplasmic aggregates. BIAcore studies demonstrated a high affinity interaction of SMN with profilin IIa, the isoform present in developing neurons. Pathogenic missense mutations in SMN, or deletion of exons 5 and 7, prevented this interaction. The interaction is functional in that SMN can modulate actin polymerisation in vitro by reducing the inhibitory effect of profilin IIa. This suggests that reduced SMN in SMA might cause axonal pathfinding defects by disturbing the normal regulation of microfilament growth by profilins

  16. The Role of Perception in the Typology of Geminate Consonants: Effects of Manner of Articulation, Segmental Environment, Position, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The present study seeks to answer the question of whether consonant duration is perceived differently across consonants of different manners of articulation and in different contextual environments and whether such differences may be related to the typology of geminates. The results of the cross-linguistic identification experiment suggest higher perceptual acuity in labeling short and long consonants in sonorants than in obstruents. Duration categories were also more consistently and clearly labeled in the intervocalic than in the preconsonantal environment, in the word-initial than in the word-final position, and after stressed vowels than between unstressed vowels. These perceptual asymmetries are in line with some typological tendencies, such as the cross-linguistic preference for intervocalic and post-stress geminates, but contradict other proposed cross-linguistic patterns, such as the preference for obstruent geminates and the abundance of word-final geminates.

  17. Four-body correlation embedded in antisymmetrized geminal power wave function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Airi; Sugino, Osamu

    2016-12-28

    We extend the Coleman's antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) to develop a wave function theory that can incorporate up to four-body correlation in a region of strong correlation. To facilitate the variational determination of the wave function, the total energy is rewritten in terms of the traces of geminals. This novel trace formula is applied to a simple model system consisting of one dimensional Hubbard ring with a site of strong correlation. Our scheme significantly improves the result obtained by the AGP-configuration interaction scheme of Uemura et al. and also achieves more efficient compression of the degrees of freedom of the wave function. We regard the result as a step toward a first-principles wave function theory for a strongly correlated point defect or adsorbate embedded in an AGP-based mean-field medium.

  18. Geminal difunctionalization of α-diazo arylmethylphosphonates: synthesis of fluorinated phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yujing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-11-08

    A general approach towards diverse fluorinated phosphonates via geminal difunctionalization reactions of α-diazo arylmethylphosphonates is described. The diazo functionality (RR'C[double bond, length as m-dash]N 2 ) is successfully converted to RR'CF 2 , RR'CHF, RR'CFBr or RR'CFNR'' 2 groups by employing different fluorination reagents. A variety of fluorinated organophosphorus compounds were readily accessed in good to excellent yields from a common type of precursor.

  19. Two-state model of excess electron relaxation and geminate recombination in water and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: After photo-induced ionization a free electron suffers a quick conversion to a solvated state, and then recombines with the parent atom or ion. However, high mobility and reactivity of a free electron can allow the electron to delocalize and recombine in the free state. The theory of two channel processes of geminate electron recombination is developed and applied to the experiment of three-pulse generation of excess electrons in water. - Abstract: After photo-induced ionization a free electron suffers a quick conversion to a solvated state, and then can recombine with the parent atom or ion. However, high mobility and reactivity of a free electron can allow the electron to delocalize and recombine in the free state. The theory of two channel processes of geminate electron recombination is developed here for the general type of the Markovian motion of reactants. A contact model is used for analytical solution of the problem of geminate recombination of neutral and charged reactants. The theory is applied to the experiment of three-pulse generation of excess electrons in water.

  20. Acoustic cue weighting in the singleton vs geminate contrast in Lebanese Arabic: The case of fricative consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Jalal; Khattab, Ghada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first reported investigation of the role of non-temporal acoustic cues in the singleton-geminate contrast in Lebanese Arabic, alongside the more frequently reported temporal cues. The aim is to explore the extent to which singleton and geminate consonants show qualitative differences in a language where phonological length is prominent and where moraic structure governs segment timing and syllable weight. Twenty speakers (ten male, ten female) were recorded producing trochaic disyllables with medial singleton and geminate fricatives preceded by phonologically short and long vowels. The following acoustic measures were applied on the medial fricative and surrounding vowels: absolute duration; intensity; fundamental frequency; spectral peak and shape, dynamic amplitude, and voicing patterns of medial fricatives; and vowel quality and voice quality correlates of surrounding vowels. Discriminant analysis and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to assess each acoustic cue's contribution to the singleton-geminate contrast. Classification rates of 89% and ROC curves with an area under the curve rate of 96% confirmed the major role played by temporal cues, with non-temporal cues contributing to the contrast but to a much lesser extent. These results confirm that the underlying contrast for gemination in Arabic is temporal, but highlight [+tense] (fortis) as a secondary feature.

  1. Relationships among Egg Size, Composition, and Energy: A Comparative Study of Geminate Sea Urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Justin S.; Moran, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Egg size is one of the fundamental parameters in the life histories of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the relationships among egg size, composition, and energetic content in a phylogenetically controlled context. We investigated the associations among egg size, composition, and energy using a comparative system, geminate species formed by the closure of the Central American Seaway. We examined western Atlantic (WA) and eastern Pacific (EP) species in three echinoid genera, Echinometra, Eucidaris, and Diadema. In the genus with the largest difference in egg size between geminates (Echinometra), the eggs of WA species were larger, lipid rich and protein poor compared to the smaller eggs of their EP geminate. In addition, the larger WA eggs had significantly greater total egg energy and summed biochemical constituents yet significantly lower egg energy density (energy-per-unit-volume). However, the genera with smaller (Eucidaris) or no (Diadema) differences in egg size were not significantly different in summed biochemical constituents, total egg energy, or energy density. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life history evolution. We show that even among closely-related taxa, large eggs cannot be assumed to be scaled-up small eggs either in terms of energy or composition. Although our data comes exclusively from echinoid echinoderms, this pattern may be generalizable to other marine invertebrate taxa. Because egg composition and egg size do not necessarily evolve in lockstep, selective factors such as sperm limitation could act on egg volume without necessarily affecting maternal or larval energetics. PMID:22911821

  2. Anomalous maximum and minimum for the dissociation of a geminate pair in energetically disordered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govatski, J. A.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Koehler, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the geminated pair dissociation probability φ as function of applied electric field and temperature in energetically disordered nD media. Regardless nD, for certain parameters regions φ versus the disorder degree (σ) displays anomalous minimum (maximum) at low (moderate) fields. This behavior is compatible with a transport energy which reaches a maximum and then decreases to negative values as σ increases. Our results explain the temperature dependence of the persistent photoconductivity in C60 single crystals going through order-disorder transitions. They also indicate how an energetic disorder spatial variation may contribute to higher exciton dissociation in multicomponent donor/acceptor systems.

  3. Sub-ns triplet state formation by non-geminate recombination in PSBTBT:PC 70 BM and PCPDTBT:PC 60 BM organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Etzold, Fabian

    2015-03-02

    The solid-state morphology and photo-generated charge carrier dynamics in low-bandgap polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends using the donor–acceptor type copolymers PCPDTBT or its silicon-substituted analogue PSBTBT as donors are compared by two-dimensional (2D) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and femto-to microsecond broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy. The 2D solid-state NMR experiments demonstrate that the film morphology of PCPDTBT:PC60BM blends processed with additives such as octanedithiol (ODT) are similar to those of PSBTBT:PC60BM blends in terms of crystallinity, phase segregation, and interfacial contacts. The TA experiments and analysis of the TA data by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) reveal that after exciton dissociation and free charge formation, fast sub-nanosecond non-geminate recombination occurs which leads to a substantial population of the polymer\\'s triplet state. The extent to which triplet states are formed depends on the initial concentration of free charges, which itself is controlled by the microstructure of the blend, especially in case of PCPDTBT:PC60BM. Interestingly, PSBTBT:PC70BM blends show a higher charge generation efficiency, but less triplet state formation at similar free charge carrier concentrations. This indicates that the solid-state morphology and interfacial structures of PSBTBT:PC70BM blends reduces non-geminate recombination, leading to superior device performance compared to optimized PCPDTBT:PC60BM blends.

  4. Sub-ns triplet state formation by non-geminate recombination in PSBTBT:PC 70 BM and PCPDTBT:PC 60 BM organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Etzold, Fabian; Howard, Ian A.; Forler, Nina; Melnyk, Anton; Andrienko, Denis; Hansen, Michael Ryan; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    The solid-state morphology and photo-generated charge carrier dynamics in low-bandgap polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends using the donor–acceptor type copolymers PCPDTBT or its silicon-substituted analogue PSBTBT as donors are compared by two-dimensional (2D) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and femto-to microsecond broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy. The 2D solid-state NMR experiments demonstrate that the film morphology of PCPDTBT:PC60BM blends processed with additives such as octanedithiol (ODT) are similar to those of PSBTBT:PC60BM blends in terms of crystallinity, phase segregation, and interfacial contacts. The TA experiments and analysis of the TA data by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) reveal that after exciton dissociation and free charge formation, fast sub-nanosecond non-geminate recombination occurs which leads to a substantial population of the polymer's triplet state. The extent to which triplet states are formed depends on the initial concentration of free charges, which itself is controlled by the microstructure of the blend, especially in case of PCPDTBT:PC60BM. Interestingly, PSBTBT:PC70BM blends show a higher charge generation efficiency, but less triplet state formation at similar free charge carrier concentrations. This indicates that the solid-state morphology and interfacial structures of PSBTBT:PC70BM blends reduces non-geminate recombination, leading to superior device performance compared to optimized PCPDTBT:PC60BM blends.

  5. Thermal Annealing Reduces Geminate Recombination in TQ1:N2200 All-Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Karuthedath, Safakath

    2018-03-27

    A combination of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements is used to investigate the photophysics of the all-polymer bulk heterojunction system TQ1:N2200. Upon thermal annealing a doubling of the external quantum efficiency and an improved fill factor (FF) is observed, resulting in an increase in the power conversion efficiency. Carrier extraction is similar for both blends, as demonstrated by time-resolved electric-field-induced second harmonic generation experiments in conjunction with transient photocurrent studies, spanning the ps-µs time range. Complementary transient absorption spectroscopy measurements reveal that the different quantum efficiencies originate from differences in charge carrier separation and recombination at the polymer-polymer interface: in as-spun samples ~35 % of the charges are bound in interfacial charge-transfer states and recombine geminately, while this pool is reduced to ~7 % in thermally-annealed sample, resulting in higher short-circuit currents. Time-delayed collection field experiments demonstrate a field-dependent charge generation process in as-spun samples, which reduces the FF. In contrast, field-dependence of charge generation is weak in annealed films. While both devices exhibit significant non-geminate recombination competing with charge extraction, causing low FFs, our results demonstrate that the donor/acceptor interface in all-polymer solar cells can be favourably altered to enhance charge separation, without compromising charge transport and extraction.

  6. Geminal embedding scheme for optimal atomic basis set construction in correlated calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorella, S., E-mail: sorella@sissa.it [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste, Italy and INFM Democritos National Simulation Center, Trieste (Italy); Devaux, N.; Dagrada, M., E-mail: mario.dagrada@impmc.upmc.fr [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mazzola, G., E-mail: gmazzola@phys.ethz.ch [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Casula, M., E-mail: michele.casula@impmc.upmc.fr [CNRS and Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2015-12-28

    We introduce an efficient method to construct optimal and system adaptive basis sets for use in electronic structure and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The method is based on an embedding scheme in which a reference atom is singled out from its environment, while the entire system (atom and environment) is described by a Slater determinant or its antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) extension. The embedding procedure described here allows for the systematic and consistent contraction of the primitive basis set into geminal embedded orbitals (GEOs), with a dramatic reduction of the number of variational parameters necessary to represent the many-body wave function, for a chosen target accuracy. Within the variational Monte Carlo method, the Slater or AGP part is determined by a variational minimization of the energy of the whole system in presence of a flexible and accurate Jastrow factor, representing most of the dynamical electronic correlation. The resulting GEO basis set opens the way for a fully controlled optimization of many-body wave functions in electronic structure calculation of bulk materials, namely, containing a large number of electrons and atoms. We present applications on the water molecule, the volume collapse transition in cerium, and the high-pressure liquid hydrogen.

  7. Effects of geminate and bimolecular recombination on the performance of polymeric-small molecular solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Marcel; Yin, Chunhong; Castellani, Mauro; Neher, Dieter [University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Sellinger, Alan [IMRE, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    Many physical properties of organic photovoltaics are related to the nature of the geminate pair, an intermediate state that forms after dissociation of photogenerated excitons and prior to free charge carrier generation. Whereas it was found that photocurrent generation is dominated by the strong field dependent process of geminate pair dissociation, the recombination of uncorrelated free charge carriers and the formation of space charge seem to play a minor role in the prominent P3HT/PCBM combination. The situation may change, when using different D/A combinations or other soluble acceptor molecules. We present organic solar cells comprising a novel small molecule based on 2-vinyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (Vinazene) as acceptor and M3EH-PPV as donor. While bilayer devices show promising results with a fill factor up to 57 %, the IU-characteristics of bulk heterojunction devices are dominated by bimolecular recombination and space charge effects even at moderate illumination intensities. Photo-CELIV measurements were performed to study the bimolecular recombination in detail. By combining photo-CELIV results with PL and IU measurements we are able to analyze the interrelation of recombination losses, free charge carrier generation and exciplex formation.

  8. Solvent, isotope, and magnetic field effects in the geminate recombination of radical ion pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, H.; Staerk, H.; Weller, A.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the geminate recombination triplet yield of radical ion pairs generated via photoinduced electron transfer in polar solvents is investigated for the systems pyrene/N,N-dimethylaniline (Py/DMA), pyrene/3,5-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylaniline (Py/DMDMA), and the perdeuterated system Py-d 10 /DMA-d 11 . The magnetic field dependence characterized through its B/sub 1/2/ value is found to be dependent on the sum of the hyperfine coupling constants in the radical pair in agreement with previous theoretical predictions. A drastic reduction of the B/sub 1/2/ value is observed with the perdeuterated system. By means of measurements of the radical ion and triplet absorption signals with nanosecond time resolution, the influence of the solvent on the geminate singlet and triplet recombination yields is investigated. Complementary measurements of exciplex lifetimes and quantum yields are carried out in a series of solvents with different polarities in order to determine the rate constants of fluorescence emission and intersystem crossing in the exciplexes

  9. Endodontic treatment of developmental anomalies in posterior teeth: treatment of geminated/fused teeth--report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesis, I; Steinbock, N; Rosenberg, E; Kaufman, A Y

    2003-05-01

    Gemination or fusion is a rare occurrence in the mandibular posterior teeth. Endodontic treatment of these teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. The aim of this article is to describe the problems encountered and the strategy in treating such cases. Two cases of complex endodontic treatment of fused/geminated teeth are presented. The first is an 11-year-old girl with an anomalous 'double' first mandibular molar and premolar diagnosed as having necrotic pulp with chronic apical abscess of endodontic origin; the second is a 16-year-old boy with 'double' second and supernumerary mandibular molars, who was diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Both cases were treated successfully in multiple appointments. The common features and treatment modalities are discussed. Failure to diagnose fused/geminated teeth leads to misdiagnosis and a treatment plan that could cause permanent damage and tooth loss. Generally, there is communication between root canal systems of fused/geminated teeth which should be treated as one entity. Use of magnification is an important aid during treatment.

  10. Reactivity of the geminal phosphinoborane tBu2PCH2BPh2 towards alkynes, nitriles, and nitrilium triflates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, E.R.M.; Mens, L.C.; Nieger, M.; Lutz, M.; Ehlers, A.W.; Slootweg, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of the geminal phosphinoborane tBu2PCH2BPh2 towards terminal alkynes, nitriles and nitrilium salts is investigated. Terminal alkynes react via C–H bond splitting (deprotonation) resulting in the formation of phosphonium borates. In contrast, both nitriles and nitrilium salts undergo

  11. Geminal phosphorus/aluminum-based frustrated Lewis pairs: C-H versus C≡C activation and CO2 fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelt, C.; Westenberg, H.; Bertini, F.; Ehlers, A.W.; Slootweg, J.C.; Lammertsma, K.; Uhl, W.

    2011-01-01

    Catch it! Geminal phosphorus/aluminum-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) are easily obtained by hydroalumination of alkynylphosphines. These FLPs can activate terminal acetylenes by two competitive pathways, which were analyzed by DFT calculations, and they can bind carbon dioxide reversibly.

  12. Barbiturate End-Capped Non-Fullerene Acceptors for Organic Solar Cells: Tuning Acceptor Energetics to Suppress Geminate Recombination Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Ching-Hong

    2018-01-10

    We report the synthesis of two barbiturate end-capped non-fullerene acceptors and demonstrate their efficient function in high voltage output organic solar cells. The acceptor with the lower LUMO level is shown to exhibit suppressed geminate recombination losses, resulting in enhanced photocurrent generation and higher overall device efficiency.

  13. Barbiturate End-Capped Non-Fullerene Acceptors for Organic Solar Cells: Tuning Acceptor Energetics to Suppress Geminate Recombination Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Ching-Hong; Gorman, Jeffrey; Wadsworth, Andrew; Holliday, Sarah; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Jenekhe, Samson A.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James

    2018-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two barbiturate end-capped non-fullerene acceptors and demonstrate their efficient function in high voltage output organic solar cells. The acceptor with the lower LUMO level is shown to exhibit suppressed geminate recombination losses, resulting in enhanced photocurrent generation and higher overall device efficiency.

  14. Drought occurence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  15. A non-JKL density matrix functional for intergeminal correlation between closed-shell geminals from analysis of natural orbital configuration interaction expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2018-03-14

    Almost all functionals that are currently used in density matrix functional theory have been created by some a priori ansatz that generates approximations to the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM). In this paper, a more consistent approach is used: we analyze the 2RDMs (in the natural orbital basis) of rather accurate multi-reference configuration interaction expansions for several small molecules (CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, FH, and N 2 ) and use the knowledge gained to generate new functionals. The analysis shows that a geminal-like structure is present in the 2RDMs, even though no geminal theory has been applied from the onset. It is also shown that the leading non-geminal dynamical correlation contributions are generated by a specific set of double excitations. The corresponding determinants give rise to non-JKL (non Coulomb/Exchange like) multipole-multipole dispersive attractive terms between geminals. Due to the proximity of the geminals, these dispersion terms are large and cannot be omitted, proving pure JKL functionals to be essentially deficient. A second correction emerges from the observation that the "normal" geminal-like exchange between geminals breaks down when one breaks multiple bonds. This problem can be fixed by doubling the exchange between bond broken geminals, effectively restoring the often physically correct high-spin configurations on the bond broken fragments. Both of these corrections have been added to the commonly used antisymmetrized product of strongly orthogonal geminals functional. The resulting non-JKL functional Extended Löwdin-Shull Dynamical-Multibond is capable of reproducing complete active space self-consistent field curves, in which one active orbital is used for each valence electron.

  16. A non-JKL density matrix functional for intergeminal correlation between closed-shell geminals from analysis of natural orbital configuration interaction expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2018-03-01

    Almost all functionals that are currently used in density matrix functional theory have been created by some a priori ansatz that generates approximations to the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM). In this paper, a more consistent approach is used: we analyze the 2RDMs (in the natural orbital basis) of rather accurate multi-reference configuration interaction expansions for several small molecules (CH4, NH3, H2O, FH, and N2) and use the knowledge gained to generate new functionals. The analysis shows that a geminal-like structure is present in the 2RDMs, even though no geminal theory has been applied from the onset. It is also shown that the leading non-geminal dynamical correlation contributions are generated by a specific set of double excitations. The corresponding determinants give rise to non-JKL (non Coulomb/Exchange like) multipole-multipole dispersive attractive terms between geminals. Due to the proximity of the geminals, these dispersion terms are large and cannot be omitted, proving pure JKL functionals to be essentially deficient. A second correction emerges from the observation that the "normal" geminal-like exchange between geminals breaks down when one breaks multiple bonds. This problem can be fixed by doubling the exchange between bond broken geminals, effectively restoring the often physically correct high-spin configurations on the bond broken fragments. Both of these corrections have been added to the commonly used antisymmetrized product of strongly orthogonal geminals functional. The resulting non-JKL functional Extended Löwdin-Shull Dynamical-Multibond is capable of reproducing complete active space self-consistent field curves, in which one active orbital is used for each valence electron.

  17. Robust nonfullerene solar cells approaching unity external quantum efficiency enabled by suppression of geminate recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Derya; Gasparini, Nicola; Wadsworth, Andrew; Tan, Ching Hong; Wehbe, Nimer; Song, Xin; Hamid, Zeinab; Zhang, Weimin; Neophytou, Marios; Kirchartz, Thomas; Brabec, Christoph J; Durrant, James R; McCulloch, Iain

    2018-05-25

    Nonfullerene solar cells have increased their efficiencies up to 13%, yet quantum efficiencies are still limited to 80%. Here we report efficient nonfullerene solar cells with quantum efficiencies approaching unity. This is achieved with overlapping absorption bands of donor and acceptor that increases the photon absorption strength in the range from about 570 to 700 nm, thus, almost all incident photons are absorbed in the active layer. The charges generated are found to dissociate with negligible geminate recombination losses resulting in a short-circuit current density of 20 mA cm -2 along with open-circuit voltages >1 V, which is remarkable for a 1.6 eV bandgap system. Most importantly, the unique nano-morphology of the donor:acceptor blend results in a substantially improved stability under illumination. Understanding the efficient charge separation in nonfullerene acceptors can pave the way to robust and recombination-free organic solar cells.

  18. Robust nonfullerene solar cells approaching unity external quantum efficiency enabled by suppression of geminate recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya; Gasparini, Nicola; Wadsworth, Andrew; Tan, Ching Hong; Wehbe, Nimer; Song, Xin; Hamid, Zeinab; Zhang, Weimin; Neophytou, Marios; Kirchartz, Thomas; Brabec, Christoph J.; Durrant, James R.; McCulloch, Iain

    2018-01-01

    Nonfullerene solar cells have increased their efficiencies up to 13%, yet quantum efficiencies are still limited to 80%. Here we report efficient nonfullerene solar cells with quantum efficiencies approaching unity. This is achieved with overlapping absorption bands of donor and acceptor that increases the photon absorption strength in the range from about 570 to 700 nm, thus, almost all incident photons are absorbed in the active layer. The charges generated are found to dissociate with negligible geminate recombination losses resulting in a short-circuit current density of 20 mA cm-2 along with open-circuit voltages >1 V, which is remarkable for a 1.6 eV bandgap system. Most importantly, the unique nano-morphology of the donor:acceptor blend results in a substantially improved stability under illumination. Understanding the efficient charge separation in nonfullerene acceptors can pave the way to robust and recombination-free organic solar cells.

  19. Robust nonfullerene solar cells approaching unity external quantum efficiency enabled by suppression of geminate recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya

    2018-05-21

    Nonfullerene solar cells have increased their efficiencies up to 13%, yet quantum efficiencies are still limited to 80%. Here we report efficient nonfullerene solar cells with quantum efficiencies approaching unity. This is achieved with overlapping absorption bands of donor and acceptor that increases the photon absorption strength in the range from about 570 to 700 nm, thus, almost all incident photons are absorbed in the active layer. The charges generated are found to dissociate with negligible geminate recombination losses resulting in a short-circuit current density of 20 mA cm-2 along with open-circuit voltages >1 V, which is remarkable for a 1.6 eV bandgap system. Most importantly, the unique nano-morphology of the donor:acceptor blend results in a substantially improved stability under illumination. Understanding the efficient charge separation in nonfullerene acceptors can pave the way to robust and recombination-free organic solar cells.

  20. Geminal-spanning orbitals make explicitly correlated reduced-scaling coupled-cluster methods robust, yet simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavošević, Fabijan; Neese, Frank; Valeev, Edward F.

    2014-08-01

    We present a production implementation of reduced-scaling explicitly correlated (F12) coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method based on pair-natural orbitals (PNOs). A key feature is the reformulation of the explicitly correlated terms using geminal-spanning orbitals that greatly reduce the truncation errors of the F12 contribution. For the standard S66 benchmark of weak intermolecular interactions, the cc-pVDZ-F12 PNO CCSD F12 interaction energies reproduce the complete basis set CCSD limit with mean absolute error cost compared to the conventional CCSD F12.

  1. Perception and Production of Singleton and Geminate Stops in Japanese: Implications for the Theory of Acoustic Invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Shigeaki; Hirata, Y

    2015-01-01

    The theory of relational acoustic invariance claims that there are stable acoustic properties in speech signals that correspond to a phonological feature, and that the perception system utilizes these acoustic properties for stable perception of a phoneme. The present study examines whether such an invariance exists in native listeners' perception of Japanese singleton and geminate stops despite variability in speaking rate and word length, and whether this perception corresponds to production. Native Japanese listeners identified singleton and geminate stops in continua of 3- and 4-mora words spoken at different speaking rates. Results indicated that the perception boundary is well predicted by a linear function with two variables: durations of stop closure and the (C)V(C)CV portion (with the contrasting stops underlined) of the 3- and 4-mora words. In addition, these two variables were in a consistent relationship for both perception and production of words containing 2-4 moras. The results support the relational acoustic invariance theory. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Quantitative proteomics identifies Gemin5, a scaffolding protein involved in ribonucleoprotein assembly, as a novel partner for eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro-Monti, Ivo; Mohammed, Shabaz; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Protein complexes are dynamic entities; identification and quantitation of their components is critical in elucidating functional roles under specific cellular conditions. We report the first quantitative proteomic analysis of the human cap-binding protein complex. Components and proteins......-starved tumorigenic human mesenchymal stromal cells, attested to their activated translational states. The WD-repeat, scaffolding-protein Gemin5 was identified as a novel eIF4E binding partner, which interacted directly with eIF4E through a motif (YXXXXLPhi) present in a number of eIF4E-interacting partners. Elevated...... levels of Gemin5:eIF4E complexes were found in phorbol ester treated HEK293 cells. Gemin5 and eIF4E co-localized to cytoplasmic P-bodies in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Interaction between eIF4E and Gemin5 and their co-localization to the P-bodies, may serve to recruit capped mRNAs to these RNP...

  3. An atomic perspective of the photodissociation and geminate recombination of triiodide in condensed phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Rui

    2016-11-15

    The thesis presents progress made towards a thorough understanding of the photodissociation and geminate recombination of triiodide anion (I{sub 3}{sup -}) in solution and solid state using novel time-resolved spectroscopic and structural methods that have matured in the past decade. An isolated I{sub 3}{sup -} has only three degrees of freedom, but in the condensed phase, the case of an open quantum system, its chemistry is transformed because other degrees of freedom from the surroundings (the bath) need to be fully taken into account. This system is a textbook example for understanding dissociation and recombination processes in condensed phases, but unresolved issues about the reaction pathways remain. To probe the issues, firstly, mid-UV pulse shaper-based closed-loop adaptive control as well as open-loop power and chirp control schemes were used in conjunction with single-color pump-probe detection of the yield of the photoproduct diiodide (I{sub 2}{sup -.}) to study the above reaction in ethanol solution. The experiments revealed a strong pump-chirp dependence of the I{sub 2}{sup -.}-yield (as much as 40% change). Subsequently, two possible mechanisms involving additional reaction channels were postulated in order to explain such effect. Secondly, pump-supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy and ultrafast electron diffraction were performed separately on solid state triiodide compound n-(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}NI{sub 3} (TBAT). This system was chosen to provide a well-defined lattice for the bath and to avail atomic resolution of the condensed phase reaction dynamics. In the optical experiment, coherent oscillations were observed within a probe delay of 1 ps that bear strong resemblance to the stretching modes of ground-state I{sub 3}{sup -} and I{sub 2}{sup -.} fragment, which makes it the first to reliably distinguish the two species in a single measurement. In addition, the spectroscopic signature of a novel intermediate, the tetraiodide anion (I{sub 4}{sup

  4. An atomic perspective of the photodissociation and geminate recombination of triiodide in condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Rui

    2016-11-01

    The thesis presents progress made towards a thorough understanding of the photodissociation and geminate recombination of triiodide anion (I_3"-) in solution and solid state using novel time-resolved spectroscopic and structural methods that have matured in the past decade. An isolated I_3"- has only three degrees of freedom, but in the condensed phase, the case of an open quantum system, its chemistry is transformed because other degrees of freedom from the surroundings (the bath) need to be fully taken into account. This system is a textbook example for understanding dissociation and recombination processes in condensed phases, but unresolved issues about the reaction pathways remain. To probe the issues, firstly, mid-UV pulse shaper-based closed-loop adaptive control as well as open-loop power and chirp control schemes were used in conjunction with single-color pump-probe detection of the yield of the photoproduct diiodide (I_2"-".) to study the above reaction in ethanol solution. The experiments revealed a strong pump-chirp dependence of the I_2"-".-yield (as much as 40% change). Subsequently, two possible mechanisms involving additional reaction channels were postulated in order to explain such effect. Secondly, pump-supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy and ultrafast electron diffraction were performed separately on solid state triiodide compound n-(C_4H_9)_4NI_3 (TBAT). This system was chosen to provide a well-defined lattice for the bath and to avail atomic resolution of the condensed phase reaction dynamics. In the optical experiment, coherent oscillations were observed within a probe delay of 1 ps that bear strong resemblance to the stretching modes of ground-state I_3"- and I_2"-". fragment, which makes it the first to reliably distinguish the two species in a single measurement. In addition, the spectroscopic signature of a novel intermediate, the tetraiodide anion (I_4"-".), was identified and its origin is attributed to intermolecular interaction of the

  5. Monte-Carlo simulations of geminate electron-hole pair dissociation in a molecular heterojunction: a two-step dissociation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermans, Ton; Meskers, Stefan C.J.; Janssen, Rene A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Monte-Carlo simulations are used to investigate the dissociation of a Coulomb correlated charge pair at an idealized interface between an electron accepting and an electron donating molecular material. In the simulations the materials are represented by cubic lattices of sites, with site the energies spread according to Gaussian distributions. The influence of temperature, applied external fields, and the width of the Gaussian densities of states distribution for both the electron and the hole transporting material are investigated. The results show that the dissociation of geminate charge pairs is assisted by disorder and the results can be understood in terms of a two-step model. In the first step, the slow carrier in the most disordered material jumps away from the interface. In the following, second step, the reduced Coulombic attraction allows the faster carrier in the less disordered material to escape from the interface by thermally activated hopping. When the rate for geminate recombination at the interface is very low ( -1 ) the simulations predict a high yield for carrier collection, as observed experimentally. Comparison of the simulated and experimentally observed temperature dependence of the collection efficiency indicates that at low temperature dissociation of the geminate charge pairs may be one of the factors limiting the device performance

  6. Control of Geminate Recombination by the Material Composition and Processing Conditions in Novel Polymer: Nonfullerene Acceptor Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangbin; Gu, Qinying; Do, Thu Trang; Rundel, Kira; Sonar, Prashant; Friend, Richard H; McNeill, Christopher R; Bakulin, Artem A

    2018-02-08

    Herein, we report on the charge dynamics of photovoltaic devices based on two novel small-molecule nonfullerene acceptors featuring a central ketone unit. Using ultrafast near-infrared spectroscopy with optical and photocurrent detection methods, we identify one of the key loss channels in the devices as geminate recombination (GR) of interfacial charge transfer states (CTSs). We find that the magnitude of GR is highly sensitive to the choice of solvent and annealing conditions. Interestingly, regardless of these processing conditions, the same lifetime for GR (∼130 ps) is obtained by both detection methods upon decomposing the complex broadband transient optical spectra, suggesting this time scale is inherent and independent of morphology. These observations suggest that the CTSs in the studied material blends are mostly strongly bound, and that charge generation from these states is highly inefficient. We further rationalize our results by considering the impact of the processing on the morphology of the mixed donor and acceptor domains and discuss the potential consequences of the early charge dynamics on the performance of emerging nonfullerene photovoltaic devices. Our results demonstrate that careful choice of processing conditions enables enhanced exciton harvesting and suppression of GR by more than 3 orders of magnitude.

  7. Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  8. Generalized Møller-Plesset Multiconfiguration Perturbation Theory Applied to an Open-Shell Antisymmetric Product of Strongly Orthogonal Geminals Reference Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Moto; Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-11-13

    The antisymmetric product of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG) method is a wave function theory that can effectively treat the static electron correlation. Recently, we proposed the open-shell APSG method using one-electron orbitals for open-shell parts. In this paper, we have extended the perturbation correction to the open-shell APSG calculations through Møller-Plesset-type multiconfiguration perturbation theory (MP-MCPT). Numerical applications demonstrate that the present open-shell MP-MCPT can reasonably reproduce the dissociation energies or equilibrium distances for open-shell systems.

  9. Quantum structural approach to high-Tc superconductivity theory: Herzberg-Teller, Renner-Teller, Jahn-Teller effects and intervalent geminal charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.

    1997-01-01

    We use quantum molecular structure and spectroscopic thoughts of various possible vibronic interactions for the position space of two-electron geminal orbitals with Bloch sums. Our geminals have different degeneracy from one-electron molecular orbitals and are different from the momentum space of BCS free electrons. Based on Herzberg-Teller expansions, our consideration of the aspect of the Renner-Teller effect for cyclic boundary crystals (instead of the usual linear molecules) involves first-order vibronic interaction with isotope effects different from the second-order electron-phonon energy of BCS theory, bipolaron theory, etc. Our consideration of the Jahn-Teller effect with equal-minimum double-well potential leads to the intervalent charge transfer between two degenerate vibrationally affected electronic structures. Our considerations of different style vibrations other than the antisymmetric vibration for the nearest neighbor (e.g., displaced oscillator, etc.) may possibly be related to the case of special chemical structures with special doping and special coherence length. Our simple structural illustrations of such different vibronic Renner-Teller, Jahn-Teller effects and intervalent charge transfer (of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x ) may promote some possible thoughts of quantum chemical structures compared and mixed with the physical treatments of special high-T c superconductors. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. General theory of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs of reactants. II. Detailed balance and universal asymptotes of kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanov, Alexey A; Doktorov, Alexander B

    2014-10-14

    The analysis of general (matrix) kinetic equations for the mean survival probabilities of any of the species in a sample (or mean concentrations) has been made for a wide class of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs. These kinetic equations (obtained in the frame of the kinetic approach based on the concept of "effective" particles in Paper I) take into account various possible elementary reactions (stages of a multistage reaction) excluding monomolecular, but including physical and chemical processes of the change in internal quantum states carried out with the isolated pairs of reactants (or isolated reactants). The general basic principles of total and detailed balance have been established. The behavior of the reacting system has been considered on macroscopic time scales, and the universal long-term kinetics has been determined.

  11. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  12. The effects of temperature and alkyl chain length on the density and surface tension of the imidazolium-based geminal dicationic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, Majid; Khashei, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Ali; Mirzaei, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension and density of three GDILs were measured at different temperatures. • Surface entropy and surface enthalpy indicate the surface ordering in these GDILs. • Parachors and critical temperatures of these systems were estimated. • Results of GDILs were compared with the results of corresponding traditional MILs. • Relations between surface tension, density and viscosity of GDILs were demonstrated. - Abstract: Surface tensions and densities of three imidazolium-based geminal dicationic ionic liquids (GDILs) with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [NTf 2 ] − , as a common anion, have been measured at ambient pressure at different temperatures in the range from 296.00 to 353.15 K. The surface thermodynamic functions such as surface entropy and surface enthalpy were derived from the temperature dependence of surface tension which indicated the surface ordering in these GDILs. As well as the parachor, the critical temperatures of these systems have been estimated using the Guggenheim and Eotvos correlations. In each case, the results of GDILs have been compared with the results of corresponding traditional monocationic ILs (MILs). Also, the relations between the surface tension and density and also surface tension and viscosity data have been demonstrated and discussed.

  13. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  14. Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.

  15. Synthesis of mono- and geminal dimetalated carbanions of bis(phenylsulfonyl)methane using alkali metal bases and structural comparisons with lithiated bis(phenylsulfonyl)imides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Dugald J; Kennedy, Alan R; Noll, Bruce C; Henderson, Kenneth W

    2005-06-21

    The alpha,alpha'-stabilized carbanion complexes [(PhSO2)2CHLi.THF]1, [(PhSO2)2CHNa.THF]2 and [(PhSO2)2CHK]3 were prepared by the direct deprotonation of bis(phenylsulfonyl)methane I in THF with one molar equivalent of MeLi, BuNa and BnK respectively. The geminal dianionic complexes [(PhSO2)2CLi2.THF]4, [(PhSO2)2CNa2.0.55THF]5 and [(PhSO2)2CK2]6 were similarly prepared by the reaction of I with two molar equivalents of MeLi, BuNa and BnK respectively in THF. NMR and MS solution studies of 1-3 are consistent with the formation of charge-separated species in DMSO media. Solutions studies of 4-6, in conjunction with trapping experiments, indicate that the dianions deprotonate DMSO and regenerate the monoanions 1-3. Crystallographic analysis of 1 revealed a 1D chain polymer in which the metal centers are chelated by the bis(sulfonyl) ligands and connect to neighboring units through Li-O(S) interactions. An unexpected feature of 1 is that the polymeric chains are homochiral, since the chelating ligands of the backbone adopt the same relative configuration. Also, the phenyl substituents of each chelate in 1 are oriented in a cisoid manner. The sodium derivative 2 adopts a related solid-state structure, where enantiomeric pairs of chains combine to give a 1D ribbon motif. The lithium bis(phenylsulfonyl)imides [(PhSO2)2NLi.THF]9 and [(PhSO2)2NLi.Pyr2]10 were also prepared and structurally characterized. In the solid state 9 has a similar connectivity to that found for 1 but with heterochiral chains. In comparison, the more highly solvated complex 10 forms a 1D polymeric arrangement without chelation of the ligands and with the phenyl substituents oriented in a transoid fashion.

  16. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training)

  17. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  18. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  19. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  20. Naturally-occurring alpha activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayneord, W V

    1960-12-01

    In view of the difficulties of assessing the significance of man-made radioactivity it is important to study for comparison the background of natural radioactivity against which the human race has evolved and lives. It is also important to define the present levels of activity so that it will be possible to detect and study as quickly as possible any changes which may occur owing to the release into the environment of new radioactive materials. Moreover, by the study of the behaviour of natural radioactivity light may be shed upon that of the artificially produced isotopes and a number of analogies traced between the two groups. These concepts have led to studies of naturally-occurring radioactive materials alongside a programme of research into fission products in food, water and air, as well as studies of the metabolism of both sets of materials in the human body. Since the last report there has been a useful increase in our knowledge of natural radioactivity in the biosphere, and its levels relative to the new man-made activities. These studies have necessitated technical developments, particularly in the methods of measuring and identifying alpha-ray emitters, to which group many of the more important natural radioactive materials belong.

  1. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.

  2. What occurred in the reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Described is what occurred in the reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant at the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) from the aspect of engineering science. The tsunami attacked the Plant 1 hr after the quake. The Plant had reactors in buildings no.1-4 at 10 m height from the normal sea level which was flooded by 1.5-5.5 m high wave. All reactors in no.1-6 in the Plant were the boiling water type, and their core nuclear reactions were stopped within 3 sec due to the first quake by control rods inserted automatically. Reactors in no.1-5 lost their external AC power sources by the breakdown and subsequent submergence (no.1-4) of various equipments and in no.1, 2 and 4, the secondary DC power was then lost by the battery death. Although the isolation condenser started to cool the reactor in no.1 after DC cut, its valve was then kept closed to heat up the reactor, leading to the reaction of heated Zr in the fuel tube and water to yield H 2 which was accumulated in the building: the cause of hydrogen explosion on 12th. The reactor in no.2 had the reactor core isolation cooling system (RCIC) which operated normally for few hrs, then probably stopped to heat up the reactor, resulting in meltdown of the core but no explosion occurred because of the opened door of the blowout panel on the wall by the blast of no.1 explosion. The reactor in no.3 had RCIC and high pressure coolant injection system, but their works stopped to result in the core damage and H 2 accumulation leading to the explosion on 14th. The reactor in no.4 had not been operated because of its periodical annual examination, but was explored on 15th, of which cause was thought to be due to backward flow of H 2 from no.3. Finally, the author discusses about this accident from the industrial aspect of the design of safety level (defense in depth) on international views, and problems and tasks given. (T.T.)

  3. Earl occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter develops health-risk models for early and continuing effects of exposure to beta or gamma radiation that could be associated with light water nuclear power plant accidents. The main purpose of the chapter is to provide details on each health-risk model and on the data used. Early and continuing effects considered are prodromal symptoms and nonneoplastic diseases that usually occur soon after a brief radiation exposure. These effects are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) absorbed organ doses. For most of the effects considered, there is an absorbed organ dose threshold below which no effects are seen. Some information is provided on health effects observed in victims of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or their potential for receiving large doses, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. Exposure of the fetus is also considered. Additional data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study were used to obtain models for morbidity and mortality

  4. Does overtraining occur in triathletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Margaritis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objective: Long distance triathlon training is characterized by considerably high volume training loads. This volume can provoke an overtraining state. The aim of the study was to determine whether overtraining occurs in well-trained male triathletes in relation with their volume training loads. 2. Experimental design: A questionnaire investigation was completed two days before the Nice long-distance triathlon (October 1995: 4-km swim, 120-km bike ride and 30-km run. 3. Participants: Ninety-three well-trained male triathletes who took part in the triathlon race. 4. Measures: A questionnaire to relate clinical symptoms, which are known to appear in case of overtraining, was collected. 5. Results: 39.8% of the questioned triathletes reported a decrease in triathlon performances within the last month preceding the race. Moreover, these triathletes exhibited significantly more overtraining-relied symptoms than the others (5.9±3.8 vs 3.4±2.6, P<0.05. Surprisingly, the occurrence of overtraining in triathletes appears not to depend on the volume training loads. 6. Conclusions: These results suggest that overtraining has to be considered in the case of triathletes. This preliminary study evidences the need for further investigation in order to monitor triathletes training respond and prevent overtraining.

  5. LD Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The position paper (1981) of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities presents a revised definition of learning disabilities and identifies issues and concerns (such as the limitation to children and the exclusion clause) associated with the definition included in P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (DB)

  6. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716

  7. Definition of the electric requirements for the equipment associated to the limiter reactor on a 550 kV line occurring from manoeuvres under short circuits; Definicao dos requisitos eletricos dos equipamentos associados ao reator limitador em 550 kV, em decorrencia de manobras sob curtos-circuitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Junior, Camilo; Furuoka, Nita; Rose, Eber Havila [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: eber@eln.gov.br; Violin, Airton; Martinez, Manuel Luis Barreira [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba (EFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Eletrica. Lab. de Alta Tensao; Saraiva, Carlos Alberto Moura [Consorcio THEMAG-ENGEVIX, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the ascertaining based on the TRT study results performed to the definition of the new circuit breakers characteristics for the second stage of the Tucurui hydroelectric power plant, placed at the northern Brazil and with final configuration of two power houses and two air isolated substations, amounting 9 GVA. To reduce the short-circuit level to satisfactory values series reactors were used among the 550 kV substations. The result of the studies associated to the circuit breaker specifications are presented.

  8. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  9. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...... making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD....

  10. On the definition of 'chaos'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2009-01-01

    A new definition of a chaotic invariant set is given for a continuous semiflow in a metric space. It generalizes the well-known definition due to Devaney and allows one to take into account a special feature occurring in the non-compact infinite-dimensional case: so-called turbulent chaos. The paper consists of two sections. The first contains several well-known facts from chaotic dynamics, together with new definitions and results. The second presents a concrete example demonstrating that our definition of chaos is meaningful. Namely, an infinite-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations is investigated having an attractor that is chaotic in the sense of the new definition but not in the sense of Devaney or Knudsen. Bibliography: 65 titles.

  11. Cavitation phenomena occurring on Pelton turbines buckets. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brivio, R.; Zappi, O.

    1995-01-01

    The article takes into consideration the erosion and/or cavitation phenomena occurring on the Pelton turbine buckets. It describes the main geometrical parameters that can cause the deterioration of the hydraulic profile and the provisions taken for avoid it or at least reduce it at the minimum when this deterioration has taken place. Furthermore, this article describes the development of the profiles up to the definition of bucket shapes that can assure high efficiencies and lack of cavitation. Some significant results, obtained about ten years ago in the hydraulic laboratory utilizing a closed circuit and reduced scale models, are then illustrated

  12. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  13. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  14. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  15. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    /current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  16. Formal synthesis of naturally occurring norephedrine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives has been achieved following classical organic transformations using commercially available chiral pools. The said derivatives were explored for the synthesis of naturally occurring bio-active small molecules. Formal synthesis of norephedrine, virolin ...

  17. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...

  18. A naturally occurring trap for antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, J.; Morita, N.; Ito, T.M.

    1993-05-01

    The phenomenon of delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium is the first instance of a naturally occurring trap for antimatter in ordinary matter. Recent studies of this effect at CERN are summarized, and plans are described for laser excitation experiments to test its interpretation in terms of metastable exotic helium atom formation. (author)

  19. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, Arthur W. G.; Gelauff, Jeannette M.; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic

  20. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emara, A E [National Center for radiation Research and Technology Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs.

  1. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs

  2. Universal MI definition update for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harvey; Thygesen, Kristian; Alpert, Joseph S; Jaffe, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The new third universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) is based on troponin elevation together with ischemic symptoms, ischemic ECG changes, and imaging evidence. MIs are classified into five types as to whether they are spontaneous, secondary to imbalance between coronary artery blood supply and demand, related to sudden death, or related to revascularization procedures. The definition is based on a rise and/or fall in troponin levels occurring in a clinical setting. There have been modifications over previous definitions with adding intracoronary thrombus as a criterion, adding a new type of MI type 4c, and raising the cutpoint for the diagnosis of MI related to percutaneous coronary intervention to five times the 99(th) percentile upper reference limit and requiring evidence of ischemia or angiographic complications. In clinical practice, trials, and registries, different definitions are used. There is a need for consistency with regard to the definition of MI and the universal definition should be implemented.

  3. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur W. Buijink; Jeannette M. Gelauff; Sandra M. van der Salm; Marina A. Tijssen; Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first descr...

  4. [Spiritual phenomena occurring in everybody and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsiak, M

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.

  5. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, Arthur W G; Gelauff, Jeannette M; van der Salm, Sandra M A; Tijssen, Marina A J; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  6. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W. Buijink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  7. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  8. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  9. Wegener's granulomatosis occurring de novo during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfhaily, F; Watts, R; Leather, A

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is rarely diagnosed during the reproductive years and uncommonly manifests for the first time during pregnancy. We report a case of de novo WG presenting at 30 weeks gestation with classical symptoms of WG (ENT, pulmonary). The diagnosis was confirmed by radiological, laboratory, and histological investigations. With a multidisciplinary approach, she had a successful vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. She was treated successfully by a combination of steroids, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin in the active phase of disease for induction of remission and by azathioprine and steroids for maintenance of remission. The significant improvement in her symptoms allowed us to continue her pregnancy to 37 weeks when delivery was electively induced. Transplacental transmission of PR3-ANCA occurred but the neonate remained well. This case of de novo WG during pregnancy highlights the seriousness of this disease and the challenge in management of such patients.

  10. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  11. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  12. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  13. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  14. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  15. Uranium occurence in California near Bucaramanga (Columbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider Polania, J.

    1980-01-01

    The mining district of California, Bucaramanga, is on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental in the Santander massif region. The oldest rocks of the area form a complex of metamorphites and migmatites of the predevonic age. Amphibolite various types of paragneiss and orthogneiss are represented. Several stages of metamorphism can be documented in some rocks, as well as double anatexis. Triassic to jurassic quarz diorites and leukogranites show wide distribution. Porphyric rocks of granodioritic to granitic composition, to which the uranium mineralization is mainly bonded, intruded into the sediments of the lower cretaceous. Atomic absorption spectral analyses were carried out for the elements Cu, Zn and Li, as well as the uranium contents of some samples using fluorimetry. Uranium is primarily bonded to pitch blende and coffinite. The latter mostly occur in fine distribution grown in quarz and belong to the most recent mineralization phase. Autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, meta-torbernite, zeunerite, meta-zeunerite and meta uranocircite detected as secondary uranium minerals. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Bioassay of naturally occurring allelochemicals for phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, G R; Einhellig, F A

    1988-10-01

    The bioassay has been one of the most widely used tests to demonstrate allelopathic activity. Often, claims that a particular plant species inhibits the growth of another are based entirely on the seed germination response to solvent extracts of the suspected allelopathic plant; few of these tests are of value in demonstrating allelopathy under natural conditions. The veracity of the bioassay for evaluating naturally occurring compounds for phytotoxicity depends upon the physiological and biochemical response capacity of the bioassay organism and the mechanism(s) of action of the allelochemicals. The possibility that more than one allelochemical, acting in concert at very low concentrations, may be responsible for an observed allelopathic effect makes it imperative that bioassays be extremely sensitive to chemical growth perturbation agents. Among the many measures of phytotoxicity of allelochemicals, the inhibition (or stimulation) of seed germination, radicle elongation, and/or seedling growth have been the parameters of choice for most investigations. Few of these assays have been selected with the view towards the possible mechanism of the allelopathic effect.

  17. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  18. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  19. Naturally occurring minichromosome platforms in chromosome engineering: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Artificially modified chromosome vectors are non-integrating gene delivery platforms that can shuttle very large DNA fragments in various recipient cells: theoretically, no size limit exists for the chromosome segments that an engineered minichromosome can accommodate. Therefore, genetically manipulated chromosomes might be potentially ideal vector systems, especially when the complexity of higher eukaryotic genes is concerned. This review focuses on those chromosome vectors generated using spontaneously occurring small markers as starting material. The definition and manipulation of the centromere domain is one of the main obstacles in chromosome engineering: naturally occurring minichromosomes, due to their inherent small size, were helpful in defining some aspects of centromere function. In addition, several distinctive features of small marker chromosomes, like their appearance as supernumerary elements in otherwise normal karyotypes, have been successfully exploited to use them as gene delivery vectors. The key technologies employed for minichromosome engineering are: size reduction, gene targeting, and vector delivery in various recipient cells. In spite of the significant advances that have been recently achieved in all these fields, several unsolved problems limit the potential of artificially modified chromosomes. Still, these vector systems have been exploited in a number of applications where the investigation of the controlled expression of large DNA segments is needed. A typical example is the analysis of genes whose expression strictly depends on the chromosomal environment in which they are positioned, where engineered chromosomes can be envisaged as epigenetically regulated expression systems. A novel and exciting advance concerns the use of engineered minichromosomes to study the organization and dynamics of local chromatin structures.

  20. GROWTH OF NATURALLY OCCURING Listeria innocua IN COPPA DI TESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coppa di testa is a traditional cooked pork salami produced in different Italian regions. The main raw material is deboned meat of pork head with the addition of tongue and rind. After a long (3-5 h high temperature (97°C cooking, additives and flavourings are added and the salami is prepared. After cooling the salami is often portioned and vacuum- packaged. In this study the growth of naturally occurring contamination of Listeria innocua in three batches of vacuum packaged Coppa di testa, stored at 4°C for 80 days, is described. The average max was 0.24 (days-1 and the average doubling time was 2.87 days. The maximum growth level ranged from 4.90 to 8.17 (log10 cfu/g. These results indicate that Coppa di testa definitely supports the growth of Listeria innocua in the considered storage conditions. Taking into account that at 4°C Listeria monocytogenes strains are associated with higher grow rates than L. innocua, these results emphasize the importance of preventing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the production stages following cooking.

  1. Definition and classification of hypertension: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Thomas D; Materson, Barry J; Cohn, Jay N; Kostis, John B

    2009-11-01

    Since the publication of a paper by the American Society of Hypertension, Inc. Writing Group in 2003, some refinements have occurred in the definition of hypertension. Blood pressure is now recognized as a biomarker for hypertension, and a distinction is made between the various stages of hypertension and global cardiovascular risk. This paper discusses the logic underlying the refinements in the definition of hypertension. 2009 Wiley Periodical, Inc.

  2. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  3. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  5. Sexting and the Definition Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Surís, Joan-Carles; Akre, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Sexting among youths has become a necessary topic of interest in research because of the negative consequences that this activity could create, especially when content is shared with others. Indeed, this loss of control could lead to humiliation, (cyber)bullying, or harassment. The development of new technologies, press coverage, and increase of prevalence rates could also explain the growth of interest in sexting. However, its definition is still a gray area. This review examines the different definitions of sexting used in the literature and its correlates. Several elements of the definition of sexting were assessed: actions (sending, receiving, and forwarding); media types (text, images, and videos); sexual characteristics; and transmission modes. Nine databases were searched for studies on sexting among youths up to 18 years of age. Eighteen studies published between 2012 and 2015 were included. Prevalence rates of sexting ranged between .9% and 60% partly depending on the definition. Most studies assessed sending, but when sending and receiving were measured, prevalence rates were higher for receiving. Some articles found associations with age, gender, race, sexual behavior, romantic relationships, risky behaviors, online activity, psychological difficulties, and social pressure. Finding a consensus regarding the definition is essential to assess accurately the activity and adapt prevention. Adolescents' interpretations of the activity are important as sexting could be used as a sexual behavior between two consenting persons. Prevention strategies should focus on sexting that goes wrong when it is forwarded to a third party and when it occurs in a context of pressure or harassment. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The acquisition of compositional definiteness in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Anderssen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim to explain why the prenominal definiteness marker found in modified structures only is acquired much later than the suffixal definite article in Norwegian. The coexistence of the two definiteness markers is the result of the so-called double definiteness phenomenon in Norwegian which occurs in definite structures involving an attributive adjective. As the prenominal determiner only occurs in modified contexts, one obvious explanation that presents itself is that the omission of the prenominal determiner is related to the fact that it is much less frequent in the input than the suffixal article. However, if we consider the form of this determiner, it is clear that the form itself must be very frequent in the input, as it is homophonous with the demonstrative and with inanimate third person pronouns, which are all frequent in use. Consequently, a lexical insertion approach to the double definiteness phenomenon is proposed according to which the discrepancy in the order of acquisition is argued to be due to a combination of prosodic saliency and the lexicalisation of semantic features, the latter of which will be dealt with here.

  7. 28 CFR 81.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.5 Definitions. Local child protective services agency means that agency of the federal... responsibility for the investigation of an instance of alleged child abuse occurring within a particular portion...

  8. 18 CFR 284.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 284.1 Section 284.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... charges on a cost-of-service basis. (c) Market center means an area where gas purchases and sales occur at...

  9. 30 CFR 705.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESTRICTION ON FINANCIAL INTERESTS OF STATE EMPLOYEES § 705.5 Definitions. Act. Means the Surface Mining... of reclaiming the areas upon which such activities occur. Direct financial interest. Means ownership... holding in or salary from coal mining operations. Direct financial interests include employment, pensions...

  10. 40 CFR 439.11 - Special definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.11 Special definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Fermentation means process operations that utilize a... occurring in unicellular plants such as yeast, molds, or fungi to produce a specified product. (b) Product...

  11. 16 CFR 1028.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1028.102 Section 1028.102 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.102... investigator and subject. “Private information” includes information about behavior that occurs in a context in...

  12. Definition of Videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to the games theorist. A disjunctive definition of videogaming seems the most appropriate of these definitional options. The disjunctive definition I offer here is motivated by the observation that there is more than one characteristic way of being a videogame.

  13. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV-positive and -negative individuals with recent HCV. The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from 50 genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. A total of 12% of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non-dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (that is, Resistance variants (resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low-level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192569.

  14. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  15. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  16. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  17. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  18. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  19. Defending definitions of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  20. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  1. INTRODUCTION Endocrine disorders do occur among children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, Ibadan. 2. Department of ... In order to make a definitive diagnosis, pituitary function tests were carried out in the .... IGF-I was 33ng/ml (low) and prolactin was <50mU/ l (low). TRH test ...

  2. Genomic definition of species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  3. Definition of successful defibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Walker, Robert G.; van Alem, Anouk P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The definition of defibrillation shock "success" endorsed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation since the publication of Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care has been removal of ventricular fibrillation at 5 secs after shock

  4. Uranium occurences in calcrete and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Horwitz, R.C.; Mann, A.W.

    1977-10-01

    The report is a compilation of data pertaining to the occurence and distribution of uranium mineralization in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia and contains brief descriptions of many of the calcrete-uranium occurences, including some of the most minor. Virtually all calcretes in the region are liable to contain traces of uranium mineralization, visible as coatings of carnotite. The locations of the uranium occurences are shown on a map which features the distribution of calcrete

  5. Distribution definition of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerler, W.

    1979-01-01

    By starting from quantum mechanics it turns out that a rather general definition of quantum functional integrals can be given which is based on distribution theory. It applies also to curved space and provides clear rules for non-linear transformations. The refinements necessary in usual definitions of path integrals are pointed out. Since the quantum nature requires special care with time sequences, it is not the classical phase space which occurs in the phase-space form of the path integral. Feynman's configuration-space form only applies to a highly specialized situation, and therefore is not a very advantageous starting point for general investigations. It is shown that the commonly used substitutions of variables do not properly account for quantum effects. The relation to the traditional ordering problem is clarified. The distribution formulation has allowed to treat constrained systems directly at the quantum level, to complete the path integral formulation of the equivalence theorem, and to define functional integrals also for space translation after the transition to fields. (orig.)

  6. Exploring Mathematical Definition Construction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier-Buffet, Cecile

    2006-01-01

    The definition of "definition" cannot be taken for granted. The problem has been treated from various angles in different journals. Among other questions raised on the subject we find: the notions of "concept definition" and "concept image", conceptions of mathematical definitions, redefinitions, and from a more axiomatic point of view, how to…

  7. Where does particle acceleration occur in extended extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that particle acceleration does not occur in the extended lobes of extragalactic radio sources, but only in the compact heads. Away from these, waves capable of accelerating particles may not propagate. Although wave generation within the lobes would allow acceleration there, it is not obvious that the plasma is sufficiently disturbed for this to occur. (author)

  8. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ITER definition phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned as a fusion device which would demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. As a first step towards achieving this goal, the European Community, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America have entered into joint conceptual design activities under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. A brief summary of the Definition Phase of ITER activities is contained in this report. Included in this report are the background, objectives, organization, definition phase activities, and research and development plan of this endeavor in international scientific collaboration. A more extended technical summary is contained in the two-volume report, ''ITER Concept Definition,'' IAEA/ITER/DS/3. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Occurance and expansion: if it was not so?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnikov Viatcheslav Yurievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The author criticizes some hypotheses of amphibians and reptiles occurrence and expansion, including those on the basis of data phylogeography interpretation,suggested by herpetologists. Using molecular data, it is impossible to define, where subspecies has appeared and how its area varied. The method of definition of species appearance time requires very serious correlation by means of paleontological data. It is also impossible to identify approximate time of the subspecies occurrence, defined by molecular data, with the time of its modern area occupation. We can assume it, analyzing paleontological findings and paleogeographical conditions at that time, but not vice versa.

  11. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during treatment for malignant Iymphoproliferative diseases are described in 5 patients. There appeared to be a temporal relationship between the development of these complications and the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs or extensive radiotherapy.

  13. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  14. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  15. Center of buoyancy definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.

    1988-12-01

    The center of buoyancy of an arbitrary shaped body is defined in analogy to the center of gravity. The definitions of the buoyant force and center of buoyancy in terms of integrals over the area of the body are converted to volume integrals and shown to have simple intuitive interpretations

  16. VSCE technology definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.; Hunt, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Refined design definition of the variable stream control engine (VSCE) concept for advanced supersonic transports is presented. Operating and performance features of the VSCE are discussed, including the engine components, thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, noise, and emission system. A preliminary engine design is presented.

  17. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  18. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  19. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…

  20. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations in the...

  1. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  2. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Safi Esfahani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature governing the Intercultural Communication and Cross-cultural Communication as two subjects discussed in the field of Cultural Communication and International Communication, have been reviewed and tried through a novel method to promote the level of religion from a concept usually seen as something such as race, ethnic, identity and life style under the title of international communication and cultural communication to a much higher position and place it under the title of interreligious communication. Following creation of a new field of study, many of the scholars and thinkers who are concerned about that field get together and focus of its issues and try to offer definitions and divisions about the subject. Later, after accumulation of scientific materials about different issues in the field, the human knowledge in that subject starts to develop further and in a more organized way. In this regard, first, the preferred definitions of religion, culture, communication, and Interreligious Communication will be offered. Accordingly, every society includes a meaning structure which is called culture and communication would act as an interaction tool in this system whose task is coding and decoding. Religion is considered the origin of culture and the director of communication. Based on these primary definitions, the interreligious communication is defined as: the relationship between or among the monotheistic religions based on the common understanding of religious

  3. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature governing the Intercultural Communication and Cross-cultural Communication as two subjects discussed in the field of Cultural Communication and International Communication, have been reviewed and tried through a novel method to promote the level of religion from a concept usually seen as something such as race, ethnic, identity and life style under the title of international communication and cultural communication to a much higher position and place it under the title of interreligious communication. Following creation of a new field of study, many of the scholars and thinkers who are concerned about that field get together and focus of its issues and try to offer definitions and divisions about the subject. Later, after accumulation of scientific materials about different issues in the field, the human knowledge in that subject starts to develop further and in a more organized way. In this regard, first, the preferred definitions of religion, culture, communication, and Interreligious Communication will be offered. Accordingly, every society includes a meaning structure which is called culture and communication would act as an interaction tool in this system whose task is coding and decoding. Religion is considered the origin of culture and the director of communication. Based on these primary definitions, the interreligious communication is defined as: the relationship between or among the monotheistic religions based on the common understanding of religious

  4. Spreading depolarizations occur in human ischemic stroke with high incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohmen, C.; Sakowitz, O.W.; Fabricius, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and periinfarct depolarization (PID) have been shown in various experimental models of stroke to cause secondary neuronal damage and infarct expansion. For decades it has been questioned whether CSD or PID occur in human ischemic stroke. Here, we...... potential change spreading between adjacent channels was accompanied by transient depression of ECoG activity. In PID, a slow potential change spread between neighboring channels despite already established suppression of ECoG activity. Most CSDs and PIDs appeared repetitively in clusters. CSD or PID...... was observed in all but two patients. In these two patients, the electrode strip had been placed over infarcted tissue, and accordingly, no local ECoG or recurrent transient depolarization activity occurred throughout the observation period. Interpretation: CSD and PID occurred spontaneously with high...

  5. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki

    1996-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma

  6. Report of the laboratory building for late occurring injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In order to estimate the danger of low level radiation to human beings, the studies of the late-occurring injuries and internal exposure due to radionuclide deposition are necessary. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, research on the estimation of the danger of late-occurring injuries due to radiation is proceeding. In this connection, a late-occurring injury laboratory building has been completed recently. Basic ideas behind it are as follows. To carry out the above mentioned studies effectively and efficiently, many experimental animals of high quality must be kept under best possible environment. For the observation in a series of experiments, irradiation room and laboratory rooms are essential. The building comprises the following: the first floor for animal receiving, the second floor for laboratory rooms, the third floor for RI facility and X-ray irradiated animal keeping, the fourth floor for SPF animal keeping, and attic floor for water supply, etc. (J.P.N.)

  7. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  8. PRIMARY TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PSYCHOMOTOR DISTURBANCES OCCURING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt to determine the level of knowledge of teachers in the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of psychomotor disorders of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: 174 teachers of physical education and integrated education in primary schools were tested. The study used questionnaire technique. Results: As the most common disorders in the population of school-age children surveyed teachers list ADHD (30% and dyslexia (30%. Only 34% of respondents correctly determined epidemiology of psychomotor disorders and listed their symptoms. Over 80% of respondents claimed that they had never worked with children exhibiting psychomotor disorders. The majority of respondents (98% did not participate in training on working with children with developmental disabilities. Results: The state of knowledge of psychomotor disorders of the surveyed teachers is low. Teachers have difficulty not only in defining the epidemiology of various disorders but also in correct definition of symptoms full spectrum.

  9. Immunoregulation by naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The role of naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in homeostasis and in disease manifestations is poorly understood. In the present chapter, we review how NAbs may interfere with the cytokine network and how NAbs, through formation of complement-activating immune complexes with soluble self......-antigens, may promote the uptake and presentation of self-molecules by antigen-presenting cells. Both naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies against a variety of cytokines have been reported, including NAbs against interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  10. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  11. Total retinal detachment occurring after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Pienaru; Ramona, Serban; Mircea, Filip; Andrei, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the case of a patient with a severe decrease of visual acuity that occurred after an apparently minor head injury. Following the investigations, the patient was diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that was triggered by a fall from the same level and which occurred on a background of lattice degeneration. In this case, a minor trauma caused a severe complication because the patient had a contributing factor for the complication. The patient was operated and the end result was satisfactory.

  12. Nuclear technology terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The terms and definitions in this standard are part of the catalogue of definitions 'Nuclear technology, terms and definitions', in eight parts; they are the latest version of the standards and draft standards of DIN 25 401, part 10 to 19, published at irregular intervals until now. (orig.) [de

  13. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that ...

  14. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and ...

  15. Information disclosure of troubles occurring at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Shinozaki, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), efforts are made so that troubles occurred are promptly reported and announced publicly, and for minor troubles, etc., announcement to the society is made through the web-site and publicity magazines, so as to assure the transparency of the business. (author)

  16. Learning by investing: evidence from a naturally occurring auction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2011), s. 125-149 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : learning * naturally occurring auction * stock market Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2011

  17. Cancer Fatigue: Why It Occurs and How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer fatigue: Why it occurs and how to cope The exact causes of cancer fatigue and how best to treat it aren't ... clear. Find out what doctors know about cancer fatigue and what you can do about it. By ...

  18. Auto-immune Haematological Complications Occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-10-19

    Oct 19, 1974 ... Immunohaematological disorders may complicate the clini- cal course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphocytic lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.'" Auto- immune haemolytic anaemia is the most common of these complications, occurring in approximately 10 - 25'% of patients with ...

  19. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  20. Adsorption of fluoride ions onto naturally occurring earth materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch sorption system using two naturally occurring earth materials (EM) as adsorbents was investigated to remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution. The system variables studied include initial concentration of the sorbate, agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH, co-ions and temperature. The experimental data fitted well to ...

  1. Does the dilution effect generally occur in animal diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zheng Y.X.; Yu, Yang; Langevelde, Van Frank; Boer, De Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses

  2. Integrated security system definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.K.; Hall, J.R. II

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of an integrated security system are to detect intruders and unauthorized activities with a high degree of reliability and the to deter and delay them until effective response/engagement can be accomplished. Definition of an effective integrated security system requires proper application of a system engineering methodology. This paper summarizes a methodology and describes its application to the problem of integrated security system definition. This process includes requirements identification and analysis, allocation of identified system requirements to the subsystem level and provides a basis for identification of synergistic subsystem elements and for synthesis into an integrated system. The paper discusses how this is accomplished, emphasizing at each step how system integration and subsystem synergism is considered. The paper concludes with the product of the process: implementation of an integrated security system

  3. Controversy around the definition of waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-11-20

    Full Text Available This paper presents the information concerning the definition of waste. Discussing the importance of the clear definition, ongoing debates, broad definition of waste, problems with the broad definition, interpretation, current waste management model...

  4. Toward a Definition of the Engineering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Billy V.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a preliminary definition of engineering method as well as a definition and examples of engineering heuristics. After discussing some alternative definitions of the engineering method, a simplified definition of the engineering method is suggested. (YP)

  5. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  6. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  7. The Logic of Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Wittgenstein , in his Philosophical Investigations (1953), observed that, for many phenomena, there are no necessary conditions common to all members of... Wittgenstein 1953: §66, p.27e). Wittgenstein refers to these overlapping similarities as “family resemblances” (Ibid., §67, p.27e). Few, if any, of...that is, we may resort to stipulative definition). But this is not necessary for the concept to be usable. Indeed, as Wittgenstein says, sometimes

  8. Definition of containment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Public Law 96-567 Nuclear Safety Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1980, directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide an accelerated and coordinated program for developing practical generic improvements that would enhance the capability for safe, reliable and economical operation of Light Water Nuclear Reactor Power Stations. The DOE approach to defining such a program will consist of two phases, (1) definition of program requirements and (2) implementation of the program plan. This paper summarizes the results of the program definition phase for the containment integrity function. The definition phase effort was carried out by two groups of knowledgeable technical experts from the nuclear industry, one of which addressed containment integrity. Tabulated in the paper are the issues identified by the working groups and their associated priorities. Also tabulated are those high priority issues for which ongoing programs do not appear to provide sufficient information to resolve the issue. The results of this review show that existing programs to a great extent address existing issues in a manner such that the issues should be resolved by the programs

  9. Aldosterone breakthrough in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; Eriksson, A; Hess, A M

    2017-06-01

    Aldosterone breakthrough (ABT) is the condition in which angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers fail to effectively suppress the activity of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The objective of this study was to determine if ABT occurs in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving an ACEI, using the urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) as a measure of renin angiotensin aldosterone system activation. This study includes 39 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. A UAldo:C cut-off definition (derived from a normal population of healthy, adult, and client-owned dogs) was used to determine the prevalence of ABT in this population. Spearman analysis and univariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the relationship between UAldo:C and ABT (yes/no) and eight variables (age, serum K + concentration, serum creatinine concentration, ACEI therapy duration and ACEI dosage, furosemide therapy duration and furosemide dosage, and urine sample storage time). Finally, the UAldo:C in dogs receiving spironolactone, as part congestive heart failure (CHF) therapy, was compared to dogs with CHF that were not receiving spironolactone. The prevalence of ABT was 32% in dogs with CHF and 30% in dogs without CHF. There was no relationship between either the UAldo:C or the likelihood of ABT and the eight variables. Therapy with spironolactone lead to a significant elevation of the UAldo:C. Using the UAldo:C and a relatively stringent definition of ABT, it appears that incomplete RAAS blockade is common in dogs with MMVD receiving an ACEI. The prevalence of ABT in this canine population mirrors that reported in humans. While the mechanism of ABT is likely multifactorial and still poorly understood, the proven existence of ABT in dogs offers the potential to improve the prognosis for MMVD with the addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker to current therapeutic regimens

  10. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement and vascular complications definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Généreux, Philippe; van der Boon, Robert M A; Kodali, Susheel; Head, Stuart; Williams, Matthew; Daneault, Benoit; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; de Jaegere, Peter P; Leon, Martin B; Serruys, Patrick W

    2014-03-20

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) requires large calibre catheters and is therefore associated with increased vascular complications. The aim of this study was to illustrate the impact of the different definitions of major vascular complications on their incidence and to underscore the importance of uniform reporting. We pooled dedicated databases of consecutive patients undergoing TAVR from two tertiary care facilities and looked for the incidence of major vascular complications using various previously reported definitions. The level of agreement (Kappa statistic) between the respective definitions and the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) consensus definition of vascular complications was assessed. A total of 345 consecutive patients underwent transfemoral TAVR and were included in this analysis. A completely percutaneous access and closure technique was applied in 96% of cases. Arterial sheath size ranged between 18 and 24 Fr, the majority being 18 Fr (60%). Procedural success was reached in 94.5%. Depending on the definition used, major vascular complications occurred in 5.2-15.9% of patients. According to the VARC definitions, the rate of major and minor vascular complications was 9.0% and 9.6%, respectively. Major vascular complications according to VARC criteria demonstrated at least a substantial level of agreement with the SOURCE registry (k 0.80), the UK registry (k 0.82) the Italian registry (k 0.72) and "FRANCE" registry (k 0.70) definitions, compared to a moderate level of agreement with the definitions used in the German registry ( 0.47) and the 18 Fr Safety and Efficacy study (k 0.42). Minor complications according to VARC demonstrated a moderate agreement only with vascular complications using the German registry definition (k 0.54). Non-uniformity in how vascular complications are defined precludes any reliable comparison between previously reported TAVR registries. The VARC consensus document offers standardised endpoint

  11. Combinations of Genetic Variants Occurring Exclusively in Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Mellerup

    Full Text Available In studies of polygenic disorders, scanning the genetic variants can be used to identify variant combinations. Combinations that are exclusively found in patients can be separated from those combinations occurring in control persons. Statistical analyses can be performed to determine whether the combinations that occur exclusively among patients are significantly associated with the investigated disorder. This research strategy has been applied in materials from various polygenic disorders, identifying clusters of patient-specific genetic variant combinations that are significant associated with the investigated disorders. Combinations from these clusters are found in the genomes of up to 55% of investigated patients, and are not present in the genomes of any control persons. Keywords: Genetic variants, Polygenic disorder, Combinations of genetic variants, Patient-specific combinations

  12. New data about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, A.P.; Pantea, A.; Stoica, R.; Amaranadei, C.; Stefan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to enrich qualitatively and quantitatively the existing database about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory and in the adjacent areas by reevaluating and completing it with new information obtained after some complex research activities. In this respect there were studied the old book funds existing in Bucharest, especially those from the religious and cultural institutions - monasteries, libraries, archives and museums, starting with the documents existing under the custody of the Romanian Patriarchy. For the beginning there were researched three thousand books appeared between 1683-1902 where there were found information about some earthquakes occurred between 1802 and 1913. By this research, there is achieved the extension in the past of the database regarding the seismicity of the Romania's territory, by emphasizing seismic events that, according to some seismicity schemes, can repeat in the future, thus, being taken into account the major contribution of the historical seismicity to the seismic hazard assessment. (authors)

  13. Left Sided Amyand's Hernia, A Rare Occurance: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Mohan, G; Srinivasan, A; Ravindran, G; Ramalingam, A

    2013-06-01

    This is a case report about a 35 year old man admitted with complains of obstructed left sided inguinal hernia. On exploration of the left inguinal canal to our surprise a normal appendix was found in addition to a gangrenous omentum. Resection of the gangrenous omentum was done. Appendectomy was done. This case is reported for its rare occurance as only three such cases of left sided amyand's hernia has been reported so far in literature[4-6].

  14. Case of basal cell epithelioma occurring on chronic radiation dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kase, Kayoko; Matsuoka, Yoshitaka; Urushibata, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Soichi (Toho Univ. Ohashi Hosp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman had been treated with radiation therapy for lymphoid tuberculosis on the right side of the neck 40 years before. Chronic radiation dermatitis occurred on that site. Blackish small mass has appeared 2 years before on the central part of the dermatitis. Histological examination revealed thinning of the epidermis, swelling of the dermal collagen fibers, and follicular clusters composed of basaloid cells from the epidermis to the upper layer of the dermis. (Namekawa, K).

  15. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  16. Lichen striatus occurring after a tetanus vaccine: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Yalçınkaya İyidal; Kadir Balaban; Arzu Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Lichen striatus (LS) is an uncommon, acquired, self-limiting, linear inflammatory dermatosis. The eruption typically presents as pink or tan papules along Blaschko’s lines. It usually occurs in children, rarely affects adults. The rashes usually suddenly emerge in a single extremity and may regress within a few months or years. The incidence is slightly higher among women. The etiology of LS is not exactly known, however, it is thought to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune reaction. Trauma, infe...

  17. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological st...... unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes....

  18. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  19. Airway complication occurring during radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Michigishi, Takatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Airway complications rarely occur in 131 I radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. This study presents two cases in which 131 I therapy caused this acute complication. The patients complained of the symptom 6 h and 33 h after administration of 131 I. A histamine H1 receptor antagonist and hydrocortisone rapidly resolved symptoms in both cases. These two cases remind physicians that 131 I therapy for Graves' disease may cause potentially life-threatening complications. (author)

  20. On the noble gas isotopic fractionation in naturally occurring gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, B.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic composition of neon in the mantle is an important geochemical constraint on the formation of the earth and subsequent degassing. Some deviation of neon isotopic composition in natural gas and rock samples from the atmospheric value which can not be accounted for by the known nuclear process has been reported, and Nagao et al. interpreted the deviation as the result of mass fractionation in natural gas in Japan. The possible cause of such fractionation was investigated. Gaseous diffusion, such as (a) free-molecule diffusion, (b) mutual diffusion and (c) thermal diffusion, is able to cause isotopic fractionation. After the detailed consideration on these three diffusion processes, conclusion that free-molecule diffusion occurs only in very particular condition, and it is questionable that thermal diffusion occurs in nature, were obtained. (b) which means the interaction of two or more gases, is supposed to occur in nature, and is able to confirm experimentally. In mutual diffusion only, gas transfer is concerned, but other form of fractionation should not be neglected. In solid diffusion, gas is trapped by fine grained sedimentary rocks, and may be fractionated by adsorption and communication to exterior through minute channels. Underground water also works as noble gas reservoir. For example, when gas stream is in contact with water, continuous exchange is possible to take place at the interface of gas and liquid, which contributes to the fractionation. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  1. Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni Occurs Beyond Limits of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni. PMID:23049803

  2. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  3. Percutaneous treatment of complications occurring during hemodialysis graft recanalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. E-mail: constant@pol.net; Schur, Israel; Koh, Elsie; Hinrichs, Clay; Cooper, Stanley G.; Welber, Adam; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2003-09-01

    Introduction/objective: To describe and evaluate percutaneous treatment methods of complications occurring during recanalization of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 579 thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts revealed 48 complications occurring during urokinase thrombolysis (512) or mechanical thrombectomy (67). These include 12 venous or venous anastomotic ruptures not controlled by balloon tamponade, eight arterial emboli, 12 graft extravasations, seven small hematomas, four intragraft pseudointimal 'dissections', two incidents of pulmonary edema, one episode of intestinal angina, one procedural death, and one distant hematoma. Results: Twelve cases of post angioplasty ruptures were treated with uncovered stents of which 10 resulted in graft salvage allowing successful hemodialysis. All arterial emboli were retrieved by Fogarty or embolectomy balloons. The 10/12 graft extravasations were successfully treated by digital compression while the procedure was completed and the graft flow was restored. Dissections were treated with prolonged Percutaneous Trasluminal Angioplasty (PTA) balloon inflation. Overall technical success was 39/48 (81%). Kaplan-Meier Primary and secondary patency rates were 72 and 78% at 30, 62 and 73% at 90 and 36 and 67% at 180 days, respectively. Secondary patency rates remained over 50% at 1 year. There were no additional complications caused by these maneuvers. Discussions and conclusion: The majority of complications occurring during percutaneous thrombolysis/thrombectomy of thrombosed access grafts, can be treated at the same sitting allowing completion of the recanalization procedure and usage of the same access for hemodialysis.

  4. Uranium occurence in the Rio Cristalino area, South of Para

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Ribeiro, E.; Camarco, P.E.N.; Puppin, C.; Santos Filho, J.L. dos.

    1986-01-01

    The Rio Cristalino area where occurs uranium mineralization is located in the Western part of the Santana do Araguaia Town, Para State. This area comprises 1.350 Km 2 , and was selected from the evolution of the 'Projeto Geofisico Brasil - Canada - PGBC'. According to the results obtained from this Project, 15 airbone anomalies were selected for ground check. In the anomalies AN-03 and H-09 were found the best uranium occurence. The host rocks consist of arkose and sandstone of Pre-Cambriam ages, which show a very low-grade of metamorphism. The primary mineralization occurs in arkose along the cataclastic foliation (N70 0 W / 65 0 NE). The secundary mineralization involves clay galls and fills fracture zones in sandstone of the anomaly H-09. The highest grade detected in a rock sample of the anomaly AN-03 was 6,1% U 3 O 8 , whereas in the trenches there are intervals of 6 m thickness with a grade of 0,59% U 3 O 8 . Based on some mineralization aspects and field data, the genetic conceptual model to the uranium mineralization is proposed. (author) [pt

  5. Information about the accident occurred near Rapsodie (1994, March 31th)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, P.; Del Negro, R.

    1997-01-01

    On March 31st, 1994, during the cleaning of the residual sodium contained in a tank located in a hall outside the containment building of the RAPSODIE reactor an explosion occurred. One member of the CEA staff was killed and four people were wounded. A commission of inquiry chaired by the CEA General Inspector for Nuclear Safety was set up by the 'Administrateur Generale' of the CEA the day following the accident. This Commission delivered its first conclusions in July 1994. The sodium present in the tank in which the accident occurred comes from the primary cooling circuit of Rapsodie. After the final shutdown of the reactor, in 1982, all 37 metric tons of primary sodium were drained in 1985, then filtered to be purified from most of their radioactive contamination ; the 137 cesium activity, for instance, was reduced to about one hundredth of its original value. Laboratories of the CEA, the chemical industry, the university and the CNRS were involved in the program of global chemical experiments in order to understand the integral phenomena. The follow-up of the program should provide results that will enable the complex phenomena to be quantified and thus clarify the feedback from this accident and the knowledge acquired since that time. The need exists to maintain the suspension of the implementation of ethylcarbitol cleaning until definite conclusions have been drawn from both the present and future studies

  6. A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Stein, C Michael; Hall, Kathi; Ray, Wayne A

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate studies of medications and sudden cardiac death, we developed and validated a computer case definition for these deaths. The study of community dwelling Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30-74 years of age utilized a linked database with Medicaid inpatient/outpatient files, state death certificate files, and a state 'all-payers' hospital discharge file. The computerized case definition was developed from a retrospective cohort study of sudden cardiac deaths occurring between 1990 and 1993. Medical records for 926 potential cases had been adjudicated for this study to determine if they met the clinical definition for sudden cardiac death occurring in the community and were likely to be due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The computerized case definition included deaths with (1) no evidence of a terminal hospital admission/nursing home stay in any of the data sources; (2) an underlying cause of death code consistent with sudden cardiac death; and (3) no terminal procedures inconsistent with unresuscitated cardiac arrest. This definition was validated in an independent sample of 174 adjudicated deaths occurring between 1994 and 2005. The positive predictive value of the computer case definition was 86.0% in the development sample and 86.8% in the validation sample. The positive predictive value did not vary materially for deaths coded according to the ICO-9 (1994-1998, positive predictive value = 85.1%) or ICD-10 (1999-2005, 87.4%) systems. A computerized Medicaid database, linked with death certificate files and a state hospital discharge database, can be used for a computer case definition of sudden cardiac death. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 60.4248 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rotary internal combustion engine. Pipeline-quality natural gas means a naturally occurring fluid mixture... equal to 2 percent. Rotary internal combustion engine means any internal combustion engine which uses... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Definitions § 60.4248 What definitions apply to this...

  9. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  10. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  11. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  12. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  13. Contemporary jewelry definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Aparecido Mercaldi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary jewelry terminology is open to many criticism and weaknesses as it is confronted with the classic definition of jewelry and also often attached to the historical widespread idea of adornment and jewelry to modernity. Therefore one of the this article issues is to approach about what it is contemporary jewelry and how it can be defined. Thus, we present the topics related to the jewel discussion in contemporary times that are organized into a set of assumptions and approaches that help us provide an overview about the contemporary jewelry.

  14. The definition of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J S

    1993-11-01

    Formulations of alcohol dependence are continuously refreshed, in line with changing concepts and altered needs. Two new descriptions have been prepared: the revised WHO criteria for substance use disorders and an educative definition of alcoholism. The major sets of diagnostic criteria provided by WHO and by the American Psychiatric Association are moving closer together but have not solved all the semantic problems. More refined assessments are also available to quicken fulfillment of the long-awaited hope that treatments can be matched to patients.

  15. The definite article in Romance expletives and long weak definites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Teresa Espinal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on some issues involving expletive articles and long weak definites in Romance (mainly Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese and Catalan, in comparison to DPs that elicit a strong reading. We show the similarities between expletive definites and long weak definites, and we argue for an analysis in common to other polarity items in terms of polarity sensitivity. We reach the conclusion that the definite article in Romance comes in two variants: the referentially unique variant (to be translated as the semantic 'iota 'operator and the polar variant, formally characterized with an abstract [+σ] feature, that encodes a weak bound reading (to be semantically translated by an existential operator.

  16. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  17. A case report of osteosarcoma occurred in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hwa; Jeon, Seon Doo

    1996-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of bone, The mean age of occurrence of osteosarcoma in the jaws is around 30, somewhat older than for other sites in the body. These lesions occur about equally in the maxilla and mandible. They most frequently develop in the body in the mandible, and the antrum and the posterior portion of alveolar ridge in the maxilla. We report a case of osteosarcoma in 35 years old female complaining swelling of the left cheek. Radiographic features showed cotton wool appearance in upper left posterior area. Histopathologic findings exhibited pleomorphic malignant osteoblasts and neoplastic osteoid.

  18. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included

  19. When modularization fails to occur: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2011-05-01

    We argue that models of adult cognition defined in terms of independently functioning modules cannot be applied to development, whether typical or atypical. The infant brain starts out highly interconnected, and it is only over developmental time that neural networks become increasingly specialized-that is, relatively modularized. In the case of atypical development, even when behavioural scores fall within the normal range, they are frequently underpinned by different cognitive and neural processes. In other words, in neurodevelopmental disorders the gradual process of relative modularization may fail to occur.

  20. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  1. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, D L; Little, E E

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  2. Perichiasmatic granuloma occuring after radical mastoidectomy: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouhri, H.; Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Joutel, A. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Neurologie, Paris (France); Kujas, M. [Hopital la Pitie Salpetriere, Laboratoire d`Histologie-Embryologie, Paris (France); Brette, M.D. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d`ORL, Paris (France); Artuis, F. [Hopital la Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Neurochirurgie de la Pitie, 83 boulevard de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)

    1998-03-01

    A case of chronic chemical meningitis occurring after a radical mastoidectomy is reported. Imaging and surgical findings were suggestive of a dissemination of cholesteatoma debris within the subarachnoid spaces. Chemical meningitis has been described in epidermoid and dermoid cyst rupture. This report illustrates that clinicians should be aware of this possible complication. Skull base imaging is mandatory before considering the diagnosis of idiopathic meningitis. Only treatment of the abnormal communication between cerebrospinal fluid and middle ear may eradicate the origin of this rare meningitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 15 refs.

  3. Complexes of actinides with naturally occuring organic substances - Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, U.; Allard, B.

    1983-02-01

    Properties of naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids and their formation of actinide complexes are reviewed. Actinides in all the oxdation states III, IV, V and VI would form complexes with many humic and fulvic acids, comparable in strength to the hydroxide and carbonate complexes. Preliminary experiments have shown, that the presence of predominantly humic acid complexes would significantly reduce the sorption of americium on geologic media. This does not, however, necessarily lead to a potentially enhanced mobility under environmental conditions, since humic and fulvic acids carrying trace metals also would be strongly bound to e.g. clayish material. (author)

  4. Transient flows occurring during the accelerated crucible rotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Atara; Horowitz, Yigal

    1992-11-01

    The transient flows occurring after a change in the angular velocity of the cylindrical container are described. The dependence of the transient (known as spin-up or spin-down time) on experimental parameters as kinematic viscosity, cylinder dimensions and the cylinder's initial and final angular velocities are elucidates by a review of the literature. It is emphasized that with large Rossby numbers the spin-up time is longer and the amount of fluid mixing is greater than small and moderate Rossby numbers. It is also elucidated that most crystal growth crucibles cannot be considered as infinitely-long cylinders for the evaluation of the fluid dynamics (authors)

  5. Naturally occurring radioactive materials at New South Wales mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Until recently mines in New South Wales have been largely exempt from the provisions of the Radiation Control Act with respect to radioactive ore being mined and processed. Legislative changes and the national harmonisation efforts for mine safety regulation have drawn attention to the emerging issue of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). While mine operators are already obliged under their duty of care to manage this hazard, specific control measures are increasingly expected by the community and regulators. This applies throughout the whole mine life cycle from exploration right through to rehabilitation.

  6. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades.

  7. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  8. An Old-Growth Definition for Southern Mixed Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Batista; William J. Platt

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an old-growth definition for the southern mixed hardwood forests based on five exemplary stands that show no evidence of having undergone any natural catastrophe or clearcutting for at least 200 years. This forest type occurs in the U.S. southeastern Coastal Plain from the Carolinas to eastern Texas. The exemplary old-growth stands were restricted...

  9. 50 CFR 216.171 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concern listed in next bullet) found dead or live on shore within a two day period and occurring on same... distress. (2) Shutdown (this definition specifically applies only to the word as used in § 216.174(a)(1... live, in the water animal involved in a USE. ...

  10. Zygotic Genome Activation Occurs Shortly after Fertilization in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Strieder, Nicholas; Krohn, Nadia G; Cyprys, Philipp; Sprunck, Stefanie; Engelmann, Julia C; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The formation of a zygote via the fusion of an egg and sperm cell and its subsequent asymmetric division herald the start of the plant's life cycle. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is thought to occur gradually, with the initial steps of zygote and embryo development being primarily maternally controlled, and subsequent steps being governed by the zygotic genome. Here, using maize ( Zea mays ) as a model plant system, we determined the timing of zygote development and generated RNA-seq transcriptome profiles of gametes, zygotes, and apical and basal daughter cells. ZGA occurs shortly after fertilization and involves ∼10% of the genome being activated in a highly dynamic pattern. In particular, genes encoding transcriptional regulators of various families are activated shortly after fertilization. Further analyses suggested that chromatin assembly is strongly modified after fertilization, that the egg cell is primed to activate the translational machinery, and that hormones likely play a minor role in the initial steps of early embryo development in maize. Our findings provide important insights into gamete and zygote activity in plants, and our RNA-seq transcriptome profiles represent a comprehensive, unique RNA-seq data set that can be used by the research community. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Naturally occurring Vpr inhibitors from medicinal plants of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ngwe, Hla; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a lentiviral family member that encodes the retroviral Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, along with six additional accessory proteins, Tat, Rev, Vpu, Vif, Nef, and Vpr. The currently approved anti-HIV drugs target the Pol and Env encoded proteins. However, these drugs are only effective in reducing viral replication. Furthermore, the drugs' toxicities and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have become serious worldwide problems. Resistance eventually arises to all of the approved anti-HIV drugs, including the newly approved drugs that target HIV integrase (IN). Drug resistance likely emerges because of spontaneous mutations that occur during viral replication. Therefore, new drugs that effectively block other viral components must be developed to reduce the rate of resistance and suppress viral replication with little or no long-term toxicity. The accessory proteins may expand treatment options. Viral protein R (Vpr) is one of the promising drug targets among the HIV accessory proteins. However, the search for inhibitors continues in anti-HIV drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring compounds discovered from two Myanmar medicinal plants as well as their structure-activity relationships. A total of 49 secondary metabolites were isolated from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes and Picrasama javanica bark, and the types of compounds were identified as isopimarane diterpenoids and picrasane quassinoids, respectively. Among the isolates, 7 diterpenoids and 15 quassinoids were found to be Vpr inhibitors lacking detectable toxicity, and their potencies varied according to their respective functionalities.

  12. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of tandem mismatches found in naturally occurring RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martha E.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2009-01-01

    Although all sequence symmetric tandem mismatches and some sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches have been thermodynamically characterized and a model has been proposed to predict the stability of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches [Christiansen,M.E. and Znosko,B.M. (2008) Biochemistry, 47, 4329–4336], experimental thermodynamic data for frequently occurring tandem mismatches is lacking. Since experimental data is preferred over a predictive model, the thermodynamic parameters for 25 frequently occurring tandem mismatches were determined. These new experimental values, on average, are 1.0 kcal/mol different from the values predicted for these mismatches using the previous model. The data for the sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches reported here were then combined with the data for 72 sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches that were published previously, and the parameters used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches were updated. The average absolute difference between the measured values and the values predicted using these updated parameters is 0.5 kcal/mol. This updated model improves the prediction for tandem mismatches that were predicted rather poorly by the previous model. This new experimental data and updated predictive model allow for more accurate calculations of the free energy of RNA duplexes containing tandem mismatches, and, furthermore, should allow for improved prediction of secondary structure from sequence. PMID:19509311

  14. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, C.; Akber, R.; Johnston, A.; Cassels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. (authors)

  15. Figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Peterson, Mary A

    2008-07-01

    The question of whether or not figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention is unresolved. Early theorists assumed it can, but the evidence is scant and open to alternative interpretations. Recent research indicating that attention can influence figure-ground segmentation raises the question anew. We examined this issue by asking participants to perform a demanding change-detection task on a small matrix presented on a task-irrelevant scene of alternating regions organized into figures and grounds by convexity. Independently of any change in the matrix, the figure-ground organization of the scene changed or remained the same. Changes in scene organization produced congruency effects on target-change judgments, even though, when probed with surprise questions, participants could report neither the figure-ground status of the region on which the matrix appeared nor any change in that status. When attending to the scene, participants reported figure-ground status and changes to it highly accurately. These results clearly demonstrate that figure-ground segmentation can occur without focal attention.

  16. On the mechanical friction losses occurring in automotive differential gearboxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction, which can lead to a surface and volume damage in some of them, and even can cause, in the worst case, the whole destruction of the mechanical system if it has continued to operate. Predicting and checking the occurrence of this kind of undesirable phenomena, especially in some principal systems of the vehicle, represents nowadays, a crucial challenge in terms of automobile reliability and safety. This study focuses on the mechanical friction losses liable to occur in differential automobile gearboxes, which can lead in the long term to the scuffing of these mechanical systems. The friction losses involved were modeled, using a simple analytical approach, which is presented and discussed.

  17. Reference Material IAEA 434: Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. In addition, phosphogypsum can be used to make several building materials and it is used in agriculture as a conditioner to maintain soil productivity in areas where soils are poor and erode easily. A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA-434 will assist laboratories in the IAEA Member States in validating their analytical methods for the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum and to control the quality of the produced analytical results. Reference values for the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties were established for: Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. During sample production and certification, the requirements for reference material production and certification as stated in ISO guides 34 and 35 were taken into account. This report summarizes the preparation and certification process

  18. Frequently Occurring Reconnection Jets from Sunspot Light Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Peter, Hardi; Solanki, Sami K.; Young, Peter R.; Ni, Lei; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Kaifan; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Jingwen; Samanta, Tanmoy; Song, Yongliang; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Chen, Yajie

    2018-02-01

    Solid evidence of magnetic reconnection is rarely reported within sunspots, the darkest regions with the strongest magnetic fields and lowest temperatures in the solar atmosphere. Using the world’s largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope, we detect prevalent reconnection through frequently occurring fine-scale jets in the Hα line wings at light bridges, the bright lanes that may divide the dark sunspot core into multiple parts. Many jets have an inverted Y-shape, shown by models to be typical of reconnection in a unipolar field environment. Simultaneous spectral imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph show that the reconnection drives bidirectional flows up to 200 km s‑1, and that the weakly ionized plasma is heated by at least an order of magnitude up to ∼80,000 K. Such highly dynamic reconnection jets and efficient heating should be properly accounted for in future modeling efforts of sunspots. Our observations also reveal that the surge-like activity previously reported above light bridges in some chromospheric passbands such as the Hα core has two components: the ever-present short surges likely to be related to the upward leakage of magnetoacoustic waves from the photosphere, and the occasionally occurring long and fast surges that are obviously caused by the intermittent reconnection jets.

  19. Interaction between manufactured gold nanoparticles and naturally occurring organic macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegoli, Sara; Manciulea, Adriana L.; Begum, Shakiela; Jones, Ian P.; Lead, Jamie R.; Preece, Jon A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of nanomaterials into many consumer and other products is raising concerns as these nanomaterials are likely to be released into the environment. Due to our lack of knowledge about the environmental chemistry, transport and ecotoxicology of nanomaterials, it is of paramount importance to study how natural aquatic colloids can interact with manufactured gold nanoparticles as these interactions will determine their environmental fate and behaviour. In this context, our work aims to quantify the effect of naturally occurring riverine macromolecules - International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard (SRHA) - on citrate- and acrylate-stabilized gold nanoparticles. The influence of SRHA on the stability of the gold colloids was studied as a function of pH by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At high ionic strengths (0.1 M), extensive and rapid aggregation occurred, while more subtle effects were observed at lower ionic strength values. Evidence was found that SRHA enhances particle stability at extreme pH values (ionic strength < 0.01 M) by substituting and/or over-coating the original stabilizer on the gold nanoparticle surface, thus affecting surface charge and chemistry. These findings have important implications for the fate and behaviour of nanoparticles in the environment and their ecotoxicity

  20. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  1. Radiation protection and the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; MacDowell, P.

    1996-01-01

    There are many industries dealing with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), some of them without knowing that their industrial processes and/or their regular wastes involve radioactivity. However, an increasing number of industries that produce NORM wastes are being sued, wherever there is a legal framework to do so. In particular, NORM wastes produced for a long time by the oil industry became foci of legal battles in the United States and elsewhere. The ripple effect of these judicial battles will influence the decision making processes of NORM wastes producing industries, mostly because of the costs incurred by remedial and preventive actions concerning NORM contamination. The regulation of NORM will occur sooner or later, and such actions may become mandatory. A foreseeable consequence of such regulation is a change in attitude concerning the sources and materials associated with NORM. Among those industries likely to be affected one can mention: niobium; rare earth processing; oil production; phosphate; uranium mining and milling; zircon; water treatment; and waste water treatment. The paper will briefly review data on exempt concentration activities, as suggested by the basic safety standards based on realistic environmental and dosimetric models. These activity concentrations are compared with those found in a number of extractive industries, and may be used to establish derived limits from a pre-established dose limit. (author)

  2. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  3. A case of angiosarcoma of the breast occurring after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, Hisafumi; Maeno, Yoshito; Tatsuoka, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the left breast occurring one month after radiotherapy following partial mastectomy for a cancer of the right breast is described. A 43-year-old woman underwent right partial mastectomy and axillary lymphnode dissection for a right breast cancer on February 23, 1993. Radiation therapy (total 50 grey) was given to the right breast for 3 weeks postoperatively. A small hemangioma appeared near the nipple of her left breast in the following month. On June 23, we excised the grain sized hemangioma and diagnosed as angiosarcoma. After her hesitating several months, she underwent left mastectomy because of some relapses appeared around her left breast on January 20, 1994. Now she is doing well without recurrence. Angiosarcoma of the breast is extremely rare in our country and only 20 cases have been seen in the Japanese literature. This case of angiosarcoma of the breast which occurred after radiotherapy is the first report of Stewart-Treves syndrome. Recent increasing use of radiotherapy following breast-sparing operation may contribute to an increase in occurrence of angiosarcoma. We should strictly follow up irradiated patients with breast cancer entertaining possible occurrence of angiosarcoma of the breast as well as that of the upper extremities. (author)

  4. Definition of IGRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Two definitions of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) are cited: 'Frequent imaging in the treatment room during a course of radiotherapy to guide the treatment process' and 'Any use of planar imaging, volumetric imaging or volumetric cine imaging, marker localization, marker tracking, patient surface imaging or patient surface tracking to improve the precision of radiation-therapy delivery'. Also cited are the sentences 'IGRT refers broadly to treatment delivery using modern imaging methods, such as CT, MRI, PET and Ultrasound, in target and non-target structures and in RT definition, design and delivery...' and 'IGRT includes, but is not limited to, 3DCRT, IMRT: stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic RT, and brachytherapy...'. Purposes include: Precise patient positioning; Automatic localization of bony structures or implanted fiducial markers; Imaging and positioning of soft tissue tumors and critical structures; Margin reduction and healthy organ sparing; and Delivering the desired dose distribution. On the negative side are the following factors: Physics staffing at treatment delivery Longer treatment times: 1 min. arm deployment, setup for scan, 1 min. gantry rotation - volume image acquisition, 30 sec. reconstruction (depends on resolution), 30 sec. load CT and CB into registration; Registration: from few sec. to few min.; Feasible if the number of treatments is low. The history of IGRT is mentioned, instrumentation is described using ample photographs, and many applications are shown. (P.A.)

  5. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  6. Hungarian situation of the technologically enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.; Szerbin, P.; Czoch, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Hungary, the main goal is that the Hungarian regulations should meet with the EU Directive No. 96/29. For this aim, a surveying project has been launched in order to collect all relevant information about the Hungarian TENORM situation. This surveying programme covers a lot of data collection (work activities, disposal places, residue quantities) and radiological measurements on the TENORM site. The Hungarian situation of TENORM definitely differs from other countries in the aspect of occurrence forms of natural sources (or in the imported raw materials), in the quantities of exploitation, in the level of the radioactivity and in the applied technological processes. Firstly, those work activities have been choosen where the huge amount of residues have been produced. The other criteria is that the activity concentration in a great portion of the given residues is much higher than the average activity concentration of the typical Hungarian soil. After filtering and ranking, the following main activities enhanced the radioactivity level are left: uranium mining and milling, coal mining, coal firing in power plants, bauxite mining and aluminous earth production. At the uranium mining and milling area the uranium content of residues ranges from 20 to 70 g t -1 , and above those the dose rate is 0.4-10 μSv h -1 . The waste rock piles and heaps for leaching were restored and the remediation of tailings ponds is still under way. In the mountain Mecsek and on the territory from the highland Balaton to the mountain Vertes, the radioactivity level of the coals is 10-50 times higher than the worldwide average. The coal fired plants have piled up in the order of magnitude of 10 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash and slag in ponds around the plants. The radioactivity of U-238 series of ash and slag is in the range from 200 to 2000 Bq·kg -1 . The radionuclide concentrations of bauxite ores range from 200 to 300 Bq·kg -1 . At the refining factories, a lot of red

  7. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in El-Sin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Rayyes, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides levels have been determined in El-Sin water for the period of 1995 and 1996. water samples were collected from four sites, which are the main drinking water sources of the area. Radon concentration was found to vary between 0.88 Bq/1 in Lattakia main water supply site and 8.4 Bq/1 in El-Sin springs.The highest values found for other radionuclides were 51.6 mBq/1, 18.6 mB/1 and 24.8 mBq/1 for sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and total uranium (sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) respectively. These levels are much lower than the maximum permissible levels in drinking water set by international organization.(author)

  8. A study on hazard types occurring in hydrogen facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Chul; Jae, Moo Sung; Eon, Yang Joon

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen has ideal characteristics as an energy carrier. Hydrogen can be used as a clean fuel in a variety of energy end-use sectors including the conversion to electricity. After combustion, it produces only water. Therefore, the concept of hydrogen energy system has attracted much interest worldwide. But hydrogen has a defect that the explosion risk is high to an inflammable gas of a colorless, tasteless and odorless. Therefore, to use the hydrogen to the source of energy, hydrogen accident sequences and causes analysis must be needed. For this, hazard types occurring in hydrogen facilities have been considered through the case of domestic and foreign hydrogen accident in this study and hazard types to be considered are ignition, leaks, hydrogen dispersion, fire an explosion, storage vessel failure, vent and exhaust system, purging, condensation of air, hydrogen embrittlement, physiological hazard, and collisions during transportation

  9. Lichen striatus occurring after a tetanus vaccine: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yalçınkaya İyidal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen striatus (LS is an uncommon, acquired, self-limiting, linear inflammatory dermatosis. The eruption typically presents as pink or tan papules along Blaschko’s lines. It usually occurs in children, rarely affects adults. The rashes usually suddenly emerge in a single extremity and may regress within a few months or years. The incidence is slightly higher among women. The etiology of LS is not exactly known, however, it is thought to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune reaction. Trauma, infection, pregnancy, drugs, vaccination, and atopy have been reported as triggering factors. In the literature, four cases of LS developing after vaccination (3 children and 1 adult have been reported. It was the only reported adult case of LS developing after hepatitis B virus vaccination. Herein, we present a 36-year-old woman with LS which was thought to be triggered by a tetanus vaccine.

  10. A comprehensive analysis of the geomagnetic storms occurred dur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ghamry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards. Egyptian geomagnetic observatories observed multiple geomagnetic storms during 18 February to 2 March 2014. During this period, four interplanetary shocks successively hit the Earth’s magnetosphere, leading to four geomagnetic storms. The storm onsets occurred on 18, 20, 23 and 27 February. A non-substorm Pi2 pulsation was observed on 26 February. This Pi2 pulsation was detected in Egyptian observatories (Misallat and Abu Simbel, Kakioka station in Japan and Carson City station in US with nearly identical waveforms. Van Allen Probe missions observed non-compressional Pc4 pulsations on the recovery phase of the third storm. This Pc4 event is may be likely attributed to the decay of the ring current in the recovery phase.

  11. Early diagnosis of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Sook; Na, Seung Mog; Lee, Un Gyeong; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1994-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis provide good prognosis and prevent severe complications. Therefore, it is important to early diagnose and treat before the bony changes are observed in conventional radiograms. Authors experienced three cases of early osteomyelitis, and scintigrams were useful to differentiate them from other diseases. The purpose of this report was to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws. The characteristic features were as follows: 1. In clinical examination, the patients complained mild pain and localized swelling in the jaws. 2. In radiographic findings, the conventional radiograms showed relatively mild bony change in the jaws. 3. The more severe periosteal reactions were observed in radiograms in children than in adult patient. 4. It showed marked increased uptake of radioisotopes in all scintigrams. 5. The three phase bone scanning were helpful to differentiate osteomyelitis from soft tissue diseases.

  12. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy......Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...... to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency...

  13. Acylation of proteins with myristic acid occurs cotranslationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.; Hu, J.S.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    Several proteins of viral and cellular origin are acylated with myristic acid early during their biogenesis. To investigate the possibility that myristylation occurred cotranslationally, the BC 3 H1 muscle cell line, which contains a broad array of myristylated proteins, was pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]myristic acid. Nascent polypeptide chains covalently associated with transfer RNA were isolated subsequently by ion-exchange chromatography. [ 3 H]Myristate was attached to nascent chains through an amide linkage and was identified by thin-layer chromatography after its release from nascent chains by acid methanolysis. Inhibition of cellular protein synthesis with puromycin resulted in cessation of [ 3 H]myristate-labeling of nascent chains, in agreement with the dependence of this modification on protein synthesis in vivo. These data represent a direct demonstration that myristylation of proteins is a cotranslational modification

  14. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards

  15. Discrimination of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in Plastic Scintillator Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Schweppe, John E.; Warner, Ray A.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic scintillator material is used in many applications for the detection of gamma-rays from radioactive material, primarily due to the sensitivity per unit cost compared to other detection materials. However, the resolution and lack of full-energy peaks in the plastic scintillator material prohibits detailed spectroscopy. Therefore, other materials such as doped sodium iodide are used for spectroscopic applications. The limited spectroscopic information can however be exploited in plastic scintillator materials to provide some discrimination. The discrimination between man-made and naturally occurring sources would be useful in reducing alarm screening for radiation detection applications which target man-made sources. The results of applying the limited energy information from plastic scintillator material for radiation portal monitors are discussed.

  16. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  17. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L M; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrilla......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... lasting predominantly between 1 and 4 h. Four recurrent strokes were observed, three in patients with PAF; all three patients were on oral anticoagulation (OAC). CONCLUSIONS: One in five patients with CS had PAF, which occurred at low burden and long after stroke. Future studies should determine the role...

  18. Geological structure of strata and the occurence of gas outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewing, K

    1977-10-20

    Geological conditions which may have an influence on gas outbursts are depth, rank, type of formation, tectonic stresses, and the petrological form of the neighboring rock. The risk of outbursts is greater if there are dirt bands in the seam, since the coal can slide on these. Tectonically disturbed zones in seams containing more than 9 cu m of gas per ton are especially dangerous. Tectonic stress is not necessarily an indication of the severity of outbursts. Gas and sandstone outbursts do not depend on tectonic disturbance; outburst-prone sandstones have a greater pore volume and lower strength than normal. Almost all outbursts from the floor occur where the strata immediately below are impervious to gas and sandstone is present lower down. (In German)

  19. Modification of radiation damage by naturally occurring substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    The major objectives of studying the modification of radiation sensitivity have been (1) to identify a compound that will produce a differential protection or sensitization of the effect of irradiation on normal and tumor tissue, and (2) to understand more about the mechanisms of radiation damage. In spite of massive research on this particular problem since World War II, the first objective remains elusive. During this period, numerous radioprotective and radiosensitizing agents have been identified. These agents have served as important biologic tools for increasing our understanding of radiation injuries. Most of these substances are synthetic compounds and are very toxic to humans. In addition, very few of the compounds provide differential modifications of the effect of radiation on tumor and normal cells. This chapter presents objectives for identifying naturally occurring substances that modify the effect of x-radiation on mammalian cells and discusses the role of physiologic substances in modifying radiation injuries on mammalian normal and tumor cells

  20. Epigenetic variation in mangrove plants occurring in contrasting natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Fonseca Lira-Medeiros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation, are inherited in plant species and may occur in response to biotic or abiotic stress, affecting gene expression without changing genome sequence. Laguncularia racemosa, a mangrove species, occurs in naturally contrasting habitats where it is subjected daily to salinity and nutrient variations leading to morphological differences. This work aims at unraveling how CpG-methylation variation is distributed among individuals from two nearby habitats, at a riverside (RS or near a salt marsh (SM, with different environmental pressures and how this variation is correlated with the observed morphological variation.Significant differences were observed in morphological traits such as tree height, tree diameter, leaf width and leaf area between plants from RS and SM locations, resulting in smaller plants and smaller leaf size in SM plants. Methyl-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP was used to assess genetic and epigenetic (CpG-methylation variation in L. racemosa genomes from these populations. SM plants were hypomethylated (14.6% of loci had methylated samples in comparison to RS (32.1% of loci had methylated samples. Within-population diversity was significantly greater for epigenetic than genetic data in both locations, but SM also had less epigenetic diversity than RS. Frequency-based (G(ST and multivariate (beta(ST methods that estimate population structure showed significantly greater differentiation among locations for epigenetic than genetic data. Co-Inertia analysis, exploring jointly the genetic and epigenetic data, showed that individuals with similar genetic profiles presented divergent epigenetic profiles that were characteristic of the population in a particular environment, suggesting that CpG-methylation changes may be associated with environmental heterogeneity.In spite of significant morphological dissimilarities, individuals of L. racemosa from salt marsh and riverside presented

  1. 'The NORM Report' : the journal addressing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.T.; Tsurikov, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The need for the specific international publication dedicated to the radiation protection and regulatory issues associated with exposures of workers, general public and the environment in situations involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (Norm) has been identified almost ten years ago. In the 1990-s the journal entitled 'the NORM report' was published in the U.S.A. mainly dealt with legislative updates in regard to NORM in different states and at a later stage Canada. The printed journal has a wide following among industries and regulatory authorities concerned with NORM. Unfortunately, the publishing ceased in early 2000-s with the passing of the editor, Dr. Peter Gray. The publication of 'the NORM Report' will re-commence in early 2008 as an internet based publication that is intended to be a resource for: Regulatory authorities exchange information in regards to the 'NORM-specific' regulations and guidelines applicable in their jurisdictions. They are also able to collect details from authorities in other countries/states - to ensure the adoption of the most appropriate regulatory standards to similar levels of radiation exposure and the same industries world-wide (not only within the USA), a) Researches, who will be able to publish the results of their studies in a journal specifically dedicated to naturally occurring radioactive materials and b) Industries that use, process, and generate - to facilitate the information exchange in regards to best practices in controlling radiation exposure and in the disposal or re-use of NORM-containing materials. The intent of the presentation is to obtain the opinion of a wider radiation protection community of the usefulness and the contents of the publication of 'the NORM Report' to ensure the journal meets its state objectives. (author)

  2. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    2008-04-01

    occurring neglect and that MaD1 mice are a useful model for understanding the basis of naturally occurring neglect.

  3. Canine osteosarcoma: a naturally occurring disease to inform pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Joelle M; London, Cheryl A; Kisseberth, William C

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common form of malignant bone cancer in children and dogs, although the disease occurs in dogs approximately 10 times more frequently than in people. Multidrug chemotherapy and aggressive surgical techniques have improved survival; however, new therapies for OSA are critical, as little improvement in survival times has been achieved in either dogs or people over the past 15 years, even with significant efforts directed at the incorporation of novel therapeutic approaches. Both clinical and molecular evidence suggests that human and canine OSA share many key features, including tumor location, presence of microscopic metastatic disease at diagnosis, development of chemotherapy-resistant metastases, and altered expression/activation of several proteins (e.g. Met, ezrin, phosphatase and tensin homolog, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and p53 mutations, among others. Additionally, canine and pediatric OSA exhibit overlapping transcriptional profiles and shared DNA copy number aberrations, supporting the notion that these diseases are similar at the molecular level. This review will discuss the similarities between pediatric and canine OSA with regard to histology, biologic behavior, and molecular genetic alterations that indicate canine OSA is a relevant, spontaneous, large animal model of the pediatric disease and outline how the study of naturally occurring OSA in dogs will offer additional insights into the biology and future treatment of this disease in both children and dogs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10 6 /yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  5. Why and Where do Large Shallow Slab Earthquakes Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-12-01

    Within a shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of subducting slabs, it has been believed that large earthquakes seldom occur because the differential stress is generally expected to be low between bending at the trench-outer rise and unbending at the intermediate-depth. However, there are several regions in which large ( M>=7.0 ) earthquakes, including three events early in this year, have occurred in this portion. Searching such events from published individual studies and Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find nineteen events in eastern Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW Japan, Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, Chile, Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, and Cascadia. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of those large events and smaller events are tensional in a slab dip direction. However, ages of the subducting oceanic plates are generally young, which denies a possibility that the slab pull works as a cause. Except for Manila and Sumatra, the stresses in the overriding plates are characterized by the change in {σ }Hmax direction from arc-parallel in the back-arc to arc-perpendicular in the fore-arc, which implies that a horizontal stress gradient exists in the across-arc direction. Peru and Chile, where the back-arc is compressional, can be categorized into this type, because a horizontal stress gradient exists over the continent from tension in east to compression in the west. In these regions, it is expected that mantle drag forces are operating beneath the upper plates, which drive the upper plates to the trenchward overriding the subducting oceanic plates. Assuming that the mantle drag forces beneath the upper plates originate from the mantle convection currents or upwelling plumes, we infer that the upper plates driven by the convection suck the oceanic plates, making the shallow portion of the slabs in extra-tension, thus resulting in the large shallow slab earthquakes in this tectonic regime.

  6. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  7. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  8. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  9. European Mixed Forests: definition and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bravo-Oviedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We aim at (i developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii review the research perspectives in mixed forests.Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide.Material and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests.Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients. The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time.The research perspectives identified are (i species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests.Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.Keywords: COST Action; EuMIXFOR; mixed-species forests; admixtures of species.

  10. Definition af primitiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    Når et elektrisk system skal opstilles på arrayform, er det vigtig først at lave en række fornuftige modeller for de primitiver, der indgår i netværket. Disse modeller skal muligvis revideres, når man begynder at sammensætte dem til et netværk, men laver man opstillingen grundigt på et tidligt...... tidspunkt, kan der spares meget tid senere, hvor det er besværligt at definerer primitiverne helt om.I denne rapport er de primitiver, der skal bruges til Sydkrafts net gennemgået. Der er taget stilling til hver enkelt tilstand for de forskellige primitiver. Dette er gjort for at få en definition, som er...

  11. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  12. Consciousness: function and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, E

    1994-07-01

    The term "consciousness" plays an enormous role in the clinical assessment of patients and also in psychophysiological considerations. It has often been said that consciousness is a term that defies definition. This lack of definability, however, might be more apparent than real. In the multitude of facets, three main components can be singled out: a) vigilance, b) mental contents and c) selective attention. Vigilance, not to be equated with consciousness, is most amenable to electrophysiological studies. The stages of sleep have fairly well standardized EEG correlates, unlike the comatose states. The overflowing wealth of mental contents is constantly adjusted to momentary needs by the mechanism of selective attention. Awareness is a subcomponent and differs from both vigilance and consciousness. Emotionality is particularly important among the variety of further subcomponents. The time factor must be taken into account in order to understand the dynamics and fluctuations of consciousness.

  13. Two definitions for genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-10-01

    By my definition, man and woman are the same fact to say. So man and woman have the same thinkings and same existence. But when I say again for man and woman, they are different for sex as the two different persons. They are different each two persons. As an example, by quantum, sex and color is different (the same existence and also different kind with quantum way-push and pull at the same time), also they are the same as they are our ID (hormones) and also dream matter. The same way, I hope we go to heaven and god will say you are the truth like it to be after the end of the world. I wish man and woman are different as it is more fun.

  14. Definition of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1982-01-01

    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  15. 16 CFR 316.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or general partnership, corporation, or other business entity. (i) The definition of the term... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 316.2 Section 316.2 Commercial... Definitions. (a) The definition of the term “affirmative consent” is the same as the definition of that term...

  16. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  17. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238 U ( 226 Ra), 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 40 K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg −1 . The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg −1 for 238 U ( 226 Ra), 0.16 Bq kg −1 for 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 18 Bq kg −1 for 40 K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg −1 , 0.16 Bq kg −1 and 23 Bq kg −1 . Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226 Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228 Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40 K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values. - Highlights: ► Activity concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides were assessed for shellfish. ► 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K intake via shellfish showed several times higher than world averages. ► Committed effective doses due to the ingestions of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K are the first report in Malaysia. ► Estimated committed effective dose also showed higher values than the world average

  18. Naturally occurring mastitis disrupts developmental competence of bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Z; Dvir, A; Kalo, D; Lavon, Y; Krifucks, O; Wolfenson, D; Leitner, G

    2013-10-01

    We examined the effects of naturally occurring mastitis on bovine oocyte developmental competence in vitro. Specifically, we investigated the effects of intramammary infection on the ovarian pool of oocytes (i.e., follicle-enclosed oocytes) and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization, and further development to the blastocyst stage. Culled Holstein cows (n=50) from 9 commercial dairy farms in Israel were allotted to 3 groups according to somatic cell count (SCC) records of the last 3 monthly milk tests as well as of quarter samples collected before slaughter: (1) low SCC (n=7), (2) medium SCC (n=16), or (3) high SCC (n=27). Means of SCC values differed among low-, medium-, and high-SCC groups: 148,000, 311,000 and 1,813,000 cell/mL milk, respectively. Milk yield and days in milk did not differ among the 3 groups. Bacterial isolates included coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or no bacteria found. Ovaries were collected at the abattoir and brought to the laboratory. Cumulus oocyte complexes were recovered separately from each cow and subjected individually to in vitro maturation and fertilization, followed by 8d in culture. The number of aspirated oocytes did not differ among groups, with a range of 17 to 21 oocytes per cow. The proportion of oocytes that cleaved into 2- to 4-cell-stage embryos (86.1 ± 3.4%) did not differ among groups. In contrast, mean percentages of embryos developed to the blastocyst stage on d 7 and 8 after fertilization were less in both medium- and-high SCC groups than in the low-SCC group (5.6 ± 2.3 and 4.1 ± 1.8 vs. 18.1 ± 4.6%, respectively). Additional analysis indicated that cleavage and blastocyst-formation rates did not differ among the bacterial types in the low-, medium-, and high-SCC groups. These are the first results to demonstrate that naturally occurring mastitis disrupts the developmental competence of the ovarian pool of oocytes, (i.e., oocytes at the

  19. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  20. Quasicrystals: A matter of definition

    OpenAIRE

    Lifshitz, Ron

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that the prevailing definition of quasicrystals, requiring them to contain an axis of symmetry that is forbidden in periodic crystals, is inadequate. This definition is too restrictive in that it excludes an important and interesting collection of structures that exhibit all the well-known properties of quasicrystals without possessing any forbidden symmetries.

  1. Nuclear engineering terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The most important nuclear engineering's terms and definitions are given in this standard. The definitions take into account the Austrian Regulations for Radiation Protection, for and pertinent ISO and DIN-Standards as also the OENORM A7006 and OENORM A6601. (M.T.)

  2. Shear zone-related pseudotachylite occurences from the northern Transvaal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimold, W.U.; Meyer, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudotachylite from the Sand River localities displays very variable composition when formed in Sand River Gneiss, but is less variable when originating from diabase. Comparison of individual pseudotachylite (granitic) host rock pairs shows consistent depletion and enrichment. Rather high LoI values indicate significant secondary alteration for some specimens. The chemical variations agree well with the theory that pseudotachylite in granitic-granodioritic environment is formed by preferential melting of hydrous ferromagnesian minerals plus varied proportions of feldspar components. 'Basaltic' pseudotachylite is characterised by increase of SiO 2 and K 2 O, which is also known from other occurences. With respect to most trace elements, pseudotachylite is generally enriched. Comparison of all pseudotachylite analyses with Sand River Gneiss data reveals that mixing on a dm scale cannot be completely excluded, but 'basaltic' pseudotachilyte obtained in granodioritic host rock has not assimilated more than approximately 5% of felsic material. The cataclastic breccias chemically compare well with undeformed Sand River Gneiss. These results agree well with current theory on pseudotachylite formation, but at the Geocongress a larger data base will be discussed. 1 fig., 6 refs

  3. Occurance and distribution of poty viruses infecting garlic in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.T.; Hameed, S.; Shah, H.

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to detect and determine the prevalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV). Serological testing DAS-ELISA technique was used to test the samples collected from the farmer fields. Based on the DAS-ELISA poty viruses OYDV and LYSV were detected from both provinces although the percentage incidence varied from location to location. Few areas of district Punjab were found free of LYSV but OYDV was prevalent in all locations irrespective of the varieties cultivated. Maximum disease incidence was detected in Swabi (KPK) where OYDV was 90percent and LYSV was 38 percent while in Punjab major disease incidence of OYDV (87.14 percent) and LYSV (91.44 percent) was found in Sialkot. (author)

  4. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  5. Occurance of apoptosis during ischemia in porcine pancreas islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, V; Schaffellner, S; Iberer, F; Lackner, C; Liegl, B; Zink, B; Kniepeiss, D; Tscheliessnigg, K H

    2003-03-01

    Pancreas islet transplantation is a potential treatment of diabetes mellitus and porcine organs provide an easily available source of cells. Unfortunately quality and quantity of isolated islets are still not satisfactory. Apoptosis occurs in freshly isolated islets and plays a significant role in early graft loss. We evaluated the influence of four storage solutions on porcine pancreas islets. After warm ischemia of 15-20 minutes 12 organs were stored in 4 cold preservation solutions: Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate solution (HTK), Hank's buffered saline solution (HBSS), University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and Ringer-Lactate (R). After cold ischemia for 100 minutes, organs were fixed in 3% formalin. Apoptotic cells were counted on hematocylin-eosin stainings. Most apoptotic cells were found in organs stored in R. Low numbers were found in the other groups. The difference between organs stored in R and organs stored in UW, HTK, or HBSS was highly significant. No significant difference could be found between UW, HTK and HBSS. Cold and warm ischemia of the pancreas seems to induce apoptosis in islet cells. Preservation solutions cause less apoptosis than electrolyte solution. No significant differences could be found among the preservation solutions.

  6. Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2007-01-01

    The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons

  7. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding—the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery—does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration—the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration—did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  8. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  9. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  11. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) -- an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) was first recognized as a potential problem as long ago as 1904 in the oil fields of Canada. NORM later became an issue in the North Sea oil and gas production facilities in the early 1980's and became more widely recognized in the United States in 1986 during a routine well workover in the state of Mississippi. NORM contamination of oil and gas industry production equipment has since been identified world wide. The United States, including Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico region, the North Sea region, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and several Middle Eastern countries have all reported NORM contamination. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the international regulations or guidelines that have been promulgated concerning NORM in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, the impact of these regulations or guidelines on non-oil and gas industries will also be discussed. A comparison of these regulations or guidelines to those generally found in the United States shall be drawn

  12. Sexual recombination in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Camargo, O A; Pinto, J M A

    2010-09-08

    Glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. This fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. RAPD markers of five populations of G. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two Brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. We identified 128 polymorphic bands, amplified by 28 random primers. The estimates of genetic similarity in this analysis ranged from 0.43 to 1.00, and the dendrogram generated from analysis of all genotypes displayed five principal groups, coinciding with the five populations. Genetic differentiation was observed between the populations (GST=0.6455); 69% of the overall observed genetic variation was between individual populations and 31% of the variance was within the sub-populations. We identified significant levels of linkage disequilibrium in all populations. However, the values of the disequilibrium ranged from low to moderate, indicating that this pathogen maintains a genetic structure consistent with sexual reproduction. The mean contribution of sexual reproduction was determined by comparison of the amplitudes of genetic similarity of isolates from sexual and asexual phases. These results support the hypothesis that recombination plays an important role in determining the amplitude of variability in this pathogen population and that this determination occurs on a fine scale.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects in workers exposed to naturally occurring asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Costa, Chiara; Matera, Serena; Puglisi, Beatrice; Costanzo, Valentina; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect. Subjects underwent respiratory function tests and HRCT total chest scanning. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured. The presence of PPs was significantly greater in subjects exposed than in the control (25 vs. 2). In subjects exposed to FE, IL-1β and TNF-α values were significantly higher than the controls. The previously observed increase of IL-1β and IL-18 showed a probable involvement of the proteic complex defined inflammosome by FE fibers.

  14. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  15. Naturally occuring radiation in the Nordic countries - recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In the publication ''Report on the Applicability of International Radiation Protection Recommendations in the Nordic Countries'', published in 1976, the radiation protection authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden expessed their agreement on the main principles of radiation protection. The general aspects of radiation protection were covered in the recommendations with the exception of exposure of the public from natural sources of radiation. In 1983 a working group published the report ''Naturally Occurring radiation in the Nordic Countries, - Levels'' in the Radiation Protection Information-Series from the Nordic countries. In that report the present knowledge of the population exposure from natural sources of external gamma-radiation and from radon and thoron daughters in air was reviewed as a basis for the development of the radiation protection recommendations for natural radiation. During preparation of these recommendations due account has also been taken of ICRP publication no. 39: ''Principles for Limiting Exposure of the Public to Natural Sources of Radiation'', which was published in 1984 and in which ICRP for the first time has issued more specific recommendations for natural sources. The recommendations may serve as a basis for more formal rules and regulations within each country, if this is seemed necessary. However, no attempt has been made to formulate identical rules for all the five countries since the exposure levels from natural sources, methods of application and the legal frameworks differ between the countries. (EG)

  16. Bladder uptake of liposomes after intravesical administration occurs by endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Raja Rajaganapathy

    Full Text Available Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery.

  17. Where and why do large shallow intraslab earthquakes occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Tetsuzo; Yoshida, Masaki

    2004-03-01

    We try to find how often, and in what regions large earthquakes ( M≥7.0) occur within the shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of a subducting slab. Searching for events in published individual studies and the Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find twenty such events in E. Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW, Japan, S. Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, N. Chile, C. Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, N. Cascadia and Alaska. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of these large intraslab events and nearby smaller events are almost always down-dip tensional. Except for E. Hokkaido, Manila, and Sumatra, the upper plate shows horizontal stress gradient in the arc-perpendicular direction. We infer that shear tractions are operating at the base of the upper plate in this direction to produce the observed gradient and compression in the outer fore-arc, balancing the down-dip tensional stress of the slab. This tectonic situation in the subduction zone might be realized as part of the convection system with some conditions, as shown by previous numerical simulations.

  18. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  19. Evaluation of cast creep occurring during simulated clubfoot correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamara L; Altiok, Haluk; Wang, Mei; McGrady, Linda M; Krzak, Joseph; Graf, Adam; Tarima, Sergey; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald F

    2013-08-01

    The Ponseti method is a widely accepted and highly successful conservative treatment of pediatric clubfoot involving weekly manipulations and cast applications. Qualitative assessments have indicated the potential success of the technique with cast materials other than standard plaster of Paris. However, guidelines for clubfoot correction based on the mechanical response of these materials have yet to be investigated. The current study sought to characterize and compare the ability of three standard cast materials to maintain the Ponseti-corrected foot position by evaluating cast creep response. A dynamic cast testing device, built to model clubfoot correction, was wrapped in plaster of Paris, semi-rigid fiberglass, and rigid fiberglass. Three-dimensional motion responses to two joint stiffnesses were recorded. Rotational creep displacement and linearity of the limb-cast composite were analyzed. Minimal change in position over time was found for all materials. Among cast materials, the rotational creep displacement was significantly different (p creep displacement occurred in the plaster of Paris (2.0°), then the semi-rigid fiberglass (1.0°), and then the rigid fiberglass (0.4°). Torque magnitude did not affect creep displacement response. Analysis of normalized rotation showed quasi-linear viscoelastic behavior. This study provided a mechanical evaluation of cast material performance as used for clubfoot correction. Creep displacement dependence on cast material and insensitivity to torque were discovered. This information may provide a quantitative and mechanical basis for future innovations for clubfoot care.

  20. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  1. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  2. Why does rem sleep occur? A wake-up hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W R

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  3. Covalent DNA-protein crosslinking occurs after hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, A.E.; Bowden, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks occur in exponentially growing mouse leukemia cells (L1210) after exposure to ionizing radiation. The amount of DNA-protein crosslinks as measured by a filter binding assay is dose dependent upon X irradiation. Although hyperthermia and radiation in combination are synergistic with respect to cell lethality, the combination does not result in an increase of DNA-protein crosslinks when assayed immediately following treatments. Hyperthermia (43 degrees C/15 min) given prior to radiation does not alter the radiation dose dependency of the amount of initial crosslinking. In addition, the amount of DNA-protein crosslinking produced by heat plus radiation is independent of the length of heating the cells at 43 degrees C. The DNA-protein crosslinks produced by 50-Gy X ray alone are removed after 2 hr at 37 degrees C. However, if hyperthermia (43 degrees C/15 min) is given prior to 100-Gy X ray, the removal of DNA-protein crosslinks is delayed until 4.0 hr after radiation. Phospho-serine and phospho-threonine bonds are not produced with either radiation or the combination of hyperthermia plus radiation as judged by the resistance of the bonds to guanidine hydrochloride. However, hyperthermia plus radiation causes an increase in phosphate to nitrogen type bonding. These results show that radiation alone causes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. Hyperthermia in combination with radiation does not increase the total amount of the crosslinks but delays the removal of the crosslinks and alters the distribution of the types of chemical bonding. These data suggest that the synergistic action on hyperthermia with radiation is more related to the rate of removal and the type of chemical bonding involved in the covalent DNA-protein crosslinks rather than the amount of DNA-protein crosslinks

  4. Public Health Goal for Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Omar, H.A.; El-Baset, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring and man-made radionuclide in groundwater may have a health hazardous to some residents. The objective of this work is to provide criteria for safety of drinking-water with respect to the chemical parameters and the radionuclide content. The annual effective dose for the consumption of drinking water was considered. Ground water samples were selected from different sites in Egypt, that have the most population, it were taken from aquifer regions along Giza sites in Egypt. Chemical analyses for the major anions, cations, and the radiological analyses were tested . Activity concentrations (Bq/l) of the gross alpha and the gross beta activities of our investigated samples were compared with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of the world health organization (WHO). Some of the water samples were found to have a higher of gross beta and alpha particles than the MCL. Alpha activity were found depending on to the total dissolved solids (TDS) content of the water samples. Gamma activity concentrations were analyzed using low background germanium detector, the higher of activity values was found in some investigated samples is due to increasing of 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities. Tritium activity concentrations also were measured using soft beta liquid scintillation counter, it was found lower than the MCL. Our investigated samples were found to have a higher concentrations of the phosphate, nitrites, iron, and manganese contents than the maximum permissible limit, all the ground water samples were found to have a higher of silica and alumina content. Commercial carbon powder and natural clay materials were tested as ion exchangers for the removal of inorganic contaminants in the ground water samples. Clay materials was found to have a higher selectivity than activated carbon for the removal of radionuclides, phosphates, nitrites, and manganese content at the ground water samples

  5. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  6. Covalent DNA-protein crosslinking occurs after hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, A.E.; Bowden, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks occur in exponentially growing mouse leukemia cells (L1210) after exposure to ionizing radiation. The amount of DNA-protein crosslinks as measured by a filter binding assay is dose dependent upon x irradiation. Although hyperthermia and radiation in combination are synergistic with respect to cell lethality, the combination does not result in an increase of DNA-protein crosslinks when assayed immediately following treatments. Hyperthermia (43 0 C/15 min) given prior to radiation dose not alter the radiation dose dependency of the amount of initial crosslinking. In addition, the amount of DNA-protein crosslinking produced by heat plus radiation is independent of the length of heating the cells at 43 0 C. The DNA-protein crosslinks produced y 50-Gy x ray alone are removed after 2 hr at 37 0 C. However, if hyperthermia (43 0 C/15 min) is given prior to 100-Gy x ray, the removal of DNA-protein crosslinks is delayed until 4.0 hr after radiation. Phospho-serine and phospho-threonine bonds are not produced with either radiation or the combination of hyperthermia plus radiation as judged by the resistance of the bonds to guanidine hydrochloride. However, hyperthermia plus radiation causes an increase in phosphate to nitrogen type bonding. These results show that radiation alone causes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. Hyperthermia in combination with radiation does not increase the total amount of the crosslinks but delays the removal of the crosslinks and alters the distribution of the types of chemical bonding

  7. Kidney Damage in Hemorrhagic Vasculitis Occurring in Childhood and Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nephropathy is diagnosed in 30–60 % of patients with hemorrhagic vasculitis (HV (Schönlein Henoch puprupa and occurred in each fourth of them in the onset of the disease and with the same incidence at first recurrence of the patho­logical process. In recent years, the relative and absolute number of patients with this form of glomerular disease significantly increased. According to the results of the kidney biopsy in children, Henoch glomerulonephritis (HGN is the most common variant of the secondary immunoglobulin (Ig A nephritis. The nature of the clinical course and morphological manifestations of the HGN in patients with HV, which began in childhood and adulthood, remains unexplored. This was the purpose and objectives of this study. Materials and methods. The study included 174 patients with HV (83 % of men and 47 % of women. In 92 cases, vasculitis debuted in children (on average in 12 years, and in 82 — in the adults (on average in 25 years. I, II and III degree of activity of pathological process are set at a ratio of 1 : 2 : 2. Seropositivity for high levels of IgA occurred in 40 % of cases, by the presence of rheumatoid factor — in 27 %. At the time of the survey, cutaneous syndrome was diagnosed in 68 % of patients in the form of urticarial, hemorrhagic, papule-nodular, papule-necro­tic, pustular-ulcerative, necrotic-ulcerative, nodose-ulcerative and polymorphic forms, and articular syndrome — in 48 %. In 24 cases, kidney biopsy was performed. Results. Renal disease was revealed in 71 % of patients with HV, while on the background of nephropathy the integral index of the severity of extrarenal patho­logy was significantly higher. According to the characteristics of the articular syndrome, patients with nephropathy and without it differed little among themselves. The severity of muscle syndrome has the impact on the development of the HV. In turn, renal pathology significantly influenced the development

  8. Entanglement revival can occur only when the system-environment state is not a Markov state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargolzahi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Markov states have been defined for tripartite quantum systems. In this paper, we generalize the definition of the Markov states to arbitrary multipartite case and find the general structure of an important subset of them, which we will call strong Markov states. In addition, we focus on an important property of the Markov states: If the initial state of the whole system-environment is a Markov state, then each localized dynamics of the whole system-environment reduces to a localized subdynamics of the system. This provides us a necessary condition for entanglement revival in an open quantum system: Entanglement revival can occur only when the system-environment state is not a Markov state. To illustrate (a part of) our results, we consider the case that the environment is modeled as classical. In this case, though the correlation between the system and the environment remains classical during the evolution, the change of the state of the system-environment, from its initial Markov state to a state which is not a Markov one, leads to the entanglement revival in the system. This shows that the non-Markovianity of a state is not equivalent to the existence of non-classical correlation in it, in general.

  9. gemine piltide kaudu : Fotograafia antropoloogiast / Jay Ruby

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruby, Jay, 1935-

    2010-01-01

    Fotograafia ja sotsiaalteaduste suhtest visuaalse etnograafia seisukohalt. Uurimisprojektist, mille sihiks on mõista kõikide fotograafia liikide kultuurilist rolli ja funktsioone inimeste elus antropoloogilisest vaatenurgast, olles huvitatud kultuurilisest ja kommunikatiivsest, mitte hinnangulisest algest

  10. Gemination seeds of medicinal plant of yellow gentian (Gentiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oem

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... The purpose of this study was to show the effect of cold-stratification, gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on ... major problem in cultivating gentian is the seed which .... germination until 120 days of optimum germination.

  11. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  12. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  13. A Naturally Occurring Recombinant Enterovirus Expresses a Torovirus Deubiquitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Pengcheng; Misra, Saurav; Hause, Ben; Fang, Ying

    2017-07-15

    identified a special case of cross-order recombination between enterovirus G (order Picornavirales ) and torovirus (order Nidovirales ). This naturally occurring recombination event may have broad implications for other picornaviral and/or nidoviral species. Importantly, we demonstrated that the exogenous ToV-PLP gene that was inserted into the EVG genome encodes a deubiquitinase/deISGylase and potentially suppresses host cellular innate immune responses. Our results provide insights into how a gain of function through genetic recombination, in particular cross-order recombination, may improve the ability of a virus to evade host immunity. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

  15. Tacit definitions of informal caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrubel, J; Richards, T A; Folkman, S; Acree, M C

    2001-01-01

    This study describes three tacit definitions of informal caregiving and explores the extent to which differences in these tacit definitions explain variation in caregivers' negative mood over time. There is a growing need to understand the sources of stress and gratification for informal caregivers. Tacit definitions of informal caregiving refer to caregivers' understanding of what caregiving entails. These definitions are tacit because they arise from caregivers' taken-for-granted understanding rather than formally articulated positions concerning caregiving. A random sample of 60 men, all of whom were caregiving partners of men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), was drawn from a larger cohort of 253 participants in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Coping Project (1990-1997). The caregivers were assessed bimonthly for 2 years with procedures that included a semi-structured interview focusing on a recent stressful event involving caregiving, and quantitative measures of well-being. Interpretive phenomenological case studies of the narrative accounts of the 60 caregivers produced three tacit definitions of caregiving - engagement, conflict and distance. These three tacit definitions were distinguished by differences in learning about caregiving, involvement in health care decisions, caregiving activities and reported sources of stress. The three groups differed on measures of dyadic adjustment, depression, anger and anxiety. Better understanding of caregivers' tacit definitions can facilitate and enhance effective support and interventions for caregivers.

  16. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  17. Naturally occurring asbestos-A recurring public policy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.J.; Strohmeier, B.R. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., 350 Hochberg Road, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States); Bunker, K.L. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., 350 Hochberg Road, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States)], E-mail: klbunker@rjlg.com; Van Orden, D.R. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., 350 Hochberg Road, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  18. Naturally occurring asbestos-A recurring public policy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.J.; Strohmeier, B.R.; Bunker, K.L.; Van Orden, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  19. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  20. Naturally occurring radioactivity in the Nordic countries. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the publication 'Naturally Occurring Radiation in the Nordic Countries - Recommendations' published in 1986 the radiation protection authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden gave radiation protection recommendations for natural radiation in the Nordic countries. The exposure of the populations in the Nordic countries to natural radiation sources is among the highest in the world and much effort has been devoted during the last 10 to 20 years to characterising, assessing and, where feasible, to reduce these exposures. The exposure of workers to natural radiation sources has also been an important area of work in the same period. During this period the international recommendations on radiation protection policy have been further developed with ICRP Publication 60: '1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection', and ICRP Publication 65: 'Protection Against Radon-222 at Home and at Work'. The European Basic Safety Standards Directive from 1996 (96/29/EURATOM), which is based on the ICRP recommendations, differs from the earlier versions in that special provisions have been laid down concerning exposure to natural radiation sources. As Denmark, Finland and Sweden are members of European Union and the EFTA-countries (Iceland and Norway) have close co-operation with the EU, the practical implementation of the EU-BSS will play an important role in all the Nordic countries. In November 1998, a new Drinking Water Directive, 98/83/EC, was adopted. The directive also includes radioactivity in drinking water, excluding potassium-40, radon, and radon decay products. Altogether this means that the Nordic recommendations from 1986 for natural radiation needed to be updated. The Nordic Radiation Protection Authorities therefore decided to set up a working group with the aim of revising the recommendations from 1986. The new revised recommendations will, as before, only deal with the components of the exposure to natural

  1. Definition of breeding gain for molten salt reactors - 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The graphite-moderated Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a potential breeder reactor using the thorium fuel cycle. The MSR has unique properties due to the possibility of making changes to the salt composition during operation. Most important is the extraction of protactinium, which separates the fissile uranium production into two volumes: the reactor core and the external stockpile. The paper focuses on the definition of breeding gain in such a system. The prospects of using breeding gain expressions defined for solid fuel reactors are investigated and new definitions are given which incorporate the processes occurring in the reactor core and the external stockpile. The difference of the growth rate of the mass of fissile material and breeding gain is pointed out. The new definitions are applied to an optimization study of the graphite-salt lattice of a breeder MSR. (authors)

  2. Radiation protection. Terms and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    An alphabetical list in German is given of all terms and definitions important to radiation protection under consideration of all Austrian laws concerning this subject scope as also pertinent standards of ISO, DIN and OENORM.

  3. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Constipation What is constipation? Constipation is ... and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media; 2014. May 2018 Share Previous: Constipation Next: ...

  4. Hotspots Definition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, F.; Brinkman, S.; Schellekens, E.

    2010-03-01

    In the Dutch research programme Climate changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) many scientific projects are carried out. They often take a multidisciplinary approach to the climate issue. However, more attention needed to be given to embedding the programme into practice. Therefore, the board decided to start a hotspot programme. A hotspot was defined as a pilot project in a sector, place or region in which spatial planning and climate change play an important role in the physical shape and land use of the area and where conflicts of interest are found between these and other factors. The hotspot programme started with a definition study. This report is the result of this study. The goal of the study was to identify, describe and evaluate possible hotspots. In two workshops with policy-makers from national and regional governments, consultancy firms and nature conservation organizations, a large number of potential hotspots were identified. Fifteen were selected after the workshops took place and described in detail. The selection was done using a set of conditional criteria, criteria that all had to be met. Two potential hotspots were withdrawn after the selection. Since the Board of the CcSP programme expressed its interest in financing six to seven hotspots, a prioritization was made, using prioritizing criteria. Also the potential hotspots were assessed looking at regional distribution, thematic coverage and target groups. After this assessment and an analysis of the hotspots taking some other factors into account (eg. some hotspots were very similar or one could easily be incorporated in another one) five hotspots were selected: Kampen, Biesbosch-Haringvliet, Zuidplaspolder, Delta Waters and Tilburg. Options to fill the last two places were: Grounds for Change, Noordoostpolder, Oude Vaart Valley and Arnhem/Nijmegen (KAN). For these remaining potential hotspots draft terms of reference were drawn as basis for a project proposals. These terms of reference are added to

  5. A definition for influenza pandemics based on historical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Chris W; Jennings, Roy

    2011-10-01

    To analyse the records of past influenza outbreaks to determine a definition for pandemics. Analysis of publications of large outbreaks of influenza which have occurred since 1889/90, and to match the results against the current definitions of an influenza pandemic. According to the general understanding of a pandemic, nine outbreaks of influenza since 1889/90 satisfy the definition; however, for two of these, occurring in 1900 and 1933, the data are limited. The special condition for an influenza pandemic requires, in one definition, that the virus strain responsible could not have arisen from the previous circulating strain by mutation; and in the second, that the new strain be a different subtype to the previously circulating strain. Both these restrictions deny pandemic status to two, and possibly three, influenza outbreaks which were pandemics according to the more general understanding of the term. These observations suggest that a re-evaluation of the criteria which define influenza pandemics should be carried out. The contradiction outlined above brings the previous definitions of an influenza pandemic into question; however, this can be resolved by defining an influenza pandemic by the following criteria. Thus, an influenza pandemic arises at a single, specific place and spreads rapidly to involve numerous countries. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the emergent virus does not cross-react serologically with the previously dominant virus strain(s), and there is a significant lack of immunity in the population against the emergent virus. These three criteria are interlinked and can be determined early to alert authorities who could respond appropriately. Other criteria associated with pandemics are necessarily retrospective, although important and valid. The implications of this definition are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a definition of neurodisability: a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Janssens, Astrid; Tomlinson, Richard; Williams, Jane; Logan, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, systematically, a consensus-based definition for 'neurodisability' that is meaningful to health professionals and parents of children with neurological conditions. A multidisciplinary group of health professionals was recruited through child development teams and professional societies in the UK; several parents of children with neurological conditions worked with the research team. Professionals participated in three rounds of a Delphi survey. Participants rated their agreement with a proposed definition in each round, and feedback was used to refine the definition. Finally, a perspective was sought from international experts. Responses to the three rounds were as follows: round 1,245 out of 290 (84.4%); round 2,242 out of 300 (80.6%); and round 3,237 out of 297 (79.7%). Agreement with the proposed definition was extremely high in every round (89.0%, 90.1%, and 93.6% respectively). The final version of the definition was widely endorsed among professionals, parents, and a small number of international colleagues. The final definition is as follows: 'Neurodisability describes a group of congenital or acquired long-term conditions that are attributed to impairment of the brain and/or neuromuscular system and create functional limitations. A specific diagnosis may not be identified. Conditions may vary over time, occur alone or in combination, and include a broad range of severity and complexity. The impact may include difficulties with movement, cognition, hearing and vision, communication, emotion, and behaviour'. An agreed definition of neurodisability will be useful for conducting research or clinical evaluations with people affected by neurological problems. © 2013 Crown copyright. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  7. 42 CFR 1000.10 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 1000.10 Section 1000.10 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; GENERAL DEFINITIONS Definitions § 1000.10 General definitions. In this chapter...

  8. Dual, use-based definition of "system"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard definition (ISO 15288, 2008) of the concept of a system is not complete and is the definition of a closed system. Such a definition is inadequate for systems engineering. A use-based definition is proposed which spans the open...

  9. 15 CFR 922.81 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 922.81 Section 922.81... Definitions. In addition to those definitions found at § 922.3, the following definitions apply to this... or otherwise manifesting intention not to undertake or to cease salvage efforts, or when the owner...

  10. 48 CFR 2402.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 2402.101 Definitions. Accounting Office means the Office of Accounting Operations within the Office of the Chief Financial Officer and includes that Office... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 2402.101...

  11. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond; Rowland, David; Segraves, Robert

    2008-08-01

    To develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation (PE). There are several definitions of PE; the most commonly quoted, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Edition - Text Revision, and other definitions of PE, are all authority-based rather than evidence-based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. Thus in August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of PE. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critically assess the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The Committee unanimously agreed that the constructs which are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy, and control and negative personal consequences from PE. The Committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs before or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and patient-reported outcome measures for diagnosing and assessing the efficacy of treatment

  12. The role of diseases, risk factors and symptoms in the definition of multimorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Tora Grauers; Bebe, Anna; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    until October 2013. One author extracted the information. Ambiguities were resolved, and consensus reached with one co-author. Outcome measures were: cut-off point for the number of conditions included in the definitions of multimorbidity; setting; data sources; number, kind, duration, and severity......Objective is to explore how multimorbidity is defined in the scientific literature, with a focus on the roles of diseases, risk factors, and symptoms in the definitions. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant publications up......%). Sources of data were primarily self-reports (56 articles, 42%). Out of the 163 articles selected, 115 had individually constructed multimorbidity definitions, and in these articles diseases occurred in all definitions, with diabetes as the most frequent. Risk factors occurred in 98 (85%) and symptoms...

  13. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  14. ITER concept definition. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume II of the two volumes describing the concept definition of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor deals with the ITER concept in technical depth, and covers all areas of design of the ITER tokamak. Included are an assessment of the current database for design, scoping studies, rationale for concepts selection, performance flexibility, the ITER concept, the operations and experimental/testing program, ITER parameters and design phase schedule, and research and development specific to ITER. This latter includes a definition of specific research and development tasks, a division of tasks among members, specific milestones, required results, and schedules. Figs and tabs

  15. NASA Technology Readiness Level Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will cover the basic Technology Readiness Level (TRL) definitions used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and their specific wording. We will discuss how they are used in the NASA Project Life Cycle and their effectiveness in practice. We'll also discuss the recent efforts by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to develop a broadly acceptable set of TRL definitions for the international space community and some of the issues brought to light. This information will provide input for further discussion of the use of the TRL scale in manufacturing.

  16. General definition of gravitational tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmark, T.; Obers, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this note we give a general definition of the gravitational tension in a given asymptotically translationally-invariant spatial direction of a space-time. The tension is defined via the extrinsic curvature in analogy with the Hawking-Horowitz definition of energy. We show the consistency with the ADM tension formulas for asymptotically-flat space-times, in particular for Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions. Moreover, we apply the general tension formula to near-extremal branes, constituting a check for non-asymptotically flat space-times. (author)

  17. Varying Definitions for Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction Alter Event Rates and Prognostic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Hanan; Lo, Sidney; Shugman, Ibrahim M.; Saad, Yousef; Hopkins, Andrew P.; Mussap, Christian; Leung, Dominic; Thomas, Liza; Juergens, Craig P.; French, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) has had several definitions in the last decade, including the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) definition, that requires marked biomarker elevations congruent with surgical PMI criteria. Methods and Results The aim of this study was to examine the definition‐based frequencies of PMI and whether they influenced the reported association between PMI and increased rates of late death/ myocardial infarction (MI). We studied 742 patients; 492 (66%) had normal troponin T (TnT) levels and 250 (34%) had elevated, but stable or falling, TnT levels. PMI, using the 2007 and the 2012 universal definition, occurred in 172 (23.2%) and in 99 (13.3%) patients, respectively, whereas 19 (2.6%) met the SCAI PMI definition (PPMI using the 2012 definition, occlusion of a side branch ≤1 mm occurred in 48 patients (48.5%) and was the most common angiographic finding for PMI. The rates of death/MI at 2 years in patients with, compared to those without, PMI was 14.7% versus 10.1% (P=0.087) based on the 2007 definition, 16.9% versus 10.3% (P=0.059) based on the 2012 definition, and 29.4% versus 10.7% (P=0.015) based on the SCAI definition. Conclusion In this study, PMI, according to the SCAI definition, was associated with more‐frequent late death/MI, with ≈20% of all patients, who had PMI using the 2007 universal MI definition, not having SCAI‐defined PMI. Categorizing these latter patients as SCAI‐defined no PMI did not alter the rate of death/MI among no‐PMI patients. PMID:25359403

  18. Pneumothorax: from definition to diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Secen, Nevena; Dryllis, Georgios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Rapti, Aggeliki; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-10-01

    Pneumothorax is an urgent situation that has to be treated immediately upon diagnosis. Pneumothorax is divided to primary and secondary. A primary pneumothorax is considered the one that occurs without an apparent cause and in the absence of significant lung disease. On the other hand secondary pneumothorax occurs in the presence of existing lung pathology. There is the case where an amount of air in the chest increases markedly and a one-way valve is formed leading to a tension pneumothorax. Unless reversed by effective treatment, this situation can progress and cause death. Pneumothorax can be caused by physical trauma to the chest or as a complication of medical or surgical intervention (biopsy). Symptoms typically include chest pain and shortness of breath. Diagnosis of a pneumothorax requires a chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT) scan. Small spontaneous pneumothoraces typically resolve without treatment and require only monitoring. In our current special issue we will present the definition, diagnosis and treatment of pneumothorax from different experts in the field, different countries and present different methods of treatment.

  19. On the definition of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and disciplinary approaches. This book is a first publication in the ‘On the definition of learning’ network. The network arose out of the aspiration to study the phenomenon of learning in depth and to understand its complex relationship to empirical investigation and teaching. Based on the assumption...

  20. Vulvodynia. Definition, diagnosis and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Lundvall, Lene; Kristensen, Ellids

    2008-01-01

    that the problem is solely a psychological disorder have been abandoned, because inflammatory mechanisms and genetic factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as psychosexual contributors. This article describes the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on patho...

  1. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  2. A New Definition of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either the removal of positive reinforcement or the presentation of an aversive stimulus (Skinner, 1953) that results in a decrease in the frequency and/or intensity of the response (Azrin & Holtz, 1966). By definition, punishment seeks to stop unacceptable, unwanted, and bothersome…

  3. Definitions of Quantities and Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    Compares various methods of defining derived quantities, arguing for a definitional formula using base or fundamental units in a word equation, or symbol-equations with the symbols explained. Suggests that fundamental units be defined operationally or left regarded as intuitive as in the case of length and time. (JM)

  4. Is there consensus in defining childhood cerebral visual impairment? A systematic review of terminology and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakki, Hanna E A; Dale, Naomi J; Sargent, Jenefer; Perez-Roche, Teresa; Bowman, Richard

    2018-04-01

    The childhood condition of visual difficulties caused by brain damage, commonly termed cortical or cerebral visual impairment (CVI), is well established but has no internationally accepted definition. Clarification of its core features is required to advance research and clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify the definitions of childhood CVI in the original scientific literature to describe and critically appraise a consensual definition of the condition. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and AMED databases were searched in January 2017. Studies were included if they (1) were published original research, (2) contained a childhood CVI sample, (3) contained a definition of CVI and (4) described their CVI identification/diagnostic method. Thematic analysis identified concepts within definitions and narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 1150 articles, 51 met inclusion criteria. Definitions were subdivided according to detail (descriptive definition, description not reaching definition status and diagnostic/operationalising criteria). Three themes concerning visual deficits, eye health and brain integrity were identified (each containing subthemes) and analysed individually across definitions. The most common themes were ' visual impairment' (n=20), 'retrochiasmatic pathway damage'(n=13) and 'normal/near normal eye health' (n=15). The most consensual definition identified here may not be the best quality for advancing our understanding of CVI. We argue for the alternative definition: CVI is a verifiable visual dysfunction which cannot be attributed to disorders of the anterior visual pathways or any potentially co-occurring ocular impairment. We propose reporting guidelines to permit comparison across studies and increase the evidence base for more reliable clinical assessment and diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  5. Evaluation of the WHO clinical case definition for pediatric HIV infection in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gend, Christine L; Haadsma, Maaike L; Sauer, Pieter J J; Schoeman, Cornelius J

    2003-06-01

    The WHO clinical case definition for pediatric HIV infection has been designed to be used in countries where diagnostic laboratory resources are limited. We evaluated the WHO case definition to determine whether it is a useful instrument to discriminate between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. In addition, clinical features not included in this case definition were recorded. We recorded clinical data from 300 consecutively admitted children in a state hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa, and tested these children for HIV infection. A total of 222 children were included in the study; 69 children (31.1 per cent) were HIV positive. The sensitivity of the WHO case definition in this study was 14.5 per cent, the specificity was 98.6 per cent. Apart from weight loss and generalized dermatitis, the signs of the WHO case definition were significantly more often seen in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative children. Of the clinical signs not included in the WHO case definition, marasmus and hepatosplenomegaly especially occurred more frequently in HIV-positive children. Based on these findings we composed a new case definition consisting of four signs: marasmus, hepatosplenomegaly, oropharyngeal candidiasis, and generalized lymphadenopathy. HIV infection is suspected in a child presenting with at least two of these four signs. The sensitivity of this case definition was 63.2 per cent, the specificity was 96.0 per cent. We conclude that in this study the WHO case definition was not a useful instrument to discriminate between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, mainly because its sensitivity was strikingly low. The simplified case definition we propose, proved to be more sensitive than the WHO case definition (63.2 vs. 14.5 per cent), whilst its specificity remained high.

  6. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Thomas E; Willie, Jon T; Guilleminault, Christian; Siegel, Jerome M

    2009-01-01

    People with narcolepsy often have episodes of cataplexy, brief periods of muscle weakness triggered by strong emotions. Many researchers are now studying mouse models of narcolepsy, but definitions of cataplexy-like behavior in mice differ across labs. To establish a common language, the International Working Group on Rodent Models of Narcolepsy reviewed the literature on cataplexy in people with narcolepsy and in dog and mouse models of narcolepsy and then developed a consensus definition of murine cataplexy. The group concluded that murine cataplexy is an abrupt episode of nuchal atonia lasting at least 10 seconds. In addition, theta activity dominates the EEG during the episode, and video recordings document immobility. To distinguish a cataplexy episode from REM sleep after a brief awakening, at least 40 seconds of wakefulness must precede the episode. Bouts of cataplexy fitting this definition are common in mice with disrupted orexin/hypocretin signaling, but these events almost never occur in wild type mice. It remains unclear whether murine cataplexy is triggered by strong emotions or whether mice remain conscious during the episodes as in people with narcolepsy. This working definition provides helpful insights into murine cataplexy and should allow objective and accurate comparisons of cataplexy in future studies using mouse models of narcolepsy.

  7. New definition of the decay law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    Time evolution of unstable states is considered. The usual definition of the decay law is shown to be of a limited application. A more general definition is proposed. The decay law behaviour at long and short times is discussed

  8. 10 CFR 830.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... structures, systems, and components; (3) Safety management programs; (4) Technical safety requirements; and..., construction, fabrication, assembly, decontamination, environmental restoration, waste management, laboratory... ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.3 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply to this part...

  9. Definition of total bootstrap current in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative definitions of the total bootstrap current are compared. An analogous comparison is given for the ohmic and auxiliary currents. It is argued that different definitions than those usually employed lead to simpler analyses of tokamak operating scenarios

  10. 31 CFR 0.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RULES OF CONDUCT General Provisions § 0.103 Definitions. The following definitions are used throughout... Comptroller of the Currency; (10) Office of the Inspector General; (11) Office of Thrift Supervision; (12...

  11. 40 CFR 195.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions § 195.2 Definitions. Definitions in 15 U.S.C. 2602 and 2662 apply to... exam means the exam which evaluates individuals who provide radon measurement services in a residential...

  12. 21 CFR 136.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION BAKERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 136.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following definitions apply: (a) The word bread when used in the name of the food means the unit weighs one-half pound...

  13. 20 CFR 633.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Introductory Provisions § 633.104 Definitions. The following definitions are applicable... the criteria used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department in defining individuals as...

  14. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  15. A definition and ethical evaluation of overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Degeling, Chris; Doust, Jenny; Barratt, Alexandra

    2016-07-08

    Overdiagnosis is an emerging problem in health policy and practice: we address its definition and ethical implications. We argue that the definition of overdiagnosis should be expressed at the level of populations. Consider a condition prevalent in a population, customarily labelled with diagnosis A. We propose that overdiagnosis is occurring in respect of that condition in that population when (1) the condition is being identified and labelled with diagnosis A in that population (consequent interventions may also be offered); (2) this identification and labelling would be accepted as correct in a relevant professional community; but (3) the resulting label and/or intervention carries an unfavourable balance between benefits and harms. We identify challenges in determining and weighting relevant harms, then propose three central ethical considerations in overdiagnosis: the extent of harm done, whether harm is avoidable and whether the primary goal of the actor/s concerned is to benefit themselves or the patient, citizen or society. This distinguishes predatory (avoidable, self-benefiting), misdirected (avoidable, other-benefiting) and tragic (unavoidable, other-benefiting) overdiagnosis; the degree of harm moderates the justifiability of each type. We end with four normative challenges: (1) methods for adjudicating between professional standards and identifying relevant harms and benefits should be procedurally just; (2) individuals, organisations and states are differently responsible for addressing overdiagnosis; (3) overdiagnosis is a matter for distributive justice: the burdens of both overdiagnosis and its prevention could fall on the least-well-off; and (4) communicating about overdiagnosis risks harming those unaware that they may have been overdiagnosed. These challenges will need to be addressed as the field develops. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. A note on antennas: Definitions and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1987-01-01

    Definitions of scattered and diffracted fields, originally given by R. F. Millar, are reviewed and supplemented. The definitions are used to discuss relations between results obtained by commonly used pattern prediction methods for reflector antennas.......Definitions of scattered and diffracted fields, originally given by R. F. Millar, are reviewed and supplemented. The definitions are used to discuss relations between results obtained by commonly used pattern prediction methods for reflector antennas....

  17. New definition of the cell diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.

    1975-01-01

    As was shown in a recent work by Gelbard, the usually applied Benoist definition of the cell diffusion coefficient gives two different values if two different definitions of the cell are made. A new definition is proposed that preserves the neutron balance for the homogenized lattice and that is independent of the cell definition. The resulting diffusion coefficient is identical with the main term of Benoist's diffusion coefficient

  18. Power: towards a third generation definition

    OpenAIRE

    13250612 - Zaaiman, Stephanus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Power is a well-established concept in the social sciences especially in the political sciences. Although it is widely used in scientific discourse, different definitions and perspectives prevail with regard to it. This article aims to explore the possibilities of taking the debate further towards a third generation definition of social power. Although first generation definitions (associated with Weber and Dahl) and second generation definitions (associated with inter alia Giddens and Morris...

  19. Some implications of an event-based definition of exposure to the risk of road accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of exposure to the risk of road accident as any event, limited in space and time, representing a potential for an accident to occur by bringing road users close to each other in time or space of by requiring a road user to take action to avoid leaving the road......This paper proposes a new definition of exposure to the risk of road accident as any event, limited in space and time, representing a potential for an accident to occur by bringing road users close to each other in time or space of by requiring a road user to take action to avoid leaving...

  20. 40 CFR 61.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition of reference man are outlined in the International Commission on Radiological Protection's... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 61.101 Section 61.101....101 Definitions. As used in this subpart, all terms not defined here have the meaning given them in...

  1. 40 CFR 61.91 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... included. The method for calculating effective dose equivalent and the definition of reference man are... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 61.91 Section 61.91... Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.91 Definitions. As used in this subpart, all...

  2. 50 CFR 21.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 21.3 Section 21.3 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Introduction § 21.3 Definitions. In addition to definitions contained in... environment that is intensively manipulated by man for the purpose of producing raptors of selected species...

  3. An Analysis of Noun Definition in Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol Kit Sum; Stokes, Stephanie; Man, Yonnie; T'Sou, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the noun definitions given by Cantonese speakers at different ages. Definitional responses on six concrete nouns from 1075 children aged 4;10 to 12;01 and 15 adults were analyzed with reference to the semantic content and the syntactic form. Results showed that conventional definitions produced by Cantonese adult speakers…

  4. 40 CFR 61.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dose equivalent and the definition of reference man are outlined in the International Commission on... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 61.21 Section 61.21... Underground Uranium Mines § 61.21 Definitions. As used in this subpart, all terms not defined here have the...

  5. Standardized Definitions for Code Verification Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This document contains standardized definitions for several commonly used code verification test problems. These definitions are intended to contain sufficient information to set up the test problem in a computational physics code. These definitions are intended to be used in conjunction with exact solutions to these problems generated using Exact- Pack, www.github.com/lanl/exactpack.

  6. 10 CFR 715.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 715.2 Section 715.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEFINITION OF NON-RECOURSE PROJECT-FINANCED § 715.2 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Act means the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 104 Stat. 2399. Facility means a “new independent power...

  7. 48 CFR 370.203 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 370.203... Opportunities 370.203 Definitions. For purposes of this Subpart 370.2, the following definitions shall apply: (a... Financing Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 77, 25 U.S.C. 1451). (d) Indian-owned economic enterprise means any Indian...

  8. 10 CFR 1800.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 Energy NORTHEAST... INTERSTATE LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMPACT § 1800.11 Definitions. The definitions contained in Article II..., corporation, business enterprise or other legal entity, either public or private, and expressly includes...

  9. 40 CFR 51.1000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 51.1000 Section 51.1000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1000 Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this...

  10. 26 CFR 1.801-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-1 Definitions. (a) Life insurance company. The term life.... For the definition of an “insurance company”, see paragraph (b) of this section. In determining... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.801-1 Section 1.801-1 Internal...

  11. 23 CFR 635.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.102 Definitions. As used in this subpart: Administrator means the... definition is set forth in the State contract specifications, that definition will apply. Contract time means the number of workdays or calendar days specified in a contract for completion of the contract work...

  12. 16 CFR 1404.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1404.3 Section 1404.3... INSULATION § 1404.3 Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C... as the marketer of the brand). ...

  13. 7 CFR 1775.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Utilities Service, an Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture. Solid Waste Management. Refers... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1775.2 Section 1775.2 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS General Provisions § 1775.2 Definitions. The following definitions...

  14. Quality Investing – Industry versus Academic Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Kyosev (Georgi); M.X. Hanauer (Matthias); J.J. Huij (Joop); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we provide an overview of common quality definitions that are currently used in the industry and those used in academic studies, and we outline the differences between these definitions. We show that there is a large dispersion in the definitions that are used for the

  15. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural importance...

  16. 7 CFR 301.92-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or field grown cycads, and tissue culture plants grown in vitro; and plants meeting the definition of... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 301.92-1 Section 301.92-1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum § 301.92-1 Definitions...

  17. 5 CFR 362.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 362.101 Section 362.101... PROGRAM Definitions § 362.101 Definitions. For purposes of this part, An agency means a component within... outstanding record of achievement in an applicable leadership, policy, managerial, professional, or technical...

  18. 19 CFR 122.1 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such government, or passengers traveling on official business of such government; or (3) Carrying... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General definitions. 122.1 Section 122.1 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.1 General definitions. The following...

  19. 47 CFR 101.1112 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 101.1112 Section 101.1112... SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for LMDS § 101.1112 Definitions. (a) Scope. The definitions in this... million. (d) Entrepreneur. An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its affiliates and controlling...

  20. 13 CFR 120.351 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 120.351 Section 120.351 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Qualified Employee Trusts (esop) § 120.351 Definitions. All terms specific to ESOPs have the same definition...

  1. 23 CFR 230.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Minority, Disadvantaged, and Women Business Enterprises § 230.202 Definitions. (a) Minority... disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE), all defined under 49 CFR part 23. This expanded definition is used only... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 230.202 Section 230.202 Highways FEDERAL...

  2. 24 CFR 241.1005 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1005 Definitions. (a) All of the definitions of § 241.1 apply to equity and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 241.1005 Section 241...

  3. 24 CFR 241.260 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Contract Rights and Obligations § 241.260 Definitions. All of the definitions contained in § 241.1 shall apply to this subpart. In addition, the term contract... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 241.260 Section 241...

  4. 24 CFR 241.800 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Contract Rights and Obligations-Multifamily Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage § 241.800 Definitions. All of the definitions contained in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 241.800 Section 241...

  5. 12 CFR 404.13 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 404.13 Section 404.13 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.13 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions shall apply...

  6. 36 CFR 219.36 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Definitions § 219.36 Definitions. Definitions of the... vision for a specific area of land or type of land within the plan area. Statements of desired conditions... species of plants or animals which are not indigenous to an area but valued for their contribution to...

  7. 21 CFR 516.13 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 516.13 Section 516.13 Food and Drugs... Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.13 Definitions. The following definitions of terms apply only in the... treatment, control or prevention of a disease or condition, or the intention to affect the structure or...

  8. 20 CFR 229.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MINIMUM GUARANTEE General § 229.2 Definitions. The following definitions are used in this part: Annuity... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 229.2 Section 229.2 Employees... average wages of all wage earners from 1951 although the second year before the year the worker dies or...

  9. 75 FR 47458 - TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... tribal governments, in aggregate or by the private sector, of $100 million or more in any one year... TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule revises the definition of rare diseases to adopt the definition of a rare disease as...

  10. 44 CFR 71.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as by a private sector insurance company under the Write Your Own Program as authorized by 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 71.2 Section 71... LEGISLATION § 71.2 Definitions. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, the definitions set forth in...

  11. 40 CFR 26.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.202 Section 26.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Prohibition of... Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.202 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.102 shall be applicable to this...

  12. 40 CFR 26.1202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.1202 Section 26.1202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Prohibition of... Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1202 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.1102 shall be applicable to this...

  13. A re-audit of the use of definitions of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Lee, Vivian

    2012-11-01

    The use of different definitions of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may make comparison of data among studies difficult. Fifty randomly selected papers dealing with SIDS that were published between 2010 and 2011 in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed to determine whether one of three internationally accepted definitions of SIDS had been either written in the text or referenced. A significant improvement in the use of definitions has occurred since 2005, with the percentage of papers either quoting or referencing a standard definition increasing by 26%, from 42 to 68%. The 1989 NICHD definition remained the most commonly used definition (35.1%) followed by the 2004 San Diego definition (26.3%). Although the percentage of papers where either no definition was provided or where an idiosyncratic or mis-cited definition was used fell 26%, from 58 to 32%, nearly one in three papers published on SIDS in peer-reviewed journals that were included in this study still did not cite a standard definition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Is There Evidence that Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Occurs in Conjunction with North American Monsoon Convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Portmann, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study suggests that during the period of the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM), ozone depletion could occur as a result of catalytic ozone destruction associated with the cold and wet conditions caused by overshooting convection. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor measurements do show that the NAM region is wetter than other parts of the globe in regards to both the mean and extremes. However, definitive evidence of ozone depletion occurring in that region has not been presented. In this study, we examine coincident measurements of water vapor, ozone, and tropospheric tracers from aircraft data taken during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) aircraft campaign looking specifically for ozone depletion in regions identified as impacted by overshooting convection. Although we do find evidence of lower ozone values in air impacted by convective overshoots, using tropospheric tracers we attribute those observations to input of tropospheric air rather than catalytic ozone destruction. Additionally, we explore the consequences of these lower ozone values on surface UV, and conclude that there is minimal impact on the UV index.

  15. [A Case of Angiomyolipoma Occurring in the Mesentery of the Transverse Colon and Treated Using Laparoscopic Excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masashi; Tanemura, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Nobutaka; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Seo, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Megumi; Misumi, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Wataru; Irei, Toshimitsu; Onoe, Takashi; Suzuki, Takahisa; Sudo, Takeshi; Shimizu, Yosuke; Hinoi, Takao; Tashiro, Hirotaka

    2016-11-01

    A 65-year-old woman had received chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma since 2011. After the 8th course, computed tomography revealed the disappearance of lymph node metastasis, except for 22mm of the mass located on the tail side of the antrum. MRI showed a low intensity mass on the T1 and T2-weighted images. FDG-PET did not show abnormal uptake in the tumor. EUS-FNA did not reveal a definitive diagnosis. We performed a laparotomy for diagnosis and treatment. Intraoperative findings showed that the tumor occurred in the mesentery of the transverse colon. The pathological diagnosis was angiomyolipoma. The patient has been free from recurrent disease for 2 years and 6 months. Angiomyolipoma originating in the transverse mesentery region is rare and, due to various percentage of tissue factors, there are no fixed view of image findings. Furthermore, a large tissue volume is need for histological diagnosis. Laparotomy is useful for diagnosis and therapy for angiomyolipoma occurring in the mesentery of the transverse colon.

  16. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  17. Cooling towers - terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In the field of cooling tower construction and operation, the use of publications has shown that a systematic glossary has not yet been developed. Therefore a dictionary of the terms used in this field, together with their clear definitions, is urgently required. This work has been started by the V.I.K. (Association for the Industrial Power Economy) in Essen and completed by the VDI-Group 'Energy Engineering'. Because of the strong international links and the increasing overseas trade in this field also the corresponding terms in other languages, English, French and Spanish are included. As to make it possible to find the German terms and definitions when starting from a foreign language, alphabetical lists are included for the various languages giving the number of the corresponding German term. In such cases where the technical term used in the United States is not identical with the corresponding term used in the United Kingdom, both terms are included. (orig./HP) [de

  18. On the definition of microhardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, F.G.

    1983-01-01

    Microhardness testing can be a very useful tool for studying modern materials, but is plagued by well-known experimental difficulties. Reasons for the unusual behavior of hardness data at very low loads are explored by Monte Carlo simulation. These simulations bear remarkable resemblance to the results of actual hardness experiments. The limit of hardness as load or indentation depth tends to zero is shown to depend on experimental error rather than upon intrinsic material properties. The large scatter of hardness data at very low loads is insured by the accepted definition of hardness. A new definition of hardness is suggested which eliminates much of this scatter and possesses a limit as indentation depth approaches zero. Some simple calculations are used to show the utility of this new approach to hardness testing

  19. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  1. TRANSWRAP II: problem definition manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.E.

    1981-02-01

    The TRANSWRAP II computer code, written in Fortran IV and described in this Problem Definition Manual, was developed to analytically predict the magnitude of pressure pulses of large scale sodium-wate reactions in LMFBR secondary systems. It is currently being used for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Program. The code provides the options, flexibility and features necessary to consider any system configuration. The code methodology has been validated with the aid of extensive sodium-water reaction test programs

  2. Ecological units: definitions and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jax, Kurt

    2006-09-01

    Concepts of ecological units, such as population, community, and ecosystem, are at the basis of ecological theory and research and have increasingly become the focus of conservation strategies. Concepts of these units still suffer from inconsistencies and confusions over terminology. The different concepts are treated here together as a common "conceptual cluster," with similar ecological functions (roles) and similar problems in their definition and use. An analysis of the multitude of existing terms and concepts that have been developed for these units reveals that they differ with respect to at least four basic criteria: (i) the questions as to whether they are defined statistically or via a network of interactions; (ii) if their boundaries are drawn by topographical or process-related criteria; (iii) how high the required internal relationships are; and (iv) if they are perceived as "real" entities or abstractions by an observer The various definitions cannot be easily sorted into just a few types, but they can be characterized by several independent criteria. I argue that serious problems arise if the different possibilities of defining ecological units are not recognized and if the concepts are perceived as self-evident. The different concepts of ecological units should be defined and used in a philosophically informed manner I propose a dual approach to the use of ecological units. Generic meanings of the main concepts (especially population, community, and ecosystem) should be retained only as heuristically useful perspectives, while specific and "operational" definitions of the concepts as units should be developed, depending on specific purposes of their use. Some thoughts on the basic requirements for such definitions and the domains of their uses are briefly explained.

  3. A general definition of trust

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a definition and conceptual analysis of trust is given in terms of trustworthiness. Its focus will be as wide as possible, and will not be restricted to any particular type of trust. The aim is to show the key parameters that enable us to investigate and understand trust, thereby facilitating the development of systems, institutions and technologies to support, model or mimic trust. The paper will also show the strong connection between trust and trustworthiness, showing how the...

  4. Hidden Curriculum: An Analytical Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Andarvazh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of hidden curriculum was first used by Philip Jackson in 1968, and Hafferty brought this concept to the medical education. Many of the subjects that medical students learn are attributed to this curriculum. So far several definitions have been presented for the hidden curriculum, which on the one hand made this concept richer, and on the other hand, led to confusion and ambiguity.This paper tries to provide a clear and comprehensive definition of it.Methods: In this study, concept analysis of McKenna method was used. Using keywords and searching in the databases, 561 English and 26 Persian references related to the concept was found, then by limitingthe research scope, 125 abstracts and by finding more relevant references, 55 articles were fully studied.Results: After analyzing the definitions by McKenna method, the hidden curriculum is defined as follows: The hidden curriculum is a hidden, powerful, intrinsic in organizational structure and culture and sometimes contradictory message, conveyed implicitly and tacitly in the learning environment by structural and human factors and its contents includes cultural habits and customs, norms, values, belief systems, attitudes, skills, desires and behavioral and social expectations can have a positive or negative effect, unplanned, neither planners nor teachers, nor learners are aware of it. The ultimate consequence of the hidden curriculum includes reproducing the existing class structure, socialization, and familiarizing learners for transmission and joining the professional world.Conclusion: Based on the concept analysis, we arrived at an analytical definition of the hidden curriculum that could be useful for further studies in this area.Keywords: CONCEPT ANALYSIS, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, MCKENNA’S METHOD

  5. The definition of kernel Oz

    OpenAIRE

    Smolka, Gert

    1994-01-01

    Oz is a concurrent language providing for functional, object-oriented, and constraint programming. This paper defines Kernel Oz, a semantically complete sublanguage of Oz. It was an important design requirement that Oz be definable by reduction to a lean kernel language. The definition of Kernel Oz introduces three essential abstractions: the Oz universe, the Oz calculus, and the actor model. The Oz universe is a first-order structure defining the values and constraints Oz computes with. The ...

  6. Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

  7. Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology. The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term 'UGTB' has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

  8. Patient-physician discussions about costs: definitions and impact on cost conversation incidence estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wynn G; Hesson, Ashley; Davis, J Kelly; Kirby, Christine; Williamson, Lillie D; Barnett, Jamison A; Ubel, Peter A

    2016-03-31

    Nearly one in three Americans are financially burdened by their medical expenses. To mitigate financial distress, experts recommend routine physician-patient cost conversations. However, the content and incidence of these conversations are unclear, and rigorous definitions are lacking. We sought to develop a novel set of cost conversation definitions, and determine the impact of definitional variation on cost conversation incidence in three clinical settings. Retrospective, mixed-methods analysis of transcribed dialogue from 1,755 outpatient encounters for routine clinical management of breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and depression, occurring between 2010-2014. We developed cost conversation definitions using summative content analysis. Transcripts were evaluated independently by at least two members of our multi-disciplinary team to determine cost conversation incidence using each definition. Incidence estimates were compared using Pearson's Chi-Square Tests. Three cost conversation definitions emerged from our analysis: (a) Out-of-Pocket (OoP) Cost--discussion of the patient's OoP costs for a healthcare service; (b) Cost/Coverage--discussion of the patient's OoP costs or insurance coverage; (c) Cost of Illness- discussion of financial costs or insurance coverage related to health or healthcare. These definitions were hierarchical; OoP Cost was a subset of Cost/Coverage, which was a subset of Cost of Illness. In each clinical setting, we observed significant variation in the incidence of cost conversations when using different definitions; breast oncology: 16, 22, 24% of clinic visits contained cost conversation (OOP Cost, Cost/Coverage, Cost of Illness, respectively; P cost conversation varied significantly depending on the definition used. Our findings and proposed definitions may assist in retrospective interpretation and prospective design of investigations on this topic.

  9. Outcomes of WHO Grade I Meningiomas Receiving Definitive or Postoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzler, Emily; Morris, Christopher G.; Kirwan, Jessica M.; Amdur, Robert J.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed long-term local control and complications in patients with either pathologically confirmed or clinical World Health Organization Grade I meningiomas treated with definitive or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) at the University of Florida. Methods: Between 1984 and 2006, 146 patients were treated with definitive (n = 88) or postoperative RT after subtotal resection (n = 57) or gross total resection (n = 1). Patients were treated with conventional (n = 41), stereotactic (n = 103), or intensity-modulated RT (n = 2) to a median dose of 52.7 Gy and followed for a median of 7.3 years (range, 0.6-22.0 years) Results: The local control rates at 5 and 10 years were as follows: definitive RT, 99% and 99%; postoperative RT, 96% and 93%; and overall, 97% and 96%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year cause-specific survival rates were as follows: definitive RT 94% and 94%, postoperative RT, 100% and 96%; and overall, 96% and 95%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were as follows: definitive RT, 81% and 75%; postoperative RT, 96% and 85%; and overall, 87% and 79%, respectively. Severe RT complications occurred in 6.8% of patients; severe surgery-related complications occurred in 10 (17%) of 58 patients treated surgically. Conclusions: The likelihood of cure after definitive RT or following subtotal resection is excellent. However, a small population of patients experience severe complications, even at the moderate dose used for this disease.

  10. Workplace harassment: a test of definitional criteria derived from an analysis of research definitions and Canadian social definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybourn, Marvin; Spinner, Barry; Malcom, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of the occurrence and effects of workplace harassment continues to grow. However, despite increasing awareness, ambiguity remains about how harassment is defined and, consequently, how to determine whether a questionable situation should be judged as harassment. For this research we reviewed definitions of workplace harassment and identified four elements that were frequently included as criteria for making judgments of whether harassment had occurred (i.e., repetition, intent, perceived intent, consequences). In two separate studies, fictional scenarios were used to evaluate the extent to which participants' judgments about harassment were affected by the presence or absence of the four elements. Ratings of the scenarios provided by student participants (study one; N=160) and a convenience sample of community participants (study two; N=292) with varying levels of work experience and diverse professional backgrounds were analysed. According to our results the four elements significantly influenced participants' judgments of harassment. The intent of the harasser had the strongest and most consistent effect on harassment judgements and whether the behaviour was repeated had the weakest and least consistent effect. In addition to the unique effects of the individual elements, significant interactions between the elements emerged and suggest that harassment judgements depend on the interplay of a variety of factors. Though the results of these studies add to the growing body of research that focuses on defining workplace harassment, they also highlight the need for additional research in the area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley E; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira D; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Segraves, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The medical literature contains several definitions of premature ejaculation (PE). The most commonly quoted definition, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision, and other definitions of PE are all authority based rather than evidence based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. The aim of this article is to develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of PE. In August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critique the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The committee unanimously agreed that the constructs that are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy and control, and negative personal consequences from PE. The committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as ". . . a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy." This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and Patient Reported

  12. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Milton; Quintner, John; van Rysewyk, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The definition of pain promulgated by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is widely accepted as a pragmatic characterisation of that human experience. Although the Notes that accompany it characterise pain as "always subjective," the IASP definition itself fails to sufficiently integrate phenomenological aspects of pain. This essay reviews the historical development of the IASP definition, and the commentaries and suggested modifications to it over almost 40 years. Common factors of pain experience identified in phenomenological studies are described, together with theoretical insights from philosophy and biology. A fuller understanding of the pain experience and of the clinical care of those experiencing pain is achievable through greater attention to the phenomenology of pain, the social "intersubjective space" in which pain occurs, and the limitations of language. Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity.

  13. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  14. Introducing a new definition of a near fall: intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidan, I; Freedman, T; Tzemah, R; Giladi, N; Mirelman, A; Hausdorff, J M

    2014-01-01

    Near falls (NFs) are more frequent than falls, and may occur before falls, potentially predicting fall risk. As such, identification of a NF is important. We aimed to assess intra and inter-rater reliability of the traditional definition of a NF and to demonstrate the potential utility of a new definition. To this end, 10 older adults, 10 idiopathic elderly fallers, and 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) walked in an obstacle course while wearing a safety harness. All walks were videotaped. Forty-nine video segments were extracted to create 2 clips each of 8.48 min. Four raters scored each event using the traditional definition and, two weeks later, using the new definition. A fifth rater used only the new definition. Intra-rater reliability was determined using Kappa (K) statistics and inter-rater reliability was determined using ICC. Using the traditional definition, three raters had poor intra-rater reliability (K0.137) and one rater had moderate intra-rater reliability (K=0.624, pdefinition, inter-rater reliability between the four raters was moderate (ICC=0.667, pdefinition showed high intra-rater (K>0.601, pdefinition of NF is required. The results of the present study suggest that the proposed new definition increases intra and inter-rater reliability, a critical step for using NFs to quantify fall risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a definitive internal dosimetry code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Internal dosimetry may be divided into tow main problems: (1) the forward (scientific) problem of determining biokinetics models that describe how radionuclides are taken into the body, distributed in body tissues, and excreted, and (2) the inverse (mathematical) problem: given the measured amounts in excreta and assuming a biokinetic model, to determine the times and amounts of intakes into the body. The inverse problem of internal dosimetry is, in fact, a generic problem studied in other fields (e.g., image reconstruction, spectral deconvulution, and model parameter fitting). We have developed a code for plutonium internal dosimetry using the maximum entropy method, a method for solving underdetermined inverse problems with a positivity constraint. Within the framework of Bayesian statistics, we believe the definitive approach is to examine the Bayesian posterior probability describing the probability of an intake scenario (X i ) read ( ... ) as open-quotes the set of,close quotes where X i denotes the intake amount that occurs on the with day. For plutonium, for a worker with a long employment history, this is a very high dimensional probability space, since there may be on the order of 10,000 days when intakes may have occurred. Within this high dimensional space, we calculate the mean intake scenario as i > where denotes the expectation value over the posterior probability distribution. Similarly, we calculate uncertainties and other relevant quantities, such as X 2 , as expectation values over the posterior distribution. Thanks to a recent breakthrough in describing the mathematical structure of the intake process (a Poisson sum representation of intakes), we have developed the initial version of a Bayesian expectation-value algorithm for internal dosimetry reconstructions

  16. A new definition of an acupuncture meridian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovich, Fletcher

    2018-05-11

    This article provides a new definition of an acupuncture meridian. It suggests that a meridian consists of a distal tract of tissue that is affected by organ function. In the 1960's, Kim discovered the primo vascular system, and regarded the superficial primo vessels as equating to the meridians. Instead, this article suggests that the superficial primo vessels merely underlie the meridians, in that they enable their creation, which is why some meridians are said to occur along the paths of superficial primo vessels. But the meridians themselves do not have a dedicated anatomical structure; instead they are merely tracts of tissue whose normal function is impeded when the related abdominal organ is stressed. It is hypothesised that the organ information is communicated in electrical waves that may travel through the connective tissue sheaths of the superficial primo vessels. Hence the primo vessels serve as an inadvertent transport for this information, but the organ information is independent of the physiological purpose of the primo vascular system, as are the resultant meridians. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in non-nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The volume and concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material is large across a variety of industries commonly thought not to involve radioactive material. The regulation of naturally occurring radioactive material in the United States is in a state of flux. Inventory of naturally occurring radioactive materials is given, along with a range of concentrations. Current and proposed regulatory limits are presented. (author)

  18. On the definition of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  19. Pharmaceutical care: the PCNE definition 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemann, Samuel S; van Mil, J W Foppe; Botermann, Lea; Berger, Karin; Griese, Nina; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2014-06-01

    Twenty-three years after Hepler and Strand published their well-known definition of Pharmaceutical Care (PhC), confusion remains about what the term includes and how to differentiate it from other terms. The board of the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) felt the need to redefine PhC and to answer the question: "What is Pharmaceutical Care in 2013". The aims of this paper were to review existing definitions of PhC and to describe the process of developing a redefined definition. A literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE database (1964-January 2013). Keywords included "Pharmaceutical Care", "Medication (Therapy) Management", "Medicine Management", and "Pharmacist Care" in the title or abstract together with the term "defin*". To ease comparison between definitions, we developed a standardised syntax to paraphrase the definitions. During a dedicated meeting, a moderated discussion about the definition of PhC was organised. The initial literature search produced 186 hits, with eight unique PhC definitions. Hand searching identified a further 11 unique definitions. These 19 definitions were paraphrased using the standardised syntax (provider, recipient, subject, outcome, activities). Fourteen members of PCNE and 10 additional experts attended the moderated discussion. Working groups of increasing size developed intermediate definitions, which had similarities and differences to those retrieved in the literature search. At the end of the session, participants reached a consensus on a "PCNE definition of Pharmaceutical Care" reading: "Pharmaceutical Care is the pharmacist's contribution to the care of individuals in order to optimize medicines use and improve health outcomes". It was possible to paraphrase definitions of PhC using a standardised syntax focusing on the provider, recipient, subject, outcomes, and activities included in PhC practice. During a one-day workshop, experts in PhC research agreed on a definition, intended to be applicable for the

  20. Observation of environmental radioactivity at definite time and definite point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Fukuchi, Ryoichi; Irie, Takayuki; Hosoda, Nagako; Okano, Yasuhiro; Shindo, Koutaro

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of environmental radioactivity in Tokyo Metropolis was carried out. The objects of measurement were rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts, spatial dose and the activated sludge in sewage treatment plants. Rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose were analyzed mainly considering radioactive fallout, and activated sludge was analyzed mainly considering radioactive medical matters. For the analysis of nuclides, a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was used, and spatial dose rate was measured with a DBM type dose rate meter. In activated sludge, the nuclides used for radioactive medicines were found, but in rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose, particular abnormality was not found. The objective of this investigation is to collect over long period at definite time and definite points the data on environmental radioactivity in Tokyo, thus to grasp the level of normal values, and in abnormal case, to clarify the cause and to evaluate the exposure dose. The instruments used, the method of measuring each object and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. OBJECTIVE: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. METHODS: A selected...... taxonomy reflects only a slight agreement between the various diagnostic terms provided by the selected experts. CONCLUSIONS: This short Delphi survey of two 'typical, straightforward' cases demonstrated major inconsistencies in the diagnostic terminology used by experts for groin pain in athletes....... These results underscore the need for consensus on definitions and terminology on groin pain in athletes....

  2. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. WACC: Definition, misconceptions and errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The WACC is just the rate at which the Free Cash Flows must be discounted to obtain the same result as in the valuation using Equity Cash Flows discounted at the required return to equity (Ke) The WACC is neither a cost nor a required return: it is a weighted average of a cost and a required return. To refer to the WACC as the "cost of capital" may be misleading because it is not a cost. The paper includes 7 errors due to not remembering the definition of WACC and shows the relationship betwe...

  4. The Definitive Guide to SQLite

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Outside of the world of enterprise computing there is one database that enables a huge range of software and hardware to flex relational database capabilities, without the baggage and cost of traditional database management systems. That database is SQLite - an embeddable database with an amazingly small footprint, yet it can handle databases of enormous size. SQLite comes equipped with an array of powerful features available through a host of programming and development environments. It is supported by languages such as C, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, TCL, and more. The Definitive Guide to

  5. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  6. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krauss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  7. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  8. Epigenetic Induction of Definitive and Pancreatic Endoderm Cell Fate in Human Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Kalo, Eric; Van Rossom, Rob; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming can occur by the introduction of key transcription factors (TFs) as well as by epigenetic changes. We demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA) combined with a chromatin remodeling medium (CRM) induced expression of a number of definitive endoderm and

  9. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries : A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; van de Hoef, Sander; Reurink, Gustaaf; Huisstede, Bionka; Backx, Frank

    BACKGROUND: More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to determine when

  10. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Horst (Nick); S. van de Hoef (Sander); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); B.M.A. Huisstede (Bionka); F.J.G. Backx (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to

  11. Developing a comprehensive definition of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Bain, Julie; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-09-02

    Understanding sustainability is one of the significant implementation science challenges. One of the big challenges in researching sustainability is the lack of consistent definitions in the literature. Most implementation studies do not present a definition of sustainability, even when assessing sustainability. The aim of the current study was to systematically develop a comprehensive definition of sustainability based on definitions already used in the literature. We searched for knowledge syntheses of sustainability and abstracted sustainability definitions from the articles identified through any relevant systematic and scoping reviews. The constructs in the abstracted sustainability definitions were mapped to an existing definition. The comprehensive definition of sustainability was revised to include emerging constructs. We identified four knowledge syntheses of sustainability, which identified 209 original articles. Of the 209 articles, 24 (11.5%) included a definition of sustainability. These definitions were mapped to three constructs from an existing definition, and nine new constructs emerged. We reviewed all constructs and created a revised definition: (1) after a defined period of time, (2) a program, clinical intervention, and/or implementation strategies continue to be delivered and/or (3) individual behavior change (i.e., clinician, patient) is maintained; (4) the program and individual behavior change may evolve or adapt while (5) continuing to produce benefits for individuals/systems. All 24 definitions were remapped to the comprehensive definition (percent agreement among three coders was 94%). Of the 24 definitions, 17 described the continued delivery of a program (70.8%), 17 mentioned continued outcomes (70.8%), 13 mentioned time (54.2%), 8 addressed the individual maintenance of a behavior change (33.3%), and 6 described the evolution or adaptation (25.0%). We drew from over 200 studies to identify 24 existing definitions of sustainability

  12. Involuntary conscious memory facilitates cued recall performance: further evidence that chaining occurs during voluntary recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conscious recollection of the past occurs spontaneously when subjects voluntarily recall their own past experiences or a list of previously studied words. Naturalistic diary studies and laboratory studies of this phenomenon, often called involuntary conscious memory (ICM), show that it occurs in 2 ways. One is direct ICM retrieval, which occurs when a cue spontaneously triggers a conscious memory; the other is chained ICM retrieval, which occurs when a retrieved conscious memory spontaneously triggers another. Laboratory studies investigating ICM show that chained ICM retrieval occurs on voluntary autobiographical memory tasks. The present results show that chained ICM retrieval also occurs on a voluntary word list memory task (cued recall). These results are among a handful suggesting that ICM retrieval routinely occurs during voluntary recall.

  13. ITER concept definition. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an agreement among the four parties representing the world's major fusion programs resulted in a program for conceptual design of the next logical step in the fusion program, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The definition phase, which ended in November, 1989, is summarized in two reports: a brief summary is contained in the ITER Definition Phase Report (IAEA/ITER/DS/2); the extended technical summary and technical details of ITER are contained in this two-volume report. The first volume of this report contains the Introduction and Summary, and the remainder will appear in Volume II. In the Conceptual Design Activities phase, ITER has been defined as being a tokamak device. The basic performance parameters of ITER are given in Volume I of this report. In addition, the rationale for selection of this concept, the performance flexibility, technical issues, operations, safety, reliability, cost, and research and development needed to proceed with the design are discussed. Figs and tabs

  14. Validation: an overview of definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    1995-01-01

    The term validation is featured prominently in the literature on radioactive high-level waste disposal and is generally understood to be related to model testing using experiments. In a first class, validation is linked to the goal of predicting the physical world as faithfully as possible but is unattainable and unsuitable for setting goals for the safety analyses. In a second class, validation is associated to split-sampling or to blind-tests predictions. In the third class of definition, validation focuses on the quality of the decision-making process. Most prominent in the present review is the observed lack of use of the term validation in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal. The continued informal use of the term validation in the field of high level wastes disposals can become cause for misperceptions and endless speculations. The paper proposes either abandoning the use of this term or agreeing to a definition which would be common to all. (J.S.). 29 refs

  15. Quantum computers: Definition and implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Kok, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The DiVincenzo criteria for implementing a quantum computer have been seminal in focusing both experimental and theoretical research in quantum-information processing. These criteria were formulated specifically for the circuit model of quantum computing. However, several new models for quantum computing (paradigms) have been proposed that do not seem to fit the criteria well. Therefore, the question is what are the general criteria for implementing quantum computers. To this end, a formal operational definition of a quantum computer is introduced. It is then shown that, according to this definition, a device is a quantum computer if it obeys the following criteria: Any quantum computer must consist of a quantum memory, with an additional structure that (1) facilitates a controlled quantum evolution of the quantum memory; (2) includes a method for information theoretic cooling of the memory; and (3) provides a readout mechanism for subsets of the quantum memory. The criteria are met when the device is scalable and operates fault tolerantly. We discuss various existing quantum computing paradigms and how they fit within this framework. Finally, we present a decision tree for selecting an avenue toward building a quantum computer. This is intended to help experimentalists determine the most natural paradigm given a particular physical implementation.

  16. Prebiotics: Definition and protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2016-02-01

    The increase in chronic metabolic and immunologic disorders in the modern society is linked to major changes in the dietary patterns. These chronic conditions are associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis where important groups of carbohydrate fermenting, short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria are reduced. Dietary prebiotics are defined as a selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health. Application of prebiotics may then restore the gut microbiota diversity and activity. Unlike the previously accepted prebiotics definition, where a limited number of bacterial species are involved in the prebiotic activity, new data from community-wide microbiome analysis demonstrated a broader affect of the prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota. These new findings require a revision of the current definition. In addition, prebiotics may exert immunomodulatory effects through microbiota-independent mechanisms that will require future investigations involving germ-free animal disease models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  18. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

  19. 40 CFR 279.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 279.1 Section 279.1... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Definitions § 279.1 Definitions. Terms that are defined in §§ 260.10, 261.1... may also accept used oil from household do-it-yourselfers. Used oil fuel marketer means any person who...

  20. A new definition of Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.

  1. Algebraic definition of topological W gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a definition of the topological W gravity using some properties of the principal three-dimensional subalgebra of a simple Lie algebra due to Kostant. In the authors' definition, structures of the two-dimensional topological gravity are naturally embedded in the extended theories. In accordance with the definition, the authors will present some explicit calculations for the W 3 gravity

  2. 48 CFR 15.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.601 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Advertising material means material designed to acquaint the Government with a...

  3. 36 CFR 294.11 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subsequent update or revision of those maps through the land management planning process. ... State Petitions for Inventoried Roadless Area Management § 294.11 Definition. Inventoried roadless areas...

  4. 40 CFR 439.21 - Special definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Extraction means process operations that derive... extraction process, including blood fractions, vaccines, serums, animal bile derivatives, endocrine products...

  5. 40 CFR 421.251 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.251 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart the general...

  6. Statistical methods for determination of background levels for naturally occuring radionuclides in soil at a RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Taylor, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    It is critical that summary statistics on background data, or background levels, be computed based on standardized and defensible statistical methods because background levels are frequently used in subsequent analyses and comparisons performed by separate analysts over time. The final background for naturally occurring radionuclide concentrations in soil at a RCRA facility, and the associated statistical methods used to estimate these concentrations, are presented. The primary objective is to describe, via a case study, the statistical methods used to estimate 95% upper tolerance limits (UTL) on radionuclide background soil data sets. A 95% UTL on background samples can be used as a screening level concentration in the absence of definitive soil cleanup criteria for naturally occurring radionuclides. The statistical methods are based exclusively on EPA guidance. This paper includes an introduction, a discussion of the analytical results for the radionuclides and a detailed description of the statistical analyses leading to the determination of 95% UTLs. Soil concentrations reported are based on validated data. Data sets are categorized as surficial soil; samples collected at depths from zero to one-half foot; and deep soil, samples collected from 3 to 5 feet. These data sets were tested for statistical outliers and underlying distributions were determined by using the chi-squared test for goodness-of-fit. UTLs for the data sets were then computed based on the percentage of non-detects and the appropriate best-fit distribution (lognormal, normal, or non-parametric). For data sets containing greater than approximately 50% nondetects, nonparametric UTLs were computed

  7. THE RELEVANT TEMPORAL MARKET DEFINITION IN ANTITRUST ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika Gerasymenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to compare various theoretical approaches to the relevant temporal market definition, collecting the arguments for their implementation under the different kinds of antitrust cases. It is vital for the markets with peak demand (transport, electricity, markets of intergenerational products or discreet supply (agriculture. Methodology. The survey is based on the theoretical and graphical modelling of product space perception by consumers. It investigates changes of the latter under different marketing strategies of a seller. Statistical methods are used to analyse trends of demand and prices for iPhones’ changes, as well as dynamics of electricity consumption. Results. The paper reveals two facing approaches to the definition of relevant temporal market: 1 the discrete one that provides a short-run analysis of products’ substitutability and combines only those time periods that are characterized by a stable balance of demand and supply, as well as stable market equilibrium; 2 the coherent one that provides a long-run analysis of cyclical variation of the market. This cycling is based on the awareness of consumers and producers of intertemporal substitutability of products. The authors use the model of intertemporal competition to explain principles of these approaches and apply it to the iPhone market analysis. They conclude that the coherent approach must be applied to the temporal market definition for the products with elastic demand. Inelastic demand brings the necessity to apply the discrete approach to the temporal market definition. These conclusions cannot be applied to regulated markets. The system of government regulation is the main determinant of the temporal boundaries of such markets. Practical implications. The results of this research can be used by competition agencies in antitrust cases to define the relevant temporal market, where the violations of antitrust legislation can occur. The correct

  8. Definitive management of isolated esophageal atresia: Experience at NICH Karachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Iftikhar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Definitive treatment of isolated esophageal atresia (IEA is still controversial. A study was conducted to review cases of IEA in our department with a view to evaluate the long term results of definitive surgery in these patients. Materials and Methods: Nine consecutive patients with IEA were included in the study. All babies initially underwent cervical esophagostomy and feeding gastrostomy. One baby also had anorectal atresia and needed a colostomy. In 6 babies, end esophagostomy was performed while in 3 babies, lateral esophagostomy was performed. Of the 6 babies with end esophagostomy, two underwent jejunal Interpositioning, two had serial extra-thoracic lengthening and two reverse gastric tube interpositiong. Three babies with lateral esophagostomy were planned for delayed primary repair. Results: Both babies with jejunal interpositiong initially did well; serious gastro-esophageal reflux occurred in one baby who needed antireflux surgery. At 6 years follow-up both children had redundant Jejunum. Recurrent Respiratory tract infection remained a problem in one child while other is doing well. Of the two babies with extrathoracic lengthening it was possible to perform end to end anastomosis in one baby but in the other extrathoracic lengthening did not work and gastric transpositioning was performed. Of the two babies with reverse gastric tube interpositioning one developed esophageal stenosis at the site of anastomosis and is on serial dilatations. Other died due to anastomotic leak and mediastinitis. In all the three babies with lateral esophagostomy spontaneous lengthening of esophagus was noted. End to end anastomosis was possible in two of these babies who are doing well. One is waiting definitive surgery. Number of complications, hospital stay and cost of surgery was least in patients with lateral esophagostomy. Conclusion: Various methods of definitive treatment have been proposed for isolated esophageal atresia but each

  9. Theoretical and observational review of results on nova explosions occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.

    1986-01-01

    The nova outburst is the second most violent explosion that occurs in a galaxy. This review presents the recent observational and theoretical studies that have demonstrated that there exist two classes of nova outburst. One type of nova occurs on a CO white dwarf and the other type of nova occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. The second class of outbursts are much more violent and occur much more frequently then the first class of outbursts. Hydrodynamic simulations of both kinds of outbursts are in excellent agreement with the observations. 51 refs

  10. Workflow patterns the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Nick; ter Hofstede, Arthur H M

    2016-01-01

    The study of business processes has emerged as a highly effective approach to coordinating an organization's complex service- and knowledge-based activities. The growing field of business process management (BPM) focuses on methods and tools for designing, enacting, and analyzing business processes. This volume offers a definitive guide to the use of patterns, which synthesize the wide range of approaches to modeling business processes. It provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the well-known workflow patterns collection -- recurrent, generic constructs describing common business process modeling and execution scenarios, presented in the form of problem-solution dialectics. The underlying principles of the patterns approach ensure that they are independent of any specific enabling technology, representational formalism, or modeling approach, and thus broadly applicable across the business process modeling and business process technology domains. The authors, drawing on extensive research done by...

  11. Engineering test facility design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  12. [Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: definitions and classifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Luna, M; Moreno Hernando, J; Botet Mussons, F; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Herranz Carrillo, G; Rite Gracia, S; Salguero García, E; Echaniz Urcelay, I

    2013-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common sequelae related to very low birth weight infants, mostly with those of extremely low birth weight. Even with advances in prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome associated with prematurity, there is still no decrease in the incidence in this population, although a change in its clinical expression and severity has been observed. There are, however, differences in its frequency between health centres, probably due to a non-homogeneously used clinical definition. In this article, the Committee of Standards of the Spanish Society of Neonatology wishes to review the current diagnosis criteria of bronchopulmonary dysplasia to reduce, as much as possible, these inter-centre differences. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Definition and Essence of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-qing Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been 60 years since the essential attributes of information were explored in the field of philosophy, resulting in many contentious schools of thought and a wide division of opinions. Some scholars in China and abroad have been trying to build a new system of information philosophy from an ontological perspective, so as to explain the world. In this paper, the author puts forward a definition of information and its mathematical expressions in order to demonstrate that information is the collection of three kinds of attributes of things. Analysis suggests that the essence of information is the interaction of matters and the representation of the law of causality in philosophy. The paper also explores the ways in which information—as a noun—is a term that people have customarily used and confused. Eventually, the induction, differentiation and utilization of information, as conventionally understood, should be applied into studying matters themselves.

  14. 21 CFR 165.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 165.3 Section 165.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES General Provisions § 165.3 Definitions. (a) A lot is: (1) For purposes of determining...

  15. 40 CFR 80.140 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluated by weight. Leaded gasoline means gasoline which is produced with the use of any lead additive or... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.140 Definitions. The definitions in this section apply... given them in 40 CFR part 79, subpart A. Additization means the addition of detergent to gasoline or...

  16. 50 CFR 665.221 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 665.221 Section 665.221..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.221 Definitions...) Man grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos. Man galapagos shark Carcharhinus galapagensis. Man...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1910.21 Section 1910.21 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.21 Definitions. (a) As used in § 1910... ladder. A through ladder is one from which a man getting off at the top must step through the ladder in...

  18. 9 CFR 98.30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 98.30 Section 98.30... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.30 Definitions. Whenever in this subpart of the... (England, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man, and Northern Ireland). Cattle. Animals of the bovine species...

  19. 36 CFR 73.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 73.3 Section 73... HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.3 Definitions. Cultural Heritage—Article 1 of the Convention defines “Cultural..., art, or science; and Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and of man, and areas...

  20. 10 CFR 60.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 60.2 Section 60.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... § 60.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Accessible environment means: (1) The atmosphere; (2) The... involved; and (2) Estimates of severe external man-induced events, to be used for deriving design bases...

  1. 10 CFR 61.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 61.2 Section 61.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....2 Definitions. As used in this part: Active maintenance means any significant remedial activity... biosphere inhabited by man and containing his food chains by emplacement in a land disposal facility...

  2. 9 CFR 93.500 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 93.500 Section 93.500... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.500 Definitions. Wherever in this subpart the following terms..., Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man, and Northern Ireland...

  3. 30 CFR 879.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 879.5 Section 879.5 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.5 Definitions. As...

  4. Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.

  5. 9 CFR 381.300 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.300 Definitions. (a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 381.300 Section 381.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  6. 12 CFR 4.62 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 4.62 Section 4.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY...; Contracting for Goods and Services § 4.62 Definitions. (a) Minority- and/or women-owned (small and large...

  7. 40 CFR 406.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.21 Section 406.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.21 Specialized definitions...

  8. 40 CFR 406.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.11 Section 406.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.11 Specialized definitions...

  9. 40 CFR 406.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.51 Section 406.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.51 Specialized definitions...

  10. 48 CFR 432.001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 432.001 Section 432.001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 432.001 Definitions. The agency contract finance office is the office, other...

  11. 48 CFR 223.370-2 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 223.370-2..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY... Safety Data 223.370-2 Definition. Ammunition and explosives, as used in this section, is defined in the...

  12. 41 CFR 109-38.5201 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 109-38.5201... System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.52-Watercraft § 109-38.5201 Definition. As used in this...

  13. 45 CFR 60.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 60.3 Section 60.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL PRACTITIONER DATA BANK FOR ADVERSE INFORMATION ON PHYSICIANS AND OTHER HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS General Provisions § 60.3 Definitions. Act means...

  14. 24 CFR 597.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 597.3 Section 597.3... COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS General Provisions § 597.3 Definitions. The terms HUD and Secretary are defined in 24 CFR part 5. Designation means...

  15. 12 CFR 1780.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight § 1780.71 Definitions. Practice before OFHEO for the purposes of this... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1780.71 Section 1780.71 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT RULES...

  16. 48 CFR 208.7401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Enterprise Software Agreements 208.7401 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Enterprise software agreement means an agreement or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 208.7401...

  17. 12 CFR 1730.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1730.2 Section 1730.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION § 1730.2 Definitions. For purposes of this...

  18. 12 CFR 1780.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1780.3 Section 1780.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules § 1780.3 Definitions. For...

  19. 12 CFR 1777.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definitions will apply: 1992 Act means the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act, 12... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1777.3 Section 1777.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY...

  20. 20 CFR 604.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 604.2 Section 604.2 Employees... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.2 Definitions. (a) Department means the United States Department of Labor. (b...) Unemployment Compensation (UC) means cash benefits payable to individuals with respect to their unemployment...

  1. 12 CFR 918.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Compensation means any... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 918.1 Section 918.1 Banks and... the Bank, including, without limitation, daily meeting fees, incentive payments and fringe benefits. ...

  2. 20 CFR 501.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 501.1 Section 501.1 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.1 Definitions. (a) FECA means the Federal Employees' Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101 et seq. and any statutory...

  3. 12 CFR 1770.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND SOUNDNESS EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION § 1770.3 Definitions. The following definitions apply to the.... Compensation includes all direct and indirect payments of benefits, both cash and non-cash, granted to or for... from an employment contract compensation or benefit agreement, fee arrangement, perquisite, stock...

  4. 20 CFR 615.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 615.2 Section 615.2 Employees... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM § 615.2 Definitions. For the purposes of the Act and this part— (a) Act means... latest continued claim for regular compensation was filed. The individual's most recent benefit year...

  5. 29 CFR 4022.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.2 Definitions. The... themselves or in combination with Social Security, Railroad Retirement, or workmen's compensation benefits... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 4022.2 Section 4022.2 Labor Regulations...

  6. 12 CFR 1710.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from compensation or benefit agreements, fee arrangements, perquisites, stock option plans, post... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1710.2 Section 1710.2 Banks and... AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE General § 1710.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term...

  7. 47 CFR 76.1000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 76.1000 Section 76.1000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Access to Cable Programming § 76.1000 Definitions. As used in this...

  8. 16 CFR 1115.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.3 Definitions. In addition to the definitions given... Sunshine Act, 16 CFR part 1012. (c) Noncompliance means the failure of a consumer product to comply with an...

  9. 48 CFR 3410.702 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... System 3410.702 Definitions. Department means the United States Department of Education. Metric system (a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 3410.702 Section 3410.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  10. 5 CFR 1315.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Determination of such dates is discussed in § 1315.4(g). (q) Electronic commerce means the end to end electronic... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1315.2 Section 1315.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.2 Definitions. (a...

  11. 12 CFR 569.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 569.1 Section 569.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROXIES § 569.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Security holder. The term security holder means any person having the right to vote in...

  12. 12 CFR 528.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 528.1 Section 528.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.1 Definitions. As used in this part 528— (a) Application. For purposes of this part, an application for a loan...

  13. 12 CFR 564.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 564.2 Section 564.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.2 Definitions. (a) Appraisal means a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting...

  14. 12 CFR 513.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 513.2 Section 513.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRACTICE BEFORE THE OFFICE § 513.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Office means the Office; (b) The term Secretary means the Secretary and...

  15. 28 CFR 26.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.21 Section 26.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems § 26.21 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— Appropriate state official means the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.545-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.545-1 Definition. (a) Undistributed personal holding company income is the amount which is subject to the personal holding company tax imposed under section... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition. 1.545-1 Section 1.545-1 Internal...

  17. 26 CFR 1.556-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.556-1 Definition. Undistributed foreign personal holding company income is the amount which is to be included in the gross income of the United... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition. 1.556-1 Section 1.556-1 Internal...

  18. 12 CFR 3.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Authority and Definitions § 3.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: (a) Adjusted total assets means the average total assets figure required to be computed for and stated in a bank's most recent quarterly Consolidated Report of Condition and Income (Call Report) minus end-of-quarter intangible assets...

  19. Prototypes in engineering design: Definitions and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    By reviewing literature, we investigate types, purposes and definitions of prototypes. There is no overarching definition of a prototype, but we identify five categories of prototypes in litterature. We further synthesize and reference previous work to create an overview of aspects in prototyping...

  20. 12 CFR 19.242 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 19.242 Section 19.242 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.242 Definitions. As used in this...