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Sample records for definitions gemination occurs

  1. Drosophila SMN complex proteins Gemin2, Gemin3, and Gemin5 are components of U bodies

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    Cauchi, Ruben J.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX (United Kingdom); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) play key roles in pre-mRNA processing in the nucleus. The assembly of most U snRNPs takes place in the cytoplasm and is facilitated by the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex. Discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules called U bodies have been proposed to be specific sites for snRNP assembly because they contain U snRNPs and SMN. U bodies invariably associate with P bodies, which are involved in mRNA decay and translational control. However, it remains unknown whether other SMN complex proteins also localise to U bodies. In Drosophila there are four SMN complex proteins, namely SMN, Gemin2/CG10419, Gemin3 and Gemin5/Rigor mortis. Drosophila Gemin3 was originally identified as the Drosophila orthologue of human and yeast Dhh1, a component of P bodies. Through an in silico analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicases we confirmed that Gemin3 is the bona fide Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate Gemin3 whereas the Drosophila orthologue of Dhh1 is Me31B. We then made use of the Drosophila egg chamber as a model system to study the subcellular distribution of the Gemin proteins as well as Me31B. Our cytological investigations show that Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 colocalise with SMN in U bodies. Although they are excluded from P bodies, as components of U bodies, Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 are consistently found associated with P bodies, wherein Me31B resides. In addition to a role in snRNP biogenesis, SMN complexes residing in U bodies may also be involved in mRNP assembly and/or transport.

  2. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

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    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  3. Dens invaginatus in a geminated maxillary lateral incisor

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    Pallivathukal, Renjith George; Misra, Alok; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Donald, Preethy Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) and gemination are two developmental abnormalities that are well reported in the dental literature, but their coexistence in a single tooth is rare. Such situations worsen the risk factors associated with these anomalies, and the treatment plan should be customised as they possess altered morphology and anatomy. A 19-year-old girl came for evaluation of a cracked tooth in the front region of the upper jaw. The tooth showed clinical features of gemination and radiographic features of DI, and was diagnosed as DI in geminated maxillary lateral incisor. The differential diagnoses based on clinical appearance without radiographic investigation may warrant the treatment approach if these two abnormalities coexist in a single tooth. The report also highlights the importance of three-dimensional imaging in diagnosis and treatment planning of teeth with altered pulp canal anatomy. There are few reported cases in the literature detailing the treatment options for these two anomalies occurring in the same tooth. PMID:26002668

  4. Radiative lifetime of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors: a-Ge:H

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    Singh, Jai [Faculty of Technology, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Lifetimes of radiative recombination of geminate and non-geminate pairs in amorphous semiconductors are calculated at thermal equilibrium. The theory is applied to calculate the radiative lifetimes of type I and II geminate pairs and non-geminate pairs in hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) and compared with the experimental results. The type II geminate pairs can exist in singlet and triplet spin states, only singlet is considered here, whereas the type I geminate pairs do not have spin dependence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Dental gemination: report of case.

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    Hernandez-Guisado, J M; Torres-Lagares, D; Infante-Cossio, P; Gutierrez-Perez, J L

    2002-01-01

    Dental anomalies can be classified in different groups: anomalies of volume, anomalies of number, anomalies of form, anomalies of position and anomalies by union. Of the latter, we distinguish between fusion, alveolus-dental gemination, concrescence, coalescence and anchylosis. Gemination is more frequent in the anterior teeth, although it can also affect the bicuspids and molars, being an anomaly of infrequent union (prevalence 0.5%). We present the case of a young male patient age 19, without medical antecedents of interest, that goes to consultation for repeated inflammatory accidents at level of the inferior left retromolar area. These episodes are caused by a semi-impacted inferior third molar that is fused to a supernumerary fourth molar, sharing its roots, crown, pulp chambers and canals. After the appropriate radiologic study and suitable planning, the semi-impacted third molar was extracted under local anaesthesia and without any other complications during or after the operation.

  6. Endodontic treatment of a geminated maxillary incisor

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    Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gemination is a tooth anomaly caused when a single tooth bud attempts to divide. This results in a tooth with a size greater than normal, but with only one root canal. Therefore, due to its features and singularities, this geminated tooth demands careful attention for endodontic treatment Objective and case report: The purpose of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of a geminated maxillary central incisor. Conclusion: A good planning of all treatment stages, based on a careful clinical and radiographic examination, it is essential to reach the success in the endodontic treatment of geminated teeth.

  7. Language specific listening of Japanese geminate consonants: a cross-linguistic study.

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    Sadakata, Makiko; Shingai, Mizuki; Sulpizio, Simone; Brandmeyer, Alex; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g., /ss/, /kk/) in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is used to characterize the first part of geminate consonants despite the acoustic difference between two distinct realizations of geminate consonants (silence in the case of e.g., stop consonants and elongation in the case of fricative consonants). The current study tests whether this discrepancy between abstract representations and acoustic realizations influences how native speakers of Japanese perceive geminate consonants. The experiments used pseudo words containing either the geminate consonant /ss/ or a manipulated version in which the first part was replaced by silence /_s/. The sound /_s/ is acoustically similar to /ss/, yet does not occur in everyday speech. Japanese listeners demonstrated a bias to group these two types into the same category while Italian and Dutch listeners distinguished them. The results thus confirmed that distinguishing fricative geminate consonants with silence from those with sustained frication is not crucial for Japanese native listening. Based on this observation, we propose that native speakers of Japanese tend to segment geminated consonants into two parts and that the first portion of fricative geminates is perceptually similar to a silent duration. This representation is compatible with both Japanese orthography and phonology. Unlike previous studies that were inconclusive in how native speakers segment geminate consonants, our study demonstrated a relatively strong effect of Japanese specific listening. Thus the current experimental methods may open up new lines of investigation into the relationship between development of phonological representation, orthography and speech perception.

  8. Language Specific Listening of Japanese Geminate Consonants: Cross-linguistic study

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    Makiko eSadakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g. /ss/, /kk/ in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is used to characterize the first part of geminate consonants despite the acoustic difference between two distinct realizations of geminate consonants (silence in the case of e.g. stop consonants and elongation in the case of fricative consonants. The current study tests this discrepancy between abstract representations and acoustic realizations influences how native speakers of Japanese perceive geminate consonants. The experiments used pseudo words containing either the geminate consonant /ss/ or a manipulated version in which the first part was replaced by silence /_s/. The sound /_s/ is acoustically similar to /ss/, yet does not occur in everyday speech. Japanese listeners demonstrated a bias to group these two types into the same category while Italian and Dutch listeners distinguished them. The results thus confirmed that distinguishing fricative geminate consonants with silence from those with sustained frication is not crucial for Japanese native listening. Based on this observation, we propose that native speakers of Japanese tend to segment geminated consonants into two parts and that the first portion of fricative geminates is perceptually similar to a silent duration. This representation is compatible with both Japanese orthography and phonology. Unlike previous studies that were inconclusive in how native speakers segment geminate consonants, our study demonstrated relatively strong effect of Japanese specific listening. Thus the current experimental methods may open up new lines of investigation into the relationship between development of phonological representation, orthography and speech perception.

  9. A new wavefunction hierarchy for interacting geminals

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    Limacher, Peter A.

    2016-11-01

    A new truncation scheme for non-orthogonal antisymmetrized products of interacting geminals (APIG) is introduced based on antisymmetrized products of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG). This wavefunction hierarchy of interacting geminals (IG) allows us to gradually increase the accuracy at which the ground state of a seniority-zero Hamiltonian can be estimated, ranging from APSG up to approximation-free APIG. Mathematical expressions for the lowest four orders (IG0, IG1, IG2, and IG3) are given explicitly and the computational cost to evaluate their transition density matrix is verified to scale only cubically with system size. Exemplary numerical calculations indicate that already a very early truncation level leads to results virtually identical to APIG.

  10. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

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    Romano, Nayara; Souza-Flamini, Luis Eduardo; Mendonça, Isabela Lima; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair. PMID:28119787

  11. Gemination and Twinning in Permanent Dentition.

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    1981-09-11

    tooth, 15 linking tooth,16 synodonia17 and schizodontla,11 mirror image double tooth,18 fused teeth, 19 and geminated composite odontoma . 20...normal fashion, whereas, in an odontoma ,ameloblasts and odontoblasts lay down enamel and dentin in small rudimentary tooth-like structures during

  12. Multiple Geminated Supernumerary Premolars: A Rare Case Report

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    Atul Soin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. Gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide, with a resultant formation of either a large tooth with a bifid crown or two completely divided teeth throughout the crown and root. Geminated supernumerary premolar is a rarity and the possibility of multiple occurrences is even rarer. An exhaustive review of English literature and a PubMed search conducted using the terms “gemination’’ and “multiple geminated supernumerary” revealed no case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars. We report a case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars in a 23-year-old male.

  13. Multiple Geminated Supernumerary Premolars: A Rare Case Report

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    Soin, Atul; Sharma, Gaurav; Soin, Gayatri; Raina, Anudeep; Mutneja, Puneet; Nagpal, Archna

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. Gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide, with a resultant formation of either a large tooth with a bifid crown or two completely divided teeth throughout the crown and root. Geminated supernumerary premolar is a rarity and the possibility of multiple occurrences is even rarer. An exhaustive review of English literature and a PubMed search conducted using the terms “gemination” and “multiple geminated supernumerary” revealed no case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars. We report a case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars in a 23-year-old male. PMID:26078889

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Geminized Amphiphilic Cationic Homopolymers.

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    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xuefeng; Yu, Danfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Cui, Yingxian; Sun, Keji; Wang, Jinben; Yan, Haike

    2015-12-22

    The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of cationic charge density and hydrophobicity on the antibacterial and hemolytic activities. Two kinds of cationic surfmers, containing single or double hydrophobic tails (octyl chains or benzyl groups), and the corresponding homopolymers were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity of these candidate antibacterials was studied by microbial growth inhibition assays against Escherichia coli, and hemolysis activity was carried out using human red blood cells. It was interestingly found that the homopolymers were much more effective in antibacterial property than their corresponding monomers. Furthermore, the geminized homopolymers had significantly higher antibacterial activity than that of their counterparts but with single amphiphilic side chains in each repeated unit. Geminized homopolymers, with high positive charge density and moderate hydrophobicity (such as benzyl groups), combine both advantages of efficient antibacterial property and prominently high selectivity. To further explain the antibacterial performance of the novel polymer series, the molecular interaction mechanism is proposed according to experimental data which shows that these specimens are likely to kill microbes by disrupting bacterial membranes, leading them unlikely to induce resistance.

  15. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

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    Miki Motohashi-Saigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

  16. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

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    Angela Jordão Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar.

  17. Configuration Interaction with Antisymmetrized Geminal Powers

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    Uemura, Wataru; Sugino, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    To avoid the combinatorial computational cost of configuration interaction (CI), we have previously introduced the symmetric tensor decomposition CI (STD-CI) method, where we take advantage of the antisymmetric nature of the electronic wave function and express the CI coefficients compactly as a series of Kronecker product states (STD series) [W. Uemura and O. Sugino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253001 (2012)]. Here we extend the variational degrees of freedom by using different molecular orbitals for different terms in the STD series. This scheme is equivalent to the linear combination of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov state or the antisymmetrized geminal powers (AGP). The total energy converges very rapidly within 0.72 $\\mu$Hartree taking only 10 terms for the water molecule, and the convergence is likewise fast for Hubbard tetramers. The computational cost scales as the fifth power of the number of electrons and the square of the number of terms in the STD series, indicating the promise of this AGP-based scheme for...

  18. Configuration interaction with antisymmetrized geminal powers

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    Uemura, Wataru; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Sugino, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    To avoid the combinatorial computational cost of configuration interaction (CI), we previously introduced the symmetric tensor decomposition CI (STD-CI) method, which takes advantage of the antisymmetric nature of the electronic wave function and expresses the CI coefficients compactly as a series of Kronecker product states (STD series) [W. Uemura and O. Sugino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253001 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.253001]. Here we extend the variational degrees of freedom by using different molecular orbitals for different terms in the STD series. This scheme is equivalent to the linear combination of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov state or the antisymmetrized geminal powers (AGPs). The total energy converges very rapidly within 0.72 μ hartree taking only 10 terms for the water molecule, and the convergence is likewise fast for Hubbard tetramers. The computational cost scales as the fifth power of the number of electrons and the square of the number of terms in the STD series, indicating the promise of this AGP-based scheme for highly accurate and efficient computation of quantum systems.

  19. Synthesis and Chemistry of Organic Geminal Di- and Triazides.

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    Häring, Andreas P; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-11-06

    This review recapitulates all available literature dealing with the synthesis and reactivity of geminal organic di- and triazides. These compound classes are, to a large extent, unexplored despite their promising chemical properties and their simple preparation. In addition, the chemistry of carbonyl diazide (2) and tetraazidomethane (105) is described in separate sections.

  20. Synthesis and Chemistry of Organic Geminal Di- and Triazides

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    Andreas P. Häring

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This review recapitulates all available literature dealing with the synthesis and reactivity of geminal organic di- and triazides. These compound classes are, to a large extent, unexplored despite their promising chemical properties and their simple preparation. In addition, the chemistry of carbonyl diazide (2 and tetraazidomethane (105 is described in separate sections.

  1. Absence of gemin5 from SMN complexes in nuclear Cajal bodies

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    Burghes Arthur HM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neurons (SMN protein. SMN is found in large complexes with Sm proteins and at least eight other proteins, including seven "gemins". These complexes are involved in the assembly of snRNPs in the cytoplasm and their transport into the nucleus, but the precise roles of the individual protein components are largely unknown. Results We have investigated the subcellular distribution of gemins using novel antibodies against gemins 3–7, and existing mAbs against SMN, gemin2, unrip, fibrillarin and profilin II. Most gemins were equally distributed between nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of HeLa cells, but gemin5 and unrip were more abundant in the cytoplasm. In a cytoplasmic extract obtained by mild disruption of HeLa cells, nearly all the SMN and gemins 2–4 were in large complexes, but most of the gemin5 sedimented separately with a lower S value. Most of the unrip sedimented with gemins 6 and 7 near the top of the sucrose density gradients, separate from both SMN and gemin5. Anti-SMN mAbs pulled down gemin5 from cytoplasmic extracts, but not from nuclear extracts, and gemin5 did not co-sediment with large SMN complexes in nuclear extracts. These data suggest that gemin5 is easily detached from SMN-gemin complexes in the nucleus. By immuno-histochemistry, gemin5 was rarely detectable in nuclear gems/Cajal bodies, although it was accessible to antibody and easily detectable when present. This suggests that gemin5 is normally absent from SMN complexes in these nuclear storage sites. Conclusion We conclude that SMN complexes usually exist without gemin5 in nuclear gems/Cajal bodies. Gemin5 is believed to be involved in capturing snRNA into SMN complexes in the cytoplasm for transport into the nucleus. We hypothesize that gemin5, though present in the nucleus, is no longer needed for SMN complex function during the time these complexes are stored in gems

  2. Reduction in syllable onsets in the acquisition of Polish: deletion, coalescence, metathesis and gemination.

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    łukaszewicz, Beata

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on four strategies of onset reduction employed by a single child (4;0-4;4) acquiring Polish: deletion, coalescence, metathesis, and gemination. Deletion and coalescence occur in word-initial onsets while metathesis and gemination are restricted to word-medial position. The data, which constitute an intriguing 'conspiracy' case (Kisseberth, 1970), are analysed within OPTIMALITY THEORY (henceforth, OT; Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004; McCarthy & Prince, 1995) in which all surface-true 'processes' are motivated through the interaction of ranked and violable constraints. The OT account makes it possible to envisage the four strategies as different surface responses to the undominated *COMPLEXOnset which militates against onset clusters. The choice of a particular strategy as well as its restriction to a particular word position is not random but follows from the interplay between *COMPLEXOnset, sonority-based syllable structure constraints (Margin Hierarchy, CONTACT LAW), context-sensitive markedness constraints (CODA CONDITION, *Nasal-Fricative) and faithfulness constraints. The present study confirms previous sonority-based findings, supplies further evidence for universal sonority mechanisms from word-medial clusters, and points to the coexistence of child-specific and abstract adult-based phonological strategies in the child's system.

  3. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

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    Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

  4. Conserved requirement for DEAD-box RNA helicase Gemin3 in Drosophila oogenesis

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    Cauchi Ruben J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DEAD-box RNA helicase Gemin3 is an essential protein since its deficiency is lethal in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition to playing a role in transcriptional regulation and RNA silencing, as a core member of the SMN (survival of motor neurons complex, Gemin3 is required for the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, and axonal mRNA metabolism. Studies in the mouse and C. elegans revealed that loss of Gemin3 function has a negative impact on ovarian physiology and development. Findings This work reports on the generation and characterisation of gemin3 mutant germline clones in Drosophila adult females. Gemin3 was found to be required for the completion of oogenesis and its loss led to egg polarity defects, oocyte mislocalisation, and abnormal chromosome morphology. Canonical Cajal bodies were absent in the majority of gemin3 mutant egg chambers and histone locus bodies displayed an atypical morphology. snRNP distribution was perturbed so that on gemin3 loss, snRNP cytoplasmic aggregates (U bodies were only visible in wild type. Conclusions These findings establish a conserved requirement for Gemin3 in Drosophila oogenesis. Furthermore, in view of the similarity to the phenotypes described previously in smn mutant germ cells, the present results confirm the close functional relationship between SMN and Gemin3 on a cellular level.

  5. High stimulus variability in nonnative speech learning supports formation of abstract categories: Evidence from Japanese geminates

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    Sadakata, M.; McQueen, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports effects of a high-variability training procedure on nonnative learning of a Japanese geminate-singleton fricative contrast. Thirty native speakers of Dutch took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified geminate and singleton variants of the Japanese fricative

  6. Geminate attrition across three generations of Farsi-English bilinguals living in Canada: An acoustic Study

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    Yasaman Rafat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine whether the geminate-singleton consonant length contrast attrites across three different generations of Farsi-English-speaking bilinguals living in Canada. The secondary aim of the study was to shed light on the role of universal phonetic factors on the process of geminate-singleton length contrast attrition in the same population. The effect of manner/class of sounds and voicing were examined as predictors of geminate attrition in eight Farsi-English-speaking bilinguals living in Toronto forming three categories of generations: first generation, 1.5 generation and second generation. The inclusion of the 1.5 generation category is novel and it refers to children of immigrants who came to Canada between the ages of five to fourteen. The productions of the bilinguals were compared with the productions of three homeland variety controls. A word-naming task, which included 108 words was conducted. 2398 tokens were analyzed acoustically using PRAAT. Attrition was defined in terms of changes in mean duration of geminates relative to their singleton counter-parts and percentage geminate-singleton degemination/category overlap. Mean durations were then analyzed using a 3-way, mixed-model, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results showed that geminates attrite across different successive generations. Moreover, there was some evidence to suggest that geminate realization across generations patterns with typological patterns previously reported, showing that universal phonetic principles such as aerodynamic constraints/articulatory difficulty and acoustic salience also constrain geminate realization in bilingual Farsi-English speakers. However, there was no evidence to suggest that more marked geminates suffer a higher degree of attrition. This is the first study to examine the attrition of a typologically marked contrast, which considers the role of universal phonetic principles, markedness in an understudied bilingual

  7. The acquisition of Arabic geminate consonants by American English speakers: An experimental study

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    Abdelfattah A. Moftah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the acquisition of some Arabic geminate consonants by American English speakers learning Arabic. The study starts by describing the phonetic and phonological characteristics of geminate and long consonants and how they differ in nature and distribution from singleton consonants. Two groups of native and non-native speakers (American learners of Cairene Arabic were recorded as producing one sentence that carries the token geminate consonants. The productions of the Arabic geminate consonants by the two groups are described and compared to study the features of such geminate sounds when produced by non-native learners of Arabic. The phonological and phonetic characteristics of these consonants in the production of the non-native group are discussed to see how far they were successful in their overall achievement of the task they were assigned in the experiment. The results of the production study show that non-native speakers of Cairene Arabic produced significantly longer Arabic geminates in general, particularly stops and nasals.  Non-native informants also produced significantly different adjacent vowels to the target geminates from those produced by the native informants in the study. A perception experiment was carried out to verify the acceptability of the produced sounds by non-natives using native speakers of Cairene Arabic as listeners. Native listeners were able to identify the production of Arabic geminates by non native speakers as different in the present study. The results of the perception test clearly reflect the findings of the production experiments. Key Words: Geminates- Arabic- Optimality theory- non native speakers

  8. An Unusual Case of Gemination in Mandibular Second Premolar: A Case Report

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    Hena Rahman; Ramesh Chandra; Tarun K. Gaur; Shailja Singh; Supratim Tripathi; Amisha Jain

    2016-01-01

    Gemination refers to an attempt at division of a single toothgerm by an invagination, resulting in formation of single large tooth, with groove or notch in the crown. Bilateral presentation of this phenomenon is very rare, with prevalence of 0.01% to 0.04% in the primary, and 0.05% in the permanent dentition. This anomaly is most common in primary maxillary incisors. Gemination of maxillary central incisors, molar with supernumery teeth was reported by many authors, whereas gemination of mand...

  9. Study on geminate ion recombination in liquid dodecane using pico- and subpicosecond pulse radiolysis

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    Saeki, Akinori E-mail: saeki03@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kozawa, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2001-07-01

    Geminate ion recombination was studied by the laser-synchronized pulse radiolysis system which was developed at Osaka University. The time-dependent behavior of the cation radicals in liquid n-dodecane on picosecond time scale showed a typical geminate decay. The experimental data were compared with the theoretical decay based on the diffusion theory with the convolution technique in the time region within 1 ns. (author)

  10. Two state electron model for geminate recombination of electron-ion pairs in liquid isooctane

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    Lukin, L. V.; Yakovlev, B. S.

    2011-04-01

    Recombination kinetics of geminate electron-ion pairs is considered in the framework of the two state model for electron transport in liquid hydrocarbons. It is shown that the model well reproduces recent experimental data on the subpicosecond geminate recombination obtained in liquid isooctane. The life time of electrons in a localized state in isooctane is estimated to lie in the range between 0.14 ps and 0.57 ps at room temperature.

  11. Femtosecond dynamics of fundamental reaction processes in liquids: Proton transfer, geminate recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation

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    Schwartz, Benjamin Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The fast excited state intramolecular proton transfer of 3-hydroxyflavone is measured and effects of external hydrogen-bonding interactions on the proton transfer are studied. The proton transfer takes place in ~240 fsec in nonpolar environments, but becomes faster than instrumental resolution of 110 fsec in methanol solution. The dynamics following photodissociation of CH2I2 and other small molecules provide the first direct observations of geminate recombination. The recombination of many different photodissociating species occurs on a ~350 fsec time scale. Results show that recombination yields but not rates depend on the solvent environment and suggest that recombination kinetics are dominated by a single collision with surrounding solvent cage. Studies of sterically locked phenyl-substituted butadienes offer new insights into the electronic structure and isomerization behavior of conjugated polyenes. Data show no simple correlation between hinderance of specific large amplitude motions and signatures of isomerizative behavior such as viscosity dependent excited state lifetimes, implying that the isomerization does not provide a suitable for simple condensed phase reaction rate theories. The spectral dynamics of a photochromic spiropyran indicate that recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation all play important roles in photoreactivity of complex molecules. The interplay of these microscopic phenomena and their effect on macroscopic properties such as photochromism are discussed. All the results indicate that the initial steps of the photochromic reaction process occur extremely rapidly. Laser system and computer codes for data analysis are discussed.

  12. Gemin5: A Multitasking RNA-Binding Protein Involved in Translation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Piñeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gemin5 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP that was first identified as a peripheral component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN complex. This predominantly cytoplasmic protein recognises the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs through its WD repeat domains, allowing assembly of the SMN complex into small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. Additionally, the amino-terminal end of the protein has been reported to possess cap-binding capacity and to interact with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E. Gemin5 was also shown to downregulate translation, to be a substrate of the picornavirus L protease and to interact with viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements via a bipartite non-canonical RNA-binding site located at its carboxy-terminal end. These features link Gemin5 with translation control events. Thus, beyond its role in snRNPs biogenesis, Gemin5 appears to be a multitasking protein cooperating in various RNA-guided processes. In this review, we will summarise current knowledge of Gemin5 functions. We will discuss the involvement of the protein on translation control and propose a model to explain how the proteolysis fragments of this RBP in picornavirus-infected cells could modulate protein synthesis.

  13. Production and perception of Persian geminate stops at three speaking rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Benjamin B.

    2004-05-01

    An experiment was designed to determine whether the geminate/singleton category distinction is maintained at fast speaking rates in Persian. Three speakers of Tehrani Persian read test words containing [t,t:,d,d:] in carrier sentences at three speaking rates. The categories do not overlap within a given speaking rate, but the fastest geminates do overlap the normal-rate singletons, implying that the listener must take speaking rate into account in order to perceive the category distinction. The ratio of the consonant closure to the preceding vowel (C/V) is not a useful rate-independent parameter for describing the geminate/singleton boundary in Persian since in Persian the vowel preceding a geminate is slightly longer. However, it was found that the marginal consonant closure (above a minimum closure of about 20 ms) maintains a fixed proportion of the average syllable duration, regardless of rate. This fixed proportion is distinct for geminates and singletons, and so may be used as a single rate-independent parameter for defining the category distinction. Perception tests on natural sentences showed that the distinction is perceptible at each of the three speaking rates. The perceptual response to manipulation of the closure durations indicated that, besides duration, additional cues to the distinction are present.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C stabilizes Gemin3 to block p53-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C, one of the essential latent antigens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-induced immortalization of primary human B lymphocytes in vitro, has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis via interaction with several cellular and viral factors. Gemin3 (also named DDX20 or DP103 is a member of DEAD RNA helicase family which exhibits diverse cellular functions including DNA transcription, recombination and repair, and RNA metabolism. Gemin3 was initially identified as a binding partner to EBNA2 and EBNA3C. However, the mechanism by which EBNA3C regulates Gemin3 function remains unclear. Here, we report that EBNA3C directly interacts with Gemin3 through its C-terminal domains. This interaction results in increased stability of Gemin3 and its accumulation in both B lymphoma cells and EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Moreover, EBNA3C promotes formation of a complex with p53 and Gemin3 which blocks the DNA-binding affinity of p53. Small hairpin RNA based knockdown of Gemin3 in B lymphoma or LCL cells remarkably attenuates the ability of EBNA3C to inhibit the transcription activity of p53 on its downstream genes p21 and Bax, as well as apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that Gemin3 may be a common target of oncogenic viruses for driving cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities.

  15. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Sonia L; Butts, Craig P; Lam, Joseph K W; Ratcliffe, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    Summary A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII). To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4). We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses. PMID:27559399

  16. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Sonia L; Costello, James F; Butts, Craig P; Lam, Joseph K W; Ratcliffe, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII). To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel-water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4). We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of (1)H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  17. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia L. Repetto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII. To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4. We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  18. Identification of gemin5 as a novel 7-methylguanosine cap-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton S Bradrick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A unique attribute of RNA molecules synthesized by RNA polymerase II is the presence of a 7-methylguanosine (m(7G cap structure added co-transcriptionally to the 5' end. Through its association with trans-acting effector proteins, the m(7G cap participates in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism including localization, translation and decay. However, at present relatively few eukaryotic proteins have been identified as factors capable of direct association with m(7G. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Employing an unbiased proteomic approach, we identified gemin5, a component of the survival of motor neuron (SMN complex, as a factor capable of direct and specific interaction with the m(7G cap. Gemin5 was readily purified by cap-affinity chromatography in contrast to other SMN complex proteins. Investigating the underlying basis for this observation, we found that purified gemin5 associates with m(7G-linked sepharose in the absence of detectable eIF4E, and specifically crosslinks to radiolabeled cap structure after UV irradiation. Deletion analysis revealed that an intact set of WD repeat domains located in the N-terminal half of gemin5 are required for cap-binding. Moreover, using structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified two proximal aromatic residues located within the WD repeat region that significantly impact m(7G association. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study rigorously identifies gemin5 as a novel cap-binding protein and describes an unprecedented role for WD repeat domains in m(7G recognition. The findings presented here will facilitate understanding of gemin5's role in the metabolism of non-coding snRNAs and perhaps other RNA pol II transcripts.

  19. An unusual occurrence of bilaterally geminated mandibular second premolars resulting in premolar molarization: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Rajesh Ebenezar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemination refers to an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide, with a resultant formation of either a large tooth with a bifid crown or two completely divided teeth throughout the crown and root. This report describes a rare case of bilateral gemination of permanent mandibular second premolar tooth giving rise to molarization of premolars. The mesiodistal width of these teeth is similar to mandibular molars, but the cervicoocclusal width is lesser than that of the molar tooth. This paper also discusses the potential orthodontic, periodontal, and endodontic complications of premolar molarization.

  20. Language Specific Listening of Japanese Geminate Consonants: Cross-linguistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Shingai, M.; Brandmeyer, A.; Sulpizio, S.; Sekiyama, K.

    2014-01-01

    Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g. /ss/, /kk/) in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is

  1. The Role of Geminates in Infants' Early Word Production and Word-Form Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn; Majoran, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    Infants learning languages with long consonants, or geminates, have been found to "overselect" and "overproduce" these consonants in early words and also to commonly omit the word-initial consonant. A production study with thirty Italian children recorded at 1;3 and 1;9 strongly confirmed both of these tendencies. To test the…

  2. Language Specific Listening of Japanese Geminate Consonants: Cross-linguistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Shingai, M.; Brandmeyer, A.; Sulpizio, S.; Sekiyama, K.

    2014-01-01

    Various aspects of linguistic experience influence the way we segment, represent, and process speech signals. The Japanese phonetic and orthographic systems represent geminate consonants (double consonants, e.g. /ss/, /kk/) in a unique way compared to other languages: one abstract representation is

  3. Ultrafast dynamics of charge carrier photogeneration and geminate recombination in conjugated polymer:fullerene solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J. G.; Lupton, J. M.; Feldmann, J.; Lemmer, U.; Scharber, M. C.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Brabec, C. J.; Scherf, U.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the nature of ultrafast exciton dissociation and carrier generation in acceptor-doped conjugated polymers. Using a combination of two-pulse femtosecond spectroscopy with photocurrent detection, we compare the exciton dissociation and geminate charge recombination dynamics in blends of two conjugated polymers, MeLPPP [methyl-substituted ladder-type poly( p -phenylene)] and MDMO-PPV [poly(2-methoxy,5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], with the electron accepting fullerene derivative PCBM [1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl- (6,6)C61 ]. This technique allows us to distinguish between free charge carriers and Coulombically bound polaron pairs. Our results highlight the importance of geminate pair recombination in photovoltaic devices, which limits the device performance. The comparison of different materials allows us to address the dependence of geminate recombination on the film morphology directly at the polymer:fullerene interface. We find that in the MeLPPP:PCBM blend exciton dissociation generates Coulombically bound geminate polaron pairs with a high probability for recombination, which explains the low photocurrent yield found in these samples. In contrast, in the highly efficient MDMO-PPV:PCBM blend the electron transfer leads to the formation of free carriers. The anisotropy dynamics of electronic transitions from neutral and charged states indicate that polarons in MDMO-PPV relax to delocalized states in ordered domains within 500fs . The results suggest that this relaxation enlarges the distance of carrier separation within the geminate pair, lowering its binding energy and favoring full dissociation. The difference in geminate pair recombination concurs with distinct dissociation dynamics. The electron transfer is preceded by exciton migration towards the PCBM sites. In MeLPPP:PCBM the exciton migration time decays smoothly with increasing PCBM concentration, indicating a trap-free exciton hopping. In MDMO-PPV:PCBM, however

  4. Two state electron model for geminate recombination of electron-ion pairs in liquid isooctane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukin, L.V., E-mail: lukin@binep.ac.ru [Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics (Branch), Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, P.O. Box 56, Moscow oblast 142432 (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, B.S. [Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics (Branch), Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, P.O. Box 56, Moscow oblast 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-28

    Graphical abstract: M + n . h{nu} {yields} mobile electron {yields} trapped electron {yields} free charges. Research highlights: {yields} Electrons produced by ionization of liquid alkanes are trapped near positive ions. {yields} The recombination kinetics was expressed in terms of a trapped electron life time. {yields} Transient absorption after the ionizing pulse was analyzed for liquid isooctane. {yields} The life time of trapped electrons was found. - Abstract: Recombination kinetics of geminate electron-ion pairs is considered in the framework of the two state model for electron transport in liquid hydrocarbons. It is shown that the model well reproduces recent experimental data on the subpicosecond geminate recombination obtained in liquid isooctane. The life time of electrons in a localized state in isooctane is estimated to lie in the range between 0.14 ps and 0.57 ps at room temperature.

  5. Thermolysis of Geminal Diazides: Reagent-Free Synthesis of 3-Hydroxypyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Hellmuth; Kunz, Kevin A; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2017-01-06

    An operationally simple protocol for the rapid and efficient construction of highly substituted 3-hydroxypyridines is presented. The thermally induced cyclization of easily constructed geminal diazides derived from β-ketoesters having an additional olefin moiety affords the title compounds in yields up to 97% under reagent-free conditions. The new method allows for the synthesis of preparative quantities of material. Additionally, the synthetic utility of the pyridine products for the synthesis of valuable heterocycles is described.

  6. Femtosecond dynamics of fundamental reaction processes in liquids: Proton transfer, geminate recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation. [Spiropyrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, B.J.

    1992-11-01

    The fast excited state intramolecular proton transfer of 3-hydroxyflavone is measured and effects of external hydrogen-bonding interactions on the proton transfer are studied. The proton transfer takes place in [approximately]240 fsec in nonpolar environments, but becomes faster than instrumental resolution of 110 fsec in methanol solution. The dynamics following photodissociation of CH[sub 2]I[sub 2] and other small molecules provide the first direct observations of geminate recombination. The recombination of many different photodissociating species occurs on a [approximately]350 fsec time scale. Results show that recombination yields but not rates depend on the solvent environment and suggest that recombination kinetics are dominated by a single collision with surrounding solvent cage. Studies of sterically locked phenyl-substituted butadienes offer new insights into the electronic structure and isomerization behavior of conjugated polyenes. Data show no simple correlation between hinderance of specific large amplitude motions and signatures of isomerizative behavior such as viscosity dependent excited state lifetimes, implying that the isomerization does not provide a suitable for simple condensed phase reaction rate theories. The spectral dynamics of a photochromic spiropyran indicate that recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation all play important roles in photoreactivity of complex molecules. The interplay of these microscopic phenomena and their effect on macroscopic properties such as photochromism are discussed. All the results indicate that the initial steps of the photochromic reaction process occur extremely rapidly. Laser system and computer codes for data analysis are discussed.

  7. Quantitative proteomics identifies Gemin5, a scaffolding protein involved in ribonucleoprotein assembly, as a novel partner for eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro-Monti, Ivo; Mohammed, Shabaz; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    levels of Gemin5:eIF4E complexes were found in phorbol ester treated HEK293 cells. Gemin5 and eIF4E co-localized to cytoplasmic P-bodies in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Interaction between eIF4E and Gemin5 and their co-localization to the P-bodies, may serve to recruit capped mRNAs to these RNP...

  8. Anomalous maximum and minimum for the dissociation of a geminate pair in energetically disordered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govatski, J. A.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Koehler, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the geminated pair dissociation probability φ as function of applied electric field and temperature in energetically disordered nD media. Regardless nD, for certain parameters regions φ versus the disorder degree (σ) displays anomalous minimum (maximum) at low (moderate) fields. This behavior is compatible with a transport energy which reaches a maximum and then decreases to negative values as σ increases. Our results explain the temperature dependence of the persistent photoconductivity in C60 single crystals going through order-disorder transitions. They also indicate how an energetic disorder spatial variation may contribute to higher exciton dissociation in multicomponent donor/acceptor systems.

  9. The mechanism of electron-cation geminate recombination in liquid isooctane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieqiao; Lee, Young Jong; Kee, Tak W.; Barbara, Paul F.

    2005-02-01

    Electron-cation geminate recombination in isooctane has been reinvestigated by femtosecond spectroscopy. The observed recombination kinetics are well-fit by a single exponential decay ( τ = 400 ± 40 fs) and exhibit a significant hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect. The kinetics are not affected by varying the incident intensity or by exciting the recombining electrons with a high power 800 nm pulse. These observations strongly suggest that the recombination rate is not limited by diffusive motion of the ions to form a contact ion pair, but rather by the electron transfer reaction rate between the ions in a contact ion pair.

  10. Improved Optimization for the Cluster Jastrow Antisymmetric Geminal Power and Tests on Triple-Bond Dissociations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuscamman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel specialization of the variational Monte Carlo linear method for the optimization of the recently introduced cluster Jastrow antisymmetric geminal power ansatz, achieving a lower-order polynomial cost scaling than would be possible with a naive application of the linear method and greatly improving optimization performance relative to the previously employed quasi-Newton approach. We test the methodology on highly multi-reference triple-bond stretches, achieving accuracies superior to traditional coupled cluster theory and multi-reference perturbation theory in both the typical example of N$_2$ and the transition-metal-oxide example of [ScO]$^+$.

  11. Sub-ns triplet state formation by non-geminate recombination in PSBTBT:PC 70 BM and PCPDTBT:PC 60 BM organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Etzold, Fabian

    2015-03-02

    The solid-state morphology and photo-generated charge carrier dynamics in low-bandgap polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends using the donor–acceptor type copolymers PCPDTBT or its silicon-substituted analogue PSBTBT as donors are compared by two-dimensional (2D) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and femto-to microsecond broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy. The 2D solid-state NMR experiments demonstrate that the film morphology of PCPDTBT:PC60BM blends processed with additives such as octanedithiol (ODT) are similar to those of PSBTBT:PC60BM blends in terms of crystallinity, phase segregation, and interfacial contacts. The TA experiments and analysis of the TA data by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) reveal that after exciton dissociation and free charge formation, fast sub-nanosecond non-geminate recombination occurs which leads to a substantial population of the polymer\\'s triplet state. The extent to which triplet states are formed depends on the initial concentration of free charges, which itself is controlled by the microstructure of the blend, especially in case of PCPDTBT:PC60BM. Interestingly, PSBTBT:PC70BM blends show a higher charge generation efficiency, but less triplet state formation at similar free charge carrier concentrations. This indicates that the solid-state morphology and interfacial structures of PSBTBT:PC70BM blends reduces non-geminate recombination, leading to superior device performance compared to optimized PCPDTBT:PC60BM blends.

  12. Effects of geminate and bimolecular recombination on the performance of polymeric-small molecular solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Marcel; Yin, Chunhong; Castellani, Mauro; Neher, Dieter [University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Sellinger, Alan [IMRE, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    Many physical properties of organic photovoltaics are related to the nature of the geminate pair, an intermediate state that forms after dissociation of photogenerated excitons and prior to free charge carrier generation. Whereas it was found that photocurrent generation is dominated by the strong field dependent process of geminate pair dissociation, the recombination of uncorrelated free charge carriers and the formation of space charge seem to play a minor role in the prominent P3HT/PCBM combination. The situation may change, when using different D/A combinations or other soluble acceptor molecules. We present organic solar cells comprising a novel small molecule based on 2-vinyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (Vinazene) as acceptor and M3EH-PPV as donor. While bilayer devices show promising results with a fill factor up to 57 %, the IU-characteristics of bulk heterojunction devices are dominated by bimolecular recombination and space charge effects even at moderate illumination intensities. Photo-CELIV measurements were performed to study the bimolecular recombination in detail. By combining photo-CELIV results with PL and IU measurements we are able to analyze the interrelation of recombination losses, free charge carrier generation and exciplex formation.

  13. Effect of DNA binding on geminate CO recombination kinetics in CooA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Karunakaran, Venugopal; Youn, Hwan; Poulos, Thomas; Champion, Paul

    2012-02-01

    CooA proteins are heme-based CO-sensing transcription factors. Here we study the ultrafast dynamics of geminate CO rebinding to RrCooA. The effects of DNA binding and the truncation of the DNA binding domain on the CO geminate recombination kinetics were investigated. The CO rebinding kinetics in these CooA complexes takes place on ultrafast timescales but remains non-exponential over many decades in time. We show that this non-exponential kinetic response is due to a quenched enthalpic barrier distribution resulting from a distribution of heme geometries that is frozen or slowly evolving on the timescale of CO rebinding. We also show that, upon CO binding, the distal pocket of the heme in RrCooA relaxes to form a very efficient hydrophobic trap for CO. DNA binding further tightens the narrow distal pocket and slightly weakens the iron-proximal histidine bond. Analysis of our data reveals that the uncomplexed and inherently flexible DNA binding domain adds additional structural heterogeneity to the heme doming coordinate. When CooA forms a complex with DNA, the flexibility of the DNA-binding domain decreases and the distribution of the conformations available in the heme domain becomes restricted.

  14. Geminal embedding scheme for optimal atomic basis set construction in correlated calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorella, S., E-mail: sorella@sissa.it [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste, Italy and INFM Democritos National Simulation Center, Trieste (Italy); Devaux, N.; Dagrada, M., E-mail: mario.dagrada@impmc.upmc.fr [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mazzola, G., E-mail: gmazzola@phys.ethz.ch [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Casula, M., E-mail: michele.casula@impmc.upmc.fr [CNRS and Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2015-12-28

    We introduce an efficient method to construct optimal and system adaptive basis sets for use in electronic structure and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The method is based on an embedding scheme in which a reference atom is singled out from its environment, while the entire system (atom and environment) is described by a Slater determinant or its antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) extension. The embedding procedure described here allows for the systematic and consistent contraction of the primitive basis set into geminal embedded orbitals (GEOs), with a dramatic reduction of the number of variational parameters necessary to represent the many-body wave function, for a chosen target accuracy. Within the variational Monte Carlo method, the Slater or AGP part is determined by a variational minimization of the energy of the whole system in presence of a flexible and accurate Jastrow factor, representing most of the dynamical electronic correlation. The resulting GEO basis set opens the way for a fully controlled optimization of many-body wave functions in electronic structure calculation of bulk materials, namely, containing a large number of electrons and atoms. We present applications on the water molecule, the volume collapse transition in cerium, and the high-pressure liquid hydrogen.

  15. Rhodium(II)-Alkynyl Carbenoids Insertion into Si-H bonds: An Entry to Propargylic Geminal Bis(silanes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Thibaut; Kumar, Rahul; Turcaud, Serge; Micouin, Laurent

    2016-10-07

    α-Alkynyl-α'-trimethylsilylhydrazones are used as novel Rh(II)-carbenoids precursors. These new carbenoids have shown very good reactivity in Si-H insertion reactions, leading to original propargylic geminal-bis(silanes) in a two-step sequential process.

  16. Hydrophobic distal pocket affects NO-heme geminate recombination dynamics in dehaloperoxidase and H64V myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Stefan; Jasaitis, Audrius; Belyea, Jennifer; Brewer, Scott H; Casey, Robin; MacFarlane, Alexander W; Stanley, Robert J; Vos, Marten H; Martin, Jean-Louis

    2006-07-27

    The recombination dynamics of NO with dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from Amphitrite ornata following photolysis were measured by femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis reveals two important basis spectra. The first SVD basis spectrum reports on the population of photolyzed NO molecules and has the appearance of the equilibrium difference spectrum between the deoxy and NO forms of DHP. The first basis time course has two kinetic components with time constants of tau(11) approximately 9 ps and tau(12) approximately 50 ps that correspond to geminate recombination. The fast geminate process tau(11) arises from a contact pair with the heme iron in a bound state with S = 3/2 spin. The slow geminate process tau(12) corresponds to the recombination from a more remote docking site >3 A from the heme iron with the greater barrier corresponding to a S = 5/2 spin state. The second SVD basis spectrum represents a time-dependent Soret band shift indicative of heme photophysical processes and protein relaxation with time constants of tau(21) approximately 3 ps and tau(22) approximately 17 ps, respectively. A comparison between the more rapid rate constant of the slow geminate phase in DHP-NO and horse heart myoglobin (HHMbNO) or sperm whale myoglobin (SWMbNO) suggests that protein interactions with photolyzed NO are weaker in DHP than in the wild-type MbNOs, consistent with the hydrophobic distal pocket of DHP. The slower protein relaxation rate tau(22) in DHP-NO relative to HHMbNO implies less effective trapping in the docking site of the distal pocket and is consistent with a greater yield for the fast geminate process. The trends observed for DHP-NO also hold for the H64V mutant of SWMb (H64V MbNO), consistent with a more hydrophobic distal pocket for that protein as well. We examine the influence of solution viscosity on NO recombination by varying the glycerol content in the range from 0% to 90% (v/v). The dominant effect of

  17. Limits on the Fill Factor in Organic Photovoltaics: Distinguishing Nongeminate and Geminate Recombination Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb, George F A; Jamieson, Fiona C; Maurano, Andrea; Nelson, Jenny; Durrant, James R

    2013-03-07

    In this Letter, we present transient optoelectronic experimental studies of the recombination processes limiting the fill factor (FF) in three conjugated polymer:fullerene systems, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and two lower-band-gap polymers that exhibit lower FFs poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT) and poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)) (APFO-3). Using transient absorption spectroscopy, charge extraction, and transient photovoltage experiments, we show that the lower FF observed for the PCPDTBT-based device results from enhanced nongeminate recombination even at short circuit, In contrast, we show that for APFO-3 devices, the FF is primarily limited by a voltage-dependent free charge generation, which we assign to a geminate recombination process.

  18. Projected seniority-two orbital optimization of the antisymmetric product of one-reference orbital geminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Tecmer, Paweł; Limacher, Peter A.; Johnson, Paul A.; Ayers, Paul W.; Bultinck, Patrick; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2014-06-01

    We present a new, non-variational orbital-optimization scheme for the antisymmetric product of one-reference orbital geminal wave function. Our approach is motivated by the observation that an orbital-optimized seniority-zero configuration interaction (CI) expansion yields similar results to an orbital-optimized seniority-zero-plus-two CI expansion [L. Bytautas, T. M. Henderson, C. A. Jimenez-Hoyos, J. K. Ellis, and G. E. Scuseria, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044119 (2011)]. A numerical analysis is performed for the C2 and LiF molecules, for the CH2 singlet diradical as well as for the symmetric stretching of hypothetical (linear) hydrogen chains. For these test cases, the proposed orbital-optimization protocol yields similar results to its variational orbital optimization counterpart, but prevents symmetry-breaking of molecular orbitals in most cases.

  19. Geminate recombination kinetics of solute radical ions. Singlet excited state formation in cyclohexane solutions of biphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Tabata, Y.; Kobayashi, H.

    Transient absorption spectra of the solute anion, cation and triplet state and the solute fluorescence in the pulse radiolysis of 0.1 mole 1 -1 biphenyl in cyclohexane were observed on a nanosecond timescale longer than 1 ns after a 20 ps pulse. The formation of the solute excited singlet state is mainly due to the geminate ion recombination reaction even in the high concentrated solutions. The decay of the solute ions obeys the reciprocal square root dependence on time longer than 10 ns from the end of a 10 ps pulse. The slope of this reciprocal square root plots agrees with the literature value on a longer timescale obtained by microwave absorption. The yield of free ions obtained from the intercept of the slope agrees also with the literature values obtained by the field clearing method. Ratio of the formation rate of the solute excited triplet state to the decay rate of the solute anion changes in a time range between 5 and 20 ns. It is very well correlated with a theoretical calculation of spin correlation decay of the germinate ion pairs by Brocklehurst, although the formation of the solute triplet state was observed even on a timescale shorter than 5 ns from the end of a 20 ps pulse, where loss of spin correlation is negligibly small.

  20. Geminate electron-hole recombination in organic photovoltaic cells. A semi-empirical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Mariusz; Nowak, Artur; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We propose a semi-empirical theory which describes the geminate electron-hole separation probability in both homogeneous systems and donor-acceptor heterojunction systems applicable in organic photovoltaics. The theory is based on the results of extensive simulation calculations, which were carried out using various lattice models of the medium and different charge-carrier hopping mechanisms, over the parameter ranges typical for organic solar cells. It is found that the electron-hole separation probability can be conveniently described in terms of measurable parameters by a formula whose functional form is derived from the existing recombination theories, and which contains only one empirical parameter. For homogeneous systems, this parameter is determined by the structure of the medium and only weakly depends on the charge-carrier hopping mechanism. In the case of donor-acceptor heterojunction systems, this empirical parameter shows a simple power-law dependence on the product of the dielectric constant and inter-molecular contact distance. We also study the effect of heterojunction structure on the electron-hole separation probability and show that this probability decreases with increasing roughness of the heterojunction. By analyzing the simulation results obtained for systems under the influence of an external electric field, we find that the field effect on the electron-hole separation probability in donor-acceptor heterojunction systems is weaker than in homogeneous systems. We also describe this field effect by a convenient empirical formula.

  1. Dispersive Non-Geminate Recombination in an Amorphous Polymer:Fullerene Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpiers, Jona; Neher, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Recombination of free charge is a key process limiting the performance of solar cells. For low mobility materials, such as organic semiconductors, the kinetics of non-geminate recombination (NGR) is strongly linked to the motion of charges. As these materials possess significant disorder, thermalization of photogenerated carriers in the inhomogeneously broadened density of state distribution is an unavoidable process. Despite its general importance, knowledge about the kinetics of NGR in complete organic solar cells is rather limited. We employ time delayed collection field (TDCF) experiments to study the recombination of photogenerated charge in the high-performance polymer:fullerene blend PCDTBT:PCBM. NGR in the bulk of this amorphous blend is shown to be highly dispersive, with a continuous reduction of the recombination coefficient throughout the entire time scale, until all charge carriers have either been extracted or recombined. Rapid, contact-mediated recombination is identified as an additional loss channel, which, if not properly taken into account, would erroneously suggest a pronounced field dependence of charge generation. These findings are in stark contrast to the results of TDCF experiments on photovoltaic devices made from ordered blends, such as P3HT:PCBM, where non-dispersive recombination was proven to dominate the charge carrier dynamics under application relevant conditions.

  2. Geminate electron-hole recombination in organic photovoltaic cells. A semi-empirical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Mariusz; Nowak, Artur; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-07

    We propose a semi-empirical theory which describes the geminate electron-hole separation probability in both homogeneous systems and donor-acceptor heterojunction systems applicable in organic photovoltaics. The theory is based on the results of extensive simulation calculations, which were carried out using various lattice models of the medium and different charge-carrier hopping mechanisms, over the parameter ranges typical for organic solar cells. It is found that the electron-hole separation probability can be conveniently described in terms of measurable parameters by a formula whose functional form is derived from the existing recombination theories, and which contains only one empirical parameter. For homogeneous systems, this parameter is determined by the structure of the medium and only weakly depends on the charge-carrier hopping mechanism. In the case of donor-acceptor heterojunction systems, this empirical parameter shows a simple power-law dependence on the product of the dielectric constant and inter-molecular contact distance. We also study the effect of heterojunction structure on the electron-hole separation probability and show that this probability decreases with increasing roughness of the heterojunction. By analyzing the simulation results obtained for systems under the influence of an external electric field, we find that the field effect on the electron-hole separation probability in donor-acceptor heterojunction systems is weaker than in homogeneous systems. We also describe this field effect by a convenient empirical formula.

  3. Relation between CIDNP formed upon geminate and bulk recombination of radical pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Morozova, Olga B.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical approach to time-resolved Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is proposed, which allows one to obtain the general relation between polarization formed upon recombination of geminate spin-correlated radical pairs, the so-called G-pairs, and upon recombination of radical pairs formed by encounters of free radicals in solution, the so-called F-pairs. This relation is described by a universal parameter denoted as γ. In this work, the γ value is computed for the arbitrary spin multiplicity, singlet or triplet, of the precursor of the G-pairs as well as for arbitrary recombination rate constants of radical pairs in singlet and triplet states, kS and kT, respectively. Furthermore, the treatment is extended to the situation where radicals undergo transformation resulting in different reactivity or magnetic parameters for F-pairs and G-pairs. The proposed theory enables modeling of time-resolved CIDNP data in cases where (i) both recombination channels are active and (ii) fast protonation/deprotonation of radicals changes the effective γ value.

  4. The effect of syllabification and gemination on F2 onsets in Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwuele, Augustine

    2003-04-01

    The quest to explain the continuousness of speech on the physical level has been dominated by the co-production theory [Hman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41 (1966)]. According to this view, the production of a VCV sequence involves a diphthongal movement from V1-to-V2, with a superimposed consonantal gesture. However, data from recent studies are at variance with this position-Modaressi [Ph.D. dissertation, UT Austin, 2002], Perkell [Coarticulation Strategies Speech Commun. 5, 47-68 (1986)]. These studies document a trough-phenomena, which suggests a discontinuity in muscular activity during the production of the consonant. This paper provides additional acoustic evidence in support of sequential programming of consonant-vowel events as advocated by Joos [Acoustic Phonetics Lang. 24 (1948)]. It examines symmetrical VCV sequences in Swedish natural speech with syllable boundaries and duration of consonant gemination altered to produce different types of temporal interval between V1 and V2; i.e., V#CV, VCC#V, VC#CV, VCC#CV. F2 of V1mid, V1offset, V2onset, and V2mid were measured. Locus equations were plotted for all VC contacts. Statistical analysis of these data show: (1) de-activation of tongue movement at the CV boundary, (2) a reduction of the influence of V1 on V2 as a function of increasing consonant duration, and (3) a weak degree of CV coarticulation.

  5. Construction of explicitly correlated geminal-projected particle-hole creation operators for many-electron systems using the diagrammatic factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Michael G.; Uchida, Yuki; Eller, Joshua; Daniels, Carena; Chakraborty, Arindam

    2016-11-01

    The computational cost of performing a configuration interaction (CI) calculation for treating electron-electron correlation is directly proportional to the number of terms in the CI expansion. In this work, we present a diagrammatic projection approach for a priori identification of noncontributing terms in a CI expansion. This method known as the geminal-projected configuration interaction (GP-CI) method is based on using a two-body R12 geminal operator for describing electron-electron correlation in a reference many-electron wave function. The diagrammatic projection procedure was performed by first deriving the Hugenholtz diagrams of the energy expression of the R12 reference wave function and then performing diagrammatic factorization of effective particle-hole creation operators. The projection operation, which is a functional of the geminal function, was defined and used for the construction of the geminal-projected particle-hole creation operators. The form of the two-body R12 geminal operator was derived analytically by imposing an approximate Kato cusp condition. A linear combination of the geminal-projected one-particle one-hole and two-particle two-hole operators were used for the construction of the GP-CI wave function. The applicability and implementation of the diagrammatic projection method was demonstrated by performing proof-of-concept calculations on an isoelectronic series of 10 electron systems: CH4,NH3,H2O ,HF , and Ne . The results from the calculations show that compared to conventional CI calculations, the GP-CI method was able to substantially reduce the size of the CI space (by a factor of 6-9) while maintaining an accuracy of 10-5 Hartrees for the ground-state energies. These results demonstrate the ability of the diagrammatic projection procedure to identify noncontributing states using an analytical form of the R12 geminal correlator operator. The geminal-projection method was also applied to second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation

  6. Delayed luminescence spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic binary blend films: probing the emissive non-geminate charge recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keivanidis, Panagiotis E.; Bradley, Donal D.C.; Nelson, Jenny [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kamm, Valentin; Laquai, Frederic [Max Planck Research Group for Organic Optoelectronics, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); Dyer-Smith, Clare [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London., Department of Chemistry, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Grantham Institute for Climate Change, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Weimin; McCulloch, Iain [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London., Department of Chemistry, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Organic photovoltaics: Following the direct photoexcitation of the low-energy optical gap PDI component in the F8BT:PDI photovoltaic blend film (step 1), charge generation takes place (steps 2, 3). Non-geminate charge recombination (step 4) results in the generation of delayed luminescence (DL) in the {mu}s time scale (step 5). The DL spectrum originates from an equilibrated charge-transfer (CT) state formed between the components of the composite. The F8BT-PDI CT complex has a ground state character (step 6). (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The structure of geminal imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ionic liquids: a theoretical study of the gas phase ionic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, E; Caminiti, R

    2010-12-02

    In this work we report molecular mechanics and ab initio calculations on the geminal di-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ionic liquid in the gas phase. We report the likely energetically preferred geometries of the ionic complex and its main features in terms of charge distribution, electronic density, structure, and energetics. We find that the gas phase structure of the ionic complex is quite compact and that the alkyl chain connecting the two imidazolium charged rings is strongly bent in order to maximize their electrostatic interactions with the two anions.

  8. Geminal-spanning orbitals make explicitly correlated reduced-scaling coupled-cluster methods robust, yet simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavošević, Fabijan; Neese, Frank; Valeev, Edward F.

    2014-08-01

    We present a production implementation of reduced-scaling explicitly correlated (F12) coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method based on pair-natural orbitals (PNOs). A key feature is the reformulation of the explicitly correlated terms using geminal-spanning orbitals that greatly reduce the truncation errors of the F12 contribution. For the standard S66 benchmark of weak intermolecular interactions, the cc-pVDZ-F12 PNO CCSD F12 interaction energies reproduce the complete basis set CCSD limit with mean absolute error <0.1 kcal/mol, and at a greatly reduced cost compared to the conventional CCSD F12.

  9. Cross-linguistic preference and the phonetics of geminates: Place of articulation and duration of phonologically short and long consonants in Guinaang Bontok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura

    2003-10-01

    It is reported that there is a preference for the place-of-articulation in geminates among world languages; alveolar, labial, velar geminate consonants always appear in that order with respect to one another (G. Thurgood, Papers in Honor of Frederick H. Brengelman, 1993, pp. 129-137). This study investigated whether the phonetic contrasts in duration are larger in cross-linguistically favored place-of-articulation (e.g., alveolar) than in the less favored place-of-articulation (e.g., velar). The data is from a language called Guinaang Bontok. Four speakers of Guinaang Bontok produced thirty-five words that have either a singleton or a geminate of /p t k m n rhookn/. Eighteen words included a singleton and the other seventeen words included a geminate. The participants produced the target word in isolation first, and then repeated it in a frame sentence twice. The recordings were digitized at 22.05 Hz, and the durations of the consonants were measured. A total of 420 tokens (35 words ×3 repetitions ×4 participants) were analyzed. The results partially supported the hypothesis; the durational contrasts were indeed larger in alveolar consonants (/t n/) than in labial consonants (/p m/) and velar consonants (/rhookn/). However, contrasts in velar stop (/k/) were as large as in the alveolar stop (/t/).

  10. An atomic perspective of the photodissociation and geminate recombination of triiodide in condensed phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Rui

    2016-11-15

    The thesis presents progress made towards a thorough understanding of the photodissociation and geminate recombination of triiodide anion (I{sub 3}{sup -}) in solution and solid state using novel time-resolved spectroscopic and structural methods that have matured in the past decade. An isolated I{sub 3}{sup -} has only three degrees of freedom, but in the condensed phase, the case of an open quantum system, its chemistry is transformed because other degrees of freedom from the surroundings (the bath) need to be fully taken into account. This system is a textbook example for understanding dissociation and recombination processes in condensed phases, but unresolved issues about the reaction pathways remain. To probe the issues, firstly, mid-UV pulse shaper-based closed-loop adaptive control as well as open-loop power and chirp control schemes were used in conjunction with single-color pump-probe detection of the yield of the photoproduct diiodide (I{sub 2}{sup -.}) to study the above reaction in ethanol solution. The experiments revealed a strong pump-chirp dependence of the I{sub 2}{sup -.}-yield (as much as 40% change). Subsequently, two possible mechanisms involving additional reaction channels were postulated in order to explain such effect. Secondly, pump-supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy and ultrafast electron diffraction were performed separately on solid state triiodide compound n-(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}NI{sub 3} (TBAT). This system was chosen to provide a well-defined lattice for the bath and to avail atomic resolution of the condensed phase reaction dynamics. In the optical experiment, coherent oscillations were observed within a probe delay of 1 ps that bear strong resemblance to the stretching modes of ground-state I{sub 3}{sup -} and I{sub 2}{sup -.} fragment, which makes it the first to reliably distinguish the two species in a single measurement. In addition, the spectroscopic signature of a novel intermediate, the tetraiodide anion (I{sub 4}{sup

  11. Static and dynamical correlation in diradical molecules by Quantum Monte Carlo using the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye; Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Diradical molecules are essential species involved in many organic and inorganic chemical reactions. The computational study of their electronic structure is often challenging, because a reliable description of the correlation, and in particular of the static one, requires multi-reference techniques. The Jastrow correlated Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) is a compact and efficient wave function ansatz, based on the valence-bond representation, which can be used within Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches. The AGP part can be rewritten in terms of molecular orbitals, obtaining a multi-determinant expansion with zero-seniority number. In the present work we demonstrate the capability of the JAGP ansatz to correctly describe the electronic structure of two diradical prototypes: the orthogonally twisted ethylene, C2H4, and the methylene, CH2, representing respectively a homosymmetric and heterosymmetric system. On the other hand, we show that the simple ansatz of a Jastrow correlated Single Determinant (JSD)...

  12. Simulation study of the losses and influences of geminate and bimolecular recombination on the performances of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱键卓; 祁令辉; 杜会静; 柴莺春

    2015-01-01

    We use the method of device simulation to study the losses and influences of geminate and bimolecular recombinations on the performances and properties of the bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. We find that a fraction of electrons (holes) in the device are collected by anode (cathode). The direction of the corresponding current is opposite to the direction of photocurrent. And the current density increases with the bias increasing but decreases as bimolecular recombination (BR) or geminate recombination (GR) intensity increases. The maximum power, short circuit current, and fill factor display a stronger dependence on GR than on BR. While the influences of GR and BR on open circuit voltage are about the same. Our studies shed a new light on the loss mechanism and may provide a new way of improving the efficiency of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

  13. The key role of geminate electron-hole pair recombination in the delayed fluorescence in rhodamine 6G and ATTO-532.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Murat; Jankus, Vygintas; Dias, Fernando B; Monkman, Andy

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we investigate the delayed fluorescence (DF) phenomena in the widely used laser dye, rhodamine 6G, and its derivative ATTO-532 as a function of excitation energy using highly sensitive time-resolved gated nanosecond spectroscopy. Excitation with UV laser radiation results in delayed emission, which arises from singlet states created from geminate pair recombination, not triplet annihilation. For the first time the origins and photo-physical properties of delayed fluorescence in these highly fluorescent molecules are elucidated.

  14. Elucidating the decomposition mechanism of energetic materials with geminal dinitro groups using 2-bromo-2-nitropropane photodissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Ryan S; Lam, Chow-Shing; Brynteson, Matthew D; Wang, Lei; Butler, Laurie J

    2013-10-03

    These experiments photolytically generate two key intermediates in the decomposition mechanisms of energetic materials with nitro substituents, 2-nitropropene, and 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals. These intermediates are produced at high internal energies and access a number of competing unimolecular dissociation channels investigated herein. We use a combination of crossed laser-molecular beam scattering and velocity map imaging to study the photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane at 193 nm and the subsequent unimolecular dissociation of the intermediates above. Our results demonstrate that 2-bromo-2-nitropropane has four primary photodissociation pathways: C-Br bond fission yielding the 2-nitro-2-propyl radical, HBr elimination yielding 2-nitropropene, C-N bond fission yielding the 2-bromo-2-propyl radical, and HONO elimination yielding 2-bromopropene. The photofragments are formed with significant internal energy and undergo many secondary dissociation events, including the exothermic dissociation of 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals to NO + acetone. Calculations at the G4//B3LYP/6-311++g(3df,2p) level show that the presence of a radical at a nitroalkyl center changes the mechanism for and substantially lowers the barrier to NO loss. This mechanism involves an intermediate with a three-center ring rather than the intermediate formed during the traditional nitro-nitrite isomerization. The observed dissociation pathways of the 2-nitro-2-propyl radical and 2-nitropropene help elucidate the decomposition mechanism of larger energetic materials with geminal dinitro groups.

  15. Multitiered 2D pi-stacked conjugated polymers based on pseudo-geminal disubstituted [2.2]paracyclophane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Subodh P; Collard, David M

    2010-09-01

    Interchain interactions between pi-systems have a strong effect on the electronic structure of conjugated organic materials. This influence has previously been explored by the spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of molecules in which pairs of conjugated oligomers are held in a stacked fashion by attachment to a rigid scaffold. We have prepared a new polymer which uses a pseudo-geminal disubstituted [2.2]paracyclophane scaffold to hold 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)-2,5-dialkoxybenzene (PE(3)) chromophores in a pi-stacked fashion over their entire length and in an extended multitier arrangement. Solutions of this new polymer display a Stokes shift of 171 nm, compared to just ca. 30 nm for previous models in which only the terminal phenyl rings of the PE(3) chromophore are held in a stacked arrangement. This suggests that interchain interactions of pi-systems over their entire length in a multitier assembly provides for relaxation of the excited state to a stable "phane" electronic state which is responsible for emission. This stabilization is not available in the stacked dimer or other regioisomers of the polymer which possess lesser degrees of overlap. Thus, the architecture of the soluble polymer mimics that of segments of conjugated polymers in semiconducting thin films and will provide a platform for the exploration of the nature of charge carriers and excitons in these important materials.

  16. ZrOCl2 Catalysed Chemoselective Conversion of Aldehydes to geminal-Diacetates and Their Cleavage: A Mild and Efficient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAGARAJ, Adki; SANJEEVA REDDY,Cherkupally

    2007-01-01

    ZrOCl2 was found to be an effective Lewis acid catalyst for the solventless chemoselective conversion of aldehydes into geminal-diacetates in high yields at room temperature. Regeneration of the aldehydes from the acetals was also achieved using the same catalyst in water. The beneficial effect of microwave irradiation on the reaction was also described. Other advantages are the very low loading of catalyst, high yields achieved even on a gram scale, and considerably shortened reaction time compared to the conventional method.

  17. Generalized Møller-Plesset Multiconfiguration Perturbation Theory Applied to an Open-Shell Antisymmetric Product of Strongly Orthogonal Geminals Reference Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Moto; Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-11-13

    The antisymmetric product of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG) method is a wave function theory that can effectively treat the static electron correlation. Recently, we proposed the open-shell APSG method using one-electron orbitals for open-shell parts. In this paper, we have extended the perturbation correction to the open-shell APSG calculations through Møller-Plesset-type multiconfiguration perturbation theory (MP-MCPT). Numerical applications demonstrate that the present open-shell MP-MCPT can reasonably reproduce the dissociation energies or equilibrium distances for open-shell systems.

  18. Femtosecond Dynamics of Fundamental Reaction Processes in Liquids: Proton Transfer, Geminate Recombination, Isomerization and Vibrational Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin Joel

    Femtosecond and picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy are used to probe several fundamental aspects of chemical reactivity in the condensed phase including proton transfer, germinate recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation. The fast excited state intramolecular proton transfer of 3-hydroxyflavone is measured for the first time, and the effects of external hydrogen-bonding interactions on the proton transfer are studied in detail. The proton transfer takes place in ~240 fsec in non-polar environments, but becomes faster than the instrumental resolution of 110 fsec in methanol solutions. A simple model is proposed to explain these results. The dynamics following photodissociation of CH _2I_2 and other small molecules provide the first direct observations of germinate recombination. The recombination of many different photodissociating species occurs on a ~350 fsec time scale. Results also show that recombination yields but not rates depend on the molecular details of the solvent environment and suggest that recombination kinetics are dominated by a single collision with the surrounding solvent cage. Studies of sterically locked phenyl-substituted butadienes offer new insights into the electronic structure and isomerization behavior of conjugated polyenes. The data show no simple correlation between the hinderance of specific large amplitude motions and signatures of isomerizative behavior such as viscosity dependent excited state lifetimes. This strongly implies that the isomerization of these systems does not provide a suitable testing ground for simple condensed phase reaction rate theories. The spectral dynamics of a photochromic spiropyran indicate that recombination, isomerization and vibrational relaxation all play important roles in the photoreactivity of complex molecules. The interplay of these microscopic phenomena and their effect on macroscopic properties such as photochromism are discussed. All the results indicate that the initial

  19. Kinetics and magnetic field effect in geminate recombination of triplet radical pairs adsorbed onto porous glass studied by laser flash technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, P. P.; Katalnikov, I. V.; Kuzmin, V. A.

    1991-07-01

    Geminate recombination kinetics of radical pairs (RP) formed by electron or hydrogen atom transfer from triphenylamine, tri(4-bromophenyl)amine, 4-phenylaniline or 4-phenylphenol to triplet 9,10-anthraquinone, benzophenone or 4-bromobenzophenone both adsorbed onto an optically transparent SiO 2 porous glass have been studied, using the laser flash technique with spectrophotometric registration. The kinetics are adequately described by the sum of two exponentials, ascribed to the existence of different kinds of "supercages" on the surface. At the same time, the simplest approximation by only one exponential is fair in many cases, because the contribution of a "slow" exponential is comparatively low and is masked by the slow component because of the decay of the escaped radicals. Introduction of a heavy Br atom leads to the acceleration of the geminate recombination; application of an external magnetic field results in retardation. The heavy-atom effect displays the contribution of the intersystem backwards electron transfer or intersystem recombination in the contact states of a triplet RP owing to the spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic field effect is the result of the significant contribution of the recombination route through the separated RP, where the hyperfine coupling and relaxation mechanisms of the RP spin evolution are active.

  20. Simulation study of the losses and influences of geminate and bimolecular recombination on the performances of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhuo; Qi, Ling-Hui; Du, Hui-Jing; Chai, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    We use the method of device simulation to study the losses and influences of geminate and bimolecular recombinations on the performances and properties of the bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. We find that a fraction of electrons (holes) in the device are collected by anode (cathode). The direction of the corresponding current is opposite to the direction of photocurrent. And the current density increases with the bias increasing but decreases as bimolecular recombination (BR) or geminate recombination (GR) intensity increases. The maximum power, short circuit current, and fill factor display a stronger dependence on GR than on BR. While the influences of GR and BR on open circuit voltage are about the same. Our studies shed a new light on the loss mechanism and may provide a new way of improving the efficiency of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2012203016), the Science Fund from the Education Department of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. QN20131103 and Z2009114), the Doctor Foundation of Yanshan University, China (Grant No. B580), and the Young Teachers' Research Project of Yanshan University, China (Grant No. 13LGB028).

  1. Static and Dynamical Correlation in Diradical Molecules by Quantum Monte Carlo Using the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power Ansatz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Andrea; Coccia, Emanuele; Luo, Ye; Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-03-11

    Diradical molecules are essential species involved in many organic and inorganic chemical reactions. The computational study of their electronic structure is often challenging, because a reliable description of the correlation, and in particular of the static one, requires multireference techniques. The Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) is a compact and efficient wave function ansatz, based on the valence-bond representation, which can be used within quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches. The AGP part can be rewritten in terms of molecular orbitals, obtaining a multideterminant expansion with zero-seniority number. In the present work we demonstrate the capability of the JAGP ansatz to correctly describe the electronic structure of two diradical prototypes: the orthogonally twisted ethylene, C2H4, and the methylene, CH2, representing respectively a homosymmetric and heterosymmetric system. In the orthogonally twisted ethylene, we find a degeneracy of π and π* molecular orbitals, as correctly predicted by multireference procedures, and our best estimates of the twisting barrier, using respectively the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods, are 71.9(1) and 70.2(2) kcal/mol, in very good agreement with the high-level MR-CISD+Q value, 69.2 kcal/mol. In the methylene we estimate an adiabatic triplet-singlet (X̃(3)B1-ã(1)A1) energy gap of 8.32(7) and 8.64(6) kcal/mol, using respectively VMC and LRDMC, consistently with the experimental-derived finding for Te, 9.363 kcal/mol. On the other hand, we show that the simple ansatz of a Jastrow correlated single determinant (JSD) wave function is unable to provide an accurate description of the electronic structure in these diradical molecules, both at variational level (VMC torsional barrier of C2H4 of 99.3(2) kcal/mol, triplet-singlet energy gap of CH2 of 13.45(10) kcal/mol) and, more remarkably, in the fixed-nodes projection schemes (LRDMC

  2. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans in the study of SMN-interacting proteins: a role for SMI-1, an orthologue of human Gemin2 and the identification of novel components of the SMN complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Emma C; Towers, Paula R; Sattelle, David B

    2006-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a common neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene. In mammals, SMN is tightly associated with Gemin2. To gain further insight into the functions of SMN and Gemin2, we have cloned and sequenced smi-1 (Survival of Motor neuron-Interacting protein 1), a C. elegans homologue of the human Gemin2 gene. We show that the SMI-1 expression pattern and RNA interference phenotype show considerable overlap with that previously reported for SMN-1. Finally, we demonstrate that the SMN-1 and SMI-1 proteins directly interact. Having demonstrated the utility of the C. elegans genetic model for investigating genes encoding SMN-interacting proteins, we have undertaken a yeast two-hybrid screen of a C. elegans cDNA library to identify novel proteins that interact with SMN-1. We show the direct interaction of SMN-1 with nine novel proteins, several of which may be involved in RNA metabolism.

  4. Myasis occuring in a neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasa, Temitope O.; Sowunmi, Funmilola Olusola

    2012-01-01

    Myasis is the infestation of skin by larvae or maggots of a variety of flies. It is a condition that occurs more commonly in adults who are living and/or have visited tropical countries. It rarely occurs in neonates, and even when seen, only few larvae are extracted. This case report describes myasis occurring in an 11-day-old female who had 47 larvae in her skin. PMID:23355934

  5. Myasis occuring in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O. Obasa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Myasis is the infestation of skin by larvae or maggots of a variety of flies. It is a condition that occurs more commonly in adults who are living and/or have visited tropical countries. It rarely occurs in neonates, and even when seen, only few larvae are extracted. This case report describes myasis occurring in an 11-day-old female who had 47 larvae in her skin.

  6. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  7. Geminal (2)J((29)Si-O-(29)Si) couplings in oligosiloxanes and their relation to direct (1)J((29) Si-(13)C) couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfürst, Milan; Blechta, Vratislav; Schraml, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Absolute values of (79) geminal (2)J((29) Si-O-(29)Si) couplings were measured in an extensive series of (55) unstrained siloxanes dissolved in chloroform-d. Signs of (2)J((29)Si-O-(29)Si) in some (9) silicon hydrides were determined relative to (1)J((29)Si-(1)H) which are known to be negative. It is supposed that positive sign of the (2)J((29)Si-O-(29)Si) coupling found in all studied hydrides is common to all siloxanes. Theoretical calculations for simple model compounds failed to reproduce this sign and so their predictions of bond length and angle dependences cannot be taken as reliable. Useful empirical correlations were found between the (2)J((29)Si-O-(29)Si) couplings on one side and the total number m of oxygen atoms bonded to the silicon atoms, sum of (29)Si chemical shifts or product of (1)J((29)Si-(13)C) couplings on the other side. The significance of these correlations is briefly discussed.

  8. Definitely Life but not Definitively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Randall S.

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative usefulness as aids to arriving at a scientific definition of life. We look at some of the more recent definitions and analyse them in the light of our criteria for a good definition. We argue that since there are so many linguistic and philosophical difficulties with such a definition of life, what is needed is a series of working descriptions, which are suited to the audience and context in which they are used and useful for the intended purpose. We provide some ideas and examples of the forms these may take.

  9. An Operational Definition of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Guershon; Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    An operational definition offered in this paper posits learning as a multi-dimensional and multi-phase phenomenon occurring when individuals attempt to solve what they view as a problem. To model someone's learning accordingly to the definition, it suffices to characterize a particular sequence of that person's disequilibrium-equilibrium phases in…

  10. Angiodysplasia Occurring in Jejunal Diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A Jones; Hugh Chaun; Phillip Switzer; David J Clow; Ronald J Hancock

    1990-01-01

    The first case of angiodysplasia occurring in acquired jejunal diverticulosis is reported. The patient presented with occult gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic anemia, and was created successfully by resection of a 25 cm long segment of jejunum. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms for both angiodysplasia and jejunal diverticulosis are discussed.

  11. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  12. Prebiotics: why definitions matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term.

  13. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716

  14. 18 CFR 270.101 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gas produced from coal seams means naturally occurring natural gas released from entrapment from the fractures, pores and bedding planes of coal seams. (7) Natural gas produced from Devonian shale means... General Definitions § 270.101 General definitions. (a) NGPA definitions. Terms defined in the Natural...

  15. Neuroretinitis -- definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007624.htm Neuroretinitis - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  16. Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplow, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Market definition has long held a central place in competition law. This entry surveys recent analytical work that has called the market definition paradigm into question on a number of fronts: whether the process is feasible, whether market share threshold tests are coherent, whether the hypothetical monopolist test in merger guidelines is counterproductive, and whether and when the frequent focus on cross-elasticities is useful.

  17. When Yawning Occurs in Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Zoë T.; Hart, Benjamin L.; Greco, Brian J.; Young, Debbie; Padfield, Clare; Weidner, Lisa; Gates, Jennifer; Hart, Lynette A.

    2017-01-01

    Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June–September and in December. In the daytime, handlers managed seven of the elephants for guided interactions with visitors. At night, all elephants were maintained in a large enclosure with six having limited outdoor access. With infrared illumination, the elephants were continuously recorded by video cameras. During the nights, the elephants typically had 1–3 recumbent sleeping/resting bouts, each lasting 1–2 h. Yawning was a regular occurrence upon arousal from a recumbency, especially in the final recumbency of the night. Yawning was significantly more frequent in some elephants. Yawning was rare during the daytime and during periods of standing around in the enclosure at night. In six occurrences of likely contagious yawning, one elephant yawned upon seeing another elephant yawning upon arousal from a final recumbency; we recorded the sex and age category of the participants. The generality of yawning in both African and Asian elephants in other environments was documented in video recordings from 39 zoological facilities. In summary, the study provides evidence that yawning does occur in both African and Asian elephants, and in African elephants, yawning was particularly associated with arousal from nighttime recumbencies. PMID:28293560

  18. A comparison of substorms occurring during magnetic storms with those occurring during quiet times

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherron, R. L.; Hsu, T.-S.

    2002-09-01

    It has been suggested that there may be a fundamental difference between substorms that occur during magnetic storms and those that occur at other times. [1996] presented evidence that there is no obvious change in lobe field in "quiet time" substorms but that "storm time" substorms exhibit the classic pattern of storage and release of lobe field energy. This result led them to speculate that the former are caused by current sheet disruption, while the latter are caused by reconnection of lobe flux. In this paper we examine their hypothesis with a much larger data set using definitions of the two types of substorms similar to theirs, as well as additional more restrictive definitions of these classes of events. Our results show that the only differences between the various classes are the absolute value of the lobe field and the size of the changes. When the data are normalized to unit field amplitude, we find that the percent change during storm time and non-storm time substorms is nearly the same. The above conclusions are demonstrated with superposed epoch analysis of lobe field (Bt and Bz) for four classes of substorms: active times (Dst -25 nT), and quiet time substorms (no evidence of storm in Dst). Epoch zero for the analysis was taken as the main substorm onset (Pi2 onset closest to sharp break in AL index). Our results suggest that there is no qualitative distinction between the various classes of substorms, and so they are all likely to be caused by the same mechanism.

  19. Definition of the electric requirements for the equipment associated to the limiter reactor on a 550 kV line occurring from manoeuvres under short circuits; Definicao dos requisitos eletricos dos equipamentos associados ao reator limitador em 550 kV, em decorrencia de manobras sob curtos-circuitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Junior, Camilo; Furuoka, Nita; Rose, Eber Havila [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: eber@eln.gov.br; Violin, Airton; Martinez, Manuel Luis Barreira [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba (EFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Eletrica. Lab. de Alta Tensao; Saraiva, Carlos Alberto Moura [Consorcio THEMAG-ENGEVIX, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the ascertaining based on the TRT study results performed to the definition of the new circuit breakers characteristics for the second stage of the Tucurui hydroelectric power plant, placed at the northern Brazil and with final configuration of two power houses and two air isolated substations, amounting 9 GVA. To reduce the short-circuit level to satisfactory values series reactors were used among the 550 kV substations. The result of the studies associated to the circuit breaker specifications are presented.

  20. Density dependence of the yield of hydrated electrons in the low-LET radiolysis of supercritical water at 400 °C: influence of the geminate recombination of subexcitation-energy electrons prior to thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesungnoen, Jintana; Sanguanmith, Sunuchakan; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul

    2013-10-21

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the yield of hydrated electrons (eaq(-)) in the low-linear energy transfer radiolysis of supercritical water at 400 °C as a function of water density over the range of ~0.15 to 0.6 g cm(-3). Very good agreement was found between our calculations and picosecond pulse radiolysis experimental data at ~60 ps and 1 ns at high density (>0.35 g cm(-3)). At densities lower than ~0.35 g cm(-3), our eaq(-) yields were lower than the experimental data, especially at ~60 ps. However, if we incorporated into the simulations a prompt geminate electron-cation (H2O˙(+)) recombination (prior thermalization of the electron) that decreased as the density decreased, our computed eaq(-) yields at ~60 ps and 1 ns compared fairly well with the experimental data for the entire density range studied.

  1. Allergies and Asthma: They Often Occur Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you miserable. A lot, as it turns out. Allergies and asthma often occur together. The same substances that trigger your hay fever symptoms, such as pollen, dust mites and pet dander, may also cause asthma signs ...

  2. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ... carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid follicular carcinoma in both ..... malignancies in women with papillary thyroid cancer.

  3. ST elevation occurring during stress testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Malouf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A case is presented of significant reversible ST elevation occurring during treadmill testing, and the coronary anatomy and subsequent course are described, indicating that ischemia is a potential cause of this electrocardiographic finding.

  4. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of IDAA1c and age on partial C-peptide remission (stimulated C-peptide, SCP > 300 pmol/L). RESULTS: PR (IDAA1c ≤ 9) in the Danish and Hvidoere cohorts occurred in 62 vs. 61% (3 months......OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  5. Trichotillomania and Co-occurring Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. Methods 165 adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity. Participants also underwent cognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Clinical features and cognitive functioning were compared between those with current co-occurring anxiety disorders (i.e. social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety disorder NOS) (n=38) and those with no anxiety disorder (n=127). Results Participants with trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety reported significantly worse hair pulling symptoms, were more likely to have co-occurring depression, and were more likely to have a first-degree relative with obsessive compulsive disorder. Those with anxiety disorders also exhibited significantly worse motor inhibitory performance on a task of motor inhibition (stop-signal task). Conclusions This study suggests that anxiety disorders affect the clinical presentation of hair pulling behavior. Further research is needed to validate our findings and to consider whether treatments should be specially tailored differently for adults with trichotillomania who have co-occurring anxiety disorders, or more pronounced cognitive impairment. PMID:27668531

  6. Does stratosphereic sudden warming occur more frequently during ENSO winters than during normal winters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seok-Woo; Song, Kanghyun

    2017-04-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events exhibit pronounced interannual variability. Based on WMO definition of SSW, it has been suggested that SSW events occur more preferably during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters (both El Niño and La Niña winters) than during normal winters. This nonlinear relationship is re-examined here by considering six different definitions of SSW. For all definitions, SSW events are detected more frequently during El Niño winters than during normal winters, in consistent with an enhanced planetary-scale wave activity. However, a systematic relationship is not found during La Niña winters. While two SSW definitions, including WMO definition, show an increased SSW frequency during La Niña winters, other definitions show no change or even a reduced SSW frequency. This result is insensitive to the choice of reanalysis datasets and ENSO index, indicating that the reported ENSO-SSW relationship is not robust but dependent on the details of SSW definition.

  7. Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherston, James

    2006-01-01

    Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the fundamental proof techniques by which to reason about such families. This thesis studies formal proof systems for inductive definitions, as needed, e.g., for inductive proof support in automated theorem proving tools. The systems are formulated as sequent calculi for...

  8. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...

  9. Definition and scope of health services administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kaissi, Amer

    2004-01-01

    The definition and scope of health services administration are important to public policy, educational programs, new entrants to the field, and practitioners. Formal definition of the field of health services administration has not received concerted attention since 1975. Significant changes in the field have occurred since that time, widening opportunities for graduates of educational programs and increasing interdependencies between health services organizations and public policy organizations, supplier organizations, insurers, and other businesses that are not involved directly in health services delivery. Stakeholders in the field of health services administration should consider a broadened definition of the field that would institutionalize and build on those increased opportunities and interdependencies.

  10. Ethical issues occurring within nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D; Davis, Anne J

    2013-03-01

    The large body of literature labeled "ethics in nursing education" is entirely devoted to curricular matters of ethics education in nursing schools, that is, to what ought to be the ethics content that is taught and what theory or issues ought to be included in all nursing curricula. Where the nursing literature actually focuses on particular ethical issues, it addresses only single topics. Absent from the literature, however, is any systematic analysis and explication of ethical issues or dilemmas that occur within the context of nursing education. The objective of this article is to identify the spectrum of ethical issues in nursing education to the end of prompting a systematic and thorough study of such issues, and to lay the groundwork for research by identifying and provisionally typologizing the ethical issues that occur within the context of academic nursing.

  11. Molten Metal Explosions are Still Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    pans which can give rise to Force 2 incidents if unheated or contain foreign matter. Handling hot dross represents a particular hazard. Force 3...explosions have occurred from hot dross transfer, cooling and dumping into storage areas. In one recent incident, an employee reportedly dumped a load of...thermiting dross into a water puddle and was fatally burned. Casting: Incidents continue to be reported for dc casting arising from bleed-outs

  12. Naturally occurring radionuclides and Earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferrara

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides are used in Earth sciences for two fundamental purposes: age determination of rocks and minerals and studies of variation of the isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides. The methodologies that are in use today allow us to determine ages spanning from the Earth's age to the late Quaternary. The variations of isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides can be applied to problems of mantle evolution, magma genesis and characterization with respect to different geodynamic situations and can provide valuable information not obtainable by elemental geochemistry.

  13. A network of cancer genes with co-occurring and anti-co-occurring mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Cui

    Full Text Available Certain cancer genes contribute to tumorigenesis in a manner of either co-occurring or mutually exclusive (anti-co-occurring mutations; however, the global picture of when, where and how these functional interactions occur remains unclear. This study presents a systems biology approach for this purpose. After applying this method to cancer gene mutation data generated from large-scale and whole genome sequencing of cancer samples, a network of cancer genes with co-occurring and anti-co-occurring mutations was constructed. Analysis of this network revealed that genes with co-occurring mutations prefer direct signaling transductions and that the interaction relations among cancer genes in the network are related with their functional similarity. It was also revealed that genes with co-occurring mutations tend to have similar mutation frequencies, whereas genes with anti-co-occurring mutations tend to have different mutation frequencies. Moreover, genes with more exons tend to have more co-occurring mutations with other genes, and genes having lower local coherent network structures tend to have higher mutation frequency. The network showed two complementary modules that have distinct functions and have different roles in tumorigenesis. This study presented a framework for the analysis of cancer genome sequencing outputs. The presented data and uncovered patterns are helpful for understanding the contribution of gene mutations to tumorigenesis and valuable in the identification of key biomarkers and drug targets for cancer.

  14. Sexting and the Definition Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Surís, Joan-Carles; Akre, Christina

    2017-07-19

    Sexting among youths has become a necessary topic of interest in research because of the negative consequences that this activity could create, especially when content is shared with others. Indeed, this loss of control could lead to humiliation, (cyber)bullying, or harassment. The development of new technologies, press coverage, and increase of prevalence rates could also explain the growth of interest in sexting. However, its definition is still a gray area. This review examines the different definitions of sexting used in the literature and its correlates. Several elements of the definition of sexting were assessed: actions (sending, receiving, and forwarding); media types (text, images, and videos); sexual characteristics; and transmission modes. Nine databases were searched for studies on sexting among youths up to 18 years of age. Eighteen studies published between 2012 and 2015 were included. Prevalence rates of sexting ranged between .9% and 60% partly depending on the definition. Most studies assessed sending, but when sending and receiving were measured, prevalence rates were higher for receiving. Some articles found associations with age, gender, race, sexual behavior, romantic relationships, risky behaviors, online activity, psychological difficulties, and social pressure. Finding a consensus regarding the definition is essential to assess accurately the activity and adapt prevention. Adolescents' interpretations of the activity are important as sexting could be used as a sexual behavior between two consenting persons. Prevention strategies should focus on sexting that goes wrong when it is forwarded to a third party and when it occurs in a context of pressure or harassment. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tetrahydroberberine, a pharmacologically active naturally occurring alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Subramanya; Donahue, James P; Payton-Stewart, Florastina

    2015-04-01

    Tetrahydroberberine (systematic name: 9,10-dimethoxy-5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[g][1,3]benzodioxolo[5,6-a]quinolizine), C20H21NO4, a widely distributed naturally occurring alkaloid, has been crystallized as a racemic mixture about an inversion center. A bent conformation of the molecule is observed, with an angle of 24.72 (5)° between the arene rings at the two ends of the reduced quinolizinium core. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds that play an apparent role in crystal packing are 1,3-benzodioxole -CH2···OCH3 and -OCH3···OCH3 interactions between neighboring molecules.

  16. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Occurring in the Third Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA is a rare central nervous system tumor that has been included in the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Due to its more aggressive behavior, PMA is classified as Grade II neoplasm by the World Health Organization. PMA predominantly affects the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region and occurs in children (mean age of occurrence = 10 months. We report a case of a 24-year-old man who presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting. Brain CT and MRI revealed a mass occupying only the third ventricle. We performed partial resection. Histological findings, including monophasic growth with a myxoid background, and absence of Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies, as well as the strong positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein were consistent with PMA.

  17. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    As long as the load to a power system is linear which has been the case before 80's, typically no harmonics are produced. However, the modern power electronic equipment for controlled power consumption produces harmonic disturbances, these devices/equipment possess nonlinear voltage/current chara...... using Kalman filter. This may be very useful for example to quickly switching on certain filters based on the harmonic present. We are using a unique technique to detect the occurrence of harmonics......./current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  18. The acquisition of compositional definiteness in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Anderssen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim to explain why the prenominal definiteness marker found in modified structures only is acquired much later than the suffixal definite article in Norwegian. The coexistence of the two definiteness markers is the result of the so-called double definiteness phenomenon in Norwegian which occurs in definite structures involving an attributive adjective. As the prenominal determiner only occurs in modified contexts, one obvious explanation that presents itself is that the omission of the prenominal determiner is related to the fact that it is much less frequent in the input than the suffixal article. However, if we consider the form of this determiner, it is clear that the form itself must be very frequent in the input, as it is homophonous with the demonstrative and with inanimate third person pronouns, which are all frequent in use. Consequently, a lexical insertion approach to the double definiteness phenomenon is proposed according to which the discrepancy in the order of acquisition is argued to be due to a combination of prosodic saliency and the lexicalisation of semantic features, the latter of which will be dealt with here.

  19. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  20. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  1. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  2. GROWTH OF NATURALLY OCCURING Listeria innocua IN COPPA DI TESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coppa di testa is a traditional cooked pork salami produced in different Italian regions. The main raw material is deboned meat of pork head with the addition of tongue and rind. After a long (3-5 h high temperature (97°C cooking, additives and flavourings are added and the salami is prepared. After cooling the salami is often portioned and vacuum- packaged. In this study the growth of naturally occurring contamination of Listeria innocua in three batches of vacuum packaged Coppa di testa, stored at 4°C for 80 days, is described. The average max was 0.24 (days-1 and the average doubling time was 2.87 days. The maximum growth level ranged from 4.90 to 8.17 (log10 cfu/g. These results indicate that Coppa di testa definitely supports the growth of Listeria innocua in the considered storage conditions. Taking into account that at 4°C Listeria monocytogenes strains are associated with higher grow rates than L. innocua, these results emphasize the importance of preventing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the production stages following cooking.

  3. Naturally occurring regulatory T cells: markers, mechanisms, and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, Klaus G; Neunkirchner, Alina; Pickl, Winfried F

    2012-06-01

    Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(high) forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) are key mediators of immunity, which orchestrate and maintain tolerance to self and foreign antigens. In the recent 1.5 decades, a multitude of studies have aimed to define the phenotype and function of nTregs and to assess their therapeutic potential for modulating immune mediated disorders such as autoimmunity, allergy, and episodes of transplant rejection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of nTregs. We address the exact definition of nTregs by specific markers and combinations thereof, which is a prerequisite for the state-of-the-art isolation of defined nTreg populations. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism by which nTregs mediate immunosuppression and how this knowledge might translate into novel therapeutic modalities. With first clinical studies of nTreg-based therapies being finished, questions concerning the reliable sources of nTregs are becoming more and more eminent. Consequently, approaches allowing conversion of CD4(+) T cells into nTregs by coculture with antigen-presenting cells, cytokines, and/or pharmacological agents are discussed. In addition, genetic engineering approaches for the generation of antigen-specific nTregs are described.

  4. 28 CFR 81.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.5 Definitions. Local child protective services agency means that agency of the federal... responsibility for the investigation of an instance of alleged child abuse occurring within a particular...

  5. 7 CFR 6.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... price-undercutting is occurring. (b) Country of origin means the country, as defined in 19 CFR 134.1(b... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 6.41 Section 6.41 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Price-Undercutting of Domestic Cheese by...

  6. 47 CFR 73.681 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.681 Definitions. Amplitude modulation (AM). A system of modulation in... to be transmitted. Antenna electrical beam tilt. The shaping of the radiation pattern in the vertical plane of a transmitting antenna by electrical means so that maximum radiation occurs at an angle...

  7. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  8. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  9. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  10. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  11. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  12. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  13. Definition of intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shobhit; Siddiqui, Khurram A

    2011-01-01

    Defining intractable epilepsy is essential not only to identify up to 40% of patients refractory to pharmacological management, but also to facilitate selection and comparison of such patients for research purposes. The ideal definition still eludes us. Multiple factors including number of antiepileptic drug (AED) failures, seizure frequency and duration of unresponsiveness, etiology, and epilepsy syndromes are considered in formulating the definition of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Most definitions used in the literature agree on the number of AED failures, which seem to be 2 or 3, however, the seizure frequency and time factor are varied. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed a definition of drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of 2 tolerated and appropriately chosen and used AED schedules. This for now, could provide an operational definition for clinical and research settings. However, with emergence of new data and novel treatments the criteria for intractability may change.

  14. Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy: definition for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Miller, R G; Asbury, A K; Carter, G T; Cohen, J A; Fisher, M A; Howard, J F; Kinsella, L J; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Sumner, A J

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a case definition of "distal symmetrical polyneuropathy" to standardize and facilitate clinical research and epidemiological studies. A formalized consensus process was employed to reach agreement after a systematic review and classification of evidence from the literature. The literature indicates that symptoms alone have relatively poor diagnostic accuracy in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy; signs are better predictors of polyneuropathy than symptoms; and single abnormalities on examination are less sensitive than multiple abnormalities in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy. The combination of neuropathic symptoms, signs, and electrodiagnostic findings provides the most accurate diagnosis of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. A set of case definitions was rank ordered by likelihood of disease. The highest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for clinical trials) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms, multiple signs, and abnormal electrodiagnostic studies. A modest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for field or epidemiological studies) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms and multiple signs when the results of electrodiagnostic studies are not available. A lower likelihood of polyneuropathy occurs when electrodiagnostic studies and signs are discordant. For research purposes, the best approach for defining distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is a set of case definitions rank ordered by estimated likelihood of disease. The inclusion of this formalized case definition in clinical and epidemiological research studies will ensure greater consistency of case selection.

  15. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  16. Cortical spreading depression occurs during elective neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Andrew P; William Shuttleworth, C; Mead, Brittany; Burlbaw, Brittany; Krasberg, Mark; Yonas, Howard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been observed with relatively high frequency in the period following human brain injury, including traumatic brain injury and ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke. These events are characterized by loss of ionic gradients through massive cellular depolarization, neuronal dysfunction (depression of electrocorticographic [ECoG] activity) and slow spread (2-5 mm/min) across the cortical surface. Previous data obtained in animals have suggested that even in the absence of underlying injury, neurosurgical manipulation can induce CSD and could potentially be a modifiable factor in neurosurgical injury. The authors report their initial experience with direct intraoperative ECoG monitoring for CSD. METHODS The authors prospectively enrolled patients undergoing elective craniotomy for supratentorial lesions in cases in which the surgical procedure was expected to last > 2 hours. These patients were monitored for CSD from the time of dural opening through the time of dural closure, using a standard 1 × 6 platinum electrode coupled with an AC or full-spectrum DC amplifier. The data were processed using standard techniques to evaluate for slow potential changes coupled with suppression of high-frequency ECoG propagating across the electrodes. Data were compared with CSD validated in previous intensive care unit (ICU) studies, to evaluate recording conditions most likely to permit CSD detection, and identify likely events during the course of neurosurgical procedures using standard criteria. RESULTS Eleven patients underwent ECoG monitoring during elective neurosurgical procedures. During the periods of monitoring, 2 definite CSDs were observed to occur in 1 patient and 8 suspicious events were detected in 4 patients. In other patients, either no events were observed or artifact limited interpretation of the data. The DC-coupled amplifier system represented an improvement in stability of data compared with AC-coupled systems. Compared

  17. Geminal dianions stabilized by phosphonium substituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the rapid developments in the chemistry of phosphonium-stabilized group 1 and 2 methandiides, i.e. that of alkali and alkaline-earth metal bis(iminophosphorane)methandiide and bis(thiophosphorane)methandiide complexes. Apart from syntheses, structures and reactivities, also a

  18. Comments for the Update to the ATSDR Toxicological Profile for JP-5 and JP-8 Occurring in FY14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    further mention of any of the UA studies list in Appendix B occurs in the full revised Toxicological Profile, a definitive footnote should be included to...Profile. White, K.L., Delorme, M.P., Beatty, P.W., Smith, M.J., Peachee, V.L. 2013. Jet Fuel Kerosene is not Immunosuppressive in Mice or Rats Following

  19. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  1. Definition of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sunik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
    entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information [1] that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
    knowledge systems.

  2. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  3. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations in the...

  4. Romanian definite article revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available I shall attempt to resume a long, almost endless discussion: the origin of the Romanian definite article. Any grammar of Romanian or any comparative grammar the Romance languages (e. g. Tagliavini 1977 always observes that Romanian, an iso­ lated case in the Romance family, has an agglutinated definite article. The typology is not indeed rare: Bulgarian, Albanian, Armenian, Basque and Swedish witness the same mechanism. We cannot approach the topic by analysing all these languages, yet a comparative analysis would be finally useful. In our case, it is obvious that Romanian cannot be isolated from Albanian and Bulgarian. A potential solution must explain the situation in ALL these three "Balkanic" languages, even if Romanian is not Balkanic stricto sensu1. The paper shall focus on the deep roots of the Romanian and Albanian definite arti­ cle, its typological relations with other linguistic areas, and shall attempt to explain this isolated situation in the field of Romance linguistics. For sure, the Romanian definite article mainly reflects the Latin heritage. Nevertheless, by saying only this, the tableau is not complete: some forms are not Latin but Pre-Latin, Thracian. This paper will try to substantiate this assertion.

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  6. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  7. Definition af primitiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    tidspunkt, kan der spares meget tid senere, hvor det er besværligt at definerer primitiverne helt om.I denne rapport er de primitiver, der skal bruges til Sydkrafts net gennemgået. Der er taget stilling til hver enkelt tilstand for de forskellige primitiver. Dette er gjort for at få en definition, som er...

  8. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…

  9. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  10. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  11. On some positive definite functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Rajendra; Jain, Tanvi

    2014-01-01

    We study the function $(1 - \\|x\\|)\\slash (1 - \\|x\\|^r),$ and its reciprocal, on the Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^n,$ with respect to properties like being positive definite, conditionally positive definite, and infinitely divisible.

  12. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  13. A New Definition of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Alan; Korb, Kevin B.

    Creative artifacts can be generated by employing A-Life software, but programmers must first consider, explicitly or implicitly, what would count as creative. Most apply standard definitions that incorporate notions of novelty, value and appropriateness. Here we re-assess this approach. Some basic facts about creativity suggest criteria that guide us to a new definition of creativity. We briefly defend our definition against some plausible objections and explore the ways in which this new definition differs and improves upon the alternatives.

  14. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  15. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature governing the Intercultural Communication and Cross-cultural Communication as two subjects discussed in the field of Cultural Communication and International Communication, have been reviewed and tried through a novel method to promote the level of religion from a concept usually seen as something such as race, ethnic, identity and life style under the title of international communication and cultural communication to a much higher position and place it under the title of interreligious communication. Following creation of a new field of study, many of the scholars and thinkers who are concerned about that field get together and focus of its issues and try to offer definitions and divisions about the subject. Later, after accumulation of scientific materials about different issues in the field, the human knowledge in that subject starts to develop further and in a more organized way. In this regard, first, the preferred definitions of religion, culture, communication, and Interreligious Communication will be offered. Accordingly, every society includes a meaning structure which is called culture and communication would act as an interaction tool in this system whose task is coding and decoding. Religion is considered the origin of culture and the director of communication. Based on these primary definitions, the interreligious communication is defined as: the relationship between or among the monotheistic religions based on the common understanding of religious

  16. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on ... the most of your exercise routine. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Activity Count Physical activity is ...

  17. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on ... of the minerals that you need. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that ...

  18. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  19. The Logic of Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Wittgenstein , in his Philosophical Investigations (1953), observed that, for many phenomena, there are no necessary conditions common to all members of... Wittgenstein 1953: §66, p.27e). Wittgenstein refers to these overlapping similarities as “family resemblances” (Ibid., §67, p.27e). Few, if any, of...that is, we may resort to stipulative definition). But this is not necessary for the concept to be usable. Indeed, as Wittgenstein says, sometimes

  20. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  1. Definition Study PHARUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    definitie studie zijn gebruikt in het voorontwerp van het PHARUS systeem . TNO report STUDelft Page 6 ABSTRACT 3 SAMENVAlTING 4 CONTENTS 6 1 INTRODUCTION 9...University of Technology, Laboratory for Telecommunication and Remote Sensing Technology. FEL-TNO had tke lead and was responsible for the project management ...Aerospace Programs in Delft was responsible for the program management . The definition study PHARUS was started in the first half of 1988 and ended

  2. Fluorochrome-based definition of naturally occurring Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells of intra- and extrathymic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Cathleen; Steinbronn, Nadine; Gereke, Marcus; Strasser, Ruth H; Sparwasser, Tim; Bruder, Dunja; Geffers, Robert; Schallenberg, Sonja; Kretschmer, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Under physiological conditions, studies on the biology of naturally induced Foxp3(+) Treg cells of intra- and extrathymic origin have been hampered by the lack of unambiguous markers to discriminate the mature progeny of such developmental Treg-cell sublineages. Here, we report on experiments in double-transgenic mice, in which red fluorescent protein (RFP) is expressed in all Foxp3(+) Treg cells, whereas Foxp3-dependent GFP expression is exclusively confined to intrathymically induced Foxp3(+) Treg cells. This novel molecular genetic tool enabled us to faithfully track and characterize naturally induced Treg cells of intrathymic (RFP(+) GFP(+) ) and extrathymic (RFP(+) GFP(-) ) origin in otherwise unmanipulated mice. These experiments directly demonstrate that extrathymically induced Treg cells substantially contribute to the overall pool of mature Foxp3(+) Treg cells residing in peripheral lymphoid tissues of steady-state mice. Furthermore, we provide evidence that intra- and extrathymically induced Foxp3(+) Treg cells represent distinct phenotypic and functional sublineages.

  3. Controversy around the definition of waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-11-20

    Full Text Available This paper presents the information concerning the definition of waste. Discussing the importance of the clear definition, ongoing debates, broad definition of waste, problems with the broad definition, interpretation, current waste management model...

  4. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  5. Naturally Occuring Brands: a New Perspective on Place Marketing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine Wright-Isak

    2010-01-01

      Naturally Occurring Brands: A New Perspective on Place Marketing We suggest community types are "natural brands," because their differentiated imagery has meaning that influences consumer housing choices...

  6. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  7. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  8. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  9. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  10. Angular cheilitis occurring during orthodontic treatment: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, David L; Short, Laura J

    2008-12-01

    Clinical experience has shown that angular cheilitis can occur during orthodontic treatment and may persist into retention, but the incidence of the condition is unknown. The purpose of this paper is to increase the awareness among clinicians of angular cheilitis occurring during orthodontic treatment. It also proposes a treatment regime which may be used.

  11. 42 CFR 440.2 - Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific definitions; definitions of services for... Definitions § 440.2 Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes. (a) Specific definitions...) Definitions of services for FFP purposes. Except as limited in part 441, FFP is available in...

  12. Phenotype definition in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Melodie R

    2006-05-01

    Phenotype definition consists of the use of epidemiologic, biological, molecular, or computational methods to systematically select features of a disorder that might result from distinct genetic influences. By carefully defining the target phenotype, or dividing the sample by phenotypic characteristics, we can hope to narrow the range of genes that influence risk for the trait in the study population, thereby increasing the likelihood of finding them. In this article, fundamental issues that arise in phenotyping in epilepsy and other disorders are reviewed, and factors complicating genotype-phenotype correlation are discussed. Methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation are addressed, focusing on epidemiologic studies. With this foundation in place, the epilepsy subtypes and clinical features that appear to have a genetic basis are described, and the epidemiologic studies that have provided evidence for the heritability of these phenotypic characteristics, supporting their use in future genetic investigations, are reviewed. Finally, several molecular approaches to phenotype definition are discussed, in which the molecular defect, rather than the clinical phenotype, is used as a starting point.

  13. Definitions of oppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, R G

    1997-12-01

    How we begin to serve others as healthcare professionals and how it is we define underserved and oppressed peoples is important in understanding issues in the organization and allocation of health care. This exploration, based on feminist post-structuralist theory, explores how nurses formulate definitions of 'underserved' and 'vulnerable'. This study goes beyond prescribed definitions to locate meanings used to identify oppression. I present, through an analysis of a literature search, the context and construction of the terms 'vulnerable population' and 'medically underserved'. Professional nursing journals are the source of relevant text. The implications of working with particular understandings of the terms 'vulnerable' and 'underserved' is based on my assumption that healthcare providers need to critically focus on the personal and political meanings they attribute to the labels used to define the clients and communities with whom they work. The presentation of this material supports that the way we define 'vulnerable' and 'underserved' is related to how our work fighting racism, ageism, AIDS, poverty, homophobia, addiction, domestic violence, sexism and colonization is realized.

  14. Occurance and expansion: if it was not so?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnikov Viatcheslav Yurievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The author criticizes some hypotheses of amphibians and reptiles occurrence and expansion, including those on the basis of data phylogeography interpretation,suggested by herpetologists. Using molecular data, it is impossible to define, where subspecies has appeared and how its area varied. The method of definition of species appearance time requires very serious correlation by means of paleontological data. It is also impossible to identify approximate time of the subspecies occurrence, defined by molecular data, with the time of its modern area occupation. We can assume it, analyzing paleontological findings and paleogeographical conditions at that time, but not vice versa.

  15. Size definitions for particle sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The recommendations of an ad hoc working group appointed by Committee TC 146 of the International Standards Organization on size definitions for particle sampling are reported. The task of the group was to collect the various definitions of 'respirable dust' and to propose a practical definition on recommendations for handling standardization on this matter. One of two proposed cut-sizes in regard to division at the larynx will be adopted after a ballot.

  16. Formal Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2005-01-01

    * This publication is partially supported by the KT-DigiCult-Bg project. A definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI) was proposed in [1] but this definition was not absolutely formal at least because the word "Human" was used. In this paper we will formalize the definition from [1]. The biggest problem in this definition was that the level of intelligence of AI is compared to the intelligence of a human being. In order to change this we will introduce some parameters to which AI ...

  17. Cell death by mitotic catastrophe: a molecular definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castedo, M.; Perfettini, J.-L.; Roumier, T.; Andreau, K.; Medema, R.H.; Kroemer, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current literature is devoid of a clearcut definition of mitotic catastrophe, a type of cell death that occurs during mitosis. Here, we propose that mitotic catastrophe results from a combination of deficient cell-cycle checkpoints (in particular the DNA structure checkpoints and the spindle ass

  18. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  19. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  20. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  1. Sociocultural definitions of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1990-10-01

    Public constituencies frequently are criticized by technical experts as being irrational in response to low-probability risks. This presentation argued that most people are concerned with a variety of risk attributes other than probability and that is rather irrational to exclude these from the definition and analysis of technological risk. Risk communication, which is at the heart of the right-to-know concept, is described as the creation of shared meaning rather than the mere transmission of information. A case study of utilities, public utility commissions, and public interest groups illustrates how the diversity of institutional cultures in modern society leads to problems for the creation of shared meanings in establishing trust, distributing liability, and obtaining consent to risk. This holistic approach to risk analysis is most appropriate under conditions of high uncertainty and/or decision stakes. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles.

  3. Product definition data interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  4. Grouping Synonyms by Definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Ingrid; Jacquey, Evelyne; Venant, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for grouping the synonyms of a lemma according to its dictionary senses. The senses are defined by a large machine readable dictionary for French, the TLFi (Tr\\'esor de la langue fran\\c{c}aise informatis\\'e) and the synonyms are given by 5 synonym dictionaries (also for French). To evaluate the proposed method, we manually constructed a gold standard where for each (word, definition) pair and given the set of synonyms defined for that word by the 5 synonym dictionaries, 4 lexicographers specified the set of synonyms they judge adequate. While inter-annotator agreement ranges on that task from 67% to at best 88% depending on the annotator pair and on the synonym dictionary being considered, the automatic procedure we propose scores a precision of 67% and a recall of 71%. The proposed method is compared with related work namely, word sense disambiguation, synonym lexicon acquisition and WordNet construction.

  5. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  6. European Mixed Forests: definition and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bravo-Oviedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We aim at (i developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii review the research perspectives in mixed forests.Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide.Material and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests.Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients. The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time.The research perspectives identified are (i species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests.Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.Keywords: COST Action; EuMIXFOR; mixed-species forests; admixtures of species.

  7. Naturally occurring variation in Arabidopsis: an underexploited resource for plant genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, C; Koornneef, M

    2000-01-01

    The definition of gene functions requires the phenotypic characterization of genetic variants. Currently, such functional analysis of Arabidopsis genes is based largely on laboratory-induced mutants that are selected in forward and reverse genetic studies. An alternative complementary source of genetic variation is available: the naturally occurring variation among accessions. The multigenic nature of most of this variation has limited its application until now. However, the use of genetic methods developed to map quantitative trait loci, in combination with the characteristics and resources available for molecular biology in Arabidopsis, allow this variation to be exploited up to the molecular level. Here, we describe the current tools available for the forward genetic analysis of this variation, and review the recent progress in the detection and mapping of loci and the cloning of large-effect genes.

  8. 5 CFR 210.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 210.102 Section 210.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS (GENERAL) Applicability of Regulations; Definitions § 210.102 Definitions. (a) The definitions in paragraph...

  9. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  10. 46 CFR Section 1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS RESTRICTIONS UPON THE TRANSFER OR CHANGE IN USE OR IN TERMS GOVERNING UTILIZATION OF PORT FACILITIES Section 1 Definitions. As used in this...

  11. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught geography…

  12. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  13. Definition of the characteristic impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云生; Abbas Sayed OMAR

    1996-01-01

    Currently available definitions of the characteristic impedance are ambiguous andior inaccurate.A general definition,based on the description of discontinuities between adjacent waveguides,is given.This definition is accurate and independent of the structure concerned.So it can be applied to the design of passive components in any type of transmission lines.Using this definition,a given structure can be uniquely characterized,but the absolute value of the characteristic impedance has no sense any more.As an example,the design of a microstrip impedance transformer using this new definition is presented.Numerical results using the mode-matching method prove the accuracy of the theory.

  14. Self reference in word definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Levary, David; Moses, Elisha; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2011-01-01

    Dictionaries are inherently circular in nature. A given word is linked to a set of alternative words (the definition) which in turn point to further descendants. Iterating through definitions in this way, one typically finds that definitions loop back upon themselves. The graph formed by such definitional relations is our object of study. By eliminating those links which are not in loops, we arrive at a core subgraph of highly connected nodes. We observe that definitional loops are conveniently classified by length, with longer loops usually emerging from semantic misinterpretation. By breaking the long loops in the graph of the dictionary, we arrive at a set of disconnected clusters. We find that the words in these clusters constitute semantic units, and moreover tend to have been introduced into the English language at similar times, suggesting a possible mechanism for language evolution.

  15. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes.

  16. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  17. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  18. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  19. Can spontaneous symmetry breaking occur in potential with one minimum?

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs when the symmetry that a physical system possesses, is not preserved for the ground state of the system. Although the procedure of symmetry breaking is quite clear from the mathematical point of view, the physical interpretation of the phenomenon is worth to be better understood. In this note we present a simple and instructive example of the symmetry breaking in a mechanical system. It demonstrates that the spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur for the spatially extended solutions in a potential characterised by a single minimum.

  20. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological...... studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra...

  1. CLEARANCE OF INDOMETHACIN OCCURS PREDOMINANTLY BY RENAL GLUCURONIDATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOLENAAR, F; CRANCRINUS, S; VISSER, J; DEZEEUW, D; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    In this report we describe the conditions of collection, storage and handling of urine samples, collected after oral dosing with indometacin in man, in order to maintain the integrity of the labile glucuronide formed. We found that the body clearance occurs predominantly by renal metabolism, due to

  2. Disseminated Fusariosis Occurring in Two Patients Despite Posaconazole Prophylaxis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Prithviraj; Parekh, Hiral D.; Holter, Jennifer L.; Greenfield, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Posaconazole is widely used for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy. Disseminated fusariosis is a serious invasive mold infection in such patients. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate activity of posaconazole against Fusarium. We describe two cases of disseminated fusariosis that occurred despite posaconazole prophylaxis.

  3. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  4. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    Organic extractants play a significant role in the selective removal of radioactive cations from waste streams. Although, literature on the selective removal of man-made radioactive material such as Americium (Am) is widespread, the selective removal of naturally occurring radioactive material such

  5. Resolving the Diaporthe species occurring on soybean in Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, J.M.; Vrandečić, K.; Ćosić, J.; Duvnjak, T.; Phillips, A.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Diaporthe (anamorph = Phomopsis) species are plant pathogens and endophytes on a wide range of hosts including economically important crops. At least four Diaporthe taxa occur on soybean and they are responsible for serious diseases and significant yield losses. Although several studies have extensi

  6. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar,…

  7. Botteri's Sparrow (Peucaea botterii) Occurs in Northern Coahuila, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Els, Paul; Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Klicka, John

    2011-01-01

    Botteri’s Sparrow (Peucaea botterii) occurs widely in the shrub-grasslands of southern North America. We report a breeding population of the species in the Sierra de la Encantada of northern Coahuila, Mexico, ,80 km from the Big Bend area of Texas and .300 km from the nearest previously known breedi

  8. The characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.; Udachin, K.; Enright, G.; Ratcliffe, C.; Ripmeester, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the past few years, extensive analyses have been carried out for characterizing the natural gas hydrate samples from Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island; Mallik, Mackenzie Delta; Mount Elbert, Alaska North Slope; Nankai Trough, offshore Japan; Japan Sea and offshore India. With the results obtained, it is possible to give a general picture of the characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment. Gas hydrate can occur in sediments of various types, from sands to clay, although it is preferentially enriched in sediments of certain types, for example coarse sands and fine volcanic ash. Most of the gas hydrates in sediments are invisible, occurring in the pores of the sediments, while some hydrates are visible, appearing as massive, nodular, planar, vein-like forms and occurring around the seafloor, in the fractures related to fault systems, or any other large spaces available in sediments. Although methane is the main component of most of the natural gas hydrates, C2 to C7 hydrocarbons have been recognized in hydrates, sometimes even in significant amounts. Shallow marine gas hydrates have been found generally to contain minor amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Gas hydrate samples with complex gas compositions have been found to have heterogeneous distributions in composition, which might reflect changes in the composition of the available gas in the surrounding environment. Depending on the gas compositions, the structure type of a natural gas hydrate can be structure I, II or H. For structure I methane hydrate, the large cages are almost fully occupied by methane molecules, while the small cages are only partly occupied. Methane hydrates occurring in different environments have been identified with almost the same crystallographic parameters.

  9. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  10. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  11. Immunoregulation by naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    -receptors on antigen-presenting cells and thereby regulate T-cell activity. Knowledge of the influence of NAbs against cytokines on immune homeostasis is likely to have wide-ranging implications both in understanding pathogenesis and in treatment of many immunoinflammatory disorders, including a number of autoimmune......The role of naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in homeostasis and in disease manifestations is poorly understood. In the present chapter, we review how NAbs may interfere with the cytokine network and how NAbs, through formation of complement-activating immune complexes with soluble self......-antigens, may promote the uptake and presentation of self-molecules by antigen-presenting cells. Both naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies against a variety of cytokines have been reported, including NAbs against interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  12. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  13. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-01

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  14. A Stochastical Model for the Earthquake Occurences in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze ÖZEL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of seismology and earthquake engineering deal with the studies for earthquake predictions, hazard assessments and the prevention of possible damage due to destructive earthquakes. Various kind of statistical models are used for the earthquake occurences. The most familiar model is a Poisson process for random series of events. However, the Poisson process is insufficient if the incorporation of more information about the seismic process is required. Recently, a compound Poisson process has been proposed an alternative to the Poisson process for the earthquake analysis. In this study, the compound Poisson process is introduced and the probabilities of earthquake numbers with magnitude M ³ 5.0 which will occur within 3 and 6 months; 5 and 10 years have been obtained for Turkey from the Poisson process. Then, it is shown that the aftershock sequences follow a geometric distribution. By this way, the probabilities of total number of aftershocks which will occur within one year and two years with magnitude M ³ 4.0 in Turkey are obtained from the compound Poisson process. Finally, the expected values of main shocks and total number of aftershocks which will occur within one year and two years are computed. The results show that the earthquake occurrence probability with magnitude M ³ 5.0 increases, whereas the probability of total number of aftershocks with magnitude M ³ 4.0 decreases in Turkey as the time increases. Besides, the total aftershock number with magnitude M ³ 4.0 , after a main shock with magnitude M ³ 5.0, equals to zero with the probability 0.48 within one year. The findings also indicate that approximately 130 main shocks with M ³ 5.0 , 28 aftershocks with magnitude M ³ 4.0 are expected within 30 years in Turkey.

  15. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  16. Naturally occurring pentaoxygenated, hexaoxygenated and dimeric xanthones: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Peres

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This review gives information on the chemical study of 71 pentaoxygenated, 11 hexaoxygenated and 9 dimeric and more complex xanthones naturally occurring in 7 families, 29 genus and 62 species of higher plants, and 11 described as fern and fungal metabolites. The value of these groups of substances in the connection with the pharmacological activity and the therapeutic use of some species is shown. The structural formulas of 23 isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are given.

  17. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alina-Mihaela Badescu; Alexandra Saftoiu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that at such frequencies the scattering is negligible compared to absorptions. The effect of trapped water in different forms is also evaluated.

  18. Interaction of Siglec-4 with naturally occurring and synthetic glycoconjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Koliwer-Brandl, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to provide insights into the structure-function relationship of Siglec-4 binding naturally occurring sialic acids as well as synthetic sialic acid derivatives. Structural information of the Siglec binding site and its interactions with glycoconjugates were obtained from homology modeling of the sialic acid binding domain and molecular docking calculations with several sialosides. Furthermore, the interaction of chemically synthesized sialic acid derivatives with ...

  19. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Occurring in a Patient with Gorlin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Jamie L; Madden, Lisa M; Bayliss, Susan J

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occurring in an African American boy with Gorlin syndrome with a novel PTCH1 mutation. Before developing MDS, the patient had been treated with chemotherapy and radiation for a medulloblastoma. He received a bone marrow transplant for the MDS and eventually died of treatment complications. Secondary hematologic malignancies are a known complication of certain chemotherapeutics, although whether a patient with Gorlin syndrome has a greater propensity for the development of such malignancies is unclear.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a Crohn’s disease patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuaki; Ishida; Shigeyuki; Naka; Hisanori; Shiomi; Tomoyuki; Tsujikawa; Akira; Andoh; Tamio; Nakahara; Yasuharu; Saito; Yoshi-hide; Fujiyama; Mikiko; Takikita-Suzuki; Fumiyoshi; Kojima; Machiko; Hotta; Tohru; Tani; Yoshimasa; Kurumi; Hidetoshi; Okabe

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a patient with Crohn’s disease (CD) without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and review the clinicopathological features of HCC in CD patients. A 37-year-old Japanese man with an 8-year history of CD and a medication history of azathioprine underwent resection of a liver tumor. The histopathology of the liver tumor was pseudoglandular type HCC. In the nonneoplastic liver, focal hepatocyte glycogenosis (FHG) was observed, however, there was...

  1. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  2. Evolution of virulence when transmission occurs before disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik E; Dobson, Andrew P

    2010-08-23

    Most models of virulence evolution assume that transmission and virulence are constant during an infection. In many viral (HIV and influenza), bacterial (TB) and prion (BSE and CWD) systems, disease-induced mortality occurs long after the host becomes infectious. Therefore, we constructed a model with two infected classes that differ in transmission rate and virulence in order to understand how the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the relative difference in transmission and virulence between classes, on the transition rate between classes and on the recovery rate from the second class. We find that ESS virulence decreases when expressed early in the infection or when transmission occurs late in an infection. When virulence occurred relatively equally in each class and there was disease recovery, ESS virulence increased with increased transition rate. In contrast, ESS virulence first increased and then decreased with transition rate when there was little virulence early in the infection and a rapid recovery rate. This model predicts that ESS virulence is highly dependent on the timing of transmission and pathology after infection; thus, pathogen evolution may either increase or decrease virulence after emergence in a new host.

  3. Percutaneous treatment of complications occurring during hemodialysis graft recanalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. E-mail: constant@pol.net; Schur, Israel; Koh, Elsie; Hinrichs, Clay; Cooper, Stanley G.; Welber, Adam; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2003-09-01

    Introduction/objective: To describe and evaluate percutaneous treatment methods of complications occurring during recanalization of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 579 thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts revealed 48 complications occurring during urokinase thrombolysis (512) or mechanical thrombectomy (67). These include 12 venous or venous anastomotic ruptures not controlled by balloon tamponade, eight arterial emboli, 12 graft extravasations, seven small hematomas, four intragraft pseudointimal 'dissections', two incidents of pulmonary edema, one episode of intestinal angina, one procedural death, and one distant hematoma. Results: Twelve cases of post angioplasty ruptures were treated with uncovered stents of which 10 resulted in graft salvage allowing successful hemodialysis. All arterial emboli were retrieved by Fogarty or embolectomy balloons. The 10/12 graft extravasations were successfully treated by digital compression while the procedure was completed and the graft flow was restored. Dissections were treated with prolonged Percutaneous Trasluminal Angioplasty (PTA) balloon inflation. Overall technical success was 39/48 (81%). Kaplan-Meier Primary and secondary patency rates were 72 and 78% at 30, 62 and 73% at 90 and 36 and 67% at 180 days, respectively. Secondary patency rates remained over 50% at 1 year. There were no additional complications caused by these maneuvers. Discussions and conclusion: The majority of complications occurring during percutaneous thrombolysis/thrombectomy of thrombosed access grafts, can be treated at the same sitting allowing completion of the recanalization procedure and usage of the same access for hemodialysis.

  4. Functional interpretation and inductive definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Avigad, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Extending G\\"odel's \\emph{Dialectica} interpretation, we provide a functional interpretation of classical theories of positive arithmetic inductive definitions, reducing them to theories of finite-type functionals defined using transfinite recursion on well-founded trees.

  5. The Definition of Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Melchionne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to recent controversy in the aesthetics of everyday life with a succinct definition designed to clarify the domain of study. The article is intentionally designed for brevity and accessibility in order to facilitate usage.

  6. Market Definition: Use and Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown; Dennis Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Market definition is a crude though sometimes useful tool for identifying market power. The ambiguity in what analysts mean by market power (price above marginal cost, or excess profits) cannot be resolved by market share.

  7. Market Definition: Use and Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown; Dennis Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Market definition is a crude though sometimes useful tool for identifying market power. The ambiguity in what analysts mean by market power (price above marginal cost, or excess profits) cannot be resolved by market share.

  8. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials View All Content Definition & Facts for Constipation What is Constipation? Constipation is a condition in which you typically ... to prevent or relieve constipation. How common is constipation? Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal ( ...

  9. Analytic definition of spin structure

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  10. Nutraceutical-definition and introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Ekta K.

    2003-01-01

    Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term “Nutraceutical” from “Nutrition” and “Pharmaceutical” in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.

  11. Nutraceutical--definition and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ekta K

    2003-01-01

    Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term "Nutraceutical" from "Nutrition" and "Pharmaceutical" in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.

  12. The Evolution of Definitions for Nursing Informatics: A Critical Analysis and Revised Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Staggers, Nancy; Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that nursing informatics is entering its third decade as a specialty within nursing, many definitions still exist to describe the field. This paper offers a rationale for a definition for nursing informatics and a critical analysis of past definitions. An organizing framework of technology-oriented, conceptual, and role-oriented definitions is used to critique these definitions. Subsequently, a revised definition is proposed. This evolutionary definition integrates critical c...

  13. Naturally occurring Trichogramma species in olive farms in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMATMOHAMEDHEGAZI; ANNETTEHERZ; SHERIFHASSAN; ESSAMAGAMY; WEDADKHAFAGI; SANIASHWEIL; AHMEDZAITUN; SAFAAMOSTAFA; MOHAMEDHAFEZ; AHMEDEL-SHAZLY; SOMAIAEL-SAID; LAMIAABO-ABDALA; NOHAKHAMIS; SAMIAEL-KEMNY

    2005-01-01

    A survey of two-year studies (2001-2003) was carried out in two olive groves sited at two representative olive growing areas, namely Paradise Park (arid area) and Burg E1-Arab farm (semi-arid area) to monitor the frequency of endemic Trichogramma species on olive moth (Prays oleae) and jasmine moth (Palpita unionalis). The suspended host bait traps were found to be a more practical and effective tool for collecting Trichogramma wasps than the attached ones. Four naturally occurring Trichogramma species were collected for the first time in Egypt from the olive groves, where releases have never been conducted. T.bourarachae was collected exclusively from Burg El-Arab farm. It seems that this wasp species adapts well to the semi-arid area. Three species, namely T. cordubensis, T. nr.pretiosum and T. cacociae were isolated from Paradise Park farm. All of these wasps were also bred from naturally parasitized host eggs during favorable and even at unfavorable temperature conditions of June-August. However, these endemic species did not occur naturally in sufficient numbers to keep the pest populations from reaching damaging levels.The excessive usage of insecticides and the oophagous predators (e.g., ants and lacewing larvae) are some factors that affect the performance of Trichogramma wasps in olive farms.The presence of warm weather wasp strains suggests the existence of well-adapted wasp species or swains which may be appropriate candidates for the control of target pests in olive groves. Additional study is required to determine the best “habitat-specific” species/strains of Trichogramma for augmentative release of naturally occurring wasps and to incorporate them into integrated pest management programs. Efforts should be made to conserve these endemic species from oophagous predators, hot weather and insecticides.The olive and jasmine moth-larvae and pupae found under tree canopies were bred and emerged parasitoids were listed.

  14. Hemostatic abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Kelmer, Efrat; Cohen, Adar; Codner, Carolina; Segev, Gilad; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-05-01

    To investigate hemostatic analyte abnormalities and their association with mortality in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital. Thirty client-owned dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. None. Citrated and EDTA blood samples were collected at presentation and at 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postpresentation (PP). Hemostatic tests performed included platelet count, prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times (PT and aPTT, respectively), antithrombin activity (ATA), total protein C activity (tPCA), fibrinogen, and D-dimer concentrations. The overall survival rate was 60% (18/30 dogs). Older age, higher heart rate and rectal temperature at presentation, and time from onset of clinical signs to presentation were significantly associated with mortality. Hemostatic analytes at presentation were not associated with mortality. Prolonged PT and aPTT at 12-24 hours PP, lower tPCA at 12 hours PP, and hypofibrinogenemia at 24 hours PP were significantly (P ATA were common at all time points, but were not associated with mortality. The frequency of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) increased in nonsurvivors throughout hospitalization, but the development of DIC was not associated with mortality. The number of abnormal coagulation disturbances during the first 24 hours was significantly higher in nonsurvivors (P = 0.04). Hemostatic derangements are common in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. Alterations in PT, aPTT, tPCA, and fibrinogen concentrations appear to be associated with the outcome at 12-24 hours PP, exemplifying the need for serial measurement of multiple laboratory hemostatic tests during hospitalization, even when within reference interval on presentation. The development of DIC, as defined in this cohort, was not associated with mortality; however, nonsurvivors had significantly more coagulation abnormalities during the first 24 hours PP. © Veterinary Emergency and

  15. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S Vegge

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  16. Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma (acroangiodermatitis): occurring after bullous erysipelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Yardimci, Gürkan; Engin, Burhan; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Aydin, Övgü; Khatib, Rashid; Tuzun, Yalçın

    2015-05-18

    Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a benign reactive vascular proliferative disorder, which can be seen at any age. It occurs when the chronic venous pressure changes result in vascular proliferation in the upper and mid dermis. This disease is divided into two subtypes: the most frequent subtype is the Mali type and seen in early ages. The Mali type is seen in chronic venous insufficiency and in those patients with arteriovenous shunts. The rare subtype is the Stewart-Bluefarb type. This disease must be distinguished from Kaposi sarcoma because of their clinical resemblance. Herein, we present a patient with pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma, which developed after bullous erysipelas.

  17. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  18. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  19. 39 CFR 447.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 447.12 Section 447.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PERSONNEL RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL EMPLOYEES Applicability and Definitions § 447.12 Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this part. (a) Postal...

  20. 42 CFR 400.200 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 400.200 Section 400.200 Public... PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; DEFINITIONS Definitions § 400.200 General definitions. In this chapter, unless the... determined in accordance with SSI methodologies, that does not exceed 200 percent of the Federal poverty...

  1. 37 CFR 41.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 41.201 Section... Definitions. In addition to the definitions in §§ 41.2 and 41.100, the following definitions apply to... invention. Involved claim means, for the purposes of 35 U.S.C. 135(a), a claim that has been designated...

  2. Dual, use-based definition of "system"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard definition (ISO 15288, 2008) of the concept of a system is not complete and is the definition of a closed system. Such a definition is inadequate for systems engineering. A use-based definition is proposed which spans the open...

  3. 24 CFR 891.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definition. Rehabilitation may also include renovation, alteration, or remodeling for the conversion or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 891.105 Section 891... § 891.105 Definitions. The following definitions apply, as appropriate, throughout this part....

  4. 42 CFR 1000.10 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 1000.10 Section 1000.10 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; GENERAL DEFINITIONS Definitions § 1000.10 General definitions. In this...

  5. 48 CFR 302.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 302.101 Section 302.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 302.101 Definitions. (a) Agency head or head of the Agency, unless...

  6. 49 CFR 1101.1 - Statutory definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory definitions. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE DEFINITIONS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1101.1 Statutory definitions. The definitions contained in section 10102...

  7. Insights into secondary reactions occurring during atmospheric ablation of micrometeoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Richard W.; Tan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Ablation of micrometeoroids during atmospheric entry yields volatile gases such as water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, capable of altering atmospheric chemistry and hence the climate and habitability of the planetary surface. While laboratory experiments have revealed the yields of these gases during laboratory simulations of ablation, the reactions responsible for the generation of these gases have remained unclear, with a typical assumption being that species simply undergo thermal decomposition without engaging in more complex chemistry. Here, pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that mixtures of meteorite-relevant materials undergo secondary reactions during simulated ablation, with organic matter capable of taking part in carbothermic reduction of iron oxides and sulfates, resulting in yields of volatile gases that differ from those predicted by simple thermal decomposition. Sulfates are most susceptible to carbothermic reduction, producing greater yields of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide at lower temperatures than would be expected from simple thermal decomposition, even when mixed with meteoritically relevant abundances of low-reactivity Type IV kerogen. Iron oxides were less susceptible, with elevated yields of water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide only occurring when mixed with high abundances of more reactive Type III kerogen. We use these insights to reinterpret previous ablation simulation experiments and to predict the reactions capable of occurring during ablation of carbonaceous micrometeoroids in atmospheres of different compositions.

  8. On the Mechanical Friction Losses Occurring in Automotive Differential Gearboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction, which can lead to a surface and volume damage in some of them, and even can cause, in the worst case, the whole destruction of the mechanical system if it has continued to operate. Predicting and checking the occurrence of this kind of undesirable phenomena, especially in some principal systems of the vehicle, represents nowadays, a crucial challenge in terms of automobile reliability and safety. This study focuses on the mechanical friction losses liable to occur in differential automobile gearboxes, which can lead in the long term to the scuffing of these mechanical systems. The friction losses involved were modeled, using a simple analytical approach, which is presented and discussed.

  9. A naturally-occurring 'cold earth' spot in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-09-29

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth's surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about -1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost's existence due to the peat's thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions.

  10. Multifaceted ability of naturally occurring polyphenols against metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingyu; Bennett, Lunawati L; Zhou, Shufeng

    2016-04-01

    Although cancer metastases are known to be the main cause of cancer-related deaths, truly effective antimetastatic therapeutics remain scarce in clinical practice. Naturally occurring polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diets. Many of them possess chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against various types of cancer. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathways that mediate cancer development and progression have led to an increase of interest in preclinical investigations on the mechanisms underlying anticancer activity of polyphenols. In particular, an increasing number of preclinical studies using cultured cells and animal models have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on tumour cell invasion and metastasis, thereby highlighting the potential of polyphenols against metastatic cancer. This review specifically addresses growing evidence of the capability of polyphenols to impair the invasion and migration of tumour cells through a diverse set of mechanisms, including downregulation of expression of matrix metalloproteinases, modulation of regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, interference with Met signalling, inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B mediated transcription, and so on. Given that metastasis occurs through a multistep process in which each step is regulated by a complex network of signalling pathways, the multi-function and multi-target characteristics of polyphenols render those promising candidates for effective adjuvant therapy against metastatic cancer.

  11. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis.

  12. Genetic and molecular dissection of naturally occurring variations in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Masahiro [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The progress for structural analysis of the rice genome has allowed us to embark on the sequencing of the whole rice genome. Resources - genetic markers, sequence data, and genomic clones - derived from many efforts will be used for the functional analysis of rice genes in the next decade. Although artificially induced variations, such as mutants, have been used mainly for genetic and physiological studies in rice and other plant species, the development of DNA markers has made possible access to naturally occurring allelic variations underlying complex traits. Such analysis is often referred to as quantitative traits locus (QTL) analysis. Many QTLs have been mapped for many complex traits in rice. During the analyses of several quantitative traits by the DNA marker-assisted strategy, two questions about QTL analysis have been raised: 1) Does a QTL represent a single Mendelian locus or a cluster of multiple loci? 2) Is it possible to precisely map a QTL and identify QTLs at the molecular level using map-based or other strategies? To answer these questions, a series of analyses on heading date, including the identification of putative QTLs, characterization and fine mapping of QTLs using nearly isogenic lines (NILs), and identification of genes at QTLs for heading date by the map-based strategy has been performed. In addition, several primary permanent mapping populations and secondary genetic resources, such as chromosomal segmental substitution lines, have been developed to facilitate the genetic analysis of naturally occurring allelic variation. (M. Suetake)

  13. Ingestion analgesia occurs when a bad taste turns good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Hayley; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    During ingestion of water, chocolate, sucrose, and saccharin, pain-related behaviors are suppressed. This ingestion analgesic effect is reversed when the hedonic valence of a food is switched from "good" to "bad" as occurs during conditioned taste aversion. Here, we tested the converse hedonic shift to determine if ingestion analgesia occurs when 0.3 M NaCl is made palatable by inducing a sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sham- and sodium-depleted rats were tested for paw withdrawal and lick latencies to brief noxious heat during quiet wake and intraoral NaCl ingestion. Only sodium-depleted rats showed a suppression of heat-evoked reactions during NaCl ingestion. In Experiment 2, we tested whether this analgesic effect is mediated by the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Inactivation of NRM with muscimol blocked ingestion analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium-depleted rats. This attenuation was not due to a hyperalgesic effect of NRM inactivation. Muscimol microinjections into a nearby region, the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO), were ineffective. The present findings demonstrate that the internal milieu of an animal can modify ingestion analgesia, and that the analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium hungry rats is mediated by NRM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  15. Cutaneous Tuberculosis Occurring After a Skin Cut in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Gulsen; Kepenekli Kadayifci, Eda; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Yakut, Nurhayat; Ocal Demir, Sevilya; Akbas, Gamze; Zeliha Cinel, Leyla; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a common problem in Turkey, and cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Herein, the authors describe a case of cutaneous tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris) occurring after contact with a sheep. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to Marmara University School of Medicine Pendik Training and Research Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) with delayed wound healing on the left index finger and left axillary lymphadenopathy. His medical history was unremarkable except for a wound incurred when he slaughtered a sheep 3 months before. One month after this injury, the patient developed enlargement of the left axillary lymph node on the side of the wounded extremity, and the wound turned a dark black color. The biopsy specimens obtained from the wounded skin and lymph nodes showed granulomatous reaction, but acid-fast bacilli (AFB) could not be shown with Ehrlich-Ziehl Neelsen staining. The patient tested positive in an interferon-gamma release assay. Computerized tomography scans of the thorax were normal, and early morning gastric lavage specimen was negative for AFB. The wound and axillary lymphadenopathy disappeared after institution of anti-tuberculosis therapy. Tuberculosis infection must be considered in chronic skin lesions with granulomatous reaction occurring in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis.

  16. A definition and ethical evaluation of overdiagnosis: response to commentaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Doust, Jenny; Degeling, Chris; Barratt, Alexandra

    2016-08-29

    It is a privilege to have respected colleagues engage with our definition and ethical evaluation of overdiagnosis. In our response to the commentaries, we first deal with paradigmatic issues: the place of realism, the relationship between diagnostic standards and correctness and the distinction between overdiagnosis and both false-positives and medicalisation. We then discuss issues arising across the commentaries in turn. Our definition captures the range of different types of overdiagnosis, unlike a definition limited to diagnosis of harmless disease. Certain implications do flow from our definition, as noted by commentators, but we do not view them as problematic: overdiagnoses can become beneficial diagnoses as medical knowledge and practice changes over time; inadequate systems of healthcare can produce tragic overdiagnosis, and the effectiveness of treatment partly determines whether overdiagnosis occurs. Complexity and uncertainty in balancing benefits and harms is unfortunate, but not a reason to avoid making a judgement (ideally one that reflects multiple perspectives). We reaffirm that overdiagnosis, for the foreseeable future, must be estimated at a population level and defend the importance of good-quality risk communication for individuals. We acknowledge that a lot turns on the relevance of professional communities in our definition and expand our reasoning in this regard then conclude with a note on the difference between intentions and goals. We expect that it will be some time before these matters are settled and we look forward to continue debating these matters with our colleagues.

  17. ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert S; Acevedo, Carlos; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Bogacz, Alicia; Cross, J Helen; Elger, Christian E; Engel, Jerome; Forsgren, Lars; French, Jacqueline A; Glynn, Mike; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Lee, B I; Mathern, Gary W; Moshé, Solomon L; Perucca, Emilio; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Tomson, Torbjörn; Watanabe, Masako; Wiebe, Samuel

    2014-04-01

    Epilepsy was defined conceptually in 2005 as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. This definition is usually practically applied as having two unprovoked seizures >24 h apart. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) accepted recommendations of a task force altering the practical definition for special circumstances that do not meet the two unprovoked seizures criteria. The task force proposed that epilepsy be considered to be a disease of the brain defined by any of the following conditions: (1) At least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring >24 h apart; (2) one unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years; (3) diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who either had an age-dependent epilepsy syndrome but are now past the applicable age or who have remained seizure-free for the last 10 years and off antiseizure medicines for at least the last 5 years. "Resolved" is not necessarily identical to the conventional view of "remission or "cure." Different practical definitions may be formed and used for various specific purposes. This revised definition of epilepsy brings the term in concordance with common use. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  18. Profiles in patient safety: when an error occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Cherri; Hevia, Armando; Hinchey, Paul

    2004-07-01

    Medical error is now clearly established as one of the most significant problems facing the American health care system. Anecdotal evidence, studies of human cognition, and analysis of high-reliability organizations all predict that despite excellent training, human error is unavoidable. When an error occurs and is recognized, providers have a duty to disclose the error. Yet disclosure of error to patients, families, and hospital colleagues is a difficult and/or threatening process for most physicians. A more thorough understanding of the ethical and social contract between physicians and their patients as well as the professional milieu surrounding an error may improve the likelihood of its disclosure. Key among these is the identification of institutional factors that support disclosure and recognize error as an unavoidable part of the practice of medicine. Using a case-based format, this article focuses on the communication of error with patients, families, and colleagues and grounds error disclosure in the cultural milieu of medial ethics.

  19. Lupus vulgaris occurring in a locus minoris resistentiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard; Beatch, Anita; Lee, Mao-Cheng; Cheung-Lee, Melody; Wasel, Norman

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lupus vulgaris, a form of cutaneous tuberculosis, is not always clear, especially in patients who do not have coexistent extracutaneous tuberculosis and in patients with single lesions. To report a case of lupus vulgaris in a locus minoris resistentiae (a site of reduced resistance) and to use a unique set of clinical circumstances and laboratory tests to reconstruct the pathogenesis of the lesion and the response to treatment. Lupus vulgaris can occur in a locus minoris resistentiae; local trauma and possibly other factors, such as increased temperature, topical corticosteroids, and the virulence of the infecting strain, may facilitate the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present at a locus minoris resistentiae as a result of a silent bacillemia.

  20. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  1. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  2. Where will tropical cyclogenesis occur around a preexisting tropical cyclone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenli; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Ma, Zhanhong

    2017-01-01

    An observational study focusing on the locations of tropical cyclogenesis induced by tropical cyclone energy dispersion (TCED) in the western North Pacific is conducted. Statistical results indicate that the cyclogenesis cases associated with TCED widely occur around preexisting tropical cyclones (TCs). In addition to the typical scenario of cyclogenesis to the southeast of a preexisting TC, new TCs can even form in the east or southwest directions at distances ranging from 1000 km to 3500 km. Further analyses reveal that the locations of cyclogenesis are mainly governed by large-scale environments via regulating the patterns of Rossby wave trains. The observational relationships between wave train regimes and the structures of environmental flows are revealed, which are broadly consistent with previous idealized numerical simulations. The results in this study provide a valuable reference for the prediction of cyclogenesis considering the TCED mechanism.

  3. Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howbert, J Jeffry; Patterson, Edward E; Stead, S Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-70 Hz), and high-gamma (70-180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring.

  4. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  5. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  6. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    , especially within regions involved in reward, is involved in naturally occurring neglect and that MaD1 mice are a useful model for understanding the basis of naturally occurring neglect.

  7. A transdisciplinary definition of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Murray E

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis is a fundamental abstract reasoning concept in healthcare. It forms the foundation for clinical guidelines, evidence-based practice, and healthcare interventions. The definition of diagnosis is evolving in a manner that may change patient care and clinical research. Currently, dictionary definitions of diagnosis fall into two broad categories, those that stress the original etymology and those that are based on classifying the patient problem according to preexisting labels. Many medical diagnoses are not sufficient to justify allied health, profession-specific interventions. Some authors have suggested profession-specific definitions of diagnosis and profession-specific nomenclature. However, a unique set of labels that are insulated from other health professions has been difficult to achieve because of the interdependence of pathology, impairments, and the patient's role in society. Coordinated interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary patient care, including clinical guidelines, and efficient delivery of services necessitate a definition that facilitates communication across health care professions. A solution to this dilemma may be to create a bridge, recognizing the multifactorial etiology of health and professional autonomy while explicitly stating the context of profession-specific interventions as a team approach. I propose that the definition of diagnosis be modified to: "the process of determining mechanisms by which the patient's health condition arises and the conclusions reached by doing so."

  8. Clonus: definition, mechanism, treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Boyraz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Clonus is involuntary and rhythmic muscle contractions caused by a permanent lesion in descending motor neurons. Clonus may be found at the ankle, patella, triceps surae, wrist, jaw, biceps brachii. In general, clonus may occur in any muscle with a frequency of 5-8 Hz and the average period of oscillations of the ankle clonus is approximately 160–200 ms. Plantar flexion (PF comprises 45% of the period, dorsifleksion (DF comprises 55% of the period. The first beat is always longer, with the time shortening in continuing beats and becoming stable in the 4th or 5th period. The exact mechanism of clonus remains unclear. Two different hypotheses have been asserted regarding the development of clonus. The most widely accepted explanation is that hyperactive stretch reflexes in clonus are caused by self-excitation. Another alternative explanation for clonus is central generator activity that arises as a consequence of appropriate peripheral events and produces rhythmic stimulation of the lower motor neurons. The durations of clonus burst were found longer than the durations of Soleus medium-latency reflex (MLR. There is a similarity in their nature, although the speed and cause of the stretch of triceps surae differ in the MLR and the clonus, and there is a sufficient period of time for group II afferents and for other spinal mechanisms to be involved in the clonus, together with Ia afferents. Clonus can be treated by using baclofen, applying cold, botox or phenol injections.

  9. The definition of cool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2005-05-01

    A new air cooling system at Agnico-Eagle's LaRonde mine, located in the Abitibi Region of Quebec is described. The new system serves a mine operating at 7,250 plus feet level. The system is installed at the surface; it utilizes ammonia to cool water, which cools the air. The system consists of four compressors which lower the temperature of the ammonia to minus 2 degrees C. Water, which at this temperature is 14 degrees, and ammonia pass through a plate heat exchanger simultaneously, however, without coming into contact with each other. The heat transfer that occurs causes the water's temperature to drop to 2 degrees C. The total volume of water cooled is 220 litres per second. The system is capable of reducing 636,000 cfm of air from 30 degrees C to 6 degrees C, to which 214,000 cfm of non-cooled air is added. This mixture, which is maintained at approximately 8 degrees C throughout the summer season, is sent underground to the deepest parts of the mine. The system runs from June to September, depending on the weather. In the evenings, when the temperature dips to around four to five degrees C, the water is shut down and side doors are opened to prevent the water from freezing.

  10. Towards a definition of intake in second language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayo Reinders

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intake is a concept that has long fascinated second language researchers as it provides a window onto the crucial intermediary stage between input and acquisition. A better understanding of this intermediary stage can help us to distinguish between input that is used for immediate (e.g. communicative purposes only and input that is drawn on for learning. This article traces the different components from which intake can occur, reviews existing definitions of intake and suggests alternatives for its operationalisation.

  11. Media Entrepreneurship: A Consensual Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly......, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed....... This definition integrates some key features of the emerging media environment such as distinction of content and platform, value delivery, opportunity development, non-monetary benefit, etc. It is expected that the findings of this research clear the ground for further researches in the field of media...

  12. Recovery definitions: Do they change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E

    2015-09-01

    The term "recovery" is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The "What Is Recovery?" project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n=1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach's alpha was estimated. Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent "What Is Recovery?" survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  14. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  15. Discernible but limited introgression has occurred where Trichinella nativa and the T6 genotype occur in sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Reichard, Mason V; Torretti, Luigi; Zarlenga, Dante S; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2012-04-01

    The genetic diversity within and among parasite populations provides clues to their evolutionary history. Here, we sought to determine whether mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation could be used to evaluate the extent of differentiation, gene flow and historical reproductive isolation among the freeze resistant parasites Trichinella nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype infecting wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Nunavut, Canada. To this end, we genotyped Trichinella isolates derived from the diaphragms of 39 wolverines from this locale to reference strains of T. nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype. Results showed that among a subset of 13 isolates examined, individuals resembled T. nativa in their mitochondrial DNA, but resembled the Trichinella T6 genotype when assayed at expansion segment V and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear rDNA. To adjudicate among these conflicting diagnoses, we further characterized each isolate at several nuclear microsatellite loci and again compared these to data from reference strains. Statistical assignment established that the nuclear genomes of most Nunavut isolates corresponded to those of the Trichinella T6 genotype; however, two isolates corresponded to T. nativa, and one isolate exhibited equal similarity to both reference strains. Taken as a whole, the evidence suggests that these isolates derive from the T. nativa matrilineage, but that their nuclear genomes resemble individuals previously designated as Trichinella T6. Assuming distinct lineages, this argues for cross-hybridization among these genotypes. Although introgression has occurred, recognizable genetic distinctions persist. One possibility is that selection disfavors the survival of hybrid offspring in most instances. Alternatively, the recent disappearance of glacial barriers might have increased contact, and therefore introgression. Broader geographic sampling will be required to determine the extent to which hybridization occurs beyond this

  16. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  17. Conformational Flexibility Differentiates Naturally Occurring Bet v 1 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Ahammer, Linda; Kamenik, Anna S; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-06-03

    The protein Bet v 1 represents the main cause for allergic reactions to birch pollen in Europe and North America. Structurally homologous isoforms of Bet v 1 can have different properties regarding allergic sensitization and Th2 polarization, most likely due to differential susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. Using NMR relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the initial proteolytic cleavage sites in two naturally occurring Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a) and Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), are conformationally flexible. Inaccessible cleavage sites in helices and strands are highly flexible on the microsecond-millisecond time scale, whereas those located in loops display faster nanosecond-microsecond flexibility. The data consistently show that Bet v 1.0102 is more flexible and conformationally heterogeneous than Bet v 1.0101. Moreover, NMR hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements reveal that the backbone amides in Bet v 1.0102 are significantly more solvent exposed, in agreement with this isoform's higher susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. The differential conformational flexibility of Bet v 1 isoforms, along with the transient exposure of inaccessible sites to the protein surface, may be linked to proteolytic susceptibility, representing a potential structure-based rationale for the observed differences in Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization.

  18. Characteristics of Cherenkov Radiation in Naturally Occuring Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, R E; Uggerhøj, U I; Klein, S R

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope - IceCube. Being located at the Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occuring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in ap...

  19. Treatment of spontaneously occurring veterinary tumors with photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Legendre, Alfred; Sneed, Rick E.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1992-06-01

    Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was administered intravenously (1.0 mg/kg) to client owned cats and a dog with spontaneously occurring squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Light was delivered 48 hours post injection of the photosensitizer. An argon- pumped dye-laser was used to illuminate the lesions with 675 nm light delivered through a microlens fiber and/or a cylindrical diffuser. The light dose was 100 J/cm2 superficially or 300 J/cm interstitially. Eleven photodynamic therapy treatments in seven cats and one dog were performed. Two cats received a second treatment in approximately sixty days after the initial treatment. The superficial dose of light was increased to 200 J/cm2 for the second treatment. While the longest follow-up is twelve months, the responses are encouraging. The dog had a complete response. Among the cats, three showed complete response, three showed partial response and one showed no response. One cat expired two days post treatment. It is early to evaluate the response in two cats that received second treatments. Photodynamic therapy with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was effective in treating squamous cell carcinoma in pet animals.

  20. Hypokalaemia: common things occur commonly – a retrospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alasdair; Jones, Gareth; Isles, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To define the causes of hypokalaemia in an unselected adult population. Design Retrospective survey of biochemistry database. Setting District general hospital in southwest Scotland. Participants and main outcome measures There were 187,704 measurements of urea and electrolytes in 2010. Sixty-one patients had serum potassium feeding syndrome and inadequate potassium supplementation when patients were nil by mouth (37%). In 25% of patients a transient and profound fall in serum potassium appeared to coincide with their acute illness. Acute alcohol intoxication and/or alcohol withdrawal were prominent features in 11% of patients. More than one cause was commonly present. There were no cases of Bartter's, Gitelman's or Liddle's syndromes or of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in this study. Conclusions Severe hypokalaemia <2.5 mmol/L occurs at least once a week in a district general hospital with a catchment population of around 150,000, suggesting there may be around 300 cases a week in the UK (population around 50,000,000). Diuretics, vomiting and diarrhoea are commonly implicated as are nutritional causes, acute illness and alcohol. Bartter's, Gitelman's, Liddle's syndrome and hypokalaemic period paralysis are all extremely uncommon. PMID:23323198

  1. CooVar: Co-occurring variant analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ismael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of genomic variations (GV on protein-coding transcripts is an important step in identifying variants of functional significance. Currently available programs for variant annotation depend on external databases or annotate multiple variants affecting the same transcript independently, which limits program use to organisms available in these databases or results in potentially incorrect or incomplete annotations. Findings We have developed CooVar (Co-occurring Variant Analyzer, a database-independent program for assessing the impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar takes GVs, reference genome sequence, and protein-coding exons as input and provides annotated GVs and transcripts as output. Other than similar programs, CooVar considers the combined impact of all GVs affecting the same transcript, generating biologically more accurate annotations. CooVar is operated from the command-line and supports standard file formats VCF, GFF/GTF, and GVF, which makes it easy to integrate into existing computational pipelines. We have extensively tested CooVar on worm and human data sets and demonstrate that it generates correct annotations in only a short amount of time. Conclusions CooVar is an easy-to-use and lightweight variant annotation tool that considers the combined impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar is freely available at http://genome.sfu.ca/projects/coovar/.

  2. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  3. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  4. Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    Volcanic glasses are very often altered by weathering and leaching and recrystallize to their fine-grained equivalents (rhyolites, felsites). The oldest volcanic glasses are dated at 40 million years before the present, but the majority are much younger. Devitrification textures was produced experimentally; and hydration rates for volcanic glasses were determined as a function of composition, temperature, and climate. Presence of water and temperature are the most important rate controlling variables. Even material that may still be described as glassy often exhibits evidence of alteration and recrystallization. Of the volcanic glasses that are preserved in the geologic record, it would be rare to describe such a glass as pristine. Despite the common alteration and recrystallization effects observed in volcanic glasses, glasses formed as a result of impact, tektites and lunar glasses, may occur in substantially unaltered form. In the case of tektites, their resistance to alteration is a result of their high SiO/sub 2/ content and low alkali content. Lunar glasses have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years because they exist in an environment with a low oxygen fugacity and an extremely low water vapor partial presssure. Thus one might expect glasses of particular compositions or in specific types of environment to be stable for long periods of time. These conclusions are applied to radioactive waste disposal over several time periods (0-30h, 30h-20y, 20-200y).

  5. Mass transfer trends occurring in engineered ex vivo tissue scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marc; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; McFetridge, Peter

    2012-08-01

    In vivo the vasculature provides an effective delivery system for cellular nutrients; however, artificial scaffolds have no such mechanism, and the ensuing limitations in mass transfer result in limited regeneration. In these investigations, the regional mass transfer properties that occur through a model scaffold derived from the human umbilical vein (HUV) were assessed. Our aim was to define the heterogeneous behavior associated with these regional variations, and to establish if different decellularization technologies can modulate transport conditions to improve microenvironmental conditions that enhance cell integration. The effect of three decellularization methods [Triton X-100 (TX100), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and acetone/ethanol (ACE/EtOH)] on mass transfer, cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolic activity were assessed. Results show that regional variation in tissue structure and composition significantly affects both mass transfer and cell function. ACE/EtOH decellularization was shown to increase albumin mass flux through the intima and proximate-medial region (0-250 μm) when compared with sections decellularized with TX100 or SDS; although, mass flux remained constant over all regions of the full tissue thickness when using TX100. Scaffolds decellularized with TX100 were shown to promote cell migration up to 146% further relative to SDS decellularized samples. These results show that depending on scaffold derivation and expectations for cellular integration, specificities of the decellularization chemistry affect the scaffold molecular architecture resulting in variable effects on mass transfer and cellular response.

  6. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  7. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  8. Hemimegalencephaly: a study of abnormalities occurring outside the involved hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N; Yagishita, A; Oba, H; Miki, Y; Nakata, Y; Yamashita, F; Nemoto, K; Sugai, K; Sasaki, M

    2007-04-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but well-known congenital malformation with ipsilateral enlargement of the hemicerebrum. However, very little is known about changes in structures outside the involved hemisphere in patients with this condition. We investigated morphologic abnormalities occurring outside the affected hemisphere by MR imaging in a large series of patients with hemimegalencephaly. MR imaging findings for 30 patients with hemimegalencephaly were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated for structures outside the involved hemisphere on routine MR images, such as cranial nerves (I, II, V), brain vessels, subdural and subarachnoid spaces, brain stem, and cerebellum, on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The ipsilateral olfactory and optic nerves were enlarged in 8 (26.7%) and 1 (3.3%) of the 30 patients, respectively, without enlargement on the contralateral side. No asymmetry was noted in the trigeminal nerves. Asymmetric vascular dilations in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere were observed in 12 of the 30 patients (40%), in deep cerebral vessels in 11 patients (36.7%), and in superficial cerebral vessels in 8 patients (26.7%). Ipsilateral brain stem and hemicerebellar asymmetric enlargement was detected in 2 patients (6.7%) and 14 patients (46.7%), respectively. Abnormal cerebellar folia were observed on the ipsilateral side in 6 patients (20%) and on the contralateral side in 3 patients (10%). Ipsilateral olfactory nerve enlargement, cerebral vascular dilations, cerebellar enlargement, and bilateral or ipsilateral abnormal architecture of the cerebellar folia are often associated with hemimegalencephaly.

  9. Pulsed light inactivation of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron Maftei, Nicoleta; Ramos-Villarroel, Ana Y; Nicolau, Anca I; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2014-03-15

    Pulsed light (PL) is emerging as a non-thermal technology with excellent prospects for the decontamination of foods and food contact surfaces. Its application for mould inactivation on cereal grains would allow a reduction of storage losses as well as the prevention of mycotoxin contamination at a post-harvest level. The potential of PL for the decontamination of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain was investigated in this study. Treatments of up to 40 flashes of a fluence of 0.4 J cm⁻² per pulse were applied to both sides of the grain, with an overall energy release ranging from 6.4 to 51.2 J g⁻¹. The most powerful treatment applied to wheat in this study (51.2 J g⁻¹) resulted in a mould reduction of approximately 4 log cycles on samples displaying an initial mould contamination level of 2.2 × 10⁵ CFU g⁻¹. At the same time, the seed germination percentage was only slightly affected. For PL treatments causing an inactivation of 3-4 log cycles, only 14-15% of the germination power of the wheat seeds was lost. The PL treatments attained greater microbial reductions for higher treatment times and lower initial mould loads. The absence of the UV portion of the radiation spectrum was found to significantly reduce the treatment effectiveness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    Volcanic glasses are very often altered by weathering and leaching and recrystallize to their fine-grained equivalents (rhyolites, felsites). The oldest volcanic glasses are dated at 40 million years before the present, but the majority are much younger. Devitrification textures was produced experimentally; and hydration rates for volcanic glasses were determined as a function of composition, temperature, and climate. Presence of water and temperature are the most important rate controlling variables. Even material that may still be described as glassy often exhibits evidence of alteration and recrystallization. Of the volcanic glasses that are preserved in the geologic record, it would be rare to describe such a glass as pristine. Despite the common alteration and recrystallization effects observed in volcanic glasses, glasses formed as a result of impact, tektites and lunar glasses, may occur in substantially unaltered form. In the case of tektites, their resistance to alteration is a result of their high SiO/sub 2/ content and low alkali content. Lunar glasses have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years because they exist in an environment with a low oxygen fugacity and an extremely low water vapor partial presssure. Thus one might expect glasses of particular compositions or in specific types of environment to be stable for long periods of time. These conclusions are applied to radioactive waste disposal over several time periods (0-30h, 30h-20y, 20-200y).

  11. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  12. Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, D H; Nance, S J; Rubino, M; Sandler, S G

    1999-01-01

    Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) antibody detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister, who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or transfusions. Red blood cells (RBCs) from the patient and her sister typed as Jk(a-b+) by direct hemagglutination, and this phenotype was confirmed by negative adsorption and elution studies. Both infants' plasma samples were strongly reactive with 20 examples of Jk(a+) RBCs and nonreactive with 20 examples of Jk(a-) RBCs by SPRCA assays. Anti-Jka was not detected in either twins' plasma by indirect antiglobulin tests by tube method in low-ionic- strength saline solution or polyethylene glycol, or with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents' antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

  13. Bladder uptake of liposomes after intravesical administration occurs by endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Raja Rajaganapathy

    Full Text Available Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery.

  14. Sexual recombination in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Camargo, O A; Pinto, J M A

    2010-09-08

    Glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. This fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. RAPD markers of five populations of G. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two Brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. We identified 128 polymorphic bands, amplified by 28 random primers. The estimates of genetic similarity in this analysis ranged from 0.43 to 1.00, and the dendrogram generated from analysis of all genotypes displayed five principal groups, coinciding with the five populations. Genetic differentiation was observed between the populations (GST=0.6455); 69% of the overall observed genetic variation was between individual populations and 31% of the variance was within the sub-populations. We identified significant levels of linkage disequilibrium in all populations. However, the values of the disequilibrium ranged from low to moderate, indicating that this pathogen maintains a genetic structure consistent with sexual reproduction. The mean contribution of sexual reproduction was determined by comparison of the amplitudes of genetic similarity of isolates from sexual and asexual phases. These results support the hypothesis that recombination plays an important role in determining the amplitude of variability in this pathogen population and that this determination occurs on a fine scale.

  15. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  16. Impact of Co-occurring Dysarthria and Aphasia on Functional Recovery in Post-stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the impact of co-occurring dysarthria and aphasia on functional recovery in post-stroke patients. Methods The medical records, including results of primary screening tests and secondary definite examinations for language problems, of 130 patients admitted to our institute's Department of Rehabilitation Medicine were retrospectively reviewed. Functional outcomes were assessed longitudinally using the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Mini-Mental State Examination-Korean version (MMSE-K), European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions 3-Level version (EQ-5D-3L), the Korean version of the Modified Barthel index (K-MBI), and Motricity Index (MI) of the hemiplegic side. Results Patients were classified into four groups regarding language function: aphasia only (group A, n=9), dysarthria only (group D, n=12), aphasia and dysarthria (group AD, n=46), and none (group N, n=55). The initial functional outcome scores in the group AD were significantly poor compared to those of the groups N and A. Within groups, there were significant improvements in all outcome measurements in the groups AD and N. A between-group analysis revealed significant improvements in K-MBI for the group AD after adjusting for the initial severity and patient's age compared to other groups. Conclusion Post-stroke patients suffering from aphasia with dysarthria showed significantly lower initial functional level and relatively wide range of recovery potential in activities of daily living compared to patients without language problems. PMID:28119830

  17. Iron deficiency occurs frequently in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijterschout, Lieke; Nuijsink, Marianne; Hendriks, Daniëlle; Vos, Rimke; Brus, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In adult CF patients iron deficiency (ID) is common and primarily functional due to chronic inflammation. No recent data are available on the cause of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children with CF. Over the last decades onset of inflammation and pulmonary disease in children with CF is delayed by improved nutritional status. We questioned whether ID occurs in the same extent among children with CF as in adult CF patients. We therefore conducted a study to investigate the iron status of children with CF and to determine whether ID and IDA are associated with dietary iron intake, lung disease severity and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection. Clinical charts of 53 children with CF aged 0-16 were reviewed. Follow-up varied from 1 to 14 years with 343 annual observations in total. Thirty-two children (60.4%) were iron deficient in at least 1 year and ID was present in 84 of 343 observations (24.5%). In 2011 ID was present in 9 children (17.0%). Ten children (18.9%) were anemic in at least 1 year and anemia was present in 13 of 328 observations (4.0%). IDA was present in at least 1 year in 6 children (11.3%). Ferritin (Fer) was positively associated with age. Higher Fer values found in older children represent an increased state of inflammation, rather than an improved iron status, and might increase the relative contribution of functional ID. This study shows that ID is common in relatively healthy, well-nourished children with CF. The mechanism of ID in children with CF is currently unknown. A prospective study using both soluble transferrin receptor and Fer as indicators for ID will provide more insight in the incidence and causes of ID in children with CF.

  18. Co-occurring disorders: policy and practice in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Thomas; Mann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) with other mental disorders-what is often referred to as co-occurring disorders (COD)-is a common phenomenon, but for a long time, little attention has been paid to this problem in Germany. During the last 25 years, however, COD awareness has increased due to a shift toward community-based services. Scientific research has also demonstrated the significance and clinical relevance of COD. High prevalence rates and evidence of poor clinical outcomes were found in German studies. Many practitioners as well as policymakers acknowledge that changes in systems of care are necessary to meet the requirements of COD patients. The traditional German system is currently divided into addiction services and mental health services (predominantly in inpatient settings), often resulting in ineffective sequential treatment for COD patients. Research demonstrates that integrative treatment models are more appropriate, and the division of services should be reorganized to help COD patients appropriately. Efforts have already been made to restructure healthcare systems toward a more flexible approach with improved networking between in- and outpatient services. A further issue is the general attitude toward SUD patients. Many practitioners continue to hold negative opinions (eg, "SUD patients are only weak-minded") or feel insecure when confronted with SUD. This results in SUD problems being frequently ignored or depreciated. Educational programs have been intensive over recent years to address this problem (eg, Fachkunde Sucht, an advanced training program on SUD). In general, treatment conditions for COD patients are improving, but further efforts are necessary. Guidelines and treatment strategies for COD patients have been recently published in Germany.

  19. Naturally occurring radiation sources: existing or planned exposure situation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann-Jensen, Per [Danish Decommissioning, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-12-01

    After more than fifteen years of application, ICRP Publication 60 has been revised. The revision was based upon the concept of 'controllable dose' as the dose or sum of doses to an individual from a particular source that can reasonably be controlled by whatever means. The new recommendations have been published as ICRP Publication 103. The European Basic Safety Standards as well as the International Basic Safety Standards are currently under revision as a result of the new recommendations from ICRP. According to the ICRP, there have been indications that some changes to the structure and terminology of the system of protection were desirable in order to improve clarity and utility. In particular the distinction between practices and interventions may not have been clearly understood and the ICRP now recognises three types of exposure situations, which replace the previous categorisation into practices and interventions. These exposure situations are intended to cover the entire range of exposure situations: (1) planned exposure, (2) existing exposure and (3) emergency exposure. There are situations of exposure to naturally occurring radiation sources in different occupations, e.g. exposure to radon and radon progeny in workplaces other than where the exposure is required by or is directly related to the work and aircrew exposed to cosmic radiation. In the European (Euratom) and the International Basic Safety Standards, these exposure situations are treated conceptually different-either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation. This note reviews the change of exposure situations from Publication 60 to Publication 103 and the implications for the revision of both the International and the European Basic Safety Standards. The paper draws some conclusions on the classification of the exposure situations in the two basic safety standards based on a logical interpretation of the ICRP recommendations. It is recommended that the

  20. Death in pediatric Cushing syndrome is uncommon but still occurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Lodish, Maya B.; Zilbermint, Mihail; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is rare. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of CS may be associated with increased morbidity and, unfortunately, mortality. We performed a retrospective review of all patients with CS under the age of 18 referred to the NIH from 1998 to 2013 in order to describe deceased patients among cases of pediatric CS referred to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The deaths of 4 children (3 females and 1 male), aged 7.5–15.5 years (mean age 11.2 years) with length of disease 2–4 years were recorded among 160 (2.5%) children seen at, or referred to the NIH over the last 15 years. All died at different institutions, prior to coming to the NIH (two of them) or after leaving NIH (two of them). Presenting symptoms included increasing weight and decreasing height gain, facial plethora, dorsocervical fat pad (webbed neck), striae, headache, vision disturbances and depression and other mood or behavior changes; there were no differences between how these patients presented and the others in our cohort. The causes of CS in the deceased patients were also not different, in fact, they spanned the entire spectrum of CS: pituitary disease (on of them), ectopic corticotropin production (one of them), and primary adrenal hyperplasia (1). In one patient, the cause of CS could not be verified. Three died of sepsis and one due to residual disease and complications of the primary tumor. Conclusions Despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric CS, a 2.5% mortality rate was identified in a large cohort of patients with this condition referred to an experienced, tertiary care referral center (although these deaths occurred elsewhere). Pediatricians need to recognize the possibility of death, primarily due to sepsis, in a patient with pediatric CS and act accordingly. PMID:25241829

  1. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  2. Preparation of metagenomic libraries from naturally occurring marine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Sergei A; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are now well recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical cycling that fuels the Earth, and their viruses (phages) are known to be abundant and important in microbial mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and modulating microbial metabolic output. Investigation of environmental phages has been frustrated by an inability to culture the vast majority of naturally occurring diversity coupled with the lack of robust, quantitative, culture-independent methods for studying this uncultured majority. However, for double-stranded DNA phages, a quantitative viral metagenomic sample-to-sequence workflow now exists. Here, we review these advances with special emphasis on the technical details of preparing DNA sequencing libraries for metagenomic sequencing from environmentally relevant low-input DNA samples. Library preparation steps broadly involve manipulating the sample DNA by fragmentation, end repair and adaptor ligation, size fractionation, and amplification. One critical area of future research and development is parallel advances for alternate nucleic acid types such as single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses that are also abundant in nature. Combinations of recent advances in fragmentation (e.g., acoustic shearing and tagmentation), ligation reactions (adaptor-to-template ratio reference table availability), size fractionation (non-gel-sizing), and amplification (linear amplification for deep sequencing and linker amplification protocols) enhance our ability to generate quantitatively representative metagenomic datasets from low-input DNA samples. Such datasets are already providing new insights into the role of viruses in marine systems and will continue to do so as new environments are explored and synergies and paradigms emerge from large-scale comparative analyses.

  3. Does denitrification occur within porous carbonate sand grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. M. Cook

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Permeable carbonate sands form a major habitat type on coral reefs and play a major role in organic matter recycling. Nitrogen cycling within these sediments is likely to play a major role in coral reef productivity, yet it remains poorly studied. Here, we used flow-through reactors and stirred reactors to quantify potential rates of denitrification and the dependence of denitrification on oxygen concentrations in permeable carbonate sands at three sites on Heron Island, Australia. Our results showed that potential rates of denitrification fell within the range of 2–28 µmol L−1 sediment h−1 and were very low compared to oxygen consumption rates, consistent with previous studies of silicate sands. Denitrification was observed to commence at porewater oxygen concentrations as high as 50 µM in stirred reactor experiments on the coarse sediment fraction (2–10 mm and at oxygen concentrations of 10–20 µM in flow-through and stirred reactor experiments at a site with a median sediment grain size of 0.9 mm. No denitrification was detected in sediments under oxic conditions from another site with finer sediment (median grain size: 0.7 mm. We interpret these results as confirmation that denitrification may occur within anoxic microniches present within porous carbonate sand grains. The occurrence of such microniches has the potential to enhance denitrification rates within carbonate sediments; however further work is required to elucidate the extent and ecological significance of this effect.

  4. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug.

  5. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  6. Kidney Damage in Hemorrhagic Vasculitis Occurring in Childhood and Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nephropathy is diagnosed in 30–60 % of patients with hemorrhagic vasculitis (HV (Schönlein Henoch puprupa and occurred in each fourth of them in the onset of the disease and with the same incidence at first recurrence of the patho­logical process. In recent years, the relative and absolute number of patients with this form of glomerular disease significantly increased. According to the results of the kidney biopsy in children, Henoch glomerulonephritis (HGN is the most common variant of the secondary immunoglobulin (Ig A nephritis. The nature of the clinical course and morphological manifestations of the HGN in patients with HV, which began in childhood and adulthood, remains unexplored. This was the purpose and objectives of this study. Materials and methods. The study included 174 patients with HV (83 % of men and 47 % of women. In 92 cases, vasculitis debuted in children (on average in 12 years, and in 82 — in the adults (on average in 25 years. I, II and III degree of activity of pathological process are set at a ratio of 1 : 2 : 2. Seropositivity for high levels of IgA occurred in 40 % of cases, by the presence of rheumatoid factor — in 27 %. At the time of the survey, cutaneous syndrome was diagnosed in 68 % of patients in the form of urticarial, hemorrhagic, papule-nodular, papule-necro­tic, pustular-ulcerative, necrotic-ulcerative, nodose-ulcerative and polymorphic forms, and articular syndrome — in 48 %. In 24 cases, kidney biopsy was performed. Results. Renal disease was revealed in 71 % of patients with HV, while on the background of nephropathy the integral index of the severity of extrarenal patho­logy was significantly higher. According to the characteristics of the articular syndrome, patients with nephropathy and without it differed little among themselves. The severity of muscle syndrome has the impact on the development of the HV. In turn, renal pathology significantly influenced the development

  7. On the definition of superclusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we

  8. Racial Definition: Background for Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William Javier

    1986-01-01

    The racial definitional system in the United States ensures the separation of people. It is a caste-like system of nomenclature which was invented by Whites for their benefit. It is institutionalized and gets renewed through the socialization process. The system is only peripherally concerned with how Blacks define themselves. (VM)

  9. Autism: definition, neurobiology, screening, diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle; Tuchman, Roberto F

    2008-10-01

    Autism (ie, the autism spectrum disorders) is now recognized in 1 in 150 children. This article highlights the definition, neurobiology, screening, and diagnosis of autism. The genetics, immunology, imaging, and neurophysiology of autism are reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas that impact pediatricians. Early recognition of the social deficits that characterize autism is key to maximizing the potential of these children.

  10. A New Definition of Graviton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; PourImani, Hamed

    2008-01-01

    To date, there is no way to explain the process that describes how particles as photon absorb gravitons. According to the results of our years-long research we can definitely say that the best way for explain this process is using color charge concept from photon properties. This model might...

  11. On the definition of superclusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we

  12. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  13. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  14. Humanism: A Definition of Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Argues that the issue of literacy goes beyond the acquisition of basic skills and examines the principles of classical humanism as a source for a definition of literacy. Proposes emphases on cultural literacy, social and moral questions, and genuine community as components of humanistic education. (DMM)

  15. A New Definition of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either the removal of positive reinforcement or the presentation of an aversive stimulus (Skinner, 1953) that results in a decrease in the frequency and/or intensity of the response (Azrin & Holtz, 1966). By definition, punishment seeks to stop unacceptable, unwanted, and bothersome…

  16. Hierarchies in Dictionary Definition Space

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Olivier; Harnad, Stevan; Marcotte, Odile; Chicoisne, Guillaume; Gargouri, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    A dictionary defines words in terms of other words. Definitions can tell you the meanings of words you don't know, but only if you know the meanings of the defining words. How many words do you need to know (and which ones) in order to be able to learn all the rest from definitions? We reduced dictionaries to their "grounding kernels" (GKs), about 10% of the dictionary, from which all the other words could be defined. The GK words turned out to have psycholinguistic correlates: they were learned at an earlier age and more concrete than the rest of the dictionary. But one can compress still more: the GK turns out to have internal structure, with a strongly connected "kernel core" (KC) and a surrounding layer, from which a hierarchy of definitional distances can be derived, all the way out to the periphery of the full dictionary. These definitional distances, too, are correlated with psycholinguistic variables (age of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, oral and written frequency) and hence perhaps with th...

  17. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  18. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  19. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  20. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

  1. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir; Rykała, Justyna; Podgórska, Justyna; Banaś, Agnieszka

    2013-10-12

    A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40-50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60-90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20-25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae muscles and controlling body posture with the aim of reducing trunk inclination

  2. 40 CFR 305.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND General § 305.3 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply to this part: Administrative Law Judge means an...

  3. A note on antennas: Definitions and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1987-01-01

    Definitions of scattered and diffracted fields, originally given by R. F. Millar, are reviewed and supplemented. The definitions are used to discuss relations between results obtained by commonly used pattern prediction methods for reflector antennas....

  4. 16 CFR 1610.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.31 Definitions. In addition to the definitions... method prescribed in the procedures provided under section 4(a) of the Act (16 CFR Part 1609). (f)...

  5. 50 CFR 300.201 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Definition of Illegal, Unreported, or Unregulated Fishing § 300.201 Definition. Illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing means: (1) Fishing activities that violate conservation and management measures required...

  6. "On some definitions in matrix algebra"

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, Jan R.; Karim M. Abadir

    2007-01-01

    Many definitions in matrix algebra are not standardized. This notediscusses some of thepitfalls associated with undesirable orwrong definitions, anddealswith central conceptslikesymmetry, orthogonality, square root, Hermitian and quadratic forms, and matrix derivatives.

  7. [Diagnosis of osteoporosis occurring in autoimmune thyroid gland disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojković, Ivan; Radojković, Jana; Djurica, Snezana

    2005-10-01

    Osteoporosis or porotic bone is a general, systemic bone disease, which is manifested by fracture as its consequence. The main characteristic of this disease is the loss of bone microarchitecture, bone mass reduction, and its increased fragility. The result, thereof, is susceptibility to fracture. Etiology of osteoporosis is polymorph. Its socio-medical importance is enormous, since there is one osteoporotic fracture every 20 sec. worldwide. Million and six hundred thousand osteoporotic fractures occur annualy throughout the world. Thyroid gland is susceptible to autoimmune reactions that lead to autoimmune diseases, just like many other organs. The autoimmune disorder is a final consequence of a failure, in some instance, within the crucial mechanism of regulation of self tissue tolerance. The main goal is to prove the presence of osteoporosis, its inexpensive and quick diagnostics; to make a distinction among the causes that lead to it. In addition, to indicate the importance of osteoporosis that is caused by normal, metabolic processes which are an inevitable part of ageing. Diagnosis of osteoporosis can be done through laboratory, which is a tiresome, time consuming task. Measurements of BMD could be also performed by using new devices. Osteometers could be constructed on the basis of X-ray photon energy or US. Utilization most contemporary one uses laser beam, and it approximates the distance of additional tissue that also absorbs part of energy changing absorption of the reception unit and thus making the measurement results accurate. In diagnosing BMD by osteometer, one faces with certain difficulties. When axial quantitative CT is used, the value may be falsely lower, because of the loss of energy absorbed by aorta which is often calcified in elderly people. In devices with transversal scanning, of the same nature and technology, a part of the energy is being absorbed by transversal and spinal vertebrals. After the research, one may conclude that the most

  8. Infrared monitoring of hydrothermal echanges occurring in a fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Amélie; Flekkøy, Eirik; Galland, Olivier; Gundersen, Olav; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2014-05-01

    We aim to characterize the heat exchange that occurs when water flows through a fracture at a different temperature from that of the surrounding rock. This happens during many man-made or natural processes. For instance, injection of water in the context of geothermal power plants or sudden mechanical movements (e.g. rockfalls, landslides, earthquakes) that transport water. It is presently challenging to estimate the heat transfer and temperature inside a fractured medium where water is flowing, despite various numerical models which have been proposed [Neuville et al, 2010, 2013; Kolditz et Clauser, 1998; Heuer, 1991]. The difficulties arise from the complexity of the fracture network, the fracture topography, as well as complex hydraulic flow (e.g. recirculation) and heat exchanges. As a consequence, various hypotheses were made in the models. More experimental data are required in order to calibrate these models, validate or refute the hypotheses. Our work aims to provide temperature data at the fracture scale, in an experiment where the pressure gradient an fracture topography are controlled, with slow hydraulic flow. This required to develop a setup from scratch. An infrared camera and thermistors are used to monitor the temperature in space and time. Water is injected through a partly natural rough fracture with impermeable walls. The bottom part of the fracture is a larvikite stone with a rough surface (presumably this surface was obtained from mode I fracturing), and the top part is a layer which is transparent in the infrared range. As a consequence the infrared camera is expected to measure the temperature at the interface between this transparent layer and the water. The topography of the surface of the rock was reconstituted using a photogrammetry software [MicMac, IGN], and compared to measurements made with a mechanical profiler. Using this geometry we carefully localize the temperature observations (infrared camera and thermistors) and correlate the

  9. Time course of episodes of definitive vertigo in Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Perez, Paz; Sanz, Ricardo; Orts, Miguel; Marco, Jaime; Barona, Rafael; Tapia, Mari C; Aran, Ismael; Cenjor, Carlos; Perez, Nicolas; Morera, Constantino; Ramirez, Rafael

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency and duration of episodes of definitive vertigo in Ménière's disease. Prospective longitudinal study. Multiple tertiary referral centers. Five hundred ten individuals from 8 hospitals that met the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery diagnostic criteria for definitive Ménière's disease. Conservative treatment. Frequency and duration of episodes of definitive vertigo during follow-up. Ménière's disease affects both sexes and both ears equally, with onset generally in the fourth decade of life. The number of episodes of vertigo is greater in the first few years of the disease. Although episodes of vertigo that last longer than 6 hours are less frequent than shorter episodes, they occur with similar frequency throughout the natural course of the disease. The percentage of patients without episodes of vertigo increases as the disease progresses, and 70% of patients who did not have an episode of vertigo for 1 year will continue to be free of episodes during the following year. Thus, there is a relationship between the frequency of episodes in consecutive years, although this association decreases rapidly as the number of years increases. The frequency of definitive episodes of vertigo in Ménière's disease decreased during follow-up, and many individuals reached a steady-state phase free of vertigo.

  10. 23 CFR 660.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are included in the FS's planning and land management processes. Statewide transportation plan means... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 660.103 Section 660.103 Highways FEDERAL... (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.103 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in 23 U.S.C....

  11. 12 CFR 616.600 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 616.600 Section 616.600 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.600 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following definitions apply: (a) Interests in leases means ownership interests in...

  12. 19 CFR 122.1 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary of Health and Human Services as a place for quarantine inspection. (f) Landing rights airport. A... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General definitions. 122.1 Section 122.1 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.1 General definitions. The following...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Referendum Procedures § 1210.601 Definitions. Unless otherwise defined in this section, the definition of terms used in these procedures shall have the same meaning as the definitions in the Plan....

  14. 42 CFR 423.772 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 423.772 Section 423.772 Public Health... Individuals § 423.772 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions apply: Applicant... spouse for at least one-half of their financial support. Federal poverty line (FPL) has the meaning given...

  15. 20 CFR 418.3010 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 418.3010 Section 418.3010..., General Provisions, and Definitions § 418.3010 Definitions. (a) Terms relating to the Act and regulations... size as defined in 42 CFR 423.772. (6) Federal poverty line, for purposes of this subpart, has the same...

  16. 7 CFR 1469.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1469.3 Section 1469.3 Agriculture... Definitions. The following definitions apply to this part and all documents issued in accordance with this... or below the national poverty level for a family of four, or less than 50 percent of county median...

  17. 7 CFR 1466.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1466.3 Section 1466.3 Agriculture... § 1466.3 Definitions. The following definitions will apply to this Part and all documents issued in... Service), and (2) Has a total household income at or below the national poverty level for a family of four...

  18. 7 CFR 1465.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1465.3 Section 1465.3 Agriculture... § 1465.3 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this part and all documents used in accordance... Statistics Service), and (2) Has a total household income at or below the national poverty level for a family...

  19. 12 CFR 228.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 228.12 Section 228.12 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) General § 228.12 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following definitions... Insurance Corporation, and Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, based on— (A) Rates of poverty...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 3430.602 Section 3430.602 Agriculture... Definitions. The definitions applicable to the program under this subpart include: Beginning farmer or rancher... Poverty Level for a family of four or less than 50 percent of county median household income in each of...

  1. 5 CFR 362.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 362.101 Section 362.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PRESIDENTIAL MANAGEMENT FELLOWS PROGRAM Definitions § 362.101 Definitions. For purposes of this part, An agency means a component within...

  2. 5 CFR 550.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 550.301 Section 550.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Allotments From Federal Employees Definitions § 550.301 Definitions. In this subpart: Agency means an...

  3. 5 CFR 630.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 630.201 Section 630.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.201 Definitions. (a) In section 6301(2)(iii) of...

  4. 7 CFR 3.52 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 3.52 Section 3.52 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Wage Garnishment § 3.52 Definitions. As used in this subpart the following definitions shall apply: Disposable pay means that part of the...

  5. 5 CFR 581.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 581.102 Section 581.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Purpose and Definitions § 581.102 Definitions. In this part: (a) The...

  6. 5 CFR 582.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 582.102 Section 582.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Purpose, Definitions, and Exclusions § 582.102 Definitions. In this part—(1) Agency...

  7. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the same...

  8. Definitions of Insanity in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, John F.; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The legal concept of insanity has had many definitions throughout the years, and the precise definition used is critical in determining the status of a person in the legal system. Past research has demonstrated that different professions working in the legal system cannot agree on the definition of insanity (Weinstein & Geiger, 2003). However,…

  9. 12 CFR 211.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 211.21 Section 211.21 Banks and... foreign bank does not include a central bank of a foreign country that does not engage or seek to engage... OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking Organizations § 211.21 Definitions. The definitions contained in...

  10. 31 CFR 210.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks with respect to central accounting, financial reporting, and other Federal... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 210.2 Section 210.2... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following definitions apply. Any term...

  11. 76 FR 53376 - Definition of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260, 261, and 270 RIN 2050-AG62 Definition of Solid Waste AGENCY: Environmental... definition of solid waste published in the Federal Register on July 22, 2011. EPA is proposing to revise certain exclusions from the definition of solid waste for hazardous secondary materials intended for...

  12. 7 CFR 1145.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY FORWARD PRICING PROGRAM Definitions § 1145.1 Definitions. (a) Program means the dairy forward pricing program as established by Section 1502 of Public Law... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Definitions. 1145.1 Section 1145.1...

  13. 47 CFR 69.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pricing Flexibility § 69.703 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart: (a) Channel terminations. (1) A... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 69.703 Section 69.703... Statistical Area (MSA). This term shall have the definition provided in § 22.909(a) of this chapter....

  14. 7 CFR 59.200 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 59.200 Section 59.200 Agriculture... REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.200 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Affiliate... in which the pricing mechanism is a formula price based on any market other than the market for...

  15. 75 FR 47458 - TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... of Health and Food and Drug Administration definitions when making coverage decisions for treatments... Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB26 TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule revises the definition of...

  16. 48 CFR 514.270-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual price for each item does not have to be the lowest bid received. (See also the definition of a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 514.270-1... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.270-1 Definition. Aggregate award...

  17. 45 CFR 305.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 305.1 Section 305.1 Public Welfare..., STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.1 Definitions. The definitions found in § 301.1 of this... Consumer Price Index or CPI means the last Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers published by...

  18. 22 CFR 171.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.31 Section 171.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Privacy Act Provisions § 171.31 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following definitions...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.415-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stock or other property as indicated by market quotations. (2) ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 9904.415-30... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.415-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  20. Definitions of Insanity in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, John F.; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The legal concept of insanity has had many definitions throughout the years, and the precise definition used is critical in determining the status of a person in the legal system. Past research has demonstrated that different professions working in the legal system cannot agree on the definition of insanity (Weinstein & Geiger, 2003). However,…

  1. Definitions of Health Terms: General Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/generalhealthdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: General Health To use the sharing features ... healthy. You can start by learning these general health terms. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Basal ...

  2. 42 CFR 416.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 416.2 Section 416.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES General Provisions and Definitions § 416.2 Definitions. As used...

  3. 42 CFR 418.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 418.3 Section 418.3 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.3 Definitions. For purposes of this...

  4. 42 CFR 136.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 136.1 Section 136.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Purpose and Definitions § 136.1 Definitions. When used in...

  5. 42 CFR 421.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 421.3 Section 421.3 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Scope, Definitions, and General Provisions § 421.3 Definitions. As used...

  6. 42 CFR 137.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 137.10 Section 137.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Definitions § 137.10 Definitions. Unless...

  7. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary § 922.71 Definitions. In addition to those definitions found at 15 CFR 922.3, the following definitions apply to this subpart... into which altered genetic matter, or genetic matter from another species, has been transferred...

  8. 16 CFR 1110.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1110.3 Section 1110.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES... stated, the definitions of section 3 of the CPSA and additional definitions in the Consumer...

  9. 16 CFR 1130.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions. In addition to the definitions given in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052), the following definitions apply: (a) Durable infant or toddler product means the following... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS...

  10. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 29.6001 Section 29.6001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6001 Definitions. As used in these standards, the words and...

  12. Mouse hypospadias: A critical examination and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Cao, Mei; Shen, Joel; Cooke, Paul; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2016-12-01

    Hypospadias is a common malformation whose etiology is based upon perturbation of normal penile development. The mouse has been previously used as a model of hypospadias, despite an unacceptably wide range of definitions for this malformation. The current paper presents objective criteria and a definition of mouse hypospadias. Accordingly, diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced penile malformations were examined at 60 days postnatal (P60) in mice treated with DES over the age range of 12 days embryonic to 20 days postnatal (E12-P20). DES-induced hypospadias involves malformation of the urethral meatus, which is most severe in DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups, and less so or absent in the other treatment groups. A frenulum-like ventral tether between the penis and the prepuce was seen in the most severely affected DES-treated mice. Internal penile morphology was also altered in the DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups (with little effect in the other DES treatment groups). Thus, adverse effects of DES are a function of the period of DES treatment and most severe in the P0-P10 period. In "estrogen mutant mice" (NERKI, βERKO, αERKO and AROM+) hypospadias was only seen in AROM+ male mice having genetically-engineered elevation is serum estrogen. Significantly, mouse hypospadias was only seen distally at and near the urethral meatus where epithelial fusion events are known to take place and never in the penile midshaft, where urethral formation occurs via an entirely different morphogenetic process.

  13. On the definition of superclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Gayoung; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally...

  14. TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mocanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is a concept that is still subject of many controversies. Nowadays, it is used both in theory and in practice to designate a variety of activities. The paper aims at shedding light on this enigmatic concept. First of all, the author offers an overview of the historical roots of “controlling”. Secondly, different definitions of the concept of “controlling” are contrasted. The author comments upon two types of definitions: concepts oriented towards the goal to obtain results (profit, turnover, low costs and concepts oriented towards the universal goals of the company (e.g. product-related, environmental, social goals. Last but not least, the paper identifies the different perspectives used when defining the concept, in order to provide the proper background for understanding “controlling”: the information-oriented perspective, the coordination-oriented perspective and the reflection-oriented perspective, and the rationality-oriented perspective.

  15. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals.

  16. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  17. Prebiotics: Definition and protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2016-02-01

    The increase in chronic metabolic and immunologic disorders in the modern society is linked to major changes in the dietary patterns. These chronic conditions are associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis where important groups of carbohydrate fermenting, short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria are reduced. Dietary prebiotics are defined as a selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health. Application of prebiotics may then restore the gut microbiota diversity and activity. Unlike the previously accepted prebiotics definition, where a limited number of bacterial species are involved in the prebiotic activity, new data from community-wide microbiome analysis demonstrated a broader affect of the prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota. These new findings require a revision of the current definition. In addition, prebiotics may exert immunomodulatory effects through microbiota-independent mechanisms that will require future investigations involving germ-free animal disease models.

  18. On the definition of superclusters

    OpenAIRE

    Chon, Gayoung; Boehringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show tha...

  19. Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

  20. Transnet regenerative braking concept definition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giesler, Achmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available have the added advantage that they can be housed in temperature and controlled buildings in a relatively clean environment. Technologies being used and researched Energy regenerated during braking can either be fed back into the grid or stored... Body of Knowledge: http://sebokwiki.org/wiki/Concept_Definition Halligan, R. J. (2011, October 6). Operational Concept Description. Operational Concept Description. Melbourne: Project Performance International. Jaafar, A., Akli, C. S., Roboam, X...

  1. Contribution on family business definition

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, C

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous researches and an ample literature, there is not a unanimously and approved family business definition which identify family businesses from nonfamily businesses. Which are the aspects to describe exactly a family business? Which are the aspects that help to recognise family business from nonfamily business? Answering to these questions means to circumscribe the field of investigation, and obtain a comparable sample for international researches; to individualize the presence ...

  2. Definition of done in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Björgólfur Guðbjörnsson 1985

    2016-01-01

    Definition of Done is an artifact that is used to define when a software feature is completed and what work has to be performed so that a feature can fulfill its main goal of being a potentially releasable functionality. It is especially used in Agile processes for project management, like Scrum. Customers often experience that they are not being delivered the right kind of quality when development teams push out a new product feature from their latest project period. This study gives insight...

  3. A re-audit of the use of definitions of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Lee, Vivian

    2012-11-01

    The use of different definitions of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may make comparison of data among studies difficult. Fifty randomly selected papers dealing with SIDS that were published between 2010 and 2011 in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed to determine whether one of three internationally accepted definitions of SIDS had been either written in the text or referenced. A significant improvement in the use of definitions has occurred since 2005, with the percentage of papers either quoting or referencing a standard definition increasing by 26%, from 42 to 68%. The 1989 NICHD definition remained the most commonly used definition (35.1%) followed by the 2004 San Diego definition (26.3%). Although the percentage of papers where either no definition was provided or where an idiosyncratic or mis-cited definition was used fell 26%, from 58 to 32%, nearly one in three papers published on SIDS in peer-reviewed journals that were included in this study still did not cite a standard definition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Influenza virus reassortment occurs with high frequency in the absence of segment mismatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Marshall

    Full Text Available Reassortment is fundamental to the evolution of influenza viruses and plays a key role in the generation of epidemiologically significant strains. Previous studies indicate that reassortment is restricted by segment mismatch, arising from functional incompatibilities among components of two viruses. Additional factors that dictate the efficiency of reassortment remain poorly characterized. Thus, it is unclear what conditions are favorable for reassortment and therefore under what circumstances novel influenza A viruses might arise in nature. Herein, we describe a system for studying reassortment in the absence of segment mismatch and exploit this system to determine the baseline efficiency of reassortment and the effects of infection dose and timing. Silent mutations were introduced into A/Panama/2007/99 virus such that high-resolution melt analysis could be used to differentiate all eight segments of the wild-type and the silently mutated variant virus. The use of phenotypically identical parent viruses ensured that all progeny were equally fit, allowing reassortment to be measured without selection bias. Using this system, we found that reassortment occurred efficiently (88.4% following high multiplicity infection, suggesting the process is not appreciably limited by intracellular compartmentalization. That co-infection is the major determinant of reassortment efficiency in the absence of segment mismatch was confirmed with the observation that the proportion of viruses with reassortant genotypes increased exponentially with the proportion of cells co-infected. The number of reassortants shed from co-infected guinea pigs was likewise dependent on dose. With 10⁶ PFU inocula, 46%-86% of viruses isolated from guinea pigs were reassortants. The introduction of a delay between infections also had a strong impact on reassortment and allowed definition of time windows during which super-infection led to reassortment in culture and in vivo. Overall

  5. Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Material that enhances bone growth. DC: Doctor of Chiropractic. decompression: Surgical removal of pressure from nerve roots ... fusion is not obtained after fusion surgery. PT: Physical therapist. PVA: Percutaneous vertebral augmentation. A procedure that helps ...

  6. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Laurence

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days. 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]. A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04. Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of

  7. Effect of dental technician disparities on the 3-dimensional accuracy of definitive casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Faruk; Piskin, Bulent; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2017-03-01

    Studies that evaluated the effect of dental technician disparities on the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts fabricated by different dental technicians by using a 3-dimensional computer-aided measurement method. An arch-shaped metal master model consisting of 5 abutments resembling prepared mandibular incisors, canines, and first molars and with a 6-degree total angle of convergence was designed and fabricated by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. Complete arch impressions were made (N=110) from the master model, using polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) and delivered to 11 dental technicians. Each technician fabricated 10 definitive casts with dental stone, and the obtained casts were numbered. All casts were sectioned, and removable dies were obtained. The master model and the presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were digitized with an extraoral scanner, and the virtual master model and virtual presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were obtained. All definitive casts were compared with the master model by using computer-aided measurements, and the 3-dimensional accuracy of the definitive casts was determined with best fit alignment and represented in color-coded maps. Differences were analyzed using univariate analyses of variance, and the Tukey honest significant differences post hoc tests were used for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts was significantly affected by dental technician disparities (P<.001). The largest dimensional changes were detected in the anterior abutments of both of the definitive casts. The changes mostly occurred in the mesiodistal dimension (P<.001). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts is susceptible

  8. Workplace harassment: a test of definitional criteria derived from an analysis of research definitions and Canadian social definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybourn, Marvin; Spinner, Barry; Malcom, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of the occurrence and effects of workplace harassment continues to grow. However, despite increasing awareness, ambiguity remains about how harassment is defined and, consequently, how to determine whether a questionable situation should be judged as harassment. For this research we reviewed definitions of workplace harassment and identified four elements that were frequently included as criteria for making judgments of whether harassment had occurred (i.e., repetition, intent, perceived intent, consequences). In two separate studies, fictional scenarios were used to evaluate the extent to which participants' judgments about harassment were affected by the presence or absence of the four elements. Ratings of the scenarios provided by student participants (study one; N=160) and a convenience sample of community participants (study two; N=292) with varying levels of work experience and diverse professional backgrounds were analysed. According to our results the four elements significantly influenced participants' judgments of harassment. The intent of the harasser had the strongest and most consistent effect on harassment judgements and whether the behaviour was repeated had the weakest and least consistent effect. In addition to the unique effects of the individual elements, significant interactions between the elements emerged and suggest that harassment judgements depend on the interplay of a variety of factors. Though the results of these studies add to the growing body of research that focuses on defining workplace harassment, they also highlight the need for additional research in the area.

  9. gemine piltide kaudu : Fotograafia antropoloogiast / Jay Ruby

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruby, Jay, 1935-

    2010-01-01

    Fotograafia ja sotsiaalteaduste suhtest visuaalse etnograafia seisukohalt. Uurimisprojektist, mille sihiks on mõista kõikide fotograafia liikide kultuurilist rolli ja funktsioone inimeste elus antropoloogilisest vaatenurgast, olles huvitatud kultuurilisest ja kommunikatiivsest, mitte hinnangulisest algest

  10. gemine piltide kaudu : Fotograafia antropoloogiast / Jay Ruby

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruby, Jay, 1935-

    2010-01-01

    Fotograafia ja sotsiaalteaduste suhtest visuaalse etnograafia seisukohalt. Uurimisprojektist, mille sihiks on mõista kõikide fotograafia liikide kultuurilist rolli ja funktsioone inimeste elus antropoloogilisest vaatenurgast, olles huvitatud kultuurilisest ja kommunikatiivsest, mitte hinnangulisest algest

  11. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krauss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  12. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  13. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  14. Vulvodynia. Definition, diagnosis and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Lundvall, Lene; Kristensen, Ellids

    2008-01-01

    -physiological mechanisms underlying the disorder, methods of diagnosis and evidence and recommendations on clinical management. A critical examination of the literature regarding vulvodynia reveals numerous strategies and recommendations for treatment, many of which are not evidence-based, and a lack of effective...... that the problem is solely a psychological disorder have been abandoned, because inflammatory mechanisms and genetic factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as psychosexual contributors. This article describes the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on patho...

  15. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  16. On the definition of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and disciplinary approaches. This book is a first publication in the ‘On the definition of learning’ network. The network arose out of the aspiration to study the phenomenon of learning in depth and to understand its complex relationship to empirical investigation and teaching. Based on the assumption...... relationships that exist between conceptualizations of learning and the empirical phenomenon of learning and teaching. It discusses how conceptualizations of learning are put to work in educational contexts and how the normative aspects of learning in relation to discussions of what is considered worth learning...

  17. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2017-08-28

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  18. Developing a comprehensive definition of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Bain, Julie; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-09-02

    Understanding sustainability is one of the significant implementation science challenges. One of the big challenges in researching sustainability is the lack of consistent definitions in the literature. Most implementation studies do not present a definition of sustainability, even when assessing sustainability. The aim of the current study was to systematically develop a comprehensive definition of sustainability based on definitions already used in the literature. We searched for knowledge syntheses of sustainability and abstracted sustainability definitions from the articles identified through any relevant systematic and scoping reviews. The constructs in the abstracted sustainability definitions were mapped to an existing definition. The comprehensive definition of sustainability was revised to include emerging constructs. We identified four knowledge syntheses of sustainability, which identified 209 original articles. Of the 209 articles, 24 (11.5%) included a definition of sustainability. These definitions were mapped to three constructs from an existing definition, and nine new constructs emerged. We reviewed all constructs and created a revised definition: (1) after a defined period of time, (2) a program, clinical intervention, and/or implementation strategies continue to be delivered and/or (3) individual behavior change (i.e., clinician, patient) is maintained; (4) the program and individual behavior change may evolve or adapt while (5) continuing to produce benefits for individuals/systems. All 24 definitions were remapped to the comprehensive definition (percent agreement among three coders was 94%). Of the 24 definitions, 17 described the continued delivery of a program (70.8%), 17 mentioned continued outcomes (70.8%), 13 mentioned time (54.2%), 8 addressed the individual maintenance of a behavior change (33.3%), and 6 described the evolution or adaptation (25.0%). We drew from over 200 studies to identify 24 existing definitions of sustainability

  19. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  20. On the definition of superclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally, we suggest that those superclusters that will survive the accelerating cosmic expansion and collapse in the future be called "superstes-clusters", where "superstes" means survivor in Latin, to distinguish them from traditional superclusters.

  1. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  2. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

  3. A New Definition of Models and Modeling in Chemistry's Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, José A.

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of new chemical compounds makes it the most productive science. Unfortunately chemistry education practice has not been driven to any great extent by research findings, philosophical positions or advances in new ways of approaching knowledge. The changes that have occurred in textbooks during the past three decades do not show any real recognition of these. Despite previously reported different types of models in this paper, from an `empirical reliability with minimal realism' approach to realism, a new simple and broad definition, a typology of models and their relation with modeling is presented.

  4. 13 CFR 119.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 119.2 Section 119.2... (âPRIMEâ OR âTHE ACTâ) § 119.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following definitions... family size of not more than 150 percent of the poverty line, as defined in section 673(2) of the...

  5. A new definition of Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.

  6. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  7. Toward a definition of colonic inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Giuseppe de Roberto; Luca Sediari; Antonio Morelli

    2004-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a relatively frequent symptom; among its subtypes, the so called-colonic inertia represents a disease condition that is often considered for surgery. However, to date, there has been no agreement on definition of colonic inertia, and a literature review showed that this definition was given to numerous entities that differ from each other.In this paper these concepts are reviewed and a more stringent definition of colonic inertia is proposed.

  8. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  9. Neonatal hypoglycaemia--the controversy regarding definition.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, T H; Eyre, J. A.; Aynsley-Green, A

    1988-01-01

    Major paediatric textbooks and the views of neonatologists in the United Kingdom were surveyed to establish a definition of neonatal hypoglycaemia. The definition ranged from a glucose concentration of less than 1 mmol/l to less than 4 mmol/l. Hypoglycaemia is recognised to cause neurological sequelae and yet there is no accepted definition of the lower limit of normality for circulating blood glucose concentrations.

  10. 50 CFR 697.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 697.2 Section 697.2 Wildlife....2 Definitions. (a) In addition to the definitions in the Magnuson-Stevens Act and in §§ 600.10 and..., at least 1/4 inch (0.64 cm) in depth and tapering to a point. Parts thereof means any part of...

  11. Refining the definition of hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hans-Uwe; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Weller, Peter F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.; Roufosse, Florence; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.

    2012-01-01

    Because of advances in our understanding of the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and the availability of novel therapeutic agents, the original criteria defining these disorders are becoming increasingly problematic. Here, we discuss shortcomings with the current definition of HES and recent developments in the classification of these disorders. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of some forms of HES, the current state of knowledge is still insufficient to formulate a new comprehensive etiologic definition of HESs. Nevertheless, we suggest a new working definition that overcomes some of the most obvious limitations with the original definition. PMID:20639008

  12. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2 Definitions... submitted to the contest that satisfies the requirements outlined in subpart B. Reproduction...

  13. 75 FR 18228 - Notice of Change in Definitions and Modification to Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ..., notice's definitions for ``Abandoned'' and ``Foreclosed'' property to assist in better targeting NSP... by HUD pointed out that abandonment predictably occurs when code enforcement in a high risk market is... housing market in which residential units sell for substantially less than their replacement value....

  14. Epigenetic Induction of Definitive and Pancreatic Endoderm Cell Fate in Human Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Kalo, Eric; Van Rossom, Rob; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming can occur by the introduction of key transcription factors (TFs) as well as by epigenetic changes. We demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA) combined with a chromatin remodeling medium (CRM) induced expression of a number of definitive endoderm and

  15. Epigenetic Induction of Definitive and Pancreatic Endoderm Cell Fate in Human Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Kalo, Eric; Van Rossom, Rob; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming can occur by the introduction of key transcription factors (TFs) as well as by epigenetic changes. We demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA) combined with a chromatin remodeling medium (CRM) induced expression of a number of definitive endoderm and

  16. Fragmentation of Thinking Structure's Students to Solving the Problem of Application Definite Integral in Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Kadek Adi; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Parta, I. Nengah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the fragmentation of thinking structure's students in solving the problems of application definite integral in area. Fragmentation is a term on the computer (storage) that is highly relevant correlated with theoretical constructions that occur in the human brain (memory). Almost every student has a different way to…

  17. Towards an effective definition of death and disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Calixto; Leisman, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    There exists much controversy in providing an effective definition of human death, largely due to the lack of a rigorous separation and ordered formulation of three distinct elements: a universally accepted definition of death, the medical criterion (anatomical substrata) for determining that death has occurred, and the tests to prove that the criterion has been satisfied. The papers herein review medical standards, philosophical arguments, neurophysiological knowledge, behavioural and cognitive theory and the legal ramifications of the brain-oriented standards of death (whole brain, brainstem and higher brain). The papers examine the notion of connectivities and networks of conscious experience in order to formulate an effective definition of death, based on the basic physiopathological mechanisms of consciousness. We cannot simply differentiate and locate arousal as a function of the ascending reticular activating system, and awareness as a function of the cerebral cortex. Substantial interconnections among the brainstem, subcortical structures, and the neocortex are essential integrating components of human consciousness. This paper attempts to reconcile the brain-oriented standards that are currently inconsistent. The thread of the arguments is the basis for a standard of human death that includes consciousness as the most important function of the body, because it provides the capacity for integrating the functions of the body. The notion of consciousness as the ultimate integrative function is more consistent with the biologically-based systems than the more philosophically-based notions of personhood. Both sides of the argument are presented herein.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.

  19. [Definition and classification of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiki, Itsuki

    2014-05-01

    The concept or definition of epilepsy was mentioned as a chronic disease of the brain consisting of repetitions of EEG paroxysm and clinical seizures caused by excessive discharges of the cerebral neurons, in reference with Gastaut's opinion and the other statements. Further, we referred to diseases to be excluded from epilepsy such as isolated, occasional and subclinical seizures and so on. Next, new classifications of seizures and epilepsies were explained on the basis of revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies in Report of the ILAE Communication in Classification and Terminology, 2005-09, in comparison with the Classification of Epileptic Seizures in 1981 and the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes in 1989.

  20. Workflow patterns the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Nick; ter Hofstede, Arthur H M

    2016-01-01

    The study of business processes has emerged as a highly effective approach to coordinating an organization's complex service- and knowledge-based activities. The growing field of business process management (BPM) focuses on methods and tools for designing, enacting, and analyzing business processes. This volume offers a definitive guide to the use of patterns, which synthesize the wide range of approaches to modeling business processes. It provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the well-known workflow patterns collection -- recurrent, generic constructs describing common business process modeling and execution scenarios, presented in the form of problem-solution dialectics. The underlying principles of the patterns approach ensure that they are independent of any specific enabling technology, representational formalism, or modeling approach, and thus broadly applicable across the business process modeling and business process technology domains. The authors, drawing on extensive research done by...

  1. Reclaiming the definition of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul; Everard, Mark; Santillo, David; Robèrt, Karl-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Since its inception two decades ago, the concept of sustainable development has suffered from a proliferation of definitions, such that it has increasingly come to mean many things to many different people. This has limited its credibility, called into question its practical application and the significance of associated achievements and, overall, limited the progress in environmental and social developments which it was designed to underpin. This viewpoint article is intended to re-open the concept of sustainable development for discussion 20 years on from the Brundtland Report, in the context of the current state of the world, our growing understanding of ecosystems and their response to stressors and the parallel increase in recognition of inherent limitations to that understanding. Following a brief review of the diverse manner in which the concept has developed over time, we present the case for application of a series of simple conditions for sustainability, originally developed by The Natural Step in the early 90s, which nevertheless still provide a sound basis on which progress towards sustainable development could be monitored. The paper also highlights the unavoidable links between sustainability and ethics, including those in the sensitive fields of population and quality of life. Overall we argue the need for the concept of sustainable development to be reclaimed from the plethora of economically-focused or somewhat vague and un-measurable definitions which have found increasing favour in recent years and which all too often accompany relatively minor progress against 'business as usual'. The vision encapsulated in the Brundtland Report was ground-breaking. If, however, true sustainability in human interactions with the biosphere is to be realised, a far stronger and more empirical interpretation of the original intent is urgently required. To be effective, such an interpretation must encompass and guide developments in political instruments and public

  2. THE RELATIVE PREVALENCE OF HUMAN AND BOVINE TYPES OF TUBERCLE BACILLI IN BONE AND JOINT TUBERCULOSIS OCCURRING IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J

    1912-10-01

    The all important point revealed by the investigation is the fact that a large proportion of bone and joint tuberculosis occurring in children in Edinburgh owes its origin to infection by the bovine bacillus. The bovine bacillus is introduced into the system practically by one route only, that of ingestion, and the medium with which it is ingested is cow's milk. It is not my intention to criticize in any way the existing conditions of milk supply. I have furnished proof of what is actually occurring and no one will deny that the evil is a remediable one. In those cases in which the human bacillus was present, a considerable proportion showed a definite history of pulmonary tuberculosis affecting a co-resident, and every fact went to prove that the infection had been a direct one from patient to child. A complete distinction can be drawn between human and bovine bacilli, and the distinction is best secured by subjecting the organism to a series of tests such as I have detailed. The subject is one which ought to be investigated in a series of different localities. It is possible that the locus may be a factor in the explanation of the difference between the above results and those of other observers.

  3. 12 CFR 989.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 989.1 Section 989.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE BANKS § 989.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Audit means an examination of the financial statements by an...

  4. 12 CFR 19.242 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 19.242 Section 19.242 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.242 Definitions. As used in...

  5. 21 CFR 1401.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1401.3 Section 1401.3 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.3 Definitions. For the...) Representative of the news media means any person actively gathering news for an entity that is organized...

  6. 5 CFR 2635.303 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts Between Employees § 2635.303 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart... purposes of that definition an employee will be deemed to have paid market value for any benefit...

  7. 10 CFR 51.14 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) § 51.14 Definitions. (a... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 51.14 Section 51.14 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY.... Environmental Impact Statement means a detailed written statement as required by section 102(2)(C) of...

  8. 40 CFR 65.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 65.41 Section 65.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Storage Vessels § 65.41 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart shall have the...

  9. 16 CFR 1505.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.1 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply to this part 1505: (1) The term “electrically operated toy or other electrically operated article intended for use by children” means any toy, game, or other article designed, labeled, advertised, or otherwise intended for use...

  10. 45 CFR 88.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 88.2 Section 88.2 Public Welfare... SERVICES FUNDS DO NOT SUPPORT COERCIVE OR DISCRIMINATORY POLICIES OR PRACTICES § 88.2 Definitions. For the... State and local governments, public and private institutions of higher education, public and...

  11. 19 CFR 12.90 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 12.90 Section 12.90 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Electronic Products § 12.90 Definitions. As used in §§ 12.90 and 12.91,...

  12. 16 CFR 1404.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.3 Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052) apply to this part 1404. Cellulose insulation is cellulosic fiber, loose fill, thermal insulation...

  13. 7 CFR 633.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.2 Definitions. The following definitions shall be.... Landowner may include all forms of collective ownership including joint tenants, tenants in common, and life... scientific scholarship. WBP means the Water Bank Program. ...

  14. 10 CFR 707.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... counseling and assessment, crisis intervention, referral to outside treatment facilities, and follow-up... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 707.4 Section 707.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES General Provisions § 707.4 Definitions. For...

  15. 45 CFR 160.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care, and counseling, service, assessment, or procedure with respect to the physical or mental... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 160.103 Section 160.103 Public... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 160.103 Definitions. Except as otherwise...

  16. 28 CFR 544.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include screening, assessments, goal setting, fitness/nutrition prescriptions and counseling. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 544.31 Section 544.31... Recreation Programs § 544.31 Definitions. (a) Leisure activities are a wide range of activities in...

  17. 7 CFR 271.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...- tative. Assessment an in-depth evaluation of employability skills coupled with counseling on how and... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 271.2 Section 271.2 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM GENERAL INFORMATION AND DEFINITIONS § 271.2...

  18. 39 CFR 3003.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 3003.2 Section 3003.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRIVACY ACT RULES § 3003.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) Commission means the Postal Regulatory Commission. (b) Individual, record, and system of records...

  19. 40 CFR 35.161 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 35.161 Section 35.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.161 Definition....

  20. 40 CFR 35.141 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 35.141 Section 35.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.141 Definitions. In...

  1. 36 CFR 294.11 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Petitions for Inventoried Roadless Area Management § 294.11 Definition. Inventoried roadless areas... subsequent update or revision of those maps through the land management planning process. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 294.11...

  2. 44 CFR 353.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 353.3 Section 353.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.3 Definitions. As used in this part,...

  3. 44 CFR 350.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 350.2 Section 350.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 350.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the following terms are defined: (a) Administrator means...

  4. 48 CFR 2009.570-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-2 Definitions... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 2009.570-2... exceeding $10,000. Technical consulting and management support services means internal assistance to...

  5. 44 CFR 201.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 201.2 Section 201.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.2 Definitions. Administrator means the head of...

  6. 23 CFR 230.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE), all defined under 49 CFR part 23. This expanded definition is used only... businesses active in the highway program and contribute to the growth and eventual self-sufficiency of... for Minority, Disadvantaged, and Women Business Enterprises § 230.202 Definitions. (a)...

  7. 12 CFR 604.400 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 604.400 Section 604.400 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION BOARD MEETINGS § 604.400 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) Agency means the Farm Credit Administration....

  8. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  9. 16 CFR 1203.32 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203.32 Definitions. The following definitions shall apply to this subpart: (a) Foreign manufacturer means an entity that manufactured a bicycle helmet outside the... manufactured a helmet in the United States or imported a helmet manufactured outside the United States....

  10. 38 CFR 9.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the total amount of insurance covered by the policy and issues individual life insurance policies to... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.1 Definitions. The following definitions are in... the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance, located at 80 Livingston Avenue, Roseland,...

  11. 40 CFR 87.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 87.1 Section 87.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.1 Definitions. (a) As used in this...

  12. 22 CFR 94.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 94.1 Section 94.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.1 Definitions... International Child Abduction, Appendix B to Department of State notice, 51 FR 10498, March 26, 1986. (b...

  13. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by the Department, including but not limited to the individual's education, financial transactions... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part:...

  14. 45 CFR 80.13 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.13 Definitions. As used in this part— (a) The term Department means the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 80.13 Section 80.13 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION UNDER PROGRAMS RECEIVING...

  15. 45 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— Agency means the Department of Health and Human Services or... Civil Rights of the Department of Health and Human Services. OCR Director/Special Assistant means the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 Public Welfare...

  16. 29 CFR 575.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 575.2 Section 575.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR... § 575.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended...

  17. 29 CFR 531.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Preliminary Matters § 531.1 Definitions. (a) Administrator means the... Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended. ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 531.1 Section 531.1 Labor Regulations Relating...

  18. 12 CFR 930.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL REGULATIONS § 930.1 Definitions. As used in this... subclasses, that has the characteristics specified by § 931.1(b) of this subchapter. Contingency liquidity...

  19. 32 CFR 257.3 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE OF PROCESS § 257.3 Definition. Service of Process. When applied to the filing of a court action against an officer or agency of the United States, service of process refers to the delivery or, when... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 257.3 Section 257.3 National...

  20. 12 CFR 725.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 725.2 Section 725.2 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Agent means an Agent... loan means an advance of funds by an Agent to a member natural person credit union to meet...

  1. 12 CFR 370.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 370.2 Section 370.2 Banks and... LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the terms listed in this section are... institution; (ii) A U.S. bank holding company, provided that it controls, directly or indirectly, at least...

  2. 42 CFR 51c.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 51c.102 Section 51c.102 Public Health... SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.102 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Act means the Public Health... percentage of the population with incomes below the poverty level; and (4) Demographic factors affecting the...

  3. 7 CFR 25.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Agriculture Office of... § 25.3 Definitions. As used in this part— Annual report means the report submitted to USDA by all rural... Migration, as such terms are defined for purposes of the 1990 Census. Poverty rate means, for a given Census...

  4. 20 CFR 632.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 632.4 Section 632.4 Employees... AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Introduction § 632.4 Definitions. Act—means the Job Training Partnership Act (29... family size, was not in excess of the higher of (1) The poverty level determined in accordance with...

  5. 24 CFR 597.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 597.3 Section 597.3... Provisions § 597.3 Definitions. The terms HUD and Secretary are defined in 24 CFR part 5. Designation means... tract, or, if census tracts are not defined for the area, a block numbering area. Poverty means the...

  6. 24 CFR 91.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 91.5 Section 91.5... CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS General § 91.5 Definitions. The terms... disability at the time of his or her death. Poverty level family. Family with an income below the poverty...

  7. 13 CFR 120.701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 120.701 Section 120... § 120.701 Definitions. (a) Deposit account is a demand, time, savings, passbook, or similar account..., 40 percent or more of the residents have an annual income that is at or below the poverty level. (c...

  8. 7 CFR 3570.53 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 3570.53 Section 3570.53 Agriculture... COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.53 Definitions. Agency. The Rural Housing... assistance. Poverty line. The level of income for a family of four as defined by section 673(2) of the...

  9. 12 CFR 956.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 956.1 Section 956.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Deposits in banks or...

  10. 40 CFR 610.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... data” means any information which is a quantitative measure of any aspect of the behavior of a retrofit... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 610.11 Section 610.11... DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Provisions § 610.11 Definitions. (a) Except as...

  11. European Mixed Forests: Definition and research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Andenmatten, E.; Barbati, A.; Barreiro, S.; Brang, P.; Bravo, F.; Coll, L.; Corona, P.; Ouden, den J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) briefly review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material an

  12. 5 CFR 930.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 930.202 Section 930.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... Definitions. In this subpart: Administrative law judge position means a position in which any portion of the...

  13. 5 CFR 752.402 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 752.402 Section 752.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE..., Reduction in Grade or Pay, or Furlough for 30 Days or Less § 752.402 Definitions. (a) Day means a calendar...

  14. 5 CFR 735.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 735.101 Section 735.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 735.101 Definitions. In this part: Agency means...

  15. 5 CFR 841.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 841.103 Section 841.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 841.103 Definitions. In this subpart...

  16. 5 CFR 842.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 842.202 Section 842.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.202 Definitions. In this subpart— Commuting area...

  17. 5 CFR 870.1002 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 870.1002 Section 870.1002 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... States Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 870.1002 Definitions. In this subpart: Hostage and hostage status...

  18. 5 CFR 890.802 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 890.802 Section 890.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.802 Definition. In this subpart, a...

  19. 5 CFR 720.302 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 720.302 Section 720.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) AFFIRMATIVE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program § 720.302 Definition. As used in...

  20. 5 CFR 841.502 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 841.502 Section 841.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL....502 Definitions. In this subpart— Employee means employee as defined in § 842.102 of this chapter or...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 831.1102 Section 831.1102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1102 Definitions. As used in this subpart, “annuitant...

  2. 5 CFR 890.701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 890.701 Section 890.701 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits in Medically Underserved Areas § 890.701 Definitions. For...

  3. 5 CFR 845.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 845.102 Section 845.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 845.102 Definitions. In this subpart— FERS...

  4. 5 CFR 842.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 842.302 Section 842.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Credit for Service § 842.302 Definitions. Cadet Nurse Corps means...

  5. 5 CFR 841.802 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 841.802 Section 841.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Waiver of Benefits § 841.802 Definitions. As used in this...

  6. 5 CFR 730.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 730.102 Section 730.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.102 Definitions. Agency means an Executive agency as defined...

  7. 5 CFR 831.402 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 831.402 Section 831.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.402 Definitions. In this subpart: Applicant for retirement means a...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1501 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 831.1501 Section 831.1501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Allotments From Civil Service Annuities § 831.1501 Definitions. (a) Allotment means a specified...

  9. 5 CFR 752.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 752.602 Section 752.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE... Service § 752.602 Definitions. In this subpart— Career appointee, limited term appointee, and limited...

  10. 28 CFR 26.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.21 Section 26.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems § 26.21 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— Appropriate state official means...

  11. 33 CFR 174.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS General § 174.3 Definitions. As used in this part: Operator means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 174.3 Section 174.3... claims lawful possession of a vessel by virtue of legal title or equitable interest therein...

  12. Revised definitions of women's sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basson, Rosemary; Leiblum, Sandra; Brotto, Lori; Derogatis, Leonard; Fourcroy, Jean; Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin; Graziottin, Alessandra; Heiman, Julia R.; Laan, Ellen; Meston, Cindy; Schover, Leslie; van Lankveld, Jacques; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. Existing definitions of women's sexual disorders are based mainly on genitally focused events in a linear sequence model (desire, arousal and orgasm). Aim. To revise definitions based on an alternative model reflecting women's reasons/incentives for sexual activity beyond any initial a

  13. 12 CFR 261.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 261.2 Section 261.2 Banks and... REGARDING AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION General Provisions § 261.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) Board's official files means the Board's central records. (b) Commercial use request refers to a request...

  14. 19 CFR 115.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions. For the purpose of this part: (a) Certifying Authority. “Certifying Authority” means a nonprofit... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 115.3 Section 115.3 Customs Duties U....3 cubic feet) or more. (d) Manufacturer. “Manufacturer” means an organization or person...

  15. 5 CFR 734.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lawful nonprofit organization, association, society, or club composed of Federal employees. Federal labor... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 734.101 Section 734.101...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES General Provisions § 734.101 Definitions. For the purposes of...

  16. 45 CFR 159.110 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...” found at section 1304(a)(3). State Health Benefits High Risk Pools: Means nonprofit organizations... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 159.110 Section 159.110 Public... REFORM INSURANCE WEB PORTAL § 159.110 Definitions. For purposes of part 159, the following...

  17. 5 CFR 300.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Recruiting Firms and Nonprofit Employment Services § 300.401 Definitions. For purposes of this... nonprofit employment service sponsored by a partisan political organization. By contract, a nonprofit... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 300.401 Section...

  18. 22 CFR 203.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Cooperative Development Organization (CDO) means an... Voluntary Organization (LPVO) means a non-U.S. based PVO that meets the definition of an International... nonprofit or profit-making. (i) Nonprofit organization means any corporation, trust,...

  19. 12 CFR 313.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 313.21 Section 313.21 Banks and... DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 313.21 Definitions. (a) Administrative offset means withholding...) Person includes a natural person or persons, profit or nonprofit corporation, partnership,...

  20. 32 CFR 266.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 266.3 Section 266.3 National... AUDITS OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, AND OTHER NONPROFIT INSTITUTIONS § 266.3 Definitions. Terms used in this part are defined in OMB Circulars A-128 and A-133 with...